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Items 1 to 36 of about 36
1. Hori J, Kato Y, Iwata T, Taniguchi N, Hashimoto H, Yachiku S: [A case of penile malignant melanoma]. Hinyokika Kiyo; 2003 Aug;49(8):493-6
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  • [Title] [A case of penile malignant melanoma].
  • Clinical diagnosis was penile malignant melanoma.
  • Cystoscopy and urethrography revealed urethral invasion of malignant melanoma, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the penis revealed invasion to prostate, and pelvic lymph node metastases in abdominal compuled tomography (CT) but no organ metastases.
  • The pathological findings were nodular malignant melanoma, pT4bN2bM1a, and the surgical margin was positive.
  • After these therapies, chemotherapy was performed.
  • Five months later, CT revealed multiple lung and brain metastases, and radiation therapy and chemotherapy were performed.
  • Review of the literature revealed that our patient is the thirtieth reported case of penile malignant melanoma in Japan since 1924.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / secondary. Penile Neoplasms / pathology. Urethral Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 14518390.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-1994
  • [Journal-full-title] Hinyokika kiyo. Acta urologica Japonica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hinyokika Kiyo
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Number-of-references] 11
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2. Jasaitiene D, Valiukeviciene S, Makstiene J, Juodzbaliene EB: Metastatic amelanotic nodular melanoma during pregnancy. Medicina (Kaunas); 2008;44(6):467-71
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  • [Title] Metastatic amelanotic nodular melanoma during pregnancy.
  • This case report presents a very aggressive course of amelanotic nodular melanoma during pregnancy resulting in death five months after delivery.
  • A 34 year-old Caucasian woman at 19th week of the second pregnancy was diagnosed having amelanotic nodular melanoma (tumor thickness - 2.5 mm) with metastases to the regional right inguinal lymph node.
  • Amelanotic nodular melanoma represents malignant melanocytic tumor of the skin, which clinically mimics a variety of benign and malignant skin conditions and therefore commonly leads to delayed diagnosis.
  • Though primary tumor was excised immediately, other treatment procedures as radical lymphadenectomy and chemotherapy were delayed, and immunotherapy was not given totally.
  • At the 29th week of pregnancy, the woman via naturalem delivered a healthy female child, and the chemotherapy was started.
  • Since pregnancy limits the prescription of immunotherapy and chemotherapy, the prognosis for melanoma during pregnancy detected later than in the second stage is poor and can be illustrated by our reported case.
  • Such patients seems to be at higher risk to develop metastasis of melanoma in the internal organs and occasionally even in the fetus; therefore, they should be timely informed about that.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma, Amelanotic / secondary. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic. Skin Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Infant, Newborn. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis. Pregnancy. Pregnancy Trimester, Second. Pregnancy Trimester, Third. Prognosis. Puerperal Disorders / mortality. Skin / pathology. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 18660642.001).
  • [ISSN] 1648-9144
  • [Journal-full-title] Medicina (Kaunas, Lithuania)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Medicina (Kaunas)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Lithuania
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3. Carral A, de la Rubia J, Martín G, Martínez J, Sanz G, Jarque I, Sempere A, Soler MA, Marty ML, Sanz MA: Factors influencing hematopoietic recovery after autologous blood stem cell transplantation in patients with acute myeloblastic leukemia and with non-myeloid malignancies. Bone Marrow Transplant; 2002 May;29(10):825-32
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  • Factors influencing hematopoietic recovery (HR) after autologous blood stem cell transplantation (ABSCT) were analyzed in 73 patients with various non-myeloid malignancies (NMM), and in 58 patients with acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML).
  • Peripheral blood stem cells were collected following mobilization with chemotherapy, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), or chemotherapy plus G-CSF.
  • The conditioning regimen used consisted of either chemotherapy alone (112 cases) or chemotherapy plus total body irradiation (19 cases).
  • Median time neutrophils >0.5 x 10(9)/l was 13 days in both groups, and median time to a platelet count >20 x 10(9)/l was longer in AML patients (14 vs 12 days; P = 0.01).
  • In multivariate analysis, the only factors affecting neutrophil recovery in the NMM group were the CD34+ cell number (continuous model) and the CFU-GM dose (categorized model) infused, whereas for platelet recovery, previous chemotherapy also remained significant.
  • In the NMM group, the most discriminating cut-off values for a rapid neutrophil and platelet recovery were 1.5 x 10(6) and 2.5 x 10(6) CD34+ cells/kg, respectively, and for AML patients these figures were 1.5 x 10(6) and 4 x 10(6) CD34+ cells/kg, respectively.
  • [MeSH-major] Hematopoiesis. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / therapy. Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / therapy. Colony-Forming Units Assay. Female. Hodgkin Disease / pathology. Hodgkin Disease / therapy. Humans. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / pathology. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / therapy. Male. Middle Aged. Multiple Myeloma / pathology. Multiple Myeloma / therapy. Transplantation, Autologous

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  • (PMID = 12058232.001).
  • [ISSN] 0268-3369
  • [Journal-full-title] Bone marrow transplantation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bone Marrow Transplant.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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4. Khan O, Middleton M: High-risk melanoma with nodal involvement in a young woman. Nat Clin Pract Oncol; 2006 Sep;3(9):517-21; quiz 522
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  • [Title] High-risk melanoma with nodal involvement in a young woman.
  • BACKGROUND: An 18-year-old female presented to her General Practitioner with a bleeding mole on her back.
  • DIAGNOSIS: Stage IIIB (T3bN2aM0) focally ulcerated, nodular malignant melanoma (Breslow depth 2.5 mm, Clark's level IV).
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Interferon-alpha / therapeutic use. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Melanoma / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Recombinant Proteins. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 16955090.001).
  • [ISSN] 1743-4254
  • [Journal-full-title] Nature clinical practice. Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nat Clin Pract Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Interferon-alpha; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 99210-65-8 / interferon alfa-2b
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5. Demirci H, McCormick SA, Finger PT: Topical mitomycin chemotherapy for conjunctival malignant melanoma and primary acquired melanosis with atypia: clinical experience with histopathologic observations. Arch Ophthalmol; 2000 Jul;118(7):885-91
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  • [Title] Topical mitomycin chemotherapy for conjunctival malignant melanoma and primary acquired melanosis with atypia: clinical experience with histopathologic observations.
  • OBJECTIVES: To clinically evaluate topical mitomycin chemotherapy in patients with diffuse, multifocal, or recurrent primary acquired melanosis with atypia and/or conjunctival malignant melanoma and to histopathologically study ocular tissue samples obtained before and after treatment.
  • METHODS: Chemotherapy with topical mitomycin, 0.04% 4 times daily, was administered for 28 days as the primary and only treatment in 7 patients (after biopsy) and for 7 days as adjuvant therapy to excision and cryotherapy in 5 patients.
  • Five patients developed subconjunctival recurrences, for which 2 underwent orbital exenteration and 3 were treated conservatively.
  • Histopathologic specimens of conjunctival, adnexal, and ocular tissues obtained before and after chemotherapy were evaluated.
  • RESULTS: Regression of tumor was observed in 11 patients with primary or adjuvant topical mitomycin chemotherapy.
  • One patient with nodular melanoma was resistant to mitomycin chemotherapy.
  • Two patients with primary treatment and 2 with adjuvant treatment developed subconjunctival recurrence.
  • In patients with recurrent malignant melanoma, the deeper layers of the lamina propria were involved, with sparing of the epithelium and superficial lamina propria.
  • Transient keratoconjunctivitis was observed in all patients during treatment.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Topical mitomycin chemotherapy was found to induce regression of conjunctival melanoma and primary acquired melanosis with atypia.
  • When mitomycin chemotherapy was used as an adjuvant to excision and cryotherapy, 2 (40%) of 5 patients experienced tumor recurrence at a mean of 4.3 years' follow-up.
  • Our histopathologic findings demonstrated a long-term mitomycin chemotherapy-related effect on the conjunctiva.
  • The pattern of effect and location of recurrent disease suggest that this regimen of topical mitomycin chemotherapy was most effective for superficial tumors.
  • Although subconjunctival or orbital recurrences were noted, topical mitomycin chemotherapy warrants further investigation as an alternative treatment for primary acquired melanosis with atypia and conjunctival malignant melanoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Conjunctival Neoplasms / drug therapy. Melanoma / drug therapy. Melanosis / drug therapy. Mitomycin / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Topical. Adult. Aged. Atrophy / chemically induced. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Conjunctiva / drug effects. Conjunctiva / pathology. Cryotherapy. Drug Evaluation. Female. Humans. Keratoconjunctivitis / chemically induced. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Ophthalmic Solutions / administration & dosage. Ophthalmic Solutions / therapeutic use. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 10900099.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-9950
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of ophthalmology (Chicago, Ill. : 1960)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Ophthalmol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 0 / Ophthalmic Solutions; 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin
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6. Murakami M, Wada T, Kashiwagi T, Ishida-Yamamoto A, Iizuka H: Nodular malignant melanoma with Spitz nevus-like pathological features finally confirmed by the pathological feature of the sentinel lymph node. J Dermatol; 2007 Dec;34(12):821-8
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  • [Title] Nodular malignant melanoma with Spitz nevus-like pathological features finally confirmed by the pathological feature of the sentinel lymph node.
  • The clinical and histopathological similarities of nodular melanoma and Spitz nevus currently still make a definitive diagnosis difficult.
  • We report here a case of nodular melanoma that was extremely difficult to diagnose both clinically and histopathologically.
  • The primary tumor was a blackish nodule on the scalp and biopsy was performed for pathological diagnosis.
  • Although our first impression was malignant melanoma, we asked two dermatopathologists for second opinions; however, one diagnosed a melanoma and the other a Spitz nevus.
  • Histopathological diagnosis to establish whether it was a melanoma metastasis or nodal nevi was also difficult, and we again asked for second opinions from another dermatopathologist in the USA.
  • According to its clinical course and the histopathology of the sentinel lymph node with additional immunohistochemistry, this case was finally diagnosed as a nodular melanoma (T4aN1aM0, stage IIIA).
  • To date, the patient has been given five courses of chemotherapy at 6-month intervals, with no local recurrence or distant metastases so far.
  • [MeSH-major] Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Melanoma / pathology. Scalp. Skin Neoplasms / pathology


7. Kobayashi S, Nakajima T, Iizasa T, Tsujimura H, Itami M, Kimura H: Pulmonary metastasis with endobronchial spread from sinonasal melanoma during a 9-year follow-up. Intern Med; 2010;49(8):777-9
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  • [Title] Pulmonary metastasis with endobronchial spread from sinonasal melanoma during a 9-year follow-up.
  • A 60-year-old woman was diagnosed with pulmonary metastasis with endobronchial spread of sinonasal melanoma 9 years after the initial treatment.
  • She had originally been diagnosed with sinonasal malignant melanoma and received chemotherapy combined with carbon ion radiotherapy.
  • During routine follow-up, chest CT showed a nodular lesion on the left upper lung lobe.
  • Melanoma cells were histologically detected in both the mucosal and submucosal layers.
  • [MeSH-major] Bronchial Neoplasms / diagnosis. Bronchial Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Melanoma / diagnosis. Melanoma / secondary. Nose Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 20424370.001).
  • [ISSN] 1349-7235
  • [Journal-full-title] Internal medicine (Tokyo, Japan)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Intern. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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8. Guenova E, Lichte V, Hoetzenecker W, Woelbing F, Moehrle M, Roecken M, Schaller M: Nodular malignant melanoma and multiple cutaneous neoplasms under immunosuppression with azathioprine. Melanoma Res; 2009 Aug;19(4):271-3
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  • [Title] Nodular malignant melanoma and multiple cutaneous neoplasms under immunosuppression with azathioprine.
  • Immunosuppressed patients are at increased risk of skin cancer.
  • A 67-year-old renal transplant recipient developed a nodular malignant melanoma after 30 years of immunosuppression with azathioprine and prednisolone.
  • The patient died of metastatic disease 3 months after the diagnosis was made.
  • Renal transplant recipients are at high risk of developing nonmelanocytic skin tumors when on immunosuppressive therapy with cyclosporine A.
  • Less common is the development of skin cancer during immunosuppression with azathioprine.
  • Latest reports show the increased incidence of malignant melanoma in immunosuppressed patients.
  • Our case illustrates the necessity of close dermatological surveillance of allograft recipients, to assure an early recognition of any malignant skin tumor and to reduce the risk of systemic metastatic disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Azathioprine / adverse effects. Immunosuppressive Agents / adverse effects. Kidney Transplantation. Melanoma / etiology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / etiology. Skin Neoplasms / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / etiology. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / etiology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Dacarbazine / analogs & derivatives. Dacarbazine / therapeutic use. Drug Therapy, Combination. Early Detection of Cancer. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Splenic Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 19550360.001).
  • [ISSN] 1473-5636
  • [Journal-full-title] Melanoma research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Melanoma Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 85622-93-1 / temozolomide; MRK240IY2L / Azathioprine
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9. Göhl J, Hohenberger W, Merkel S: [Malignant melanoma]. Chirurg; 2009 Jun;80(6):559-67
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  • [Title] [Malignant melanoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Malignes Melanom.
  • Malignant melanomas have one of the highest increases in incidence among malignancies.
  • There are four histological types: superficial spreading melanoma, nodular melanoma, acrolentiginous melanoma and lentigo maligna melanoma.
  • Sentinel lymph node biopsy is relevant in all melanomas with a Breslow tumor thickness >1 mm without clinically suspicious lymph nodes.
  • In the case of lymph node metastases therapeutic dissection is recommended, in patients with in-transit metastases of the extremities hyperthermic isolated limb perfusion with cytostatic agents may be indicated.
  • Adjuvant, neoadjuvant and palliative procedures, such as radiotherapy, chemotherapy and immunotherapy are additional treatment options.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / surgery. Skin Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Palliative Care. Prognosis. Skin / pathology. Survival Rate

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  • [Cites] Int J Cancer. 2003 Oct 20;107(1):119-26 [12925966.001]
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  • (PMID = 19444395.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-4722
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Chirurg; Zeitschrift fur alle Gebiete der operativen Medizen
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chirurg
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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10. Kirsch A: Successful treatment of metastatic malignant melanoma with Viscum album extract (Iscador M). J Altern Complement Med; 2007 May;13(4):443-5
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  • [Title] Successful treatment of metastatic malignant melanoma with Viscum album extract (Iscador M).
  • BACKGROUND: Recent study results demonstrate possible clinical benefit from adjuvant treatment with a standardized mistletoe (Viscum album) extract in patients with malignant melanoma.
  • PATIENT AND METHOD: We present a male patient, currently 68 years of age, with one malignant melanoma at the upper part of the right arm since 1992, and another nodular melanoma at the left shoulder, first diagnosed in 1999.
  • After discovery of the second melanoma and surgical resection, the patient was exclusively treated with standardized mistletoe extract (Iscador, (R)M; Weleda AG, CH-Arlesheim, Switzerland).
  • COURSE OF THERAPY AND RESULTS: In June 1992, histologic analysis confirmed the presence of stage IA superficially spreading malignant melanoma with low infiltration of the papillary dermis in a skin excision sample from the upper part of the right arm.
  • In November 1999, another melanoma was surgically removed at the patient's right shoulder.
  • In this case, the histologic examination revealed nodular melanoma, stage IIA (pT3, pN0, M0).
  • Therapy with mistletoe extract was introduced shortly afterwards as the sole adjuvant treatment.
  • During the course of the mistletoe therapy, axillary removal of 8 lymph nodes became necessary, 3 of which proved to be metastatic.
  • First signs of a defined solitary liver metastasis in an area next to segments IV and V were detected during an abdominal ultrasound examination in September 2001.
  • The solitary liver metastasis was not resected, nor was classical antitumor treatment (chemotherapy or radiotherapy) initiated.
  • The patient continued subcutaneous treatment with Iscador M after dose adaptation to 2 mg twice weekly (0.2 mL of a 10-mg vial); the treatment is still ongoing to the present.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The use of low-dose Iscador as the sole postoperative modality for the adjuvant treatment of metastatic melanoma was extremely effective and very well tolerated in this patient.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Melanoma / drug therapy. Melanoma / secondary. Plant Extracts / administration & dosage. Plant Proteins / administration & dosage. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adjuvants, Pharmaceutic. Aged. Humans. Male. Treatment Outcome. Viscum album

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  • (PMID = 17532738.001).
  • [ISSN] 1075-5535
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of alternative and complementary medicine (New York, N.Y.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Altern Complement Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adjuvants, Pharmaceutic; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Plant Extracts; 0 / Plant Proteins; 0 / viscum album peptide
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11. Ryan ER, Hill AD, Skehan SJ: FDG PET/CT demonstrates the effectiveness of isolated limb infusion for malignant melanoma. Clin Nucl Med; 2006 Nov;31(11):707-8
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  • [Title] FDG PET/CT demonstrates the effectiveness of isolated limb infusion for malignant melanoma.
  • A 43-year-old woman presented with a nodular melanoma treated with wide excision, split skin graft, and sentinel node biopsy.
  • This report of PET/CT demonstrates the effectiveness of chemotherapy for malignant melanoma delivered by isolated limb infusion.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Melanoma / diagnosis. Melanoma / drug therapy. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Dactinomycin / administration & dosage. Infusions, Intra-Arterial. Lymphatic Metastasis. Melphalan / administration & dosage. Radiopharmaceuticals. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17053391.001).
  • [ISSN] 0363-9762
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18; 1CC1JFE158 / Dactinomycin; Q41OR9510P / Melphalan
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12. Ishihara K, Saida T, Otsuka F, Yamazaki N, Prognosis and Statistical Investigation Committee of the Japanese Skin Cancer Society: Statistical profiles of malignant melanoma and other skin cancers in Japan: 2007 update. Int J Clin Oncol; 2008 Feb;13(1):33-41
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  • [Title] Statistical profiles of malignant melanoma and other skin cancers in Japan: 2007 update.
  • BACKGROUND: In the previous report of the Prognosis and Statistical Investigation Committee of the Japanese Skin Cancer Society, we tabulated data on patients with malignant melanoma who had been registered at major medical institutions (22 institutions on average) in Japan over 5-year periods from 1987 to 1991 (group A) and from 1992 to 1996 (group B).
  • METHODS: The numbers of melanoma patients registered were: 545 in group A (1987-1991), 699 in group B (1992-1996), and 821 in group C (1997-2001).
  • Because the International Union Against Cancer (UICC) TNM and stage classifications for malignant melanoma were changed substantially in 2002, analyses in the present investigation were performed according to the new classifications.
  • In addition, the numbers of patients with various kinds of skin malignancies, including not only malignant melanoma but also basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, mycosis fungoides, actinic keratosis, Bowen's disease, and Paget's disease, registered at approximately 100 medical institutions in Japan from 1987 to 2001, were also investigated and data were tabulated.
  • RESULTS: The nationwide survey of Japanese patients with malignant skin tumors from 1987 to 2001 showed that the most prevalent skin tumor was basal cell carcinoma, which increased year by year, followed by squamous cell carcinoma, and then by malignant melanoma.
  • The following results were obtained from the data for melanoma patients registered at major institutions from 1987 to 2001. (1) The overall 10-year survival rates for melanoma patients in each chronological group were ranked as: group C > B > A, although only the difference between groups C and A was statistically significant. (2) The male-to-female ratio ranged from 1: 0.97 to 1: 1.14, and the survival rate of female patients was higher than that of male patients (the 140-month survival rate was 70.6% in females and 60% in males). (3) Assessment of the age distribution showed that the number of patients increased rapidly from ages 40-49 years and reached a peak at around 60 years in all three groups. (4) The sole of the foot was the most common site of melanoma in both males and females, while melanomas on the lower limbs were also prevalent in females. (5) Acral lentiginous melanoma (ALM) was the most common type in all three groups, accounting for nearly 50% of the patients in each group.
  • The number of patients with superficial spreading melanoma (SSM) increased steadily over time and exceeded the number of patients with nodular melanoma (NM) in group C.
  • The prognosis of NM was the worst, while that of SSM was the most favorable. (6) The proportion of stage I patients was larger in group C than in groups A and B, but no significant difference among the groups was observed in the proportions of stage II, III, and IV patients.
  • In group C, the overall survival rate of stage IV patients with a normal serum lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) level was higher than that of patients with elevated LDH values. (9) Evaluation of the effects of some therapeutic procedures (prophylactic lymph node dissection and chemotherapy with and without interferon-beta) on the survivals of patients with melanoma was inconclusive and suggested the need for more studies in this area.
  • CONCLUSION: In Japan, the number of patients with malignant skin tumors has increased year by year.
  • The prognosis of patients with advanced malignant melanoma remains extremely poor, but that of patients in stage III has shown an improvement.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / epidemiology. Skin Neoplasms / epidemiology

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  • [Cites] Int J Epidemiol. 1995 Oct;24(5):897-907 [8557445.001]
  • [Cites] Int J Clin Oncol. 2003 Jun;8(3):139-50 [12851837.001]
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  • (PMID = 18307017.001).
  • [ISSN] 1341-9625
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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13. Ishihara K, Saida T, Yamamoto A, Japanese Skin Cancer Society Prognosis and Statistical Investigation Committee: Updated statistical data for malignant melanoma in Japan. Int J Clin Oncol; 2001 Jun;6(3):109-16
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  • [Title] Updated statistical data for malignant melanoma in Japan.
  • BACKGROUND: A statistical investigation was conducted of Japanese melanoma patients who had been registered by the Prognosis and Statistical Investigation Committee of the Japanese Skin Cancer Society.
  • METHODS: The data analyzed included age, sex, anatomical distribution, clinical features of primary lesions, Clark's subtype, tumor thickness, Clark's level, disease stage, and treatment.
  • In addition, the results of a nationwide survey of various types of skin malignancies, obtained from 101 medical institutions in Japan between 1987 and 1996, were analyzed.
  • RESULTS: The nationwide survey revealed that the number of patients with malignant melanoma showed a steady increase during the period 1987-1996 in Japan.
  • It is noteworthy that the numbers of actinic keratoses, a type of early squamous cell carcinoma in situ, showed a steep increase in recent years.
  • Results revealed in our study of the melanoma registry for the period 1987-1996 were as follows:.
  • (1) the male-to-female ratio was 1 to 1.06, (2) the survival rate of female patients was higher than that of male patients (10-year survival in group B: female, 71.6% vs male, 55.9%), (3) the commonest site of melanoma in both sexes was the sole of the foot, (4) with respect to Clark's subtype, acral lentiginous melanoma was commonest, accounting for about half of all melanomas, (5) nodular melanoma showed the worst prognosis among the subtypes, (6) patients in stage IIIB and stage IV had an unfavorable outcome, with 10-year survivals of less than 50% and less than 10%, respectively, (7) Clark's level of invasion, as well as Breslow's tumor thickness of the primary lesions, were confirmed to be important prognostic factors, and (8) prophylactic lymph node dissection in stage II and IIIA and chemotherapy in stage IV seemed to have limited effect on the prognosis.
  • CONCLUSION: The prognosis of advanced melanoma is poor, as it is highly resistant to chemotherapy.
  • Thus, to improve the prognosis, early detection is mandatory, and this is possible because this neoplasm appears as a distinctive pigmented lesion on the skin.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / epidemiology. Neoplasm Staging. Registries. Skin Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Japan / epidemiology. Lymph Node Excision. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Prevalence. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 11706778.001).
  • [ISSN] 1341-9625
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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14. Panagiotou I, Brountzos EN, Bafaloukos D, Stoupis C, Brestas P, Kelekis DA: Malignant melanoma metastatic to the gastrointestinal tract. Melanoma Res; 2002 Apr;12(2):169-73
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  • [Title] Malignant melanoma metastatic to the gastrointestinal tract.
  • A retrospective study of 385 melanoma patients was performed, with the goal of evaluating the clinical characteristics, the role of imaging and the impact of treatment on patients with gastrointestinal (GI) metastases.
  • In 50% the primary lesion was on the lower extremities (P< 0.01), while 61.1% had nodular melanomas (P < 0.01).
  • Eight patients underwent curative surgery, two received no treatment, while the remaining eight patients had chemotherapy or immunochemotherapy.
  • GI tract metastases were more common in patients with nodular melanoma of the lower extremities.
  • Imaging is effective in the diagnosis of GI tract involvement.
  • Melanoma patients with GI tract metastases can benefit from palliation by surgical resection.
  • [MeSH-major] Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / secondary. Melanoma / secondary. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Child. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 11930114.001).
  • [ISSN] 0960-8931
  • [Journal-full-title] Melanoma research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Melanoma Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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15. Gupta D, Deavers MT, Silva EG, Malpica A: Malignant melanoma involving the ovary: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 23 cases. Am J Surg Pathol; 2004 Jun;28(6):771-80
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  • [Title] Malignant melanoma involving the ovary: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 23 cases.
  • Ovarian malignant melanoma (MM), primary or metastatic, is an extremely rare tumor and in the absence of a previous diagnosis can represent a diagnostic challenge.
  • The tumor size ranged from 4.5 to 23 cm (average 10 cm); the melanoma arising in a cystic teratoma was 0.2 mm in thickness.
  • The architectural pattern was nodular (8 cases), diffuse (6 cases), nodular and diffuse (5 cases), nested (3 cases), and lentiginous arising in a teratoma (1 case).
  • The tumor cell type was epithelioid in 19 cases, spindled in 2 cases, mixed epithelioid and spindled in 1 case, and small cell in 1 case.
  • Treatment performed in 18 of the cases are as follows: oophorectomy with/without chemotherapy (10); total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy with/without chemotherapy (6); vaginal hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, and chemotherapy (1); and total abdominal hysterectomy with salpingo-oophorectomy (1).
  • Thirteen patients died of disease (range 2-76 months), 3 are alive with disease (6-18 months), and 2 have no evidence of disease at 24 and 96 months; one was the patient with melanoma arising within a teratoma.
  • In conclusion, MM involving the ovary is a rare disease, predominantly seen in women of reproductive age, and is associated with a poor prognosis.
  • Nodular or diffuse pattern and epithelioid cell type are most frequently seen, and the tumor can be mistaken for germ cell and sex cord stromal tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Antigens, Neoplasm. Calbindin 2. DNA-Binding Proteins / analysis. Ethnic Groups. Female. Humans. Hysterectomy. Immunohistochemistry. Inhibins / analysis. MART-1 Antigen. Melanoma-Specific Antigens. Microphthalmia-Associated Transcription Factor. Middle Aged. Monophenol Monooxygenase / analysis. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. S100 Calcium Binding Protein G / analysis. S100 Proteins / analysis. Teratoma / pathology. Transcription Factors / analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15166669.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / CALB2 protein, human; 0 / Calbindin 2; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / MART-1 Antigen; 0 / MITF protein, human; 0 / MLANA protein, human; 0 / Melanoma-Specific Antigens; 0 / Microphthalmia-Associated Transcription Factor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / S100 Calcium Binding Protein G; 0 / S100 Proteins; 0 / Transcription Factors; 57285-09-3 / Inhibins; EC 1.14.18.1 / Monophenol Monooxygenase
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16. Tas F, Kurul S, Camlica H, Topuz E: Malignant melanoma in Turkey: a single institution's experience on 475 cases. Jpn J Clin Oncol; 2006 Dec;36(12):794-9
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  • [Title] Malignant melanoma in Turkey: a single institution's experience on 475 cases.
  • BACKGROUND: This study was performed to determine the characteristics and the clinical outcomes of patients with cutaneous melanoma in Turkey.
  • RESULTS: Of the 475 adult cases with complete staging procedure, the incidence of localized (stages I-II) disease was 301 (63.4%), and followed by node involved (stage III) and metastatic (stage IV) disease with the incidence of 117 (24.6%) and 57 (12.0%), respectively.
  • The superficial spreading type was the commonest histology (52.2%).
  • Nodular histology subtype, deeper Breslow tumor depth, extensive invasion, presence of ulceration, advanced stage, presence of relapse, being male and elderly patient, presence of visceral recurrence, and high mitotic activity were found to be associated with poor prognosis for overall survival in localized disease.
  • Unresponsiveness to chemotherapy, visceral metastasis, multiple metastases and not given chemotherapy were the poor prognostic factors for overall survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / epidemiology. Skin Neoplasms / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 17060409.001).
  • [ISSN] 0368-2811
  • [Journal-full-title] Japanese journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Jpn. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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17. Strik H, Prömmel P: [Neoplastic meningitis. Diagnosis and individualised therapy]. Nervenarzt; 2010 Feb;81(2):229-41; quiz 242
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  • [Title] [Neoplastic meningitis. Diagnosis and individualised therapy].
  • [Transliterated title] Meningeosis neoplastica. Diagnostik und individualisierte Therapie.
  • It occurs in approximately 5-10% of malignant diseases, most often in breast cancer, lung cancer, melanoma, and B-cell lymphoma.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging shows nodular contrast enhancement lining the CSF spaces.
  • Positive CSF cytology requires optimal sampling and processing, and the treatment of neoplastic meningitis must be individualized.
  • The CSF dissemination can be treated with intrathecal chemotherapy with methotrexate or Ara-C.
  • Systemic chemotherapy is needed to control solid manifestations or, in the case of substances entering the CSF, to support intrathecal chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Meningeal Carcinomatosis / diagnosis. Meningeal Carcinomatosis / secondary. Meningitis, Aseptic / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Cerebrospinal Fluid / cytology. Cranial Irradiation. Cytarabine / therapeutic use. Humans. Infusions, Intravenous. Injections, Spinal. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Meninges / pathology. Methotrexate / therapeutic use. Neurologic Examination. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant

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  • (PMID = 20140544.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-0407
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Nervenarzt
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nervenarzt
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate
  • [Number-of-references] 53
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18. Tsuji M, Nakai N, Ueda E, Takenaka H, Katoh N, Kishimoto S: Double cancer of plantar malignant melanoma and vulvar extramammary Paget's disease. J Dermatol; 2010 May;37(5):484-7
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  • [Title] Double cancer of plantar malignant melanoma and vulvar extramammary Paget's disease.
  • A 75-year-old woman presented with a 2-year history of a pigmented nodular lesion on her left sole and a 9-year history of a red infiltrative plaque on the vulva.
  • The plantar lesion was a 15-mm ulcerated nodule located at the center of a 25-mm atypical pigmentation region; the nodule was clinically suspected to be a malignant melanoma.
  • There was no evidence of metastasis in the computed tomography (CT) and (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography scans.
  • Melanoma cells were identified in the sentinel lymph nodes, and left radical lymph node dissection was performed after a course of neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
  • All the lymph nodes that were resected during the second operation tested negative for melanomas, and the plantar lesion was diagnosed as a stage IIIB malignant melanoma (pT4b, Na2, M0).
  • Thereafter, we administrated four courses of chemotherapy, and 8 months after the operation, there was no evidence of recurrence or metastatic lesions.
  • We present a case report of double cancer: a plantar malignant melanoma and vulvar EMPD, and also discuss the possible genetic mutations responsible for these two tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Foot Diseases / pathology. Melanoma / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Paget Disease, Extramammary / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Vulvar Neoplasms / pathology


19. Takada K, Kato J, Kawano Y, Takahashi S, Hayashi T, Ishiwatari H, Miyanishi K, Takimoto R, Kobune M, Sagawa T, Sato T, Sato Y, Yamashita T, Natori H, Niitsu Y: [Effective CDDP arterial infusion with DSM for liver metastasis of malignant melanoma complicating DIC due to intratumoral hemorrhage--a case report]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2008 Oct;35(10):1803-5
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  • [Title] [Effective CDDP arterial infusion with DSM for liver metastasis of malignant melanoma complicating DIC due to intratumoral hemorrhage--a case report].
  • A 65-year-old male, who had been diagnosed with melanoma of stage IIB and treated by chemotherapy since 2003 at the Dermatology Department, was referred to our department for liver metastasis of melanoma that had become resistant to chemotherapeutic agents.
  • Contrast ultrasonography revealed nodular contrast enhancement at the margin of the tumor.
  • Taken together, attention has to be paid to the potential for emergency complications of DIC due to liver metastasis of melanoma with intratumoral hemorrhage.
  • Moreover, it was shown that arterial infusion with DSM was effective for liver metastasis of melanoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebral Hemorrhage / etiology. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation / drug therapy. Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation / etiology. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Melanoma / complications. Melanoma / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Humans. Infusions, Intra-Arterial. Male. Microspheres. Starch. Treatment Failure

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  • (PMID = 18931594.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9005-25-8 / Starch; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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20. Ishii A, Nishiguchi T, Kitagawa T, Yagi M, Hakamada A, Isoda K, Kurokawa I, Hara K, Mizutani H: A case of epidermotropic metastatic malignant melanoma with multiple nodular lesions of the scalp. J Dermatol; 2005 Oct;32(10):821-6
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  • [Title] A case of epidermotropic metastatic malignant melanoma with multiple nodular lesions of the scalp.
  • Epidermotropic metastatic malignant melanoma (EMMM) is a form of metastatic malignant melanoma that has dermal cell nests with epidermotropism and specific histopathological features.
  • We report a patient with eight nodular lesions of the scalp with histopathological findings compatible with EMMM.
  • The tumors developed one year before consultation and increased in size simultaneously.
  • The tumors did not respond to combination chemotherapy with dacarbazine, nimustine, vincristine, and interferon-beta.
  • [MeSH-major] Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Melanoma / pathology. Melanoma / secondary. Scalp. Skin Neoplasms / pathology


21. Strik H, Prömmel P: Diagnosis and individualized therapy of neoplastic meningitis. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther; 2010 Jul;10(7):1137-48
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  • [Title] Diagnosis and individualized therapy of neoplastic meningitis.
  • It occurs in approximately 5-10% of malignant diseases, most often in breast cancer, lung cancer, melanoma or B-cell lymphoma.
  • MRI shows nodular contrast enhancement lining CSF spaces.
  • Treatment must be individually shaped: the CSF dissemination may be treated with intrathecal chemotherapy with methotrexate or cytarabinoside (Ara-C).
  • Systemic chemotherapy is needed to control solid manifestations or, in the case of substances entering the CSF, to support intrathecal chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacokinetics. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Cerebrospinal Fluid / cytology. Combined Modality Therapy. Cranial Irradiation. Cytarabine / administration & dosage. Cytarabine / therapeutic use. Diagnostic Imaging. Female. Humans. Injections, Spinal. Liposomes. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Nervous System Diseases / etiology

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  • (PMID = 20645702.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-8328
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert review of anticancer therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Rev Anticancer Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Liposomes; 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine
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22. Carral A, de la Rubia J, Martín G, Mollá S, Martínez J, Sanz GF, Soler MA, Jarque I, Jiménez C, Sanz MA: Factors influencing the collection of peripheral blood stem cells in patients with acute myeloblastic leukemia and non-myeloid malignancies. Leuk Res; 2003 Jan;27(1):5-12
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  • Factors influencing the collection of autologous peripheral blood stem cells (PBSCs) were studied in 182 mobilization procedures performed on 145 consecutive patients with acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML; n=67) and with various non-myeloid malignancies (NMM; n=78).
  • PBSC were collected following mobilization with chemotherapy, treatment with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) or chemotherapy plus G-CSF.
  • Fewer colony-forming unit granulocyte-macrophages (CFU-GMs) were collected from patients with AML than from patients with NMM (P<0.0001), although there were no differences in the numbers of CD34+ cells collected between both groups.
  • Multiple regression analysis showed that chemotherapy alone was predictive of a low CD34+ yield in patients with NMM (regression coefficient (RC)=-2.1; P=0.003).
  • In addition, the interactions "diagnosis mutliple myeloma (MM)xmobilization with chemotherapy" (RC=2.9; P=0.004) and "diagnosis MMxmobilization with chemotherapy plus G-CSF" (RC=2.1; P=0.04) also remained in the model, both showing a favorable influence.
  • In AML, mobilization with chemotherapy plus G-CSF was associated with higher CD34+ yields (P=0.003).
  • In this subgroup of patients, multiple regression analysis identified the number of cycles of previous chemotherapy (< or =2 cycles; RC=1.3; P=0.03) and peripheral blood counts (WBC > or =1.5 x 10(9)/l and monocytes >20%; RC=0.8; P=0.02) as the factors most predictive of CD34+ cell yield.
  • These findings emphasize the need to optimize harvesting technique to enhance safety and minimize morbidity and costs of this valuable procedure.
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Blood Cell Count. Bone Marrow / drug effects. Bone Marrow / radiation effects. Colony-Forming Units Assay. Drug Synergism. Female. Humans. Leukapheresis / instrumentation. Leukapheresis / methods. Male. Middle Aged. Radiotherapy / adverse effects. Regression Analysis. Retrospective Studies. Safety. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 12479846.001).
  • [ISSN] 0145-2126
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 143011-72-7 / Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor
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23. Gupta D, Malpica A, Deavers MT, Silva EG: Vaginal melanoma: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 26 cases. Am J Surg Pathol; 2002 Nov;26(11):1450-7
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  • [Title] Vaginal melanoma: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 26 cases.
  • Malignant melanomas of the vagina are rare tumors.
  • Grossly, the tumor was polypoid-nodular in the majority of cases.
  • The neoplastic cells were epithelioid in 15 cases and spindled in three cases; eight cases had both cell types.
  • The patients were treated as follows: anterior exenteration with or without lymph node dissection and with or without radiotherapy (RT) or chemotherapy (CT) (7 cases), wide local excision with or without lymph node dissection and RT/CT (10 cases), hysterectomy with vaginectomy with or without RT/CT (3 cases), vaginectomy with RT (1 case), RT (1 case), and RT and CT (1 case).
  • Local recurrence after primary treatment was seen in six patients and distant metastases in 11 patients.
  • This study confirms the poor prognosis of patients with vaginal melanoma.
  • HMB-45 is negative in 23% cases of vaginal melanoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / secondary. Vaginal Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 12409721.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
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24. Damian DL, Thompson JF: Treatment of extensive cutaneous metastatic melanoma with topical diphencyprone. J Am Acad Dermatol; 2007 May;56(5):869-71
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  • [Title] Treatment of extensive cutaneous metastatic melanoma with topical diphencyprone.
  • A patient with previous primary nodular melanoma on the scalp developed extensive, confluent cutaneous metastases near the primary site, unsuitable for treatment with surgery or radiotherapy.
  • Topical treatment with diphencyprone as a single agent resulted in regression of all lesions, and the patient remains well 18 months later.
  • Topical immunotherapy with diphencyprone was an inexpensive and well-tolerated treatment for extensive cutaneous melanoma metastases in our patient unsuitable for other therapies.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Cyclopropanes / administration & dosage. Melanoma / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 17276544.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6787
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Cyclopropanes; I7G14NW5EC / diphenylcyclopropenone
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25. Rapprich H, Hagedorn M: Intralesional therapy of metastatic spreading melanoma with beta-interferon. J Dtsch Dermatol Ges; 2006 Sep;4(9):743-6
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  • [Title] Intralesional therapy of metastatic spreading melanoma with beta-interferon.
  • A 74-year-old female patient developed multiple local metastases after excision of a nodular melanoma of the left cheek.
  • There was no regression after treatment with dacarbazine (DTIC) and radiotherapy.
  • After treatment with intralesional interferon-beta, the metastases regressed completely.
  • The dosage was 5 million IU interferon-beta (Fiblaferon) three times weekly with courses of two and four weeks, separated by a month.
  • Five years after completing therapy, the patient is still tumor-free.
  • [MeSH-major] Facial Neoplasms / drug therapy. Facial Neoplasms / secondary. Interferon-beta / administration & dosage. Melanoma / drug therapy. Melanoma / secondary. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Injections, Intralesional. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16928243.001).
  • [ISSN] 1610-0387
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal der Deutschen Dermatologischen Gesellschaft = Journal of the German Society of Dermatology : JDDG
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Dtsch Dermatol Ges
  • [Language] eng; ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 77238-31-4 / Interferon-beta
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26. Phan TA, Relic J: Sporotrichoid Mycobacterium marinum infection of the face following a cat scratch. Australas J Dermatol; 2010 Feb;51(1):45-8
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  • We describe a 24-year-old woman who presented with a 3-month history of multiple tender, occasionally discharging cystic nodules involving the left side of her face in a sporotrichoid distribution.
  • She had a background history of a 4.5-mm-thick nodular melanoma of her temple treated by wide local excision and negative sentinel lymph node biopsy 4 years prior.
  • Skin biopsies showed multiple variably sized granulomas surrounded by thick cuffs of lymphocytes involving the superficial and deep dermis with no organisms seen on Ziehl-Neelsen, peroidic acid-Schiff and methenamine silver stains.
  • The skin eruption cleared after 5-month treatment with oral clarithromycin 500 mg twice daily and rifampicin 600 mg daily.
  • [MeSH-major] Mycobacterium Infections, Nontuberculous / diagnosis. Mycobacterium marinum / isolation & purification. Tuberculosis, Cutaneous / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antibiotics, Antitubercular / therapeutic use. Blood Sedimentation. C-Reactive Protein / analysis. Cats. Clarithromycin / therapeutic use. Drug Therapy, Combination. Face. Female. Humans. Rifampin / therapeutic use. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20148843.001).
  • [ISSN] 1440-0960
  • [Journal-full-title] The Australasian journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Australas. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antitubercular; 9007-41-4 / C-Reactive Protein; H1250JIK0A / Clarithromycin; VJT6J7R4TR / Rifampin
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27. Choudhary S, Nouri K, Elsaie ML: Photodynamic therapy in dermatology: a review. Lasers Med Sci; 2009 Nov;24(6):971-80
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Photodynamic therapy in dermatology: a review.
  • Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is used for the prevention and treatment of non-melanoma skin cancer.
  • Until recently, clinically approved indications have been restricted to actinic keratoses, nodular and superficial basal cell carcinoma, and, since 2006, Bowen disease.
  • PDT is also used for the treatment of non-malignant conditions such as acne vulgaris and leishmaniasis, as well as for treating premature skin aging due to sun exposure.
  • The production of reactive oxygen intermediates like singlet oxygen depends on the light dose applied as well as the concentration and localization of the photosensitizer in the diseased tissue.
  • Either cytotoxic effects resulting in tumor destruction or immunomodulatory effects improving inflammatory skin conditions are induced.
  • Treating superficial non-melanoma skin cancer, PDT has been shown to be highly efficient, despite the low level of invasiveness.
  • The excellent cosmetic results after treatment are beneficial, too.
  • [MeSH-major] Photochemotherapy / methods. Skin Diseases / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Clinical Trials as Topic. Humans. Laser Therapy / methods. Lasers, Dye / therapeutic use. Lasers, Semiconductor / therapeutic use. Photosensitizing Agents / therapeutic use. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 19653060.001).
  • [ISSN] 1435-604X
  • [Journal-full-title] Lasers in medical science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lasers Med Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Photosensitizing Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 68
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28. de Haas ER, de Vijlder HC, Sterenborg HJ, Neumann HA, Robinson DJ: Fractionated aminolevulinic acid-photodynamic therapy provides additional evidence for the use of PDT for non-melanoma skin cancer. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol; 2008 Apr;22(4):426-30
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Fractionated aminolevulinic acid-photodynamic therapy provides additional evidence for the use of PDT for non-melanoma skin cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an accepted treatment for superficial basal cel carcinoma (sBCC) and Bowens disease.
  • OBJECTIVE: To provide additional evidence of ALA-PDT for sBCC, Bowens disease (BD), nodular BCC (nBCC) and actinic keratosis (AK) using a 2-fold illumination scheme after a single application of ALA.
  • CONCLUSION: ALA-PDT using a twofold illumination scheme of 20 plus 80 J/cm(2) separated by a 2-h dark interval leads to high complete response rates at 2 years and can be regarded as an evidence-based treatment modality for superficial growing non-melanoma skin cancer and the (pre)malignant AK.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminolevulinic Acid / therapeutic use. Bowen's Disease / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / drug therapy. Keratosis / drug therapy. Photochemotherapy / methods. Photosensitizing Agents / therapeutic use. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome

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  • [CommentIn] J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2009 May;23(5):571-2 [19415805.001]
  • (PMID = 18031503.001).
  • [ISSN] 1468-3083
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology : JEADV
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 88755TAZ87 / Aminolevulinic Acid
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29. Fröhlich SJ, Mueller AJ, Kampik A: [Relative contraindication of latanoprost in iris tumors with secondary glaucoma]. Ophthalmologe; 2003 Aug;100(8):633-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Transliterated title] Relative Kontraindikation von Latanoprost bei Iristumor mit Sekundärglaukom.
  • Evident growth, increasing pigmentation and secondary glaucoma, however, are possible signs of a malignant transformation.
  • PROGRESSION: The patient was seen for the first time at our hospital 4 years previously, presenting an IOP of 28-30 mmHg of the right eye.
  • The tumor had developed marked heterochromia and a nodular prominent surface, the chamber angle was partly closed and completely hyperpigmented.
  • DISCUSSION: The melanocytic iris tumor described shows malignant characteristics such as progressive heterochromia and secondary glaucoma.
  • With the evidence of absent tumor growth, there is no reason to suggest malignant degeneration.
  • Generally, in iris naevi or tumors requiring regular follow-up, application of latanoprost should be avoided in order not to conceal the alteration of pigmentation as possible malignant conversion.
  • [MeSH-major] Antihypertensive Agents / contraindications. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / chemically induced. Glaucoma / drug therapy. Intraocular Pressure / drug effects. Iris Neoplasms / chemically induced. Melanoma / chemically induced. Prostaglandins F, Synthetic / contraindications

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  • (PMID = 12955445.001).
  • [ISSN] 0941-293X
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Ophthalmologe : Zeitschrift der Deutschen Ophthalmologischen Gesellschaft
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ophthalmologe
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antihypertensive Agents; 0 / Prostaglandins F, Synthetic; 6Z5B6HVF6O / latanoprost
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30. Kotimäki J: Photodynamic therapy of eyelid basal cell carcinoma. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol; 2009 Sep;23(9):1083-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Photodynamic therapy of eyelid basal cell carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Photodynamic therapy (PDT; i.e. selective destroying of malignant cells by exposing them to red light after photosensitization) has been increasingly used for non-melanoma skin cancers.
  • Due to excellent cosmetic and functional results, especially in difficult-to-treat areas, it may offer a comprehensive alternative to previous treatment modalities.
  • OBJECTIVE: A series of six patient cases was used to evaluate the efficacy of PDT in the treatment of lower eyelid basal cell carcinoma (BCC).
  • RESULTS: Six patients with lower eyelid BCC were treated with two treatment sessions of PDT within a week.
  • Five patients had a nodular type and one patient had a superficial type of BCC.
  • The follow-up after treatment continued for 20-36 (mean 26.5) months.
  • All the patients were satisfied with the good results and tolerated the treatment well without any harm to the eyeball or surrounding skin.
  • CONCLUSION: PDT, although experimental in the eyelid area because of the small amount of data and the lack of a long-term follow-up, may be considered a promising comprehensive alternative when treating BCC in the eyelid area.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminolevulinic Acid / analogs & derivatives. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / drug therapy. Eyelids. Photochemotherapy / methods. Photosensitizing Agents / therapeutic use. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Topical. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19470065.001).
  • [ISSN] 1468-3083
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology : JEADV
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 0 / methyl 5-aminolevulinate; 88755TAZ87 / Aminolevulinic Acid
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31. Krásný J, Sach J, Brunnerová R, Konvicka J, Jankovská M, Srp A, Kozák J: [Orbital tumors in adults--a 10-year study]. Cesk Slov Oftalmol; 2008 Nov;64(6):219-27

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  • The authors refer about diagnostic procedures, treatment and follow-up of 87 adult patients with orbital tumors during the period 1998 - 2007 in the Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty Hospital Královské Vinohrady, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic, E.U.
  • The anterior diagnostic or therapeutic orbitotomy was used in 72.5% of the cases, lateral osteoplastic orbitotomy (Kronlein) in 14.5%, and exenteration of the orbit in 13% of the cases.
  • Clinically they were of the anterior nodular, or posterior diffuse form, dacryoadenitis or orbital myositis.
  • All patients were treated by means of prednisolon for at least three months; due to the relapse of the immunopathologic process, in 16 % of the cases the therapy was supplemented with azathioprime.
  • The surgical procedure was the choice of treatment in 66% of inflammatory processes in the lacrimal gland region.
  • The chemotherapy was chosen for the treatment in 2/3 of the cases, and in all cases the remission was reached.The actinotherapy was chosen especially in other types of lymphoma; the follicular form and "molding" lymphoma were the causes of the death in two patients.
  • Among malignant tumors, the most serious clinical courses were histological different primary carcinomas of the orbitopalpebral region in 14% of the cases, and secondary melanoma spreading from the conjunctiva in 5.5%.
  • The decisive procedure was always the histological verification, which directed the following therapy.

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  • (PMID = 19110961.001).
  • [ISSN] 1211-9059
  • [Journal-full-title] Ceská a slovenská oftalmologie : casopis Ceské oftalmologické spolecnosti a Slovenské oftalmologické spolecnosti
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cesk Slov Oftalmol
  • [Language] cze
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
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32. Sheng J, Zeng B, Jiang P: [Effects of exogenous basic fibroblast growth factor on in-sheathed tendon healing and adhesion formation]. Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2007 Jul;21(7):733-7
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  • The biomechanical tests showed that the gliding excursion of the tendon in group A, B and C were 3.44 +/- 0.43, 3.51 +/- 0.56 and 2.84 +/- 0.42 mm respectively; the work of flexion were 14.87 +/- 1.72, 14.08 +/- 1.85 and 20.62 +/- 3.52 Nmm respectively; the ultimate tensile strength of the tendon was 10.34 +/- 1.45, 11.26 +/- 1.83 and 15.02 +/- 2.20 N respectively; showing no significant differences between groups A and B (P > 0.05), but showing significant differences between group C and groups A, B (P < 0.05).
  • [MeSH-major] Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 / pharmacology. Tendon Injuries / drug therapy. Tissue Adhesions. Toes. Wound Healing / drug effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Chickens. Fibrin Tissue Adhesive / administration & dosage. Fibrin Tissue Adhesive / pharmacology. Fibroblasts / drug effects. Male. Stress, Mechanical

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  • (PMID = 17694666.001).
  • [ISSN] 1002-1892
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhongguo xiu fu chong jian wai ke za zhi = Zhongguo xiufu chongjian waike zazhi = Chinese journal of reparative and reconstructive surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Fibrin Tissue Adhesive; 103107-01-3 / Fibroblast Growth Factor 2
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33. Little JW: Melanoma: etiology, treatment, and dental implications. Gen Dent; 2006 Jan-Feb;54(1):61-66; quiz, 67
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Melanoma: etiology, treatment, and dental implications.
  • Melanoma is one of the most serious skin cancers.
  • It arises from neural crest-derived melanocytes located in the epidermis or dermis of the skin.
  • Melanoma also can arise from melanocytes located in other regions of the body such as the eye, meninges, digestive tract, mucosal surfaces, or lymph nodes.
  • There are no proven causes of melanoma but the most commonly associated factor is episodic exposure to the sun.
  • Melanoma is a common cancer that has been increasing in incidence for the last 35 years.
  • The median age at the time of diagnosis is 53 years.
  • Five-year survival rates for melanoma of the skin have been increasing since 1976.
  • There are four types of melanoma: superficial spreading melanoma, nodular melanoma, lentigo maligna melanoma, and acral lintiginous melanoma.
  • Clinical signs indicating possible melanoma are asymmetry, border irregularity, color variation, increase in diameter, elevation, ulceration, and bleeding of pigmented lesions.
  • Treatment consists of surgical excision, lymph node dissection, limb perfusion, regional chemotherapy infusion, radiation, intralesional immunotherapy, systemic chemotherapy, and/or interferon-alpha, depending on the staging of the melanoma.
  • Oral melanomas are rare; however, approximately 20% of all melanomas are found in the head and neck region.
  • The role of the dentist is to be alert for changes in pigmented lesions of the oral mucosa and skin of the head and neck.
  • Lesions suspected of melanoma must be biopsied, which usually involves referral of the patient.
  • [MeSH-major] Head and Neck Neoplasms. Melanoma. Mouth Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Melanoma.
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  • (PMID = 16494125.001).
  • [ISSN] 0363-6771
  • [Journal-full-title] General dentistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gen Dent
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 44
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34. Beck A, Krischak G, Sorg T, Augat P, Farker K, Merkel U, Kinzl L, Claes L: Influence of diclofenac (group of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) on fracture healing. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg; 2003 Sep;123(7):327-32
The Lens. Cited by Patents in .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Influence of diclofenac (group of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) on fracture healing.
  • All drugs were applied orally twice a day.
  • Similar results were shown for bending stiffness: group 1 (mean 1404.6+/-611.4 Nmm/mm), group 2 (mean 1033.2+/-232.1 Nmm/mm; NS), group 3 (mean 564.2+/-457 Nmm/mm; p=0.045), and group 4 (mean 494.8+/-340.2 Nmm/mm; p=0.028).
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal / therapeutic use. Diclofenac / therapeutic use. Fracture Healing / drug effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Analgesics, Opioid / therapeutic use. Animals. Biomechanical Phenomena. Male. Rats. Rats, Wistar. Tibial Fractures / drug therapy. Tibial Fractures / physiopathology. Tramadol / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 12811581.001).
  • [ISSN] 0936-8051
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of orthopaedic and trauma surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Orthop Trauma Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Analgesics, Opioid; 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal; 144O8QL0L1 / Diclofenac; 39J1LGJ30J / Tramadol
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35. Zhanaeva SIa, D'iakov AI, Alekseenko TA, Korolenko TA: [Prognostic significance of lysosomal cysteine proteases in the estimation of the effectiveness of the antitumorigenic therapy]. Biomed Khim; 2009 Jan-Feb;55(1):89-97
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Prognostic significance of lysosomal cysteine proteases in the estimation of the effectiveness of the antitumorigenic therapy].
  • The influence of the untitumor drugs, cyclophosphamide (CPA) and nitrosomethylurea (NMM) on the activity of lysosomal cysteine proteases cathepsin B and L in the tumor tissue was studied.
  • Regression or reduction in the rate of growth of LS and RLS (drug sensitive and resistant sarcomas, respectively) during injection of CPA or NMM was accompanied by the increase in the activity of cysteine proteases cathepsin B and L in the tumor tissue.
  • The increase of cathepsin B and L activity in the tumor tissue was correlated with the therapeutic effect of the used drugs.
  • Data obtained suggest that cathepsin B and L activity in the tumor tissue have a prognostic significance for the effectiveness of antitumor therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / pharmacology. Cathepsin B / blood. Cathepsins / blood. Cyclophosphamide / pharmacology. Cysteine Endopeptidases / blood. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / blood. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / drug therapy. Methylnitrosourea / pharmacology. Neoplasm Proteins / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cathepsin L. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Humans. Lysosomes / enzymology. Male. Mice. Mice, Inbred CBA. Monitoring, Physiologic / methods. Neoplasms, Experimental / blood. Neoplasms, Experimental / drug therapy. Neoplasms, Experimental / enzymology

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  • (PMID = 19351038.001).
  • [ISSN] 2310-6972
  • [Journal-full-title] Biomedit︠s︡inskai︠a︡ khimii︠a︡
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biomed Khim
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 684-93-5 / Methylnitrosourea; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; EC 3.4.- / Cathepsins; EC 3.4.22.- / Cysteine Endopeptidases; EC 3.4.22.1 / Cathepsin B; EC 3.4.22.1 / Ctsb protein, mouse; EC 3.4.22.15 / CTSL1 protein, human; EC 3.4.22.15 / Cathepsin L; EC 3.4.22.15 / Ctsl protein, mouse
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36. Klein A, Babilas P, Karrer S, Landthaler M, Szeimies RM: Photodynamic therapy in dermatology--an update 2008. J Dtsch Dermatol Ges; 2008 Oct;6(10):839-45, 839-46
The Lens. Cited by Patents in .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Photodynamic therapy in dermatology--an update 2008.
  • SUMMARY: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is used for the prevention and treatment of non-melanoma skin cancer.
  • Until recently, clinically approved indications have been restricted to actinic keratoses, nodular and superficial basal cell carcinoma, and--since 2006--Bowen disease.
  • PDT is also used for the treatment of non-malignant conditions such as acne vulgaris and leishmaniasis, as well as for treating premature skin aging due to sun exposure.
  • Here, PDT is used for the stimulation of immunomodulatory effects in contrast to the induction of necrosis and apoptosis as produced in the treatment of skin tumors.
  • Possible light sources include lasers as well as incoherent light sources; irradiation with incoherent light sources is cheaper and more appropriate for large treatment areas.
  • The main advantages of PDT in comparison to other treatment modalities are its excellent cosmetic results and its high remission rates despite low invasiveness.This article provides up-to-date information about PDT with focus on recently published studies.
  • [MeSH-major] Dermatologic Agents / administration & dosage. Dermatology / trends. Forecasting. Photochemotherapy / trends. Photosensitizing Agents / administration & dosage. Skin Diseases / drug therapy. Skin Diseases / prevention & control

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  • (PMID = 18400022.001).
  • [ISSN] 1610-0387
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal der Deutschen Dermatologischen Gesellschaft = Journal of the German Society of Dermatology : JDDG
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Dtsch Dermatol Ges
  • [Language] eng; ger
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Dermatologic Agents; 0 / Photosensitizing Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 50
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