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1. Pugnale N, Waridel F, Bouzourène H, Boubaker A, Pugnale M, Gaillard RC, Gomez F: Pharyngeal pituitary non-functioning adenoma with normal intra-sellar gland: massive tumor shrinkage on octreotide therapy. Eur J Endocrinol; 2003 Mar;148(3):357-64
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Pharyngeal pituitary non-functioning adenoma with normal intra-sellar gland: massive tumor shrinkage on octreotide therapy.
  • OBJECTIVE: Functioning or non-functioning ectopic tumors may develop from pharyngeal pituitary remnants.
  • We report a case of a non-functioning ectopic pituitary adenoma of the rhino-pharynx studied over a long-term somatostatin analog treatment.
  • PATIENT AND TREATMENT: A 60-Year-old woman presented with severe posterior epistaxis.
  • On immunostaining, tumor cells were positive for pancytokeratins MNF 116 and C11, epithelial membrane antigen, chromogranin and neuron-specific enolase (NSE), and negative for synaptophysin, desmin, actin, estrogen and progesterone receptors, all anterior pituitary hormones and human chorionic gonadotropin.
  • Blood levels of the above hormones and tumor markers were normal, except for a moderate elevation of NSE (33.8 microg/l, normal value <12 microg/l).
  • It was concluded that this was a non-functioning pituitary adenoma of the rhino-pharynx.
  • MRI showed a normal intra-sellar pituitary gland, including the normal bright signal of the posterior lobe.
  • Somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (SRS) disclosed intense tracer uptake in the tumor, indicating high somatostatin receptor content.
  • There was also an intense uptake in the intra-sellar pituitary.
  • Therapy with long-acting octreotide was started, 20 mg per Month i.m.
  • Repeated endoscopic examinations showed rapid tumor reduction, the mass shrinkage being almost complete at 3 Months.
  • This was confirmed by MRI, while SRS showed markedly decreased uptake in the residual tumor and the intra-sellar pituitary, and NSE became normal.
  • CONCLUSION: Pharyngeal pituitary remnant adenomas are rare, but they must be considered in the differential diagnosis of bleeding or obstructive masses of the rhino-pharynx.
  • As we show for the first time in this location, octreotide can exert prolonged and marked anti-tumoral effects in non-functioning adenoma.

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  • (PMID = 12611618.001).
  • [ISSN] 0804-4643
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Pituitary Hormones; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
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2. Horiguchi K, Yamada M, Umezawa R, Satoh T, Hashimoto K, Tosaka M, Yamada S, Mori M: Somatostatin receptor subtypes mRNA in TSH-secreting pituitary adenomas: a case showing a dramatic reduction in tumor size during short octreotide treatment. Endocr J; 2007 Jun;54(3):371-8
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  • [Title] Somatostatin receptor subtypes mRNA in TSH-secreting pituitary adenomas: a case showing a dramatic reduction in tumor size during short octreotide treatment.
  • TSH-secreting adenoma is a rare pituitary adenoma, and the expression levels of the specific subtypes of somatostatin receptors (sstr) mRNAs have remained obscure.
  • To determine the quantitative expression of the sstr1-5 mRNAs in TSH-secreting adenomas that may be related to the efficacy of treatment with a somatostatin analogue, expression of the sstr1-5 mRNAs was examined and compared in TSH-secreting adenomas and other pituitary adenomas.
  • The pituitary adenomas were obtained at transsphenoidal surgery from 4 cases of TSH-secreting adenoma, including 1 patient showing a significant shrinkage of the tumor size after only 10 days of octreotide treatment, 2 patients without tumor size reduction and 1 patient without treatment, and 5 GH-secreting adenomas, 6 prolactinomas, 5 nonfunctioning adenomas, 4 ACTH-secreting adenomas and normal pituitaries at autopsy from 4 normal subjects.
  • In comparison to the normal pituitary, sstr2A>sstr1>sstr5>sstr3 mRNAs were expressed in the TSH-secreting adenomas examined.
  • The expression level of sstr2 mRNA was significantly higher than those in normal pituitary, prolactinomas, ACTH-secreting and nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas.
  • The patient with marked shrinkage of the tumor showed the highest expression of both sstr2 and sstr5 mRNAs among all the cases of pituitary adenoma.
  • A TSH-secreting tumor without shrinkage showed a similar expression level of sstr2 mRNA.
  • These findings demonstrated that TSH-secreting adenomas express sstr1, 2A, 3 and 5 mRNAs, predominantly sstr2A, and in addition to the expression of sstr2 mRNA, the expression level of sstr5 mRNA may be a factor affecting the tumor shrinkage by somatostatin analogues against TSH-secreting adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / drug therapy. Adenoma / genetics. Octreotide / therapeutic use. Pituitary Neoplasms / drug therapy. Pituitary Neoplasms / genetics. Receptors, Somatostatin / genetics. Thyrotrophs / pathology. Tumor Burden / drug effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / drug effects. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Protein Isoforms / genetics. Protein Isoforms / metabolism. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 17420609.001).
  • [ISSN] 0918-8959
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Protein Isoforms; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Somatostatin; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
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3. Steele CA, MacFarlane IA, Blair J, Cuthbertson DJ, Didi M, Mallucci C, Javadpour M, Daousi C: Pituitary adenomas in childhood, adolescence and young adulthood: presentation, management, endocrine and metabolic outcomes. Eur J Endocrinol; 2010 Oct;163(4):515-22
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  • [Title] Pituitary adenomas in childhood, adolescence and young adulthood: presentation, management, endocrine and metabolic outcomes.
  • OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the long-term outcomes of pituitary adenomas diagnosed in childhood and adolescence, knowledge of which remains sparse.
  • DESIGN AND METHODS: A retrospective review of patients aged ≤21 years at diagnosis of pituitary adenoma, attending a neuroendocrine service in Liverpool, UK, between 1984-2009.
  • RESULTS: There were 41 patients (33 female), mean age at diagnosis 17.3 years (range 11-21) and mean follow-up 9.6 years; 29 patients had prolactinomas (15 macroprolactinomas), 6 non-functioning pituitary adenomas (NFPAs), 5 Cushing's disease (CD) and 1 acromegaly.
  • All prolactinoma patients received dopamine agonists (DAs) and three also underwent pituitary surgery.
  • Furthermore, ten patients underwent surgery: five with CD, one with acromegaly and four with NFPA.
  • Thirteen patients gained significant weight (body mass index (BMI) increase >2 kg/m(2)) since diagnosis and 16 in total are now obese (BMI>30 kg/m(2)).
  • Two received antihypertensive medications, two had type 2 diabetes and four were treated for dyslipidaemia.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This is one of the largest reviews of patients aged 21 or younger at diagnosis of pituitary adenoma followed up by a single service.
  • Increased cardiovascular risk factors (obesity and dyslipidaemia) and infertility are important sequelae and active identification and treatment are necessary.

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  • (PMID = 20685833.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-683X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Dopamine Agonists
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4. Hagen C, Schroeder HD, Hansen S, Hagen C, Andersen M: Temozolomide treatment of a pituitary carcinoma and two pituitary macroadenomas resistant to conventional therapy. Eur J Endocrinol; 2009 Oct;161(4):631-7
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  • [Title] Temozolomide treatment of a pituitary carcinoma and two pituitary macroadenomas resistant to conventional therapy.
  • OBJECTIVE: Aggressive pituitary tumours may be difficult to treat.
  • In a small number of cases, TMZ therapy has been reported to reduce pituitary tumour size and hormone hypersecretion.
  • DESIGN: We present three patients with pituitary tumours treated with TMZ.
  • One tumour was initially a macroprolactinoma that developed into a mixed GH- and prolactin-secreting carcinoma (patient A).
  • Two adenomas, a macroprolactinoma (patient B) and a clinically non-functioning pituitary adenoma (patient C), were highly invasive.
  • The three patients suffered from extensive tumour mass effects, and all tumours were resistant to conventional treatment.
  • RESULT: During TMZ therapy, tumour sizes were significantly reduced, hormone levels normalized and symptoms of mass effects decreased in all three cases.
  • Three years after the terminating treatment, the tumour has not regrown and hormone levels are normalized.
  • CONCLUSION: TMZ therapy significantly decreased tumour volume, hormone hypersecretion and symptoms in all three patients, corresponding to the pathological findings regarding MGMT.
  • TMZ therapy may be a new option for the treatment of resistant pituitary adenomas.


5. Wu ZB, Chen Y, Lü QP, Wang CD, Su ZP, Wu JS, Zheng WM, Zhuge QC: [Natural history study of postoperative residual non-functioning pituitary adenomas]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi; 2010 Mar 9;90(9):597-600
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  • [Title] [Natural history study of postoperative residual non-functioning pituitary adenomas].
  • OBJECTIVE: To observe the postoperative residual non-functioning pituitary adenomas (PR-NFPAs) without postoperative radiotherapy and to analyze the natural history of PR-NFPAs' growth in order to provide a basis for selecting appropriate strategies of clinical treatment.
  • METHODS: We evaluated the natural history of 20 patients with PR-NFPAs who did not receive postoperative radiotherapy and drug therapy.
  • Through MRI images, the residual tumor volumes of those patients were serially measured.
  • We further calculated the monthly growth rate and the tumor volume doubling time (TVDT) and analyzed the correlations between the patient age, gender, volume of residual tumor, cavernous sinus (CS) invasion and TVDT.
  • Among which, 17 adenomas increased in volume and 3 remained unchanged during a follow-up period of 7 months to 17 years (mean 3.90 yr).
  • As to 17 patients with tumor regrowth, the tumor volume at the beginning of MRI observation period was 4.73 cm(3) and tumor volume at the last MRI observation was 16.98 cm(3).
  • Such factors as patient age, gender, volume of residual tumor and CS invasion did not affect the TVDT of PR-NFPAs.
  • CONCLUSION: The tumor growth rate of PR-NFPAs is not significantly correlated with the patient gender, age, volume of residual tumor and CS invasion.
  • In conjunctions with the volume of PR-NFPAs and the distance between residual adenoma and optic chiasm, we should take the TVDT into consideration and determine the appropriate and safe follow-up period.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Neoplasm, Residual / pathology. Pituitary Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Postoperative Period. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20450781.001).
  • [ISSN] 0376-2491
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua yi xue za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
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6. Olsson DS, Buchfelder M, Schlaffer S, Bengtsson BA, Jakobsson KE, Johannsson G, Nilsson AG: Comparing progression of non-functioning pituitary adenomas in hypopituitarism patients with and without long-term GH replacement therapy. Eur J Endocrinol; 2009 Nov;161(5):663-9
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  • [Title] Comparing progression of non-functioning pituitary adenomas in hypopituitarism patients with and without long-term GH replacement therapy.
  • OBJECTIVE: An important safety issue with GH replacement therapy (GHRT) in hypopituitary patients with a history of a pituitary adenoma is the risk for tumour recurrence or enlargement.
  • SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We studied tumour progression rate in 121 patients with hypopituitarism on the basis of non-functioning pituitary adenomas (NFPA) receiving long-term GHRT.
  • A group of 114 NFPA patients not receiving GHRT who were matched in terms of duration of follow-up, gender, age, age at diagnosis and radiotherapy status were used as a control population.
  • RESULTS: In patients with a known residual adenoma, 63% had no detectable enlargement of tumour during the study.
  • In patients who had no visible residual tumour prior to GHRT, 90% did not suffer from recurrence.
  • In total, the 10-year tumour progression-free survival rate in patients with NFPA receiving GHRT was 74%.
  • Radiotherapy as part of the initial tumour treatment reduced the rate of tumour progression in both GHRT and non-GHRT patients to a similar extent.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The rate of tumour progression was similar in this large group of GHRT patients and the control population not receiving GHRT.
  • Our results provide further support that long-term use of GH replacement in hypopituitarism may be considered safe in patients with residual pituitary adenomas.

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  • (PMID = 19734242.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-683X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; 67763-96-6 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor I
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7. Cerovac V, Monteserin-Garcia J, Rubinfeld H, Buchfelder M, Losa M, Florio T, Paez-Pereda M, Stalla GK, Theodoropoulou M: The somatostatin analogue octreotide confers sensitivity to rapamycin treatment on pituitary tumor cells. Cancer Res; 2010 Jan 15;70(2):666-74
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  • [Title] The somatostatin analogue octreotide confers sensitivity to rapamycin treatment on pituitary tumor cells.
  • Rapamycin and its analogues have significant antiproliferative action against a variety of tumors.
  • Here, we investigated this model using the somatostatin analogue octreotide as a tool to decrease levels of activated Ser(473)-phosphorylated Akt (pAkt-Ser(473)) in pituitary tumor cells that express somatostatin receptors.
  • Octreotide potentiated the antiproliferative effects of rapamycin in immortalized pituitary tumor cells or human nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma cells in primary cell culture, sensitizing tumor cells even to low rapamycin concentrations.
  • Combined treatment of octreotide and rapamycin triggered G(1) cell cycle arrest, decreasing E2F transcriptional activity and cyclin E levels by increasing levels of p27/Kip1.
  • These findings show that adjuvant treatment with a somatostatin analogue can sensitize pituitary tumor cells to the antiproliferative effects of rapamycin.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / pharmacology. Octreotide / pharmacology. Pituitary Neoplasms / drug therapy. Sirolimus / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / drug therapy. Adenoma / metabolism. Adenoma / pathology. Cell Cycle / drug effects. Cell Growth Processes / drug effects. Cell Line, Tumor. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27 / biosynthesis. Drug Synergism. Humans. Insulin Receptor Substrate Proteins / metabolism. Oncogene Protein v-akt / metabolism. Phosphorylation / drug effects. Up-Regulation


8. de Herder WW, Reijs AE, Feelders RA, van Aken MO, Krenning EP, Tanghe HL, van der Lely AJ, Kwekkeboom DJ: Dopamine agonist therapy of clinically non-functioning pituitary macroadenomas. Is there a role for 123I-epidepride dopamine D2 receptor imaging? Eur J Endocrinol; 2006 Nov;155(5):717-23
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  • [Title] Dopamine agonist therapy of clinically non-functioning pituitary macroadenomas. Is there a role for 123I-epidepride dopamine D2 receptor imaging?
  • OBJECTIVE: Clinically non-functioning pituitary adenomas (NFPAs) can express functional dopamine D2 receptors.
  • Therapy with dopamine (DA) agonists may result in a NFPA size reduction.
  • However, DA agonist-sensitive and -resistant NFPAs are clinically indistinguishable.
  • We have studied the correlation between in vivo imaging of D2 receptors using (123)I-epidepride and the radiological response of NFPA to DA in 18 patients.
  • RESULTS: Pituitary uptake of (123)I-epidepride varied from slight uptake classified as grade 0 to very high classified as grade 3.
  • NFPA stabilization or shrinkage with DA agonist therapy showed no significant difference between grade 0, 1, and 2 tumors (mean tumor stabilization or shrinkage: 31, 30, and 36% respectively).
  • However, when we considered a decrease in tumor size ranging from 0 to 20% as tumor stabilization and >20% decrease in tumor size as true shrinkage, one out of four NFPAs with grade 1 uptake, two out of three with grade 1 uptake, and eight out of ten with grade 2 uptake showed tumor shrinkage.
  • DA agonist therapy in NFPAs can result in tumor stabilization and shrinkage.

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  • (PMID = 17062888.001).
  • [ISSN] 0804-4643
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aminoquinolines; 0 / Benzamides; 0 / Dopamine Agonists; 0 / Ergolines; 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Pyrrolidines; 0 / Receptors, Dopamine D2; 107188-87-4 / epidepride; 80Q9QWN15M / quinagolide; LL60K9J05T / cabergoline
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9. Lin SH, Hung YH, Lin YF: Severe hyponatremia as the presenting feature of clinically non-functional pituitary adenoma with hypopituitarism. Clin Nephrol; 2002 Jan;57(1):85-8
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  • [Title] Severe hyponatremia as the presenting feature of clinically non-functional pituitary adenoma with hypopituitarism.
  • We present two cases in which severe hyponatremia developed with weakness, light-headedness and seizure.
  • Computerized tomography of the brain revealed an adenoma of the pituitary gland.
  • These two cases illustrate that severe hyponatremia may be the presenting feature of clinically non-functional pituitary adenoma with hypopituitarism, which should be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis of hyponatremia mimicking SIADH.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Hyponatremia / etiology. Pituitary Neoplasms / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Anti-Inflammatory Agents / therapeutic use. Diagnosis, Differential. Drug Therapy, Combination. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prednisolone / administration & dosage. Thyroid Hormones / therapeutic use. Thyroxine / administration & dosage. Vasopressins / blood. Vasopressins / deficiency

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  • (PMID = 11837807.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-0430
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical nephrology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Nephrol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents; 0 / Thyroid Hormones; 11000-17-2 / Vasopressins; 9PHQ9Y1OLM / Prednisolone; Q51BO43MG4 / Thyroxine
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10. Zhang W, Murao K, Imachi H, Iwama H, Chen K, Fei Z, Zhang X, Ishida T, Tamiya T: Suppression of prolactin expression by cabergoline requires prolactin regulatory element-binding protein (PREB) in GH3 cells. Horm Metab Res; 2010 Jul;42(8):557-61

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The prolactin regulatory element-binding protein (PREB) is a transcriptional factor that regulates prolactin (PRL) promoter activity in the anterior pituitary.
  • Prolactinomas are the most common pituitary tumors.
  • Administration of cabergoline, a selective dopamine D2-receptor agonist, has become the initial therapy of choice for most patients with prolactinomas.
  • Samples of ten prolactinomas and ten nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas were analyzed by immunohistochemistry to detect the expression of PREB.
  • The effect of cabergoline on PREB expression was assessed by western blotting and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis.
  • Immunohistochemical analysis revealed strong positive PREB expression in the prolactinoma tissue, but extremely weak or undetected expression in the nonfunctioning pituitary tumor tissue.
  • Western blots probed with a PREB-specific antiserum revealed that the relative abundance of the PREB protein in the GH3 cells decreased in a dose-dependent manner in response to cabergoline treatment, as did the relative abundance of PREB mRNA.
  • [MeSH-major] DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Down-Regulation / drug effects. Ergolines / pharmacology. Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors / metabolism. Prolactin / genetics. Transcription Factors / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Line, Tumor. Humans. Prolactinoma / metabolism. Prolactinoma / pathology. Promoter Regions, Genetic / genetics. Transcription, Genetic / drug effects

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  • [Copyright] (c) Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart . New York.
  • (PMID = 20411477.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-4286
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormone and metabolic research = Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung = Hormones et métabolisme
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Horm. Metab. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Ergolines; 0 / Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors; 0 / PREB protein, human; 0 / Transcription Factors; 9002-62-4 / Prolactin; LL60K9J05T / cabergoline
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11. Guerra Y, Lacuesta E, Marquez F, Raksin PB, Utset M, Fogelfeld L: Apoplexy in non functioning pituitary adenoma after one dose of leuprolide as treatment for prostate cancer. Pituitary; 2010;13(1):54-9
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  • [Title] Apoplexy in non functioning pituitary adenoma after one dose of leuprolide as treatment for prostate cancer.
  • We report the case of a 60 year old male who complained of headache and blurry vision--that progressed to left ophthalmoplegia and ptosis--after receiving a dose of leuprolide for Prostate cancer therapy.
  • The patient underwent transsphenoidal debulking, and the tissue obtained demonstrated immunohistochemical staining for LH.
  • A literature review revealed nine previously reported cases of pituitary apoplexy after GnRH agonist therapy for prostate cancer.
  • In most cases, the sellar tissues stained for LH, consistent with a gonadotropinoma.
  • Particular attention to clinical findings suggestive of a non functioning pituitary tumor in patients receiving GnRH agonist therapy is critical as routine screening with MRI is not practical.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Leuprolide / adverse effects. Pituitary Neoplasms / complications. Stroke / chemically induced
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / adverse effects. Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone / agonists. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prostatic Neoplasms / complications. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Sella Turcica


12. Colao A, Di Sarno A, Marzullo P, Di Somma C, Cerbone G, Landi ML, Faggiano A, Merola B, Lombardi G: New medical approaches in pituitary adenomas. Horm Res; 2000;53 Suppl 3:76-87
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  • [Title] New medical approaches in pituitary adenomas.
  • Recently, the medical approach to patients with secreting and clinically non-functioning pituitary adenomas has received great impulse thanks to the availability of new, selective and long-lasting compounds with dopaminergic activity, such as cabergoline, and of somatostatin analogues provided in slow-release formulations, such as lanreotide and octreotide long acting release (LAR).
  • In particular, the use of cabergoline has induced control of hyperprolactinaemia and tumour shrinkage in the great majority of patients with micro- and macroprolactinomas.
  • Cabergoline treatment restores fertility both in women and men, and partially improves osteoporosis, one of the major complications of hyperprolactinaemia.
  • In acromegaly, disease control (growth hormone [GH] <2.5-1.0 microg/l as a fasting or glucose-suppressed value, respectively, together with age-normalised insulin-like growth factor [IGF]-I) is achievable in more than half of patients receiving treatment with lanreotide or octreotide-LAR.
  • Improvement in cardiomyopathy, sleep apnoea and arthropathy has been reported during GH/IGF-I suppression after pharmacotherapy.
  • A synthetic GH analogue, B2036-PEG, that antagonises endogenous GH binding to its receptor-binding sites and a GH-releasing hormone antagonist that blocks the effect of this releasing factor on the hypothalamus and pituitary are presently under investigation in acromegaly.
  • Beneficial effects of subcutaneous octreotide and lanreotide have also been reported in adenomas secreting thyroid-stimulating hormone, while the results of treatment with dopamine agonists or somatostatin analogues remain disappointing in patients with clinically non-functioning adenomas.
  • In these patients the possibility of visualising in vivo the expression of D(2) receptors using specific radiotracers such as (123)I-methoxybenzamide has allowed selection of patients likely to respond to cabergoline.
  • Scant effects of pharmacotherapy have also been reported in patients with adenomas secreting adrenocorticotropic hormone.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / drug therapy. Dopamine Agents / therapeutic use. Pituitary Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / metabolism. Human Growth Hormone / metabolism. Humans. Prolactinoma / drug therapy

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel
  • (PMID = 10971110.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-0163
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormone research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Horm. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Dopamine Agents; 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
  • [Number-of-references] 118
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13. Verhelst J, Kendall-Taylor P, Erfurth EM, Price DA, Geffner M, Koltowska-Häggström M, Jönsson PJ, Wilton P, Abs R: Baseline characteristics and response to 2 years of growth hormone (GH) replacement of hypopituitary patients with GH deficiency due to adult-onset craniopharyngioma in comparison with patients with nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma: data from KIMS (Pfizer International Metabolic Database). J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2005 Aug;90(8):4636-43
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  • [Title] Baseline characteristics and response to 2 years of growth hormone (GH) replacement of hypopituitary patients with GH deficiency due to adult-onset craniopharyngioma in comparison with patients with nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma: data from KIMS (Pfizer International Metabolic Database).
  • Patients with hypopituitarism caused by a craniopharyngioma (CP) and/or its treatment have a higher mortality than patients with other etiologies, such as a nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma (NFPA).
  • To analyze this difference, we used the KIMS database (Pfizer International Metabolic Database) comparing CP and NFPA patients in terms of baseline characteristics and responses to GH replacement.
  • PATIENTS: Baseline characteristics were studied in 351 CP patients (189 men and 162 women; mean age, 42.5 yr) and compared with 370 NFPA patients, matched for age and sex (185 men and 185 women; mean age, 42.5 yr).
  • The effects of 2 yr of GH replacement were analyzed in a subgroup of 183 CP and 209 NFPA patients.
  • RESULTS: At baseline, both CP and NFPA patients had characteristic features of GH deficiency, with low serum IGF-I, increased body fat, dyslipidemia, and reduced quality of life.
  • Male CP patients were significantly more obese (30.0 vs. 28.2 kg/m2; P = 0.0003) compared with NFPA patients, had a higher waist/hip ratio (P = 0.004), higher triglycerides (P = 0.003), and lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P = 0.03).
  • Similar, but much smaller, differences were seen in female CP compared with NFPA patients, only reaching significance for waist/hip ratio (P = 0.05) and triglycerides (P = 0.0004).
  • CP patients had more often undergone surgery by the transcranial route (68.8% vs. 30.9%; P < 0.0001), and panhypopituitarism was more prevalent in CP than in NFPA patients (58.7% vs. 19.8%; P < 0.0001).
  • The incidence of previous fractures, hypertension, coronary heart disease, claudication, and diabetes mellitus was high, but not different, between CP and NFPA patients.
  • After 2 yr of GH replacement therapy, similar significant improvements were evident in both groups in fat-free mass, total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and Quality-of-Life-Assessment in GH Deficient Adults score compared with baseline.
  • In contrast to NFPA patients, CP patients had no significant decrease in body fat with GH therapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In the KIMS database, patients with CP have more often undergone surgery by the transcranial route than patients with NFPA, have a higher prevalence of pituitary deficiencies, are more obese (predominantly males), and have more dyslipidemia.
  • CP patients respond equally well to GH therapy in fat-free mass, lipids, and quality of life, but are less likely to lose body fat.
  • We assume that this difference in response merely reflects the stronger tendency of CP patients to accumulate fat over time.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Craniopharyngioma / complications. Human Growth Hormone / therapeutic use. Hypopituitarism / drug therapy. Hypopituitarism / etiology. Pituitary Neoplasms / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age of Onset. Blood Glucose. Body Composition. Comorbidity. Databases, Factual. Fasting. Female. Hemoglobin A, Glycosylated / metabolism. Humans. Insulin-Like Growth Factor I / metabolism. Lipids / blood. Male. Middle Aged. Prevalence. Quality of Life. Treatment Outcome


14. Deniz K, Tanriverdi F, Selçuklu A, Kontaş O, Keleştimur F: Signet ring-like cells in pituitary adenoma. Pathol Res Pract; 2008;204(3):209-12
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  • [Title] Signet ring-like cells in pituitary adenoma.
  • We describe a case of non-functioning pituitary adenoma in a 35-year-old woman with a prior history of fertility problems.
  • Histological examination of the tumor revealed signet ring-like cell areas admixed with minor conventional round-polygonal neoplastic cells.
  • The two populations of tumor cells showed strong immunoreactivity for chromogranin and synaptophysin.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Pituitary Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Chorionic Gonadotropin / therapeutic use. Chromogranins / metabolism. Clomiphene / therapeutic use. Female. Fertility Agents, Female / therapeutic use. Headache / etiology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Infertility, Female / drug therapy. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Synaptophysin / metabolism. Vision Disorders / etiology

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  • (PMID = 18207654.001).
  • [ISSN] 0344-0338
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology, research and practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Res. Pract.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin; 0 / Chromogranins; 0 / Fertility Agents, Female; 0 / Synaptophysin; 1HRS458QU2 / Clomiphene
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15. Inenaga C, Morii K, Tamura T, Tanaka R, Takahashi H: Mesenchymal chondrosarcoma of the sellar region. Acta Neurochir (Wien); 2003 Jul;145(7):593-7; discussion 597
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  • However, no such malignant tumour has been described in the sellar region.
  • Upon initial admission, no endocrinological abnormalities were found, and computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a mass with calcification in the sella and right cavernous sinus.
  • INTERVENTION: For this malignant tumour, three surgical resections, two sessions of gamma-knife radiosurgery, one session of fractional irradiation, and one cycle of chemotherapy were performed, resulting in only brief arrest of the tumour growth.
  • Pathologically, the tumour consisted of undifferentiated small cells of high cellularity, and islands of hyaline cartilage.
  • CONCLUSION: Although malignant tumours in the sellar region are rare, they should be considered in the differential diagnosis of various sellar tumours typified by non-functioning pituitary adenoma, and mesenchymal chondrosarcoma is one possible candidate.

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  • (PMID = 12910404.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-6268
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neurochirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neurochir (Wien)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Austria
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16. Błaut K, Wiśniewski P, Syrenicz A, Sworczak K: Apoplexy of clinically silent pituitary adenoma during prostate cancer treatment with LHRH analog. Neuro Endocrinol Lett; 2006 Oct;27(5):569-72
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  • [Title] Apoplexy of clinically silent pituitary adenoma during prostate cancer treatment with LHRH analog.
  • LHRH analogs have become a promising modality in prostate cancer therapy as an alternative to surgical castration, and the use of these agents is generally considered to be safe.
  • Since now, only few cases of an apoplexy of previously undiagnosed pituitary adenoma (usually gonadotropinoma) at the beginning of therapy have been described in the medical literature.
  • During the first day after gosereline injection the patient developed headaches that became more severe over the next 3 days.
  • Imaging (computerized tomography, magnetic resonance imaging) revealed the presence of a pituitary tumor and hemorrhage within the gland.
  • There was no evidence of pituitary dysfunction in hormonal studies.
  • The tumor had negative immunohistochemical GH, ACTH and PRL staining.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone / analogs & derivatives. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / diagnosis. Pituitary Apoplexy / etiology. Pituitary Neoplasms / complications. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Goserelin / therapeutic use. Humans. Male


17. Müller J: Impact of cancer therapy on the reproductive axis. Horm Res; 2003;59 Suppl 1:12-20
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  • [Title] Impact of cancer therapy on the reproductive axis.
  • Cancer therapy includes surgery, chemotherapy and irradiation.
  • Depending on the diagnosis, the location of the neoplasm and the age of the patient, these treatment modalities may be given alone or in combination.
  • All forms of cancer therapy can affect the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis.
  • The long-term consequences for reproductive function depend on several aspects.
  • The sex of the patient is important, since ovarian and testicular function differ significantly.
  • The sensitivity of germ cells to cancer therapy also differs between the sexes.
  • Moreover, the sensitivity of both the hypothalamic-pituitary axis and the gonads is highly age dependent.
  • With regard to chemotherapy, the possible damage to the gonads is dependent on the total dose and type of agent given.
  • According to current knowledge, the hypothalamic-pituitary axis is not affected by conventional doses of chemotherapy.
  • Radiotherapy has by far the most damaging effect on the reproductive axis, having serious adverse effects on both the hypothalamic-pituitary area as well as on the gonads themselves.
  • The present review will focus on the late effects of cancer therapy in children and young adults with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, brain tumour, Hodgkin's lymphoma or Wilms' tumour, including the adverse effects of bone marrow transplantation.
  • [MeSH-major] Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System / drug effects. Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System / radiation effects. Neoplasms / complications. Neoplasms / therapy. Ovary / drug effects. Ovary / radiation effects. Testis / drug effects. Testis / radiation effects

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel
  • (PMID = 12566715.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-0163
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormone research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Horm. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Gonadal Steroid Hormones
  • [Number-of-references] 70
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18. Patel YC, Ezzat S, Chik CL, Rorstad OP, Serri O, Ur E, Wilkins GE: Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of acromegaly: a Canadian perspective. Clin Invest Med; 2000 Jun;23(3):172-87
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  • [Title] Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of acromegaly: a Canadian perspective.
  • In the majority of cases the condition results from benign pituitary adenomas or, rarely, from ectopic production of GH-releasing hormone.
  • The death rate for acromegalic patients is 2 to 3 times higher than that of the general population, but with appropriate reduction of GH hypersecretion it tends to shift into the normal range.
  • Treatment is thus aimed at normalizing GH secretion; eradicating or stabilizing the pituitary tumour while preserving normal pituitary function, and managing the associated complications.
  • The treatment modalities available to achieve these objectives include transsphenoidal surgery, pharmacotherapy and radiation, or various combinations of these.
  • This review provides an update on our current understanding of the pathophysiology of GH hypersecretion in acromegaly, the newly defined diagnostic criteria and the end point for a cure for acromegaly, and on new developments in drug treatment with the advent of slow-release forms of somatostatin analogues and the longer-acting dopamine receptor agonists, as well as in the area of radiotherapy.
  • Its main purpose is to guide any physician involved in the diagnosis and management of patients with acromegaly.
  • [MeSH-major] Acromegaly / diagnosis. Acromegaly / therapy. Practice Guidelines as Topic
  • [MeSH-minor] Canada. Health Care Costs. Human Growth Hormone / antagonists & inhibitors. Human Growth Hormone / metabolism. Human Growth Hormone / secretion. Humans. Insulin-Like Growth Factor I / metabolism. Pituitary Gland / metabolism. Pituitary Gland / pathology. Pituitary Gland / physiopathology. Pituitary Gland / radiation effects. Radiotherapy. Receptors, Somatotropin / antagonists & inhibitors. Receptors, Somatotropin / metabolism. Somatostatin / analogs & derivatives. Somatostatin / pharmacology. Somatostatin / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 10911548.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-958X
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical and investigative medicine. Médecine clinique et experimentale
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Invest Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] CANADA
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Somatotropin; 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin; 67763-96-6 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor I
  • [Number-of-references] 75
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19. Yaman E, Benekli M, Coskun U, Sezer K, Ozturk B, Kaya AO, Yildiz R, Uluoglu O, Buyukberber S: Intrasellar plasmacytoma: an unusual presentation of multiple myeloma. Acta Neurochir (Wien); 2008 Sep;150(9):921-4; discussion 924
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  • Occasionally, they can be misdiagnosed as a nonfunctioning adenoma because of radiological and clinical similarities.
  • Initial diagnosis of a nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma was later overruled by a repeat biopsy, which showed a plasmacytoma.
  • The tumor stained positively for CD138 and kappa light chain.
  • Further studies confirmed the diagnosis of multiple myeloma.
  • The patient was successfully treated with radiotherapy followed by systemic chemotherapy.
  • Because they have different therapeutic implications, extramedullary plasmacytomas involving pituitary gland should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a nonfunctioning pituitary mass.
  • [MeSH-major] Multiple Myeloma / complications. Multiple Myeloma / diagnosis. Pituitary Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pituitary Neoplasms / etiology. Plasmacytoma / diagnosis. Plasmacytoma / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Aged. Biopsy. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunoglobulin kappa-Chains / metabolism. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Sella Turcica. Syndecan-1 / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18726062.001).
  • [ISSN] 0942-0940
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neurochirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neurochir (Wien)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Austria
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunoglobulin kappa-Chains; 0 / Syndecan-1
  • [Number-of-references] 24
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20. Iván G, Szigeti-Csúcs N, Oláh M, Nagy GM, Góth MI: Treatment of pituitary tumors: dopamine agonists. Endocrine; 2005 Oct;28(1):101-10
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  • [Title] Treatment of pituitary tumors: dopamine agonists.
  • In the hypothalamopituitary system its function is a dominant and tonic inhibitory regulation of pituitary hormone secretion including prolactin- and proopiomelanocortin-derived hormones.
  • It is well known that dopamine agonists, such as bromocriptine, pergolide, quinagolide, cabergoline, and lisuride, can inhibit PRL secretion by binding to the D(2) dopamine receptors located on normal as well as tumorous pituitary cells.
  • Moreover, they can effectively decrease excessive PRL secretion as well as the size of the tumor in patients having prolactinoma.
  • Furthermore, dopamine agonists can also be used in other pituitary tumors.
  • The major requirement for its use is that the tumor cells should express D(2) receptors.
  • Therefore, in addition to prolactinomas, targets of dopamine agonist therapy are somatotroph tumors, nonfunctioning pituitary tumors, corticotroph pituitary tumors, Nelson's syndrome, gonadotropinomas, and thyrotropin-secreting pituitary tumors.
  • It is also an option for the treatment of pituitary disease during pregnancy.
  • Differences between the effectiveness and the resistance of different dopaminergic agents as well as the future perspectives of them in the therapy of pituitary tumors are discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / drug therapy. Dopamine Agonists / pharmacology. Pituitary Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Bromocriptine / pharmacology. Bromocriptine / therapeutic use. Dopamine / metabolism. Ergolines / pharmacology. Ergolines / therapeutic use. Humans. Receptors, Dopamine / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16311416.001).
  • [ISSN] 1355-008X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Dopamine Agonists; 0 / Ergolines; 0 / Receptors, Dopamine; 3A64E3G5ZO / Bromocriptine; LL60K9J05T / cabergoline; VTD58H1Z2X / Dopamine
  • [Number-of-references] 71
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21. Johannesen TB, Lien HH, Hole KH, Lote K: Radiological and clinical assessment of long-term brain tumour survivors after radiotherapy. Radiother Oncol; 2003 Nov;69(2):169-76
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  • [Title] Radiological and clinical assessment of long-term brain tumour survivors after radiotherapy.
  • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Late adverse effects of therapeutic brain radiotherapy (RT) may develop after long latency periods and our objective was to assess long-term brain tumour survivors following RT to large partial brain volumes.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Assessment of MRI, SOMA/LENT score, quality of life and neuroendocrine function was performed in 33 adult brain tumour patients 6-25 years following RT.
  • Fraction dose was 1.8 Gy to a median total dose of 54 Gy (range: 45.0-59.4 Gy).
  • In 25 patients the hypothalamic and pituitary area had been included in the RT field.
  • Patients treated with intra-arterial chemotherapy and patients at higher age at follow-up had significantly more grade 3 changes.

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  • (PMID = 14643954.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-8140
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiotherapy and oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiother Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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22. Alameda Hernando C, Lahera Vargas M, Varela Da Costa C: [Treatment of clinically nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas]. Endocrinol Nutr; 2010 Feb;57(2):71-81
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  • [Title] [Treatment of clinically nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas].
  • [Transliterated title] Tratamiento de los adenomas hipofisarios clínicamente no funcionantes.
  • Clinically nonfunctioning adenomas are the most frequent pituitary macroadenomas in adults.
  • These tumors are characterized by the absence of detectable hormonal hypersecretion and are diagnosed when compression symptoms or hormonal deficiencies occur.
  • The treatment of choice of macroadenomas is surgery, but tumoral resection is often incomplete or the patient develops tumoral recurrence.
  • Medical therapy has been shown to produce modest tumoral reduction in some patients.
  • Stereotactic radiotherapy has been developed to diminish the long-term complications of radiotherapy.
  • The present article reviews the results of medical, surgical and radiation treatments.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / therapy. Pituitary Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cranial Irradiation. Dacarbazine / analogs & derivatives. Dacarbazine / therapeutic use. Decompression, Surgical. Dopamine Agonists / therapeutic use. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone / analogs & derivatives. Humans. Hypophysectomy / methods. Male. Neoplasm, Residual. Postoperative Complications / drug therapy. Postoperative Complications / etiology. Radiosurgery. Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated. Somatostatin / analogs & derivatives

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2009 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20227355.001).
  • [ISSN] 1575-0922
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrinología y nutrición : órgano de la Sociedad Española de Endocrinología y Nutrición
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrinol Nutr
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Dopamine Agonists; 33515-09-2 / Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 85622-93-1 / temozolomide
  • [Number-of-references] 73
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23. Jereczek-Fossa BA, Alterio D, Jassem J, Gibelli B, Tradati N, Orecchia R: Radiotherapy-induced thyroid disorders. Cancer Treat Rev; 2004 Jun;30(4):369-84
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  • Despite their specific functional consequences, radiotherapy-induced thyroid abnormalities remain under-estimated and underreported.
  • These sequelae may include primary or central hypothyroidism, thyroiditis, Graves' disease, euthyroid Graves' ophthalmopathy, benign adenomas, multinodular goitre and radiation-induced thyroid carcinoma.
  • Primary hypothyroidism, the most common radiation-induced thyroid dysfunction, affects 20-30% of patients administered following curative radiotherapy to the neck region, with approximately half of the events occurring within the first 5 years after therapy.
  • The relative risk of radiation-induced cancer (mainly well-differentiated tumours) is 15-53-fold higher than in non-irradiated population.
  • The aetiology of radiation-induced thyroid injury includes vascular damage, parenchymal cell damage and auto-immune reactions.
  • Total radiotherapy dose, irradiated volume of the thyroid gland, and the extent of prior thyroid resection are among the most important factors associated with the risk of hypothyroidism.
  • The contribution of other treatment modalities (chemotherapy, endocrine therapy) as well as patient- and tumour-related factors is less clear.
  • Reduction in radiation dose to the thyroid gland and hypothalamic/pituitary complex should be attempted whenever possible.
  • New radiotherapy techniques, such as stereotactic radiosurgery, three-dimensional conformal irradiation, intensity modulated radiotherapy and proton therapy allow generally better dose distribution with lower dose to the non-target organs.
  • The diagnostic approach to thyroid radiation injury includes baseline thyroid function assays in all patients undergoing thyroid or parasellar irradiation.
  • Management of overt hypothyroidism is based on hormone replacement therapy.
  • Thyroid hormone therapy is also recommended in cases of subclinical hypothyroidism.
  • Treatment of other radiation-induced thyroid disorders (thyroiditis, Graves' disease, thyroid cancer) is similar to that employed in spontaneously occurring conditions.
  • Further improvements in radiotherapy techniques and progress in endocrine diagnostics and therapy may allow better prevention and management of radiation-related thyroid injury.
  • [MeSH-major] Radiotherapy / adverse effects. Thyroid Diseases / etiology. Thyroid Gland / radiation effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / etiology. Carcinoma / etiology. Goiter, Nodular / etiology. Graves Disease / etiology. Humans. Hypothyroidism / etiology. Radiotherapy Dosage. Radiotherapy, Conformal / adverse effects. Risk Assessment. Thyroid Neoplasms / etiology. Thyroiditis / etiology

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  • (PMID = 15145511.001).
  • [ISSN] 0305-7372
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer treatment reviews
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Treat. Rev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 149
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24. Chaidarun SS, Klibanski A: Gonadotropinomas. Semin Reprod Med; 2002 Nov;20(4):339-48
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  • Advances in immunocytochemistry, electron microscopy, cell culture, and molecular techniques have demonstrated that 80 to 90% of the clinically nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas are gonadotrope-derived and recently recognized as gonadotropinomas, which account for as many as 40 to 50% of all pituitary macroadenomas.
  • Commonly, the tumor is found incidentally.
  • The tumors can be divided into two broad categories: functioning gonadotropinomas with positive immunostaining for follicle-stimulating hormone, leutinizing hormone, and/or their subunits; and nonfunctioning gonadotropinomas or null cell tumors with negative immunostaining for all pituitary hormones but positive nuclear immunostaining for steroid factor-1 or DAX-1 characteristic of gonadotrope differentiation, with evidence of gonadotropin production or gene expression at the mRNA level.
  • Gonadotropinomas are monoclonal in origin but the pathogenesis of these tumors is unknown and factors that stimulate clonal proliferation not yet determined.
  • A new pituitary oncogene, pituitary tumor transforming gene, has recently been found to be overexpressed in about two thirds of these tumors but it is also detected in all other pituitary tumor subtypes.
  • Alterations of tumor hormone receptors and local growth factors may also play a role in the tumor development and/or progression.
  • Transphenoidal surgery remains the principal therapy for the macroadenomas.
  • Radiosurgery using gamma knife, the linear accelerator, or proton beam therapy showed promising results, especially for controlling the residual or recurrent tumors.
  • Medical therapy with somatostatin analogs, dopamine agonists, and gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists and antagonists are rarely effective in reducing tumor size.
  • Experimental therapy with intraoperative local chemotherapy or potential gene therapy requires further investigation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / etiology. Gonadotropins, Pituitary / metabolism. Pituitary Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pituitary Neoplasms / etiology

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  • (PMID = 12536357.001).
  • [ISSN] 1526-8004
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in reproductive medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin. Reprod. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Gonadotropins, Pituitary
  • [Number-of-references] 88
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25. Muller AF, Van Der Lely AJ: Pharmacological therapy for acromegaly: a critical review. Drugs; 2004;64(16):1817-38
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  • [Title] Pharmacological therapy for acromegaly: a critical review.
  • The treatment of acromegaly has changed considerably over the last few decades.
  • In the late 1970s, the introduction of the dopamine receptor agonists made it possible to reduce growth hormone (GH) secretion by somatotropinomas for the first time.
  • Currently these compounds should be considered in patients with a mixed GH-prolactin secreting pituitary adenoma and/or those in whom pre-treatment insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I concentrations are below 750 microg/L.
  • These compounds are capable of achieving biochemical control of GH and IGF-I in 50-60% of patients and tumour shrinkage in some 30%.
  • In particular, candidates for treatment with these compounds are those patients who have undergone an unsuccessful transsphenoidal operation or who await the therapeutic effect of external pituitary irradiation.
  • In selected patients primary medical therapy with somatostatin analogues is certainly a feasible option.
  • To date, pegvisomant is the only available member of a new class of drugs that was especially designed to block the GHR.
  • Pegvisomant is the most effective treatment for normalising IGF-I concentrations and appears to have a good safety profile.
  • However, liver function tests should be regularly monitored and tumour size should be closely followed.
  • Finally, we propose a treatment algorithm for acromegaly.
  • [MeSH-major] Acromegaly / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / complications. Animals. Dopamine Agonists / therapeutic use. Hormone Antagonists / therapeutic use. Human Growth Hormone / antagonists & inhibitors. Human Growth Hormone / metabolism. Humans. Pituitary Neoplasms / complications. Receptors, Somatotropin / antagonists & inhibitors. Somatostatin / analogs & derivatives. Somatostatin / pharmacology. Somatostatin / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 15301564.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-6667
  • [Journal-full-title] Drugs
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Drugs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Dopamine Agonists; 0 / Hormone Antagonists; 0 / Receptors, Somatotropin; 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin
  • [Number-of-references] 197
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26. Berinder K, Stackenäs I, Akre O, Hirschberg AL, Hulting AL: Hyperprolactinaemia in 271 women: up to three decades of clinical follow-up. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2005 Oct;63(4):450-5
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  • OBJECTIVE: To characterize women with hyperprolactinaemia at diagnosis and to assess the effect of treatment after long duration of the disease.
  • The patients were followed for a median time period of 111 (6-348) months.
  • Two hundred and forty patients were treated with dopamine agonists, 17 underwent surgery, seven received radiotherapy and seven were followed without treatment.
  • RESULTS: Mean age at diagnosis was 31 (+/- 9.5) years and median PRL level was 72 (25-3500) microg/l.
  • Patients with menstrual disturbances had higher PRL levels than women with normal menstrual function (P < 0.001).
  • Normalization of PRL level was achieved in 71% of the patients and 80% showed a total or partial degree of tumour shrinkage.
  • In the surgically treated patients, 53% had normal PRL levels without medication at follow-up.
  • CONCLUSION: Medical treatment was effective in correcting hypogonadism, normalizing PRL levels and reducing tumour size in the majority of the patients after short-term treatment and also in the long run.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / drug therapy. Dopamine Agonists / therapeutic use. Hyperprolactinemia / drug therapy. Pituitary Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Amenorrhea / drug therapy. Amenorrhea / etiology. Amenorrhea / surgery. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Galactorrhea / drug therapy. Galactorrhea / etiology. Galactorrhea / surgery. Humans. Statistics, Nonparametric. Treatment Outcome

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  • [CommentIn] Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2006 Feb;64(2):226 [16430726.001]
  • (PMID = 16181238.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-0664
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Dopamine Agonists
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27. Pivonello R, Matrone C, Filippella M, Cavallo LM, Di Somma C, Cappabianca P, Colao A, Annunziato L, Lombardi G: Dopamine receptor expression and function in clinically nonfunctioning pituitary tumors: comparison with the effectiveness of cabergoline treatment. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2004 Apr;89(4):1674-83
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  • [Title] Dopamine receptor expression and function in clinically nonfunctioning pituitary tumors: comparison with the effectiveness of cabergoline treatment.
  • The aim of this study was to correlate dopamine receptors and D(2) isoform expression with the cabergoline effect on alpha-subunit secretion in vitro and tumor mass in vivo in clinically nonfunctioning pituitary tumors.
  • Eighteen patients were subjected to neurosurgery, and a tumor sample was used for dopamine receptor and D(2) isoform expression evaluation by RT-PCR and the in vitro functional studies.
  • After neurosurgery, nine of 18 patients with persistent tumor were treated with cabergoline and tumor mass was evaluated before and after 1 yr treatment.
  • The in vitro inhibition of alpha-subunit concentration was found in 56% of cases and was associated with D(2) expression (chi(2) = 5.6; P < 0.05).
  • After 1 yr of cabergoline treatment, tumor shrinkage was evident in 56% of patients and was associated with D(2) expression (chi(2) = 5.6; P < 0.05).
  • The expression of D(2short) rather than D(2long) isoform is associated with the most favorable response of the tumor to cabergoline treatment.
  • In conclusion, this study demonstrates D(2) receptor expression and function in nearly 70% of cases, suggesting a role of this drug in the treatment schedule of clinically nonfunctioning pituitary tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Dopamine Agonists / therapeutic use. Ergolines / therapeutic use. Pituitary Neoplasms / drug therapy. Pituitary Neoplasms / metabolism. Receptors, Dopamine / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Protein Isoforms / metabolism. Protein Subunits. Receptors, Dopamine D2 / metabolism. Receptors, Dopamine D4. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Treatment Outcome. Tumor Cells, Cultured. Visual Fields / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 15070930.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / DRD4 protein, human; 0 / Dopamine Agonists; 0 / Ergolines; 0 / Protein Isoforms; 0 / Protein Subunits; 0 / Receptors, Dopamine; 0 / Receptors, Dopamine D2; 137750-34-6 / Receptors, Dopamine D4; LL60K9J05T / cabergoline
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28. Gilbert J, Ketchen M, Kane P, Mason T, Baister E, Monaghan M, Barr S, Harris PE: The treatment of de novo acromegalic patients with octreotide-LAR: efficacy, tolerability and cardiovascular effects. Pituitary; 2003;6(1):11-8
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  • [Title] The treatment of de novo acromegalic patients with octreotide-LAR: efficacy, tolerability and cardiovascular effects.
  • AIM: Somatostatin analogues are normally used as adjunctive therapy to surgery and radiotherapy in management of acromegaly.
  • We studied the effects of de novo OCT-LAR treatment on growth hormone (GH) suppression, tumour size, cardiovascular function, clinical symptoms, signs and quality of life in 9 newly diagnosed acromegalic patients.
  • Treatment continued for 6 months.
  • Cardiac function assessed by echocardiography at baseline and day 169.
  • Tumour shrinkage seen in 30% patients.
  • This is associated with improved LV function, evidenced by increased EF.
  • Improved results are expected with longer-term treatment.
  • OCT-LAR may be considered as primary treatment for acromegaly in selected patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Acromegaly / drug therapy. Adenoma / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / administration & dosage. Octreotide / administration & dosage. Pituitary Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 3 / blood. Insulin-Like Growth Factor I / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies. Stroke Volume / drug effects. Treatment Outcome. Ventricular Function, Left / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 14674719.001).
  • [ISSN] 1386-341X
  • [Journal-full-title] Pituitary
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pituitary
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 3; 67763-96-6 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor I; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
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29. Spoudeas HA, Charmandari E, Brook CG: Hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis integrity after cranial irradiation for childhood posterior fossa tumours. Med Pediatr Oncol; 2003 Apr;40(4):224-9
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  • [Title] Hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis integrity after cranial irradiation for childhood posterior fossa tumours.
  • BACKGROUND: The evolution of anterior pituitary deficits after treatment for pituitary tumours has been largely attributed to local irradiation, but may be influenced as much by tumour mass or surgery.
  • Other than growth hormone (GH) insufficiency, the late endocrinopathies after survival from non-central brain tumours have been little documented.
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in long-term survivors of cranial irradiation for childhood posterior fossa tumours.
  • PROCEDURE: We studied long-term data in patients treated prepubertally for posterior fossa brain tumours and systematically referred by radiation oncologists for growth and pubertal monitoring to the London Centre for Paediatric Endocrinology over the last 25 years.
  • Data on sixteen patients (12 males, 4 females; median age: 5.7 years, range: 2.5-8.8 years), who had undergone excision surgery with high dose cranial irradiation and/or chemotherapy for childhood posterior fossa tumours, were examined.
  • Basal thyroid, cortisol and gonadal function tests were undertaken annually throughout the follow-up period and any deficits replaced.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Unlike the severe, evolving multiple pituitary deficits after treatment of pituitary or central tumours in adults, these findings in children with posterior fossa tumours suggest that, with the exception of GH, neurotoxicity due to irradiation per se is associated with a low prevalence of anterior pituitary hormone deficiencies, even at a long follow-up.
  • [MeSH-major] Cranial Irradiation / adverse effects. Growth Disorders / etiology. Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System / radiation effects. Infratentorial Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Pituitary Diseases / etiology. Pituitary-Adrenal System / radiation effects. Radiation Injuries

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 12555249.001).
  • [ISSN] 0098-1532
  • [Journal-full-title] Medical and pediatric oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med. Pediatr. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-72-6 / Growth Hormone
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30. Florio T, Barbieri F, Spaziante R, Zona G, Hofland LJ, van Koetsveld PM, Feelders RA, Stalla GK, Theodoropoulou M, Culler MD, Dong J, Taylor JE, Moreau JP, Saveanu A, Gunz G, Dufour H, Jaquet P: Efficacy of a dopamine-somatostatin chimeric molecule, BIM-23A760, in the control of cell growth from primary cultures of human non-functioning pituitary adenomas: a multi-center study. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2008 Jun;15(2):583-96
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  • [Title] Efficacy of a dopamine-somatostatin chimeric molecule, BIM-23A760, in the control of cell growth from primary cultures of human non-functioning pituitary adenomas: a multi-center study.
  • Dopamine D2 and somatostatin receptors (sstrs) were reported to affect non-functioning pituitary adenoma (NFPA) proliferation in vitro.
  • We established an experimental protocol allowing reproducible evaluation of NFPA cell proliferation in vitro, to test and compare the antiproliferative effects of dopamine and somatostatin analogs (alone or in combination) with the activity of the dopamine-somatostatin chimeric molecule BIM-23A760.
  • The protocol was utilized by four independent laboratories, studying 38 fibroblast-deprived NFPA cell cultures.
  • BIM-23A760, a molecule with high affinity for D2R and sstr2, significantly inhibited [3H]thymidine incorporation in 23 out of 38 (60%) NFPA cultures (EC50=1.2 pM and Emax=-33.6+/-3.7%).
  • BIM-23A760 effects were similar to those induced by the selective D2R agonist cabergoline that showed a statistically significant inhibition in 18 out of 27 tumors (compared with a significant inhibition obtained in 17 out of 27 tumors using BIM-23A760, in the same subgroup of adenomas analyzed), while octreotide was effective in 13 out of 27 cases.
  • In conclusion, superimposable data generated in four independent laboratories using a standardized protocol demonstrate that, in vitro, chimeric dopamine/sstr agonists are effective in inhibiting cell proliferation in two-thirds of NFPAs.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / drug therapy. Adenoma / pathology. Dopamine / analogs & derivatives. Pituitary Neoplasms / drug therapy. Pituitary Neoplasms / pathology. Somatostatin / analogs & derivatives
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / pharmacology. Cell Division / drug effects. Dopamine Antagonists / pharmacology. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Ergolines / pharmacology. Female. Fibroblasts / cytology. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Octreotide / pharmacology. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Receptors, Dopamine D2 / genetics. Receptors, Somatostatin / genetics. Sulpiride / pharmacology. Thymidine / metabolism. Tritium. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 18509006.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / BIM 23A760; 0 / Dopamine Antagonists; 0 / Ergolines; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Dopamine D2; 0 / Receptors, Somatostatin; 0 / somatostatin receptor 2; 0 / somatostatin receptor 3; 10028-17-8 / Tritium; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin; 7MNE9M8287 / Sulpiride; LL60K9J05T / cabergoline; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide; VC2W18DGKR / Thymidine; VTD58H1Z2X / Dopamine
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31. Zatelli MC, Piccin D, Vignali C, Tagliati F, Ambrosio MR, Bondanelli M, Cimino V, Bianchi A, Schmid HA, Scanarini M, Pontecorvi A, De Marinis L, Maira G, degli Uberti EC: Pasireotide, a multiple somatostatin receptor subtypes ligand, reduces cell viability in non-functioning pituitary adenomas by inhibiting vascular endothelial growth factor secretion. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2007 Mar;14(1):91-102
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  • [Title] Pasireotide, a multiple somatostatin receptor subtypes ligand, reduces cell viability in non-functioning pituitary adenomas by inhibiting vascular endothelial growth factor secretion.
  • Somatostatin (SRIF) analogs have been employed in medical therapy of non-functioning pituitary adenomas (NFA), with contrasting results.
  • Previous evidence showed that SRIF can exert its antiproliferative effects by reducing vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion and action, and that VEGF expression may be related to pituitary tumor growth.
  • The aim of our study was to clarify the possible effects of a multireceptor SRIF ligand on VEGF secretion and cell proliferation in human NFA primary cultures.
  • We assessed the expression of SRIF receptors (SSTR1-5), the in vitro effects on VEGF secretion, and on cell viability of SRIF and of the stable SRIF analog pasireotide (SOM230), which activates SSTR1, 2, 3, and 5.
  • VEGF secretion and cell viability were reduced by SRIF and pasireotide in the 'responder' group, but not in the 'non-responder' group, including NFA expressing SSTR5.
  • In addition, SRIF and pasireotide completely abrogated the promoting effects of VEGF on NFA cell viability.
  • Our data demonstrate that pasireotide can inhibit NFA cell viability by inhibiting VEGF secretion, and suggest that the multireceptor-SSTR agonist pasireotide might be useful in medical therapy of selected NFA.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / secretion. Oligopeptides / pharmacology. Pituitary Neoplasms / secretion. Somatostatin / pharmacology. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / secretion
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Cell Survival / drug effects. Female. Hormones / pharmacology. Humans. Ligands. Male. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Receptors, Somatostatin / genetics. Receptors, Somatostatin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17395978.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hormones; 0 / Ligands; 0 / Oligopeptides; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Somatostatin; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin; 98H1T17066 / pasireotide
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32. Trimarchi CP, Russo P: Cyclic estrogen-progestin hormone therapy as a new therapeutic approach in the treatment of functional alterations of the hypothalamus-pituitary-ovary axis: case reports. Endocr Res; 2002 Aug;28(3):155-60
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  • [Title] Cyclic estrogen-progestin hormone therapy as a new therapeutic approach in the treatment of functional alterations of the hypothalamus-pituitary-ovary axis: case reports.
  • We report a first case of a 30 year-old woman affected by polycystic ovarian disease (PCOD) whose amenorrhea ceased after a 6-month combination treatment with cyclic estradiol-norethisterone acetate.
  • After the withdrawal of the hormone therapy, a stable recovery of periodic menses was observed.
  • We describe a second case of a 23 year-old woman whose amenorrhea was caused by a hypogonadotropic hypogonadism due to a non-functioning pituitary adenoma.
  • After the administration of the previously described therapy both a disappearance of the adenoma and a recover of periodic menses were observed.
  • The exogenous hormones may have reset the feedback between the hypothalamus and pituitary gland through mimicking the physiological hormones pattern of the 28-day cycle.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Amenorrhea / drug therapy. Estradiol / administration & dosage. Norethindrone / administration & dosage. Norethindrone / analogs & derivatives. Pituitary Neoplasms / complications. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Drug Administration Schedule. Drug Therapy, Combination. Feedback. Female. Humans. Hypogonadism / complications. Hypothalamus / drug effects. Hypothalamus / physiopathology. Ovary / physiopathology. Pituitary Gland / drug effects. Pituitary Gland / physiopathology

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  • (PMID = 12489565.001).
  • [ISSN] 0743-5800
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4TI98Z838E / Estradiol; 9S44LIC7OJ / norethindrone acetate; T18F433X4S / Norethindrone
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33. Rodríguez-Espinosa J, Urgell E, Montesinos J, Domingo P, Webb SM: Transient pituitary hypothyroidism in a patient with ectopic adrenocorticotrophic hormone secretion. Ann Clin Biochem; 2000 May;37 ( Pt 3):298-303
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  • [Title] Transient pituitary hypothyroidism in a patient with ectopic adrenocorticotrophic hormone secretion.
  • We report the case of a 55-year-old woman who presented with hypercortisolism secondary to ectopic adrenocorticotrophic hormone secretion and severe non-thyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS) due to metastatic small cell lung carcinoma associated with severe infections.
  • The patient initially showed hormonal profiles of pituitary hypothyroidism and gonadal hypofunction.
  • After decrease in cortisol production following treatment with chemotherapy and metyrapone, serum thyroid hormones and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) concentrations normalized.
  • Study of the relative contributions of cortisol and pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-6 and tumour necrosis factor alpha) to the overall variability in thyroid function tests disclosed a significant and independent effect of serum cortisol on serum TSH concentrations; the variability in free thyroid hormone concentration was explained only by changes in TSH concentration.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / secretion. Carcinoma, Small Cell / complications. Hypothyroidism / diagnosis. Lung Neoplasms / complications. Pituitary Gland / physiopathology

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  • (PMID = 10817242.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-5632
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of clinical biochemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Clin. Biochem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
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34. Svensson J, Finer N, Bouloux P, Bevan J, Jonsson B, Mattsson AF, Lundberg M, Harris PE, Koltowska-Häggström M, Monson JP, KIMS International Board: Growth hormone (GH) replacement therapy in GH deficient adults: predictors of one-year metabolic and clinical response. Growth Horm IGF Res; 2007 Feb;17(1):67-76
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Growth hormone (GH) replacement therapy in GH deficient adults: predictors of one-year metabolic and clinical response.
  • OBJECTIVE: This study investigated whether baseline status could predict the responsiveness to one-year growth hormone (GH) replacement therapy in adult GH deficient (GHD) patients.
  • DESIGN: A total of 380 European patients with adult onset GHD due to non-functioning pituitary adenoma that had been enrolled in Pfizer International Metabolic Database (KIMS), and that had completed one year of GH replacement therapy within KIMS, were studied.
  • Quality of life (QoL)-Assessment of GHD in Adults (QoL-AGHDA), waist circumference, waist:hip ratio, and serum lipid pattern improved.
  • Women received a higher dose of GH than men after one year, and demonstrated similar treatment response.
  • In multiple stepwise forward regression analyses, the one-year changes in QoL-AGHDA score, waist:hip ratio, and serum low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) level correlated inversely with the baseline values of the same variable.
  • In addition, the change after one year in QoL-AGHDA score correlated inversely with duration of hypopituitarism and baseline serum high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) level, and the change in waist:hip ratio correlated inversely, although more weakly, with baseline serum HDL-C level and UK citizenship and positively with baseline waist circumference and the initial GH dose.
  • Therefore, when the decision to start GH replacement is undertaken, as many outcome variables as possible should be evaluated in order to adequately evaluate the likelihood of clinical benefit.
  • Finally, women have a similar response to GH replacement as men when individualised GH dosing schedules are employed and should therefore be selected for GH therapy to a similar extent.
  • [MeSH-major] Dwarfism, Pituitary / diagnosis. Dwarfism, Pituitary / drug therapy. Growth Hormone / therapeutic use. Hormone Replacement Therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Cohort Studies. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Models, Statistical. Prognosis. Quality of Life. Sex Characteristics. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17223598.001).
  • [ISSN] 1096-6374
  • [Journal-full-title] Growth hormone & IGF research : official journal of the Growth Hormone Research Society and the International IGF Research Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Growth Horm. IGF Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-72-6 / Growth Hormone
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35. Alameda C, Lucas T, Pineda E, Brito M, Uría JG, Magallón R, Estrada J, Barceló B: Experience in management of 51 non-functioning pituitary adenomas: indications for post-operative radiotherapy. J Endocrinol Invest; 2005 Jan;28(1):18-22
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Pituitary Tumors.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Experience in management of 51 non-functioning pituitary adenomas: indications for post-operative radiotherapy.
  • OBJECT: The indications for additional radiotherapy (RT) after surgery for non-functioning pituitary adenoma are controversial.
  • METHODS: Review of cases treated for non-functioning pituitary adenoma.
  • Twenty-nine patients showed residual tumor after surgery and 22 did not.
  • Serial endocrine, visual and radiological evaluations were made after treatment to assess the efficacy and toxicity of surgery and RT.
  • Twenty-seven patients with residual tumor after surgery received RT (22 of them during the post-operative period and 5 after an interval of several yr: 3 because of increased tumor size and 2 with stable residual lesion); tumors in 14 of these patients decreased in size, 11 appeared to be stable on imaging and one patient showed some increase in tumor size (one patient was not followed-up).
  • The residual tumors of the 2 non-irradiated patients remained stable after 5 and 7 yr, respectively.
  • Twenty-two patients without residual disease after surgery (11 with post-operative irradiation, 1 with RT 5 yr after transsphenoidal surgery because of tumor recurrence, and 10 without RT) have shown no evidence of tumor regrowth on serial images.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Radiotherapy can be avoided in patients with complete macroscopic resection and absence of residual tumor in post-operative images; they must be carefully followed using imaging techniques and, in the case of recurrence, they should be re-operated and/or irradiated.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / drug therapy. Pituitary Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Hormones / blood. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neurosurgical Procedures. Postoperative Care. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome. Ultrasonography. Vision, Ocular / physiology

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  • (PMID = 15816366.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-4097
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hormones
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36. Lohmann T, Trantakis C, Biesold M, Prothmann S, Guenzel S, Schober R, Paschke R: Minor tumour shrinkage in nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas by long-term treatment with the dopamine agonist cabergoline. Pituitary; 2001 Aug;4(3):173-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Minor tumour shrinkage in nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas by long-term treatment with the dopamine agonist cabergoline.
  • OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to define safety and efficacy of medical therapy in the treatment of nonfunctioning pituitary tumours.
  • DESIGN: We studied thirteen patients with a clinically nonfunctioning pituitary macroadenoma for response to cabergoline treatment for 1 year.
  • METHODS: We determined the outcome of treatment by visual perimetry, computed tumour size measurement in MRI and hormonal response (changes in pituitary function, reduction of alpha-subunit).
  • RESULTS: Seven/13 patients on cabergoline had a tumour shrinkage above 10% of the initial tumour volume.
  • In 4 patients, this tumour shrinkage was correlated to an increasing distance of the tumour to the optic chiasm.
  • Only 2/9 patients with visual field defects before therapy showed improvements in visual acuity under cabergoline.
  • Neither LH and/or FSH expression in the tumour cells nor the reduction of the alpha-subunit serum levels by medical therapy was correlated to tumour shrinkage.
  • CONCLUSION: Given that these patients had advanced disease which makes it difficult to find significant therapeutic effects, medical therapy with potent dopamine agonists such as cabergoline may evolve as a novel therapeutic option in a subgroup of patients with clinically nonfunctioning tumours declining operation and radiotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / drug therapy. Adenoma / pathology. Dopamine Agonists / therapeutic use. Ergolines / therapeutic use. Pituitary Neoplasms / drug therapy. Pituitary Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Prolactin / blood. Treatment Outcome. Visual Acuity

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  • (PMID = 12138990.001).
  • [ISSN] 1386-341X
  • [Journal-full-title] Pituitary
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pituitary
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Dopamine Agonists; 0 / Ergolines; 9002-62-4 / Prolactin; LL60K9J05T / cabergoline
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37. Nobels FR, de Herder WW, van den Brink WM, Kwekkeboom DJ, Hofland LJ, Zuyderwijk J, de Jong FH, Lamberts SW: Long-term treatment with the dopamine agonist quinagolide of patients with clinically non-functioning pituitary adenoma. Eur J Endocrinol; 2000 Nov;143(5):615-21
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Long-term treatment with the dopamine agonist quinagolide of patients with clinically non-functioning pituitary adenoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: This study was performed to evaluate the effect of prolonged treatment with the dopamine agonist quinagolide on serum gonadotropin and alpha-subunit concentrations and tumor volume in patients with clinically non-functioning pituitary adenomas (CNPA).
  • The median duration of treatment was 57 months (range 36-93 months).
  • Blood samples for measurement of serum gonadotropin and alpha-subunit concentrations were drawn before treatment, after 5 days, and at each outpatient visit.
  • Computerized tomography or magnetic resonance imaging of the pituitary region and Goldmann perimetry were done before and at regular intervals during treatment.
  • The levels remained low during the entire treatment period.
  • In two out of three patients with pre-existing visual field defects a slight improvement was shown during the first months of treatment, but eventually deterioration occurred in all three patients.
  • A fourth patient developed unilateral ophthalmoplegia during treatment.
  • During the first year tumor volume decreased in three patients, but in two of them regrowth occurred after a few months.
  • In six patients progressive tumor growth occurred despite sustained suppression of gonadotropin or alpha-subunit levels.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Long-term treatment of patients with CNPA with high doses of the dopamine agonist quinagolide could not prevent progressive increase in tumor size in most patients.
  • Additional studies are needed to investigate whether subgroups of patients, e.g. those with positive dopamine receptor scintigraphy or those with marked hypersecretion of intact gonadotropins or subunits, will respond more favorably to treatment with dopamine agonists.

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  • (PMID = 11078985.001).
  • [ISSN] 0804-4643
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aminoquinolines; 0 / Dopamine Agonists; 0 / Gonadotropins; 80Q9QWN15M / quinagolide; 9002-67-9 / Luteinizing Hormone; 9002-68-0 / Follicle Stimulating Hormone
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38. Widhalm G, Wolfsberger S, Preusser M, Woehrer A, Kotter MR, Czech T, Marosi C, Knosp E: O(6)-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase immunoexpression in nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas: are progressive tumors potential candidates for temozolomide treatment? Cancer; 2009 Mar 1;115(5):1070-80
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  • [Title] O(6)-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase immunoexpression in nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas: are progressive tumors potential candidates for temozolomide treatment?
  • BACKGROUND: Currently, no effective alternative treatment exists for progressive, regrowing, nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (NFPA) that are resistant to conventional multimodality therapy.
  • Temozolomide (TMZ) was proposed as a treatment option for pituitary carcinomas and aggressive pituitary adenomas.
  • Recently, it was suggested that the responsiveness of pituitary tumors to TMZ depends on the immunoexpression of O(6)-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase (MGMT).
  • Therefore, the authors of this report assessed MGMT expression in a series of patients with progressive, regrowing NFPAs to evaluate whether TMZ may serve as alternative treatment option.
  • METHODS: On the basis of postoperative magnetic resonance imaging, 45 patients with NFPAs were allocated to either a group with progressive, regrowing tumors (n = 24) or a tumor-free group (n = 21), which served as a control.
  • MGMT expression was assessed semiquantitatively by immunohistochemistry (low expression was defined as <or=50% immunostained adenoma cells, and high expression was defined as >50% immunostained adenoma cells) and was compared between the 2 groups.
  • RESULTS: At the time of initial surgery, low MGMT expression was observed in 12 of 24 patients (50%) in the study group with progressive, regrowing NFPAs.
  • In the control group of tumor-free patients, only 5 of 21 patients (24%) exhibited low MGMT expression.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The current data has suggested that half of the patients with progressive, regrowing NFPAs exhibit low MGMT expression and are potential candidates for treatment with TMZ.
  • These findings provide a rationale for the use of TMZ as an alternative treatment approach in this subgroup if conventional therapy, including reoperation, radiosurgery, and radiotherapy, fails.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / drug therapy. Adenoma / enzymology. Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / therapeutic use. Dacarbazine / analogs & derivatives. O(6)-Methylguanine-DNA Methyltransferase / metabolism. Pituitary Neoplasms / drug therapy. Pituitary Neoplasms / enzymology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Reoperation. Time Factors

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2009 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 19156926.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Controlled Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 85622-93-1 / temozolomide; EC 2.1.1.63 / O(6)-Methylguanine-DNA Methyltransferase
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39. Svartberg J, Carlsen SM, Cappelen J, Aanderud S, Johansen ML, Schreiner T, Kollevold T, Bakke S, Bollerslev J: [Hyperprolactinemia and prolactinemia--investigation and treatment]. Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen; 2002 Feb 20;122(5):494-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Hyperprolactinemia and prolactinemia--investigation and treatment].
  • [Transliterated title] Hyperprolaktinemi og prolaktinom--utredning og behandling.
  • BACKGROUND: Prolactinoma represents the most commonly occurring hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma.
  • The symptoms are mainly caused by elevated prolactin levels and result in changes to the reproductive and sexual function.
  • RESULTS AND INTERPRETATION: The primary treatment is medical, intended to normalize prolactin levels, restore gonadal function, and reduce tumour size.
  • With the new selective dopamine agonists, the treatment is often simple and efficient, but not all patients are in need of treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperprolactinemia. Pituitary Neoplasms. Prolactinoma
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / drug therapy. Adenoma / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Dopamine Agonists / administration & dosage. Humans

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  • (PMID = 11961978.001).
  • [ISSN] 0029-2001
  • [Journal-full-title] Tidsskrift for den Norske lægeforening : tidsskrift for praktisk medicin, ny række
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tidsskr. Nor. Laegeforen.
  • [Language] nor
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Norway
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Dopamine Agonists
  • [Number-of-references] 45
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40. Colao A, Dorato M, Pulcrano M, Rossi FW, Auriemma RS, Lombardi G, Lastoria S: [Somatostatin analogs in the clinical management of pituitary neoplasms]. Minerva Endocrinol; 2001 Sep;26(3):181-91
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Somatostatin analogs in the clinical management of pituitary neoplasms].
  • The medical approach to patients with secreting or clinically non-functioning pituitary adenoma as made considerable progress thanks to the use of new somatostatin analogs.
  • Good results were obtained using slow-release analog treatment also in TSH-secreting adenomas, whereas the therapeutic efficacy of these peptides in clinically non-functioning adenomas is still controversial.
  • Treatment with somatostatin analogs improves symptoms, normalises hormone secretion and in some cases may induce a reduction in the volume of pituitary adenomas.
  • Scintigraphy with octreotide may help to select patients who respond to this form of treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Octreotide / analogs & derivatives. Octreotide / therapeutic use. Pentetic Acid / analogs & derivatives. Peptides, Cyclic / therapeutic use. Pituitary Neoplasms / drug therapy. Somatostatin / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Acromegaly / drug therapy. Adolescent. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Adult. Aged. Carcinoma / radionuclide imaging. Humans. Indium Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Insulin-Like Growth Factor I / secretion. Kidney Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Melanoma / radionuclide imaging. Middle Aged. Pheochromocytoma / radionuclide imaging. Predictive Value of Tests. Prolactinoma / drug therapy. Radiopharmaceuticals / therapeutic use. Sensitivity and Specificity. Thymoma / radionuclide imaging. Thymus Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Thyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Thyrotropin / secretion. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11753242.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-1977
  • [Journal-full-title] Minerva endocrinologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minerva Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Indium Radioisotopes; 0 / Peptides, Cyclic; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 118992-92-0 / lanreotide; 142694-57-3 / SDZ 215-811; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin; 67763-96-6 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor I; 7A314HQM0I / Pentetic Acid; 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
  • [Number-of-references] 95
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41. Castro MG, Southgate T, Lowenstein PR: Molecular therapy in a model neuroendocrine disease: developing clinical gene therapy for pituitary tumours. Trends Endocrinol Metab; 2001 Mar;12(2):58-64
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  • [Title] Molecular therapy in a model neuroendocrine disease: developing clinical gene therapy for pituitary tumours.
  • The main objectives of pituitary tumour treatment are to restore normal function of the pituitary gland and prevent tumour recurrences.
  • In spite of the success of current therapies in the treatment of relatively small tumours, new therapeutic alternatives need to be explored for large invasive tumours, tumour recurrences postsurgery, and when intolerance to drug treatment develops.
  • Gene therapy, which uses nucleic acids as drugs, is a very attractive alternative to classic therapeutic modalities.
  • With the development of efficient gene delivery vectors, which allow widespread distribution and long-term transgene expression with limited side effects, the clinical implementation of gene therapy for the treatment of pituitary tumours will become a reality within the next five to ten years.
  • [MeSH-major] Genetic Therapy. Pituitary Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoviridae / genetics. Animals. Combined Modality Therapy. Gene Targeting. Genetic Vectors. Herpesvirus 1, Human / genetics. Humans. Retroviridae / genetics

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  • (PMID = 11167123.001).
  • [ISSN] 1043-2760
  • [Journal-full-title] Trends in endocrinology and metabolism: TEM
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Trends Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 56
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42. Higham CE, Chung TT, Lawrance J, Drake WM, Trainer PJ: Long-term experience of pegvisomant therapy as a treatment for acromegaly. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2009 Jul;71(1):86-91
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Long-term experience of pegvisomant therapy as a treatment for acromegaly.
  • AIMS: To evaluate the long-term efficacy and safety of pegvisomant as a treatment for acromegaly.
  • Five patients had combination therapy with either somatostatin analogues (SSA) or cabergoline.
  • Reasons included side-effects [abnormal liver function tests (LFTs)] and patient choice.
  • Two patients developed elevated liver transaminases, which normalized on stopping pegvisomant.
  • Patients had 6-12-monthly pituitary magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans.
  • One patient had significant tumour size increase.
  • Raised transaminases occurred within the first month of therapy in two patients, and tumour growth was seen in one patient (tumour was growing prior to pegvisomant).
  • [MeSH-major] Acromegaly / drug therapy. Human Growth Hormone / analogs & derivatives
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions. Ergolines / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Insulin-Like Growth Factor I / analysis. Insulin-Like Growth Factor I / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Somatostatin / therapeutic use. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19018786.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2265
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ergolines; 0 / pegvisomant; 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin; 67763-96-6 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor I; LL60K9J05T / cabergoline
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43. Greenman Y, Tordjman K, Osher E, Veshchev I, Shenkerman G, Reider-Groswasser II, Segev Y, Ouaknine G, Stern N: Postoperative treatment of clinically nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas with dopamine agonists decreases tumour remnant growth. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2005 Jul;63(1):39-44
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  • [Title] Postoperative treatment of clinically nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas with dopamine agonists decreases tumour remnant growth.
  • OBJECTIVE: There is no consensus as to the optimal postoperative treatment of patients with clinically nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (NFPA) in whom total tumour removal has not been achieved.
  • In this study we assessed whether dopamine agonist (DA) treatment can prevent postoperative remnant enlargement in NFPA.
  • RESULTS: Tumour mass decreased or remained stable in 18/20 patients in whom DA treatment was initiated upon detection of residual tumour on postoperative MRI (group I).
  • In 13 subjects (group II), DA therapy was started when tumour remnant growth became evident during the course of routine follow-up.
  • Tumour growth stabilized or decreased in 8/13 (61.5%) of these patients.
  • In contrast, tumour size remained stable in only 38.3% (18/47) of the untreated subjects (P < 0.0001 for comparisons among the three groups) and increased in the remaining 29 patients.
  • Tumour enlargement free mean survival time was 103.7 +/- 8.8 months (CI 86.3-121) for group I, 43.9 +/- 9.6 months (CI 25.2-62.8) for group II and 36.7 +/- 3.8 (CI 29.2-44.2) for the control group (P = 0.0017).
  • Treatment vs. control hazard ratio for tumour enlargement was 0.135 for group I (P = 0.007, 95% CI 0.032-0.577) and 0.892 for group II (P = 0.817; 95% CI 0.34-2.34).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Dopamine agonist therapy is associated with a decreased prevalence of residual tumour enlargement in patients with nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas, particularly when treatment is instituted before tumour remnant growth is detected.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / drug therapy. Bromocriptine / therapeutic use. Dopamine Agonists / therapeutic use. Pituitary Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Cohort Studies. Female. Follicle Stimulating Hormone / blood. Humans. Luteinizing Hormone / blood. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm, Residual. Postoperative Period. Survival Analysis. Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone / blood. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15963059.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-0664
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Dopamine Agonists; 3A64E3G5ZO / Bromocriptine; 5Y5F15120W / Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone; 9002-67-9 / Luteinizing Hormone; 9002-68-0 / Follicle Stimulating Hormone
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44. Kanumakala S, Warne GL, Zacharin MR: Evolving hypopituitarism following cranial irradiation. J Paediatr Child Health; 2003 Apr;39(3):232-5
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  • Increasing survival after treatment for childhood cancer in recent years has left many patients with long-term sequelae.
  • Following cranial irradiation, changes in hypothalamic-pituitary function evolve over several years and multiple hormone deficiencies are frequently found.
  • In the present study we describe a boy whose initial presentation with a cerebral tumour included central precocious puberty.
  • He was followed for more than 15 years and sequentially developed deficiencies of growth hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone, gonadotrophins and adrenocorticotropic hormone after high-dose cranial irradiation.
  • Long-term endocrine follow up of such children is essential for the early diagnosis and optimal management of hormone deficiencies.
  • [MeSH-minor] Child, Preschool. Drug Therapy, Combination. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Puberty, Precocious / drug therapy. Puberty, Precocious / etiology. Puberty, Precocious / physiopathology. Radiotherapy Dosage. Risk Assessment. Severity of Illness Index. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 12654151.001).
  • [ISSN] 1034-4810
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of paediatrics and child health
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Paediatr Child Health
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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45. Zatelli MC, Minoia M, Filieri C, Tagliati F, Buratto M, Ambrosio MR, Lapparelli M, Scanarini M, Degli Uberti EC: Effect of everolimus on cell viability in nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2010 Feb;95(2):968-76
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  • [Title] Effect of everolimus on cell viability in nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas.
  • CONTEXT: Pituitary adenomas can cause specific syndromes due to hormone excess and/or determine sellar mass symptoms.
  • Pituitary cell growth can sometimes be influenced by medical therapy, such as for somatotroph adenomas treated with somatostatin analogs or prolactinomas treated with dopaminergic drugs.
  • However, nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (NFAs) are still orphans of medical therapy.
  • Everolimus (RAD001), a derivative of rapamycin, is a well-known immunosuppressant drug, which has been recently shown to have antineoplastic activity in several human cancers.
  • Cell viability and apoptosis were evaluated after 48 h, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion was assessed after an 8-h incubation.
  • RESULTS: In 28 cultures (70%), Everolimus significantly reduced cell viability (by approximately 40%; P < 0.05 vs. control), promoted apoptosis (+30%; P < 0.05 vs. control), inhibited p70S6K activity (-20%), and blocked IGF-I proliferative and antiapoptotic effects.
  • In selected tissues cotreatment with SOM230, but not cabergoline, exerted an additive effect.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Everolimus reduced NFA cell viability by inducing apoptosis, with a mechanism likely involving IGF-I signaling but not VEGF secretion, suggesting that it might represent a possible medical treatment of invasive/recurrent NFAs.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / drug therapy. Immunosuppressive Agents / pharmacology. Pituitary Neoplasms / drug therapy. Sirolimus / analogs & derivatives
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Apoptosis / drug effects. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Survival / drug effects. Ergolines / pharmacology. Everolimus. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Receptors, Somatostatin / physiology. Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases, 70-kDa / metabolism. Somatostatin / analogs & derivatives. Somatostatin / pharmacology. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / secretion

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  • (PMID = 19965918.001).
  • [ISSN] 1945-7197
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ergolines; 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 0 / Receptors, Somatostatin; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; 0 / somatostatin receptor 2; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin; 98H1T17066 / pasireotide; 9HW64Q8G6G / Everolimus; EC 2.7.11.1 / Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases, 70-kDa; LL60K9J05T / cabergoline; W36ZG6FT64 / Sirolimus
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46. Trainer PJ: ACROSTUDY: the first 5 years. Eur J Endocrinol; 2009 Nov;161 Suppl 1:S19-24
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  • ACROSTUDY is an observational registry intended to collect safety and efficacy data on pegvisomant therapy.
  • The mean follow-up is 1.66 years with the mean duration of pegvisomant therapy 3.31 years representing 2625 patient years of treatment.
  • The AEs most frequently attributed to pegvisomant were disturbed liver function tests and injection site reactions.
  • In 31 patients, a decrease in tumour size has been reported, of whom 20 had previously received radiotherapy.
  • An increase in tumour size has been reported and confirmed in 22 patients.
  • In 11 patients, there was contradictory data on tumour size, while, in six patients, central review of the films failed to confirm increase in tumour size.

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  • (PMID = 19684052.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-683X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Blood Glucose; 0 / Hemoglobin A, Glycosylated; 0 / Hormone Antagonists; 0 / Receptors, Somatotropin; 0 / pegvisomant; 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; 67763-96-6 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor I; EC 2.6.1.1 / Aspartate Aminotransferases; EC 2.6.1.2 / Alanine Transaminase
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47. Neto LV, Machado Ede O, Luque RM, Taboada GF, Marcondes JB, Chimelli LM, Quintella LP, Niemeyer P Jr, de Carvalho DP, Kineman RD, Gadelha MR: Expression analysis of dopamine receptor subtypes in normal human pituitaries, nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas and somatotropinomas, and the association between dopamine and somatostatin receptors with clinical response to octreotide-LAR in acromegaly. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2009 Jun;94(6):1931-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Expression analysis of dopamine receptor subtypes in normal human pituitaries, nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas and somatotropinomas, and the association between dopamine and somatostatin receptors with clinical response to octreotide-LAR in acromegaly.
  • CONTEXT: Dopamine receptor (DR) and somatostatin receptor subtype expression in pituitary adenomas may predict the response to postsurgical therapies.
  • OBJECTIVES: Our objectives were to assess and compare the mRNA levels of DR1-5 and somatostatin receptors 1-5 in normal pituitaries (NPs), nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (NFPAs), and somatotropinomas.
  • DESIGN AND PATIENTS: Eight NPs, 30 NFPAs, and 39 somatotropinomas were analyzed for receptor mRNA levels by real-time RT-PCR.
  • The fact that DR1, DR4, and DR5 are also expressed in many adenomas tested suggests that these receptors might also play a role in the therapeutic impact of postsurgical medical therapies in patients with NFPA and acromegaly.

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  • (PMID = 19293270.001).
  • [ISSN] 1945-7197
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / PHS HHS / / 30677
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Delayed-Action Preparations; 0 / Protein Isoforms; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Dopamine; 0 / Receptors, Somatostatin; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2730344
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48. Lamberts SW, Hofland LJ: Future treatment strategies of aggressive pituitary tumors. Pituitary; 2009;12(3):261-4
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  • [Title] Future treatment strategies of aggressive pituitary tumors.
  • While surgery remains the first-line treatment of most aggressive pituitary adenomas, medical therapy is important as second-line or adjunctive therapy in a large proportion of patients.
  • Dopamine agonists (DAs) are the best treatment for prolactinomas, but when DAs are not tolerated, new somatostatin receptor subtype 5 (SSTR(5)) inhibitors may offer an alternative in the future.
  • In acromegaly, the existing somatostatin analogs, octreotide and lanreotide, will remain the medical treatment of choice for the foreseeable future.
  • There is an urgent need for medical therapies in Cushing's disease, and the SSTR(5) analogs could offer an effective treatment in a proportion of patients within the next few years.
  • Finally, the medical management options for non-functioning pituitary adenomas are also very limited, and a new chimeric agent with activity towards dopamine receptors, SSTR(5) and SSTR(2) may help reduce adenoma recurrence in the future.
  • [MeSH-major] Dopamine Agonists / therapeutic use. Pituitary Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Acromegaly / drug therapy. Humans. Octreotide / therapeutic use. Peptides, Cyclic / therapeutic use. Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion / drug therapy. Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion / surgery. Prolactinoma / drug therapy. Prolactinoma / surgery. Receptors, Somatostatin / antagonists & inhibitors. Somatostatin / analogs & derivatives. Somatostatin / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 19003539.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7403
  • [Journal-full-title] Pituitary
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pituitary
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Dopamine Agonists; 0 / Peptides, Cyclic; 0 / Receptors, Somatostatin; 0 / somatostatin receptor 5; 118992-92-0 / lanreotide; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
  • [Number-of-references] 20
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2712619
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49. Kelestimur F, Jonsson P, Molvalilar S, Gomez JM, Auernhammer CJ, Colak R, Koltowska-Häggström M, Goth MI: Sheehan's syndrome: baseline characteristics and effect of 2 years of growth hormone replacement therapy in 91 patients in KIMS - Pfizer International Metabolic Database. Eur J Endocrinol; 2005 Apr;152(4):581-7

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  • [Title] Sheehan's syndrome: baseline characteristics and effect of 2 years of growth hormone replacement therapy in 91 patients in KIMS - Pfizer International Metabolic Database.
  • OBJECTIVE: Sheehan's syndrome occurs as a result of ischaemic pituitary necrosis due to severe postpartum haemorrhage.
  • However, little is known about the effects of growth hormone (GH) replacement therapy in patients with Sheehan's syndrome.
  • DESIGN: The demographic background characteristics of 91 GH-deficient patients with Sheehan's syndrome (mean age +/- s.d., 46.3 +/- 9.4 years) were compared with those of a group of 156 GH-deficient women (mean age +/- s.d., 51.5 +/- 13.1 years) with a non-functional pituitary adenoma (NFPA).
  • The baseline characteristics and the effects of 2 years of GH replacement therapy were also studied in the 91 patients with Sheehan's syndrome and an age-matched group of 100 women with NFPA (mean age +/- s.d.
  • Patients with Sheehan's syndrome were significantly younger at pituitary disorder onset, diagnosis of GHD and at entry into KIMS than patients with NFPA (P < 0.01), and had significantly lower insulin-like growth factor I levels (P < 0.001).
  • At baseline, quality of life (QoL) was significantly (P < 0.05) reduced in patients with Sheehan's syndrome compared with those with NFPA (P < 0.001).
  • With regard to treatment effects, lean body mass increased significantly (P < 0.05), QoL improved significantly (P < 0.05) and total and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol decreased significantly (P < 0.05) in patients with Sheehan's syndrome after 1 year of GH replacement therapy.
  • Similar significant changes in QoL and lipid profiles occurred in patients with NFPA after 2 years of GH replacement.
  • Blood pressure remained unchanged in patients with Sheehan's syndrome, but decreased significantly (P < 0.01) in the group with NFPA after 1 year, before returning to pretreatment levels at 2 years.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, patients with Sheehan's syndrome have more severe GHD compared with individuals with NFPA.
  • GH replacement therapy in patients with Sheehan's syndrome may have beneficial effects on QoL, body composition and lipid profile.

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  • (PMID = 15817914.001).
  • [ISSN] 0804-4643
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Lipids; 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone
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50. Shomali ME, Katznelson L: Medical therapy of gonadotropin-producing and nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas. Pituitary; 2002;5(2):89-98
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Medical therapy of gonadotropin-producing and nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas.
  • Clinically nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas are one of the most common types of pituitary tumors.
  • Unless they present with symptoms related to local mass effect, most tumors are detected incidentally when imaging studies are performed for other reasons.
  • Although clinically nonfunctioning, most of these tumors have evidence, in vitro, of gonadotropin hormone or glycoprotein subunit production.
  • The gonadotropins or their monomer submits rarely cause clinically identifiable effects.
  • When these tumors present as macroadenomas, often with associated mass effect and hypopituitarism, primary therapy is neurosurgery.
  • The role for medical therapy will be reviewed here.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / drug therapy. Adenoma / secretion. Gonadotropins / secretion. Pituitary Neoplasms / drug therapy. Pituitary Neoplasms / secretion
  • [MeSH-minor] Dopamine Agonists / therapeutic use. Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone / analogs & derivatives. Humans. Somatostatin / analogs & derivatives

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  • (PMID = 12675506.001).
  • [ISSN] 1386-341X
  • [Journal-full-title] Pituitary
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pituitary
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / M01 RR01066; United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / R29 AG15882
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Dopamine Agonists; 0 / Gonadotropins; 33515-09-2 / Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin
  • [Number-of-references] 100
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51. Gur C, Lalazar G, Salmon A, Dubiner V, Gross DJ: Metastatic pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor presenting as a pituitary space occupying lesion: a case report. Pituitary; 2008;11(3):293-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Metastatic pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor presenting as a pituitary space occupying lesion: a case report.
  • Neuroendocrine tumor metastases to the pituitary gland are very rare.
  • There are few case reports of carcinoid tumor metastases to the pituitary, but no cases of pancreatic neuroendocrine pituitary metastases have been reported.
  • In this report we present a 55-year-old female with a sellar mass, ophthalmoplegia and headaches initially thought to represent an invasive null cell pituitary adenoma.
  • However a histological (trans-sphenoidal and liver biopsies) and systemic investigation proved it to be a metastasis of an undiagnosed pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor.
  • Our patient was unique in respect to the location of the metastasis and the uncharacteristically high proliferative index of her tumor.
  • She received conventional therapy consisting of Sandostatin, chemotherapy and radiotherapy as well as labeled somatostatin following an avid uptake on octreotide scanning.
  • [MeSH-major] Neuroendocrine Tumors / secondary. Pancreatic Neoplasms / pathology. Pituitary Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon

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  • (PMID = 17638085.001).
  • [ISSN] 1386-341X
  • [Journal-full-title] Pituitary
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pituitary
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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52. Colson A, Brooke AM, Walker D, Besser GM, Chew SL, Grossman AB, Jenkins PJ, Drake WM, Monson JP: Growth hormone deficiency and replacement in patients with treated Cushing's Disease, prolactinomas and non-functioning pituitary adenomas: effects on body composition, glucose metabolism, lipid status and bone mineral density. Horm Res; 2006;66(6):257-67
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Growth hormone deficiency and replacement in patients with treated Cushing's Disease, prolactinomas and non-functioning pituitary adenomas: effects on body composition, glucose metabolism, lipid status and bone mineral density.
  • We report the effects of 5 years GH treatment in 124 GH deficiency adults; 42 patients with non-functioning pituitary adenomas (NFPA), 43 with treated PRL and 39 with treated CD.
  • RESULTS: Mean body mass index remained unchanged in the PRL group and tended to increase in the NFPA group.
  • Decreases in waist and waist/hip ratio were seen in all groups at 6 months.
  • Baseline lumbar spine and hip BMD were lower in the PRL and CD groups than in the NFPA group, decreased over 1 year in all groups and subsequently increased by 2 years in NFPA with a subsequent increase in lumbar spine BMD in PRL and CD groups delayed to 3-5 years.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Baseline characteristics and response to GH replacement are qualitatively similar in NFPA, PRL and CD patients.
  • Because improvements in BMD occur later in PRL and CD patients, an extended trial of GH therapy may be indicated in those patients who were commenced on GH therapy as an additional treatment for reduced BMD.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / physiopathology. Adenoma / therapy. Blood Glucose / metabolism. Body Composition / drug effects. Bone Density / drug effects. Human Growth Hormone / deficiency. Human Growth Hormone / therapeutic use. Lipid Metabolism / drug effects. Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion / physiopathology. Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion / therapy. Pituitary Neoplasms / physiopathology. Pituitary Neoplasms / therapy. Prolactinoma / physiopathology. Prolactinoma / therapy

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  • (PMID = 16914933.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-0163
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormone research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Horm. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Blood Glucose; 0 / Hemoglobin A, Glycosylated; 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone
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53. Andersen M, Bjerre P, Schrøder HD, Edal A, Høilund-Carlsen PF, Pedersen PH, Hagen C: In vivo secretory potential and the effect of combination therapy with octreotide and cabergoline in patients with clinically non-functioning pituitary adenomas. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2001 Jan;54(1):23-30
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] In vivo secretory potential and the effect of combination therapy with octreotide and cabergoline in patients with clinically non-functioning pituitary adenomas.
  • The secretory capacity, in vivo, of clinically non-functioning pituitary adenomas may possibly predict tumour volume reduction during intensive medical therapy.
  • Ten patients (mean (range) 53 years (26-73)) with clinically non-functioning macroadenomas, > or = 10 mm were studied.
  • The secretory capacity of the adenomas was examined using basal, NaCl and TRH-stimulated LH, FSH and alpha-subunit levels.
  • The effect on tumour volume of 6 months' therapy with the combination of a somatostatin analogue, octreotide 200 microg x 3/day and a dopamine-D2-agonist, cabergoline 0.5 mg x 1/day was studied.
  • The basal LH, FSH and alpha-subunit levels were determined before and during 6 months' therapy with octreotide and cabergoline, and MR scans were used to evaluate tumour volume before and during this period of therapy.
  • A reduction in tumour volume (mean +/- SEM (range); 30% +/- 4% (18-46%)) during 6 months of combination therapy with octreotide and cabergoline was recorded only in patients with in vivo secretory potential.
  • Tumour volume was not reduced in four patients: in three of these patients it remained unchanged while in one patient it was observed to have increased (by 14%).
  • Of the six patients with pretherapy secretory capacity, one displayed a very high basal level of alpha-subunit (74 microg/l) despite unmeasurable levels of LH and TSH, and an FSH-level of 1 IU/l.
  • During six months of therapy with octreotide and cabergoline, the basal levels of LH, FSH and alpha-subunit were reduced by > or = 50% in seven patients - including the six patients with in vivo secretion prior to therapy.
  • No new visual field defects were detected during therapy and no deterioration of existing visual field defects was recorded.
  • The medical therapy was well tolerated.
  • The in vivo basal and TRH-stimulated secretory capacity of LH, FSH and alpha-subunit predicted tumour reduction following intensive medical therapy in all of our patients with non-functioning pituitary adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / drug therapy. Adenoma / secretion. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Pituitary Neoplasms / drug therapy. Pituitary Neoplasms / secretion
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Dopamine Agonists / therapeutic use. Drug Therapy, Combination. Ergolines / therapeutic use. Female. Follicle Stimulating Hormone / blood. Humans. Luteinizing Hormone / blood. Male. Middle Aged. Octreotide / therapeutic use. Prognosis. Thyrotropin / blood

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  • (PMID = 11167922.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-0664
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Dopamine Agonists; 0 / Ergolines; 9002-67-9 / Luteinizing Hormone; 9002-68-0 / Follicle Stimulating Hormone; 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin; LL60K9J05T / cabergoline; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
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54. Korbonits M, Carlsen E: Recent clinical and pathophysiological advances in non-functioning pituitary adenomas. Horm Res; 2009 Apr;71 Suppl 2:123-30
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Recent clinical and pathophysiological advances in non-functioning pituitary adenomas.
  • Pituitary adenomas are being recognized and diagnosed with increasing frequency.
  • One of the most common forms of pituitary lesion is the clinically non-functioning pituitary adenoma (NFPA), which is often diagnosed incidentally.
  • The vast majority of pituitary adenomas are sporadic, but familial adenomas can occur in the multiple pituitary adenoma type 1 syndrome, in Carney complex or in familial isolated pituitary adenoma.
  • Distinguishing NFPA from prolactinomas can occasionally cause a differential diagnostic problem due to the 'stalk effect'.
  • NFPA often show hormone synthesis on tissue immunostaining without causing clinical symptoms.
  • Most often these are silent gonadotroph adenomas, with silent corticotroph or somatotroph adenomas occurring less frequently.
  • It is unclear why these silent adenomas do not release hormones at a clinically recognizable level, although it is probable that there is a continuum between fully functional and completely silent adenomas.
  • Temozolomide has been successfully used for the treatment of a few aggressive pituitary adenomas, and the response to this drug could be influenced by the expression of the DNA repair enzyme O-6-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase.
  • The early diagnosis, prediction of long-term outcome and treatment of NFPAs remain a challenge for endocrinologists.
  • [MeSH-major] Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma. Prolactinoma
  • [MeSH-minor] ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / diagnosis. ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / metabolism. ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / pathology. ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / therapy. Female. Humans. Male

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 19407508.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0046
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormone research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Horm. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Number-of-references] 58
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55. Kreitschmann-Andermahr I, Poll EM, Reineke A, Gilsbach JM, Brabant G, Buchfelder M, Fassbender W, Faust M, Kann PH, Wallaschofski H: Growth hormone deficient patients after traumatic brain injury--baseline characteristics and benefits after growth hormone replacement--an analysis of the German KIMS database. Growth Horm IGF Res; 2008 Dec;18(6):472-8

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • All 84 TBI patients were matched with 84 patients with GHD due to non-functioning pituitary adenoma (NFPA) also included in this database.
  • Analysis of clinical and outcome variables was performed, with comparisons of childhood vs. adult TBI, and TBI vs. NFPA patients, at baseline and one-year follow-up.
  • RESULTS: TBI patients with GHD were significantly younger at the onset of pituitary disease and exhibited a significantly longer time span between GHD diagnosis and KIMS entry than NFPA patients.
  • At 1-year follow-up, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) standard deviation score levels had returned to the normal range and quality of life (QoL), as measured by QoL- Assessment of Growth Hormone Deficiency in Adults (AGHDA) questionnaire, improved significantly in TBI as in NFPA patients.
  • CONCLUSION: This analysis provides preliminary data that TBI patients with GHD benefit from hGH replacement in terms of improved QoL in a similar fashion as do NFPA patients.
  • Moreover, it suggests that belated diagnosis and treatment in childhood-onset GHD due to TBI might be related to a shorter final height in these children.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Injuries / physiopathology. Databases, Factual. Human Growth Hormone / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Germany. Hormone Replacement Therapy. Humans. Hypopituitarism / complications. Hypopituitarism / drug therapy. Hypopituitarism / physiopathology. Male. Middle Aged. Pituitary Neoplasms / complications. Pituitary Neoplasms / drug therapy. Pituitary Neoplasms / physiopathology

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  • (PMID = 18829359.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-2238
  • [Journal-full-title] Growth hormone & IGF research : official journal of the Growth Hormone Research Society and the International IGF Research Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Growth Horm. IGF Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone
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56. Greenman Y: Dopaminergic treatment of nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas. Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab; 2007 Aug;3(8):554-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Dopaminergic treatment of nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / drug therapy. Dopamine Agents / therapeutic use. Pituitary Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Bromocriptine / therapeutic use. Dopamine Agonists / therapeutic use. Ergolines / therapeutic use. Humans. Prolactin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17579584.001).
  • [ISSN] 1745-8374
  • [Journal-full-title] Nature clinical practice. Endocrinology & metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Dopamine Agents; 0 / Dopamine Agonists; 0 / Ergolines; 3A64E3G5ZO / Bromocriptine; 9002-62-4 / Prolactin; LL60K9J05T / cabergoline
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