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1. Müller J: Impact of cancer therapy on the reproductive axis. Horm Res; 2003;59 Suppl 1:12-20
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Impact of cancer therapy on the reproductive axis.
  • Cancer therapy includes surgery, chemotherapy and irradiation.
  • Depending on the diagnosis, the location of the neoplasm and the age of the patient, these treatment modalities may be given alone or in combination.
  • All forms of cancer therapy can affect the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis.
  • The long-term consequences for reproductive function depend on several aspects.
  • The sex of the patient is important, since ovarian and testicular function differ significantly.
  • The sensitivity of germ cells to cancer therapy also differs between the sexes.
  • Moreover, the sensitivity of both the hypothalamic-pituitary axis and the gonads is highly age dependent.
  • With regard to chemotherapy, the possible damage to the gonads is dependent on the total dose and type of agent given.
  • According to current knowledge, the hypothalamic-pituitary axis is not affected by conventional doses of chemotherapy.
  • Radiotherapy has by far the most damaging effect on the reproductive axis, having serious adverse effects on both the hypothalamic-pituitary area as well as on the gonads themselves.
  • The present review will focus on the late effects of cancer therapy in children and young adults with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, brain tumour, Hodgkin's lymphoma or Wilms' tumour, including the adverse effects of bone marrow transplantation.
  • [MeSH-major] Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System / drug effects. Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System / radiation effects. Neoplasms / complications. Neoplasms / therapy. Ovary / drug effects. Ovary / radiation effects. Testis / drug effects. Testis / radiation effects

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel
  • (PMID = 12566715.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-0163
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormone research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Horm. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Gonadal Steroid Hormones
  • [Number-of-references] 70
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2. Inenaga C, Morii K, Tamura T, Tanaka R, Takahashi H: Mesenchymal chondrosarcoma of the sellar region. Acta Neurochir (Wien); 2003 Jul;145(7):593-7; discussion 597
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • However, no such malignant tumour has been described in the sellar region.
  • Upon initial admission, no endocrinological abnormalities were found, and computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a mass with calcification in the sella and right cavernous sinus.
  • INTERVENTION: For this malignant tumour, three surgical resections, two sessions of gamma-knife radiosurgery, one session of fractional irradiation, and one cycle of chemotherapy were performed, resulting in only brief arrest of the tumour growth.
  • Pathologically, the tumour consisted of undifferentiated small cells of high cellularity, and islands of hyaline cartilage.
  • CONCLUSION: Although malignant tumours in the sellar region are rare, they should be considered in the differential diagnosis of various sellar tumours typified by non-functioning pituitary adenoma, and mesenchymal chondrosarcoma is one possible candidate.

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  • (PMID = 12910404.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-6268
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neurochirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neurochir (Wien)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Austria
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3. Spoudeas HA, Charmandari E, Brook CG: Hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis integrity after cranial irradiation for childhood posterior fossa tumours. Med Pediatr Oncol; 2003 Apr;40(4):224-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis integrity after cranial irradiation for childhood posterior fossa tumours.
  • BACKGROUND: The evolution of anterior pituitary deficits after treatment for pituitary tumours has been largely attributed to local irradiation, but may be influenced as much by tumour mass or surgery.
  • Other than growth hormone (GH) insufficiency, the late endocrinopathies after survival from non-central brain tumours have been little documented.
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in long-term survivors of cranial irradiation for childhood posterior fossa tumours.
  • PROCEDURE: We studied long-term data in patients treated prepubertally for posterior fossa brain tumours and systematically referred by radiation oncologists for growth and pubertal monitoring to the London Centre for Paediatric Endocrinology over the last 25 years.
  • Data on sixteen patients (12 males, 4 females; median age: 5.7 years, range: 2.5-8.8 years), who had undergone excision surgery with high dose cranial irradiation and/or chemotherapy for childhood posterior fossa tumours, were examined.
  • Basal thyroid, cortisol and gonadal function tests were undertaken annually throughout the follow-up period and any deficits replaced.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Unlike the severe, evolving multiple pituitary deficits after treatment of pituitary or central tumours in adults, these findings in children with posterior fossa tumours suggest that, with the exception of GH, neurotoxicity due to irradiation per se is associated with a low prevalence of anterior pituitary hormone deficiencies, even at a long follow-up.
  • [MeSH-major] Cranial Irradiation / adverse effects. Growth Disorders / etiology. Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System / radiation effects. Infratentorial Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Pituitary Diseases / etiology. Pituitary-Adrenal System / radiation effects. Radiation Injuries

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 12555249.001).
  • [ISSN] 0098-1532
  • [Journal-full-title] Medical and pediatric oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med. Pediatr. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-72-6 / Growth Hormone
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4. Yaman E, Benekli M, Coskun U, Sezer K, Ozturk B, Kaya AO, Yildiz R, Uluoglu O, Buyukberber S: Intrasellar plasmacytoma: an unusual presentation of multiple myeloma. Acta Neurochir (Wien); 2008 Sep;150(9):921-4; discussion 924
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Occasionally, they can be misdiagnosed as a nonfunctioning adenoma because of radiological and clinical similarities.
  • Initial diagnosis of a nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma was later overruled by a repeat biopsy, which showed a plasmacytoma.
  • The tumor stained positively for CD138 and kappa light chain.
  • Further studies confirmed the diagnosis of multiple myeloma.
  • The patient was successfully treated with radiotherapy followed by systemic chemotherapy.
  • Because they have different therapeutic implications, extramedullary plasmacytomas involving pituitary gland should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a nonfunctioning pituitary mass.
  • [MeSH-major] Multiple Myeloma / complications. Multiple Myeloma / diagnosis. Pituitary Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pituitary Neoplasms / etiology. Plasmacytoma / diagnosis. Plasmacytoma / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Aged. Biopsy. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunoglobulin kappa-Chains / metabolism. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Sella Turcica. Syndecan-1 / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18726062.001).
  • [ISSN] 0942-0940
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neurochirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neurochir (Wien)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Austria
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunoglobulin kappa-Chains; 0 / Syndecan-1
  • [Number-of-references] 24
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5. Gur C, Lalazar G, Salmon A, Dubiner V, Gross DJ: Metastatic pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor presenting as a pituitary space occupying lesion: a case report. Pituitary; 2008;11(3):293-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Metastatic pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor presenting as a pituitary space occupying lesion: a case report.
  • Neuroendocrine tumor metastases to the pituitary gland are very rare.
  • There are few case reports of carcinoid tumor metastases to the pituitary, but no cases of pancreatic neuroendocrine pituitary metastases have been reported.
  • In this report we present a 55-year-old female with a sellar mass, ophthalmoplegia and headaches initially thought to represent an invasive null cell pituitary adenoma.
  • However a histological (trans-sphenoidal and liver biopsies) and systemic investigation proved it to be a metastasis of an undiagnosed pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor.
  • Our patient was unique in respect to the location of the metastasis and the uncharacteristically high proliferative index of her tumor.
  • She received conventional therapy consisting of Sandostatin, chemotherapy and radiotherapy as well as labeled somatostatin following an avid uptake on octreotide scanning.
  • [MeSH-major] Neuroendocrine Tumors / secondary. Pancreatic Neoplasms / pathology. Pituitary Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon


6. Zhang W, Murao K, Imachi H, Iwama H, Chen K, Fei Z, Zhang X, Ishida T, Tamiya T: Suppression of prolactin expression by cabergoline requires prolactin regulatory element-binding protein (PREB) in GH3 cells. Horm Metab Res; 2010 Jul;42(8):557-61
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The prolactin regulatory element-binding protein (PREB) is a transcriptional factor that regulates prolactin (PRL) promoter activity in the anterior pituitary.
  • Prolactinomas are the most common pituitary tumors.
  • Administration of cabergoline, a selective dopamine D2-receptor agonist, has become the initial therapy of choice for most patients with prolactinomas.
  • Samples of ten prolactinomas and ten nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas were analyzed by immunohistochemistry to detect the expression of PREB.
  • The effect of cabergoline on PREB expression was assessed by western blotting and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis.
  • Immunohistochemical analysis revealed strong positive PREB expression in the prolactinoma tissue, but extremely weak or undetected expression in the nonfunctioning pituitary tumor tissue.
  • Western blots probed with a PREB-specific antiserum revealed that the relative abundance of the PREB protein in the GH3 cells decreased in a dose-dependent manner in response to cabergoline treatment, as did the relative abundance of PREB mRNA.
  • [MeSH-major] DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Down-Regulation / drug effects. Ergolines / pharmacology. Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors / metabolism. Prolactin / genetics. Transcription Factors / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Line, Tumor. Humans. Prolactinoma / metabolism. Prolactinoma / pathology. Promoter Regions, Genetic / genetics. Transcription, Genetic / drug effects

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  • [Copyright] (c) Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart . New York.
  • (PMID = 20411477.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-4286
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormone and metabolic research = Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung = Hormones et métabolisme
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Horm. Metab. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Ergolines; 0 / Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors; 0 / PREB protein, human; 0 / Transcription Factors; 9002-62-4 / Prolactin; LL60K9J05T / cabergoline
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7. Patel YC, Ezzat S, Chik CL, Rorstad OP, Serri O, Ur E, Wilkins GE: Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of acromegaly: a Canadian perspective. Clin Invest Med; 2000 Jun;23(3):172-87
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of acromegaly: a Canadian perspective.
  • In the majority of cases the condition results from benign pituitary adenomas or, rarely, from ectopic production of GH-releasing hormone.
  • The death rate for acromegalic patients is 2 to 3 times higher than that of the general population, but with appropriate reduction of GH hypersecretion it tends to shift into the normal range.
  • Treatment is thus aimed at normalizing GH secretion; eradicating or stabilizing the pituitary tumour while preserving normal pituitary function, and managing the associated complications.
  • The treatment modalities available to achieve these objectives include transsphenoidal surgery, pharmacotherapy and radiation, or various combinations of these.
  • This review provides an update on our current understanding of the pathophysiology of GH hypersecretion in acromegaly, the newly defined diagnostic criteria and the end point for a cure for acromegaly, and on new developments in drug treatment with the advent of slow-release forms of somatostatin analogues and the longer-acting dopamine receptor agonists, as well as in the area of radiotherapy.
  • Its main purpose is to guide any physician involved in the diagnosis and management of patients with acromegaly.
  • [MeSH-major] Acromegaly / diagnosis. Acromegaly / therapy. Practice Guidelines as Topic
  • [MeSH-minor] Canada. Health Care Costs. Human Growth Hormone / antagonists & inhibitors. Human Growth Hormone / metabolism. Human Growth Hormone / secretion. Humans. Insulin-Like Growth Factor I / metabolism. Pituitary Gland / metabolism. Pituitary Gland / pathology. Pituitary Gland / physiopathology. Pituitary Gland / radiation effects. Radiotherapy. Receptors, Somatotropin / antagonists & inhibitors. Receptors, Somatotropin / metabolism. Somatostatin / analogs & derivatives. Somatostatin / pharmacology. Somatostatin / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 10911548.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-958X
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical and investigative medicine. Médecine clinique et experimentale
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Invest Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] CANADA
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Somatotropin; 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin; 67763-96-6 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor I
  • [Number-of-references] 75
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8. Svensson J, Finer N, Bouloux P, Bevan J, Jonsson B, Mattsson AF, Lundberg M, Harris PE, Koltowska-Häggström M, Monson JP, KIMS International Board: Growth hormone (GH) replacement therapy in GH deficient adults: predictors of one-year metabolic and clinical response. Growth Horm IGF Res; 2007 Feb;17(1):67-76
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Growth hormone (GH) replacement therapy in GH deficient adults: predictors of one-year metabolic and clinical response.
  • OBJECTIVE: This study investigated whether baseline status could predict the responsiveness to one-year growth hormone (GH) replacement therapy in adult GH deficient (GHD) patients.
  • DESIGN: A total of 380 European patients with adult onset GHD due to non-functioning pituitary adenoma that had been enrolled in Pfizer International Metabolic Database (KIMS), and that had completed one year of GH replacement therapy within KIMS, were studied.
  • Quality of life (QoL)-Assessment of GHD in Adults (QoL-AGHDA), waist circumference, waist:hip ratio, and serum lipid pattern improved.
  • Women received a higher dose of GH than men after one year, and demonstrated similar treatment response.
  • In multiple stepwise forward regression analyses, the one-year changes in QoL-AGHDA score, waist:hip ratio, and serum low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) level correlated inversely with the baseline values of the same variable.
  • In addition, the change after one year in QoL-AGHDA score correlated inversely with duration of hypopituitarism and baseline serum high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) level, and the change in waist:hip ratio correlated inversely, although more weakly, with baseline serum HDL-C level and UK citizenship and positively with baseline waist circumference and the initial GH dose.
  • Therefore, when the decision to start GH replacement is undertaken, as many outcome variables as possible should be evaluated in order to adequately evaluate the likelihood of clinical benefit.
  • Finally, women have a similar response to GH replacement as men when individualised GH dosing schedules are employed and should therefore be selected for GH therapy to a similar extent.
  • [MeSH-major] Dwarfism, Pituitary / diagnosis. Dwarfism, Pituitary / drug therapy. Growth Hormone / therapeutic use. Hormone Replacement Therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Cohort Studies. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Models, Statistical. Prognosis. Quality of Life. Sex Characteristics. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17223598.001).
  • [ISSN] 1096-6374
  • [Journal-full-title] Growth hormone & IGF research : official journal of the Growth Hormone Research Society and the International IGF Research Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Growth Horm. IGF Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-72-6 / Growth Hormone
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9. Cerovac V, Monteserin-Garcia J, Rubinfeld H, Buchfelder M, Losa M, Florio T, Paez-Pereda M, Stalla GK, Theodoropoulou M: The somatostatin analogue octreotide confers sensitivity to rapamycin treatment on pituitary tumor cells. Cancer Res; 2010 Jan 15;70(2):666-74
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The somatostatin analogue octreotide confers sensitivity to rapamycin treatment on pituitary tumor cells.
  • Rapamycin and its analogues have significant antiproliferative action against a variety of tumors.
  • Here, we investigated this model using the somatostatin analogue octreotide as a tool to decrease levels of activated Ser(473)-phosphorylated Akt (pAkt-Ser(473)) in pituitary tumor cells that express somatostatin receptors.
  • Octreotide potentiated the antiproliferative effects of rapamycin in immortalized pituitary tumor cells or human nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma cells in primary cell culture, sensitizing tumor cells even to low rapamycin concentrations.
  • Combined treatment of octreotide and rapamycin triggered G(1) cell cycle arrest, decreasing E2F transcriptional activity and cyclin E levels by increasing levels of p27/Kip1.
  • These findings show that adjuvant treatment with a somatostatin analogue can sensitize pituitary tumor cells to the antiproliferative effects of rapamycin.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / pharmacology. Octreotide / pharmacology. Pituitary Neoplasms / drug therapy. Sirolimus / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / drug therapy. Adenoma / metabolism. Adenoma / pathology. Cell Cycle / drug effects. Cell Growth Processes / drug effects. Cell Line, Tumor. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27 / biosynthesis. Drug Synergism. Humans. Insulin Receptor Substrate Proteins / metabolism. Oncogene Protein v-akt / metabolism. Phosphorylation / drug effects. Up-Regulation


10. Lin SH, Hung YH, Lin YF: Severe hyponatremia as the presenting feature of clinically non-functional pituitary adenoma with hypopituitarism. Clin Nephrol; 2002 Jan;57(1):85-8
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  • [Title] Severe hyponatremia as the presenting feature of clinically non-functional pituitary adenoma with hypopituitarism.
  • We present two cases in which severe hyponatremia developed with weakness, light-headedness and seizure.
  • Computerized tomography of the brain revealed an adenoma of the pituitary gland.
  • These two cases illustrate that severe hyponatremia may be the presenting feature of clinically non-functional pituitary adenoma with hypopituitarism, which should be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis of hyponatremia mimicking SIADH.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Hyponatremia / etiology. Pituitary Neoplasms / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Anti-Inflammatory Agents / therapeutic use. Diagnosis, Differential. Drug Therapy, Combination. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prednisolone / administration & dosage. Thyroid Hormones / therapeutic use. Thyroxine / administration & dosage. Vasopressins / blood. Vasopressins / deficiency

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  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. VASOPRESSIN .
  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. PREDNISOLONE .
  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. LEVOTHYROXINE .
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  • (PMID = 11837807.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-0430
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical nephrology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Nephrol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents; 0 / Thyroid Hormones; 11000-17-2 / Vasopressins; 9PHQ9Y1OLM / Prednisolone; Q51BO43MG4 / Thyroxine
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11. Castro MG, Southgate T, Lowenstein PR: Molecular therapy in a model neuroendocrine disease: developing clinical gene therapy for pituitary tumours. Trends Endocrinol Metab; 2001 Mar;12(2):58-64
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Molecular therapy in a model neuroendocrine disease: developing clinical gene therapy for pituitary tumours.
  • The main objectives of pituitary tumour treatment are to restore normal function of the pituitary gland and prevent tumour recurrences.
  • In spite of the success of current therapies in the treatment of relatively small tumours, new therapeutic alternatives need to be explored for large invasive tumours, tumour recurrences postsurgery, and when intolerance to drug treatment develops.
  • Gene therapy, which uses nucleic acids as drugs, is a very attractive alternative to classic therapeutic modalities.
  • With the development of efficient gene delivery vectors, which allow widespread distribution and long-term transgene expression with limited side effects, the clinical implementation of gene therapy for the treatment of pituitary tumours will become a reality within the next five to ten years.
  • [MeSH-major] Genetic Therapy. Pituitary Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoviridae / genetics. Animals. Combined Modality Therapy. Gene Targeting. Genetic Vectors. Herpesvirus 1, Human / genetics. Humans. Retroviridae / genetics

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  • (PMID = 11167123.001).
  • [ISSN] 1043-2760
  • [Journal-full-title] Trends in endocrinology and metabolism: TEM
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Trends Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 56
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12. Berinder K, Stackenäs I, Akre O, Hirschberg AL, Hulting AL: Hyperprolactinaemia in 271 women: up to three decades of clinical follow-up. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2005 Oct;63(4):450-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • OBJECTIVE: To characterize women with hyperprolactinaemia at diagnosis and to assess the effect of treatment after long duration of the disease.
  • The patients were followed for a median time period of 111 (6-348) months.
  • Two hundred and forty patients were treated with dopamine agonists, 17 underwent surgery, seven received radiotherapy and seven were followed without treatment.
  • RESULTS: Mean age at diagnosis was 31 (+/- 9.5) years and median PRL level was 72 (25-3500) microg/l.
  • Patients with menstrual disturbances had higher PRL levels than women with normal menstrual function (P < 0.001).
  • Normalization of PRL level was achieved in 71% of the patients and 80% showed a total or partial degree of tumour shrinkage.
  • In the surgically treated patients, 53% had normal PRL levels without medication at follow-up.
  • CONCLUSION: Medical treatment was effective in correcting hypogonadism, normalizing PRL levels and reducing tumour size in the majority of the patients after short-term treatment and also in the long run.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / drug therapy. Dopamine Agonists / therapeutic use. Hyperprolactinemia / drug therapy. Pituitary Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Amenorrhea / drug therapy. Amenorrhea / etiology. Amenorrhea / surgery. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Galactorrhea / drug therapy. Galactorrhea / etiology. Galactorrhea / surgery. Humans. Statistics, Nonparametric. Treatment Outcome

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  • [CommentIn] Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2006 Feb;64(2):226 [16430726.001]
  • (PMID = 16181238.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-0664
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Dopamine Agonists
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13. Deniz K, Tanriverdi F, Selçuklu A, Kontaş O, Keleştimur F: Signet ring-like cells in pituitary adenoma. Pathol Res Pract; 2008;204(3):209-12
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Signet ring-like cells in pituitary adenoma.
  • We describe a case of non-functioning pituitary adenoma in a 35-year-old woman with a prior history of fertility problems.
  • Histological examination of the tumor revealed signet ring-like cell areas admixed with minor conventional round-polygonal neoplastic cells.
  • The two populations of tumor cells showed strong immunoreactivity for chromogranin and synaptophysin.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Pituitary Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Chorionic Gonadotropin / therapeutic use. Chromogranins / metabolism. Clomiphene / therapeutic use. Female. Fertility Agents, Female / therapeutic use. Headache / etiology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Infertility, Female / drug therapy. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Synaptophysin / metabolism. Vision Disorders / etiology

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  • (PMID = 18207654.001).
  • [ISSN] 0344-0338
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology, research and practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Res. Pract.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin; 0 / Chromogranins; 0 / Fertility Agents, Female; 0 / Synaptophysin; 1HRS458QU2 / Clomiphene
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14. Johannesen TB, Lien HH, Hole KH, Lote K: Radiological and clinical assessment of long-term brain tumour survivors after radiotherapy. Radiother Oncol; 2003 Nov;69(2):169-76
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  • [Title] Radiological and clinical assessment of long-term brain tumour survivors after radiotherapy.
  • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Late adverse effects of therapeutic brain radiotherapy (RT) may develop after long latency periods and our objective was to assess long-term brain tumour survivors following RT to large partial brain volumes.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Assessment of MRI, SOMA/LENT score, quality of life and neuroendocrine function was performed in 33 adult brain tumour patients 6-25 years following RT.
  • Fraction dose was 1.8 Gy to a median total dose of 54 Gy (range: 45.0-59.4 Gy).
  • In 25 patients the hypothalamic and pituitary area had been included in the RT field.
  • Patients treated with intra-arterial chemotherapy and patients at higher age at follow-up had significantly more grade 3 changes.

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  • (PMID = 14643954.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-8140
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiotherapy and oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiother Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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15. Trimarchi CP, Russo P: Cyclic estrogen-progestin hormone therapy as a new therapeutic approach in the treatment of functional alterations of the hypothalamus-pituitary-ovary axis: case reports. Endocr Res; 2002 Aug;28(3):155-60
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  • [Title] Cyclic estrogen-progestin hormone therapy as a new therapeutic approach in the treatment of functional alterations of the hypothalamus-pituitary-ovary axis: case reports.
  • We report a first case of a 30 year-old woman affected by polycystic ovarian disease (PCOD) whose amenorrhea ceased after a 6-month combination treatment with cyclic estradiol-norethisterone acetate.
  • After the withdrawal of the hormone therapy, a stable recovery of periodic menses was observed.
  • We describe a second case of a 23 year-old woman whose amenorrhea was caused by a hypogonadotropic hypogonadism due to a non-functioning pituitary adenoma.
  • After the administration of the previously described therapy both a disappearance of the adenoma and a recover of periodic menses were observed.
  • The exogenous hormones may have reset the feedback between the hypothalamus and pituitary gland through mimicking the physiological hormones pattern of the 28-day cycle.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Amenorrhea / drug therapy. Estradiol / administration & dosage. Norethindrone / administration & dosage. Norethindrone / analogs & derivatives. Pituitary Neoplasms / complications. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Drug Administration Schedule. Drug Therapy, Combination. Feedback. Female. Humans. Hypogonadism / complications. Hypothalamus / drug effects. Hypothalamus / physiopathology. Ovary / physiopathology. Pituitary Gland / drug effects. Pituitary Gland / physiopathology

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  • (PMID = 12489565.001).
  • [ISSN] 0743-5800
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4TI98Z838E / Estradiol; 9S44LIC7OJ / norethindrone acetate; T18F433X4S / Norethindrone
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16. Rodríguez-Espinosa J, Urgell E, Montesinos J, Domingo P, Webb SM: Transient pituitary hypothyroidism in a patient with ectopic adrenocorticotrophic hormone secretion. Ann Clin Biochem; 2000 May;37 ( Pt 3):298-303
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  • [Title] Transient pituitary hypothyroidism in a patient with ectopic adrenocorticotrophic hormone secretion.
  • We report the case of a 55-year-old woman who presented with hypercortisolism secondary to ectopic adrenocorticotrophic hormone secretion and severe non-thyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS) due to metastatic small cell lung carcinoma associated with severe infections.
  • The patient initially showed hormonal profiles of pituitary hypothyroidism and gonadal hypofunction.
  • After decrease in cortisol production following treatment with chemotherapy and metyrapone, serum thyroid hormones and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) concentrations normalized.
  • Study of the relative contributions of cortisol and pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-6 and tumour necrosis factor alpha) to the overall variability in thyroid function tests disclosed a significant and independent effect of serum cortisol on serum TSH concentrations; the variability in free thyroid hormone concentration was explained only by changes in TSH concentration.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / secretion. Carcinoma, Small Cell / complications. Hypothyroidism / diagnosis. Lung Neoplasms / complications. Pituitary Gland / physiopathology

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  • (PMID = 10817242.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-5632
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of clinical biochemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Clin. Biochem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
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17. Müller EJ, Caldelari R, Posthaus H: Role of subtilisin-like convertases in cadherin processing or the conundrum to stall cadherin function by convertase inhibitors in cancer therapy. J Mol Histol; 2004 Mar;35(3):263-75
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  • [Title] Role of subtilisin-like convertases in cadherin processing or the conundrum to stall cadherin function by convertase inhibitors in cancer therapy.
  • Produced as inactive precursors, they become functional adhesion molecules after proteolytic cleavage by subtilisin-like pro-protein convertases (PCs).
  • Owing to their activation and assembly into multiprotein adhesion complexes at sites of cell contacts, adhesion-competent cadherins are prerequisite for tissue integrity.
  • Currently, the broad implications of disturbances in somatic tissue adhesion components are only just beginning to emerge.
  • Prominent examples of adhesion defects include autoimmune diseases, or tumour invasion and metastasis and malignant transformation.
  • This review reports on our current knowledge of cadherin function and their maturation by pro-protein convertases, and puts special emphasis on the consequences of pro-protein convertase inhibition for epithelial tissue homeostasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Cadherins / biosynthesis. Enzyme Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Neoplasms. Proprotein Convertases / antagonists & inhibitors. Proprotein Convertases / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Adhesion / drug effects. Cell Adhesion / physiology. Humans. Signal Transduction

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  • (PMID = 15339046.001).
  • [ISSN] 1567-2379
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of molecular histology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Mol. Histol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Cadherins; 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / FAT1 protein, human; EC 3.4.21.- / Proprotein Convertases
  • [Number-of-references] 149
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18. Guerra Y, Lacuesta E, Marquez F, Raksin PB, Utset M, Fogelfeld L: Apoplexy in non functioning pituitary adenoma after one dose of leuprolide as treatment for prostate cancer. Pituitary; 2010;13(1):54-9
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  • [Title] Apoplexy in non functioning pituitary adenoma after one dose of leuprolide as treatment for prostate cancer.
  • We report the case of a 60 year old male who complained of headache and blurry vision--that progressed to left ophthalmoplegia and ptosis--after receiving a dose of leuprolide for Prostate cancer therapy.
  • The patient underwent transsphenoidal debulking, and the tissue obtained demonstrated immunohistochemical staining for LH.
  • A literature review revealed nine previously reported cases of pituitary apoplexy after GnRH agonist therapy for prostate cancer.
  • In most cases, the sellar tissues stained for LH, consistent with a gonadotropinoma.
  • Particular attention to clinical findings suggestive of a non functioning pituitary tumor in patients receiving GnRH agonist therapy is critical as routine screening with MRI is not practical.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Leuprolide / adverse effects. Pituitary Neoplasms / complications. Stroke / chemically induced
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / adverse effects. Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone / agonists. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prostatic Neoplasms / complications. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Sella Turcica


19. Svartberg J, Carlsen SM, Cappelen J, Aanderud S, Johansen ML, Schreiner T, Kollevold T, Bakke S, Bollerslev J: [Hyperprolactinemia and prolactinemia--investigation and treatment]. Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen; 2002 Feb 20;122(5):494-8
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  • [Title] [Hyperprolactinemia and prolactinemia--investigation and treatment].
  • [Transliterated title] Hyperprolaktinemi og prolaktinom--utredning og behandling.
  • BACKGROUND: Prolactinoma represents the most commonly occurring hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma.
  • The symptoms are mainly caused by elevated prolactin levels and result in changes to the reproductive and sexual function.
  • RESULTS AND INTERPRETATION: The primary treatment is medical, intended to normalize prolactin levels, restore gonadal function, and reduce tumour size.
  • With the new selective dopamine agonists, the treatment is often simple and efficient, but not all patients are in need of treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperprolactinemia. Pituitary Neoplasms. Prolactinoma
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / drug therapy. Adenoma / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Dopamine Agonists / administration & dosage. Humans

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  • (PMID = 11961978.001).
  • [ISSN] 0029-2001
  • [Journal-full-title] Tidsskrift for den Norske lægeforening : tidsskrift for praktisk medicin, ny række
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tidsskr. Nor. Laegeforen.
  • [Language] nor
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Norway
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Dopamine Agonists
  • [Number-of-references] 45
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20. Colao A, Dorato M, Pulcrano M, Rossi FW, Auriemma RS, Lombardi G, Lastoria S: [Somatostatin analogs in the clinical management of pituitary neoplasms]. Minerva Endocrinol; 2001 Sep;26(3):181-91
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Somatostatin analogs in the clinical management of pituitary neoplasms].
  • The medical approach to patients with secreting or clinically non-functioning pituitary adenoma as made considerable progress thanks to the use of new somatostatin analogs.
  • Good results were obtained using slow-release analog treatment also in TSH-secreting adenomas, whereas the therapeutic efficacy of these peptides in clinically non-functioning adenomas is still controversial.
  • Treatment with somatostatin analogs improves symptoms, normalises hormone secretion and in some cases may induce a reduction in the volume of pituitary adenomas.
  • Scintigraphy with octreotide may help to select patients who respond to this form of treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Octreotide / analogs & derivatives. Octreotide / therapeutic use. Pentetic Acid / analogs & derivatives. Peptides, Cyclic / therapeutic use. Pituitary Neoplasms / drug therapy. Somatostatin / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Acromegaly / drug therapy. Adolescent. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Adult. Aged. Carcinoma / radionuclide imaging. Humans. Indium Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Insulin-Like Growth Factor I / secretion. Kidney Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Melanoma / radionuclide imaging. Middle Aged. Pheochromocytoma / radionuclide imaging. Predictive Value of Tests. Prolactinoma / drug therapy. Radiopharmaceuticals / therapeutic use. Sensitivity and Specificity. Thymoma / radionuclide imaging. Thymus Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Thyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Thyrotropin / secretion. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11753242.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-1977
  • [Journal-full-title] Minerva endocrinologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minerva Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Indium Radioisotopes; 0 / Peptides, Cyclic; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 118992-92-0 / lanreotide; 142694-57-3 / SDZ 215-811; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin; 67763-96-6 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor I; 7A314HQM0I / Pentetic Acid; 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
  • [Number-of-references] 95
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21. Higham CE, Chung TT, Lawrance J, Drake WM, Trainer PJ: Long-term experience of pegvisomant therapy as a treatment for acromegaly. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2009 Jul;71(1):86-91
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  • [Title] Long-term experience of pegvisomant therapy as a treatment for acromegaly.
  • AIMS: To evaluate the long-term efficacy and safety of pegvisomant as a treatment for acromegaly.
  • Five patients had combination therapy with either somatostatin analogues (SSA) or cabergoline.
  • Reasons included side-effects [abnormal liver function tests (LFTs)] and patient choice.
  • Two patients developed elevated liver transaminases, which normalized on stopping pegvisomant.
  • Patients had 6-12-monthly pituitary magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans.
  • One patient had significant tumour size increase.
  • Raised transaminases occurred within the first month of therapy in two patients, and tumour growth was seen in one patient (tumour was growing prior to pegvisomant).
  • [MeSH-major] Acromegaly / drug therapy. Human Growth Hormone / analogs & derivatives
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions. Ergolines / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Insulin-Like Growth Factor I / analysis. Insulin-Like Growth Factor I / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Somatostatin / therapeutic use. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19018786.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2265
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ergolines; 0 / pegvisomant; 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin; 67763-96-6 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor I; LL60K9J05T / cabergoline
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22. Kreitschmann-Andermahr I, Poll EM, Reineke A, Gilsbach JM, Brabant G, Buchfelder M, Fassbender W, Faust M, Kann PH, Wallaschofski H: Growth hormone deficient patients after traumatic brain injury--baseline characteristics and benefits after growth hormone replacement--an analysis of the German KIMS database. Growth Horm IGF Res; 2008 Dec;18(6):472-8
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  • All 84 TBI patients were matched with 84 patients with GHD due to non-functioning pituitary adenoma (NFPA) also included in this database.
  • Analysis of clinical and outcome variables was performed, with comparisons of childhood vs. adult TBI, and TBI vs. NFPA patients, at baseline and one-year follow-up.
  • RESULTS: TBI patients with GHD were significantly younger at the onset of pituitary disease and exhibited a significantly longer time span between GHD diagnosis and KIMS entry than NFPA patients.
  • At 1-year follow-up, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) standard deviation score levels had returned to the normal range and quality of life (QoL), as measured by QoL- Assessment of Growth Hormone Deficiency in Adults (AGHDA) questionnaire, improved significantly in TBI as in NFPA patients.
  • CONCLUSION: This analysis provides preliminary data that TBI patients with GHD benefit from hGH replacement in terms of improved QoL in a similar fashion as do NFPA patients.
  • Moreover, it suggests that belated diagnosis and treatment in childhood-onset GHD due to TBI might be related to a shorter final height in these children.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Injuries / physiopathology. Databases, Factual. Human Growth Hormone / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Germany. Hormone Replacement Therapy. Humans. Hypopituitarism / complications. Hypopituitarism / drug therapy. Hypopituitarism / physiopathology. Male. Middle Aged. Pituitary Neoplasms / complications. Pituitary Neoplasms / drug therapy. Pituitary Neoplasms / physiopathology

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  • (PMID = 18829359.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-2238
  • [Journal-full-title] Growth hormone & IGF research : official journal of the Growth Hormone Research Society and the International IGF Research Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Growth Horm. IGF Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone
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23. Gilbert J, Ketchen M, Kane P, Mason T, Baister E, Monaghan M, Barr S, Harris PE: The treatment of de novo acromegalic patients with octreotide-LAR: efficacy, tolerability and cardiovascular effects. Pituitary; 2003;6(1):11-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The treatment of de novo acromegalic patients with octreotide-LAR: efficacy, tolerability and cardiovascular effects.
  • AIM: Somatostatin analogues are normally used as adjunctive therapy to surgery and radiotherapy in management of acromegaly.
  • We studied the effects of de novo OCT-LAR treatment on growth hormone (GH) suppression, tumour size, cardiovascular function, clinical symptoms, signs and quality of life in 9 newly diagnosed acromegalic patients.
  • Treatment continued for 6 months.
  • Cardiac function assessed by echocardiography at baseline and day 169.
  • Tumour shrinkage seen in 30% patients.
  • This is associated with improved LV function, evidenced by increased EF.
  • Improved results are expected with longer-term treatment.
  • OCT-LAR may be considered as primary treatment for acromegaly in selected patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Acromegaly / drug therapy. Adenoma / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / administration & dosage. Octreotide / administration & dosage. Pituitary Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 3 / blood. Insulin-Like Growth Factor I / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies. Stroke Volume / drug effects. Treatment Outcome. Ventricular Function, Left / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 14674719.001).
  • [ISSN] 1386-341X
  • [Journal-full-title] Pituitary
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pituitary
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 3; 67763-96-6 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor I; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
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24. Kanumakala S, Warne GL, Zacharin MR: Evolving hypopituitarism following cranial irradiation. J Paediatr Child Health; 2003 Apr;39(3):232-5
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  • Increasing survival after treatment for childhood cancer in recent years has left many patients with long-term sequelae.
  • Following cranial irradiation, changes in hypothalamic-pituitary function evolve over several years and multiple hormone deficiencies are frequently found.
  • In the present study we describe a boy whose initial presentation with a cerebral tumour included central precocious puberty.
  • He was followed for more than 15 years and sequentially developed deficiencies of growth hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone, gonadotrophins and adrenocorticotropic hormone after high-dose cranial irradiation.
  • Long-term endocrine follow up of such children is essential for the early diagnosis and optimal management of hormone deficiencies.
  • [MeSH-minor] Child, Preschool. Drug Therapy, Combination. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Puberty, Precocious / drug therapy. Puberty, Precocious / etiology. Puberty, Precocious / physiopathology. Radiotherapy Dosage. Risk Assessment. Severity of Illness Index. Time Factors






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