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1. Arnold AA, Aboukameel A, Chen J, Yang D, Wang S, Al-Katib A, Mohammad RM: Preclinical studies of Apogossypolone: a new nonpeptidic pan small-molecule inhibitor of Bcl-2, Bcl-XL and Mcl-1 proteins in Follicular Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma model. Mol Cancer; 2008 Feb 14;7:20
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Preclinical studies of Apogossypolone: a new nonpeptidic pan small-molecule inhibitor of Bcl-2, Bcl-XL and Mcl-1 proteins in Follicular Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma model.
  • Elevated expression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins have been linked to a poor survival rate of patients with Follicular Lymphoma (FL).
  • This prompted us to evaluate a very potent non-peptidic Small-Molecule Inhibitor (SMI) targeting Bcl-2 family proteins, Apogossypolone (ApoG2) using follicular small cleaved cell lymphoma cell line (WSU-FSCCL) and cell isolated from lymphoma patients.
  • ApoG2 inhibited the growth of WSU-FSCCL significantly with a 50% growth inhibition of cells (IC50) of 109 nM and decreased cell number of fresh lymphoma cells.
  • In the WSU-FSCCL-SCID xenograft model, ApoG2 showed a significant anti-lymphoma effect, with %ILS of 84% in the intravenous and 63% in intraperitoneal treated mice.
  • These studies suggest that ApoG2 can be an effective therapeutic agent against FL.

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  • (PMID = 18275607.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-4598
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cancer
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA109389; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / GM058905B; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / R25 GM058905; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA022453; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA22453-20
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins; 0 / Mcl1 protein, mouse; 0 / Myeloid Cell Leukemia Sequence 1 Protein; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; 0 / bcl-X Protein; EC 2.4.2.30 / Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases; EC 3.4.22.- / Caspases; KAV15B369O / Gossypol
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2265299
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2. Jacobsen E, Chen JH, Schurko B, Benson C, Oh WK: Metastatic seminoma and grade 1 follicular lymphoma presenting concurrently in a supraclavicular lymph node: a case report. Cases J; 2009;2:7273

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Metastatic seminoma and grade 1 follicular lymphoma presenting concurrently in a supraclavicular lymph node: a case report.
  • An asymptomatic 67-year-old man presented with a left supraclavicular lymph node that enlarged over a 2-month period which was biopsied.
  • Pathologic features were consistent with involvement by metastatic seminoma and follicular lymphoma, follicular pattern, grade 1 (of 3).
  • Staging Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography scans indicated several areas of enlarged lymph nodes.
  • The patient completed chemotherapy with bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin chemotherapy.
  • This is the first reported case of metastatic seminoma and follicular lymphoma occurring in the same lymph node.
  • Given the natural history of these two malignancies, if this patient develops recurrent lymphadenopathy, it will be difficult to identify whether the enlarged lymph nodes represent recurrent seminoma or follicular lymphoma without a biopsy of each pathologically enlarged node.
  • Similarly, Fluorodeoxyglucose- Positron Emission Tomography is known to be active in both seminoma and follicular lymphoma, making this scan non-specific in this patient.
  • Finally, this patient had no baseline elevation in any germ cell tumor marker.
  • Thus, serum tumor markers cannot be relied upon as surrogates for response to chemotherapy or as identifiers of relapsed seminoma.

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  • (PMID = 19918516.001).
  • [ISSN] 1757-1626
  • [Journal-full-title] Cases journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cases J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2769346
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3. Al-Katib AM, Aboukameel A, Mohammad R, Bissery MC, Zuany-Amorim C: Superior antitumor activity of SAR3419 to rituximab in xenograft models for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Clin Cancer Res; 2009 Jun 15;15(12):4038-45
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  • [Title] Superior antitumor activity of SAR3419 to rituximab in xenograft models for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
  • PURPOSE: To investigate the activity of SAR3419, a novel humanized anti-CD19 antibody (huB4), conjugated to a cytotoxic maytansine derivative N(2)'-deacetyl-N(2)'-(4-mercapto-4-methyl-1-oxopentyl) maytansine, in preclinical xenograft models for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Antitumor activity of SAR3419 was assessed as a single agent and in comparison with conventional therapies using a subcutaneous model for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (WSU-DLCL2) and a systemic model for follicular small cleaved cell lymphoma (WSU-FSCCL) in mice with severe combined immune deficiency.
  • RESULTS: Our results showed that in these chemotherapy-resistant models, SAR3419 was more effective than CHOP (cyclophosphamide-Adriamycin-vincristine-prednisone) regimen or rituximab.
  • Only treatment with SAR3419 led to survival of the whole group of animals to the end of the experiment (150-155 days) in both models.
  • Treatment with rituximab resulted in antitumor activity in both models comparable with the low dose of SAR3419.
  • Necropsy and tissue staining in the WSU-FSCCL systemic model revealed that all deaths featured leptomeningeal lymphoma in the control and treated groups.
  • Interestingly, some of the animals that survived to the end of the experiment and seemed healthy at time of euthanasia did show microscopic evidence of lymphoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Overall, SAR3419 is a very active immunotoxin in preclinical models for human B-cell lymphoma and holds promise as a novel and well-tolerated therapy in B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / therapeutic use. Immunoconjugates / therapeutic use. Lymphoma, Follicular / drug therapy. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / drug therapy. Maytansine / analogs & derivatives. Maytansine / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived. Antigens, CD19 / metabolism. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cell Line, Tumor. Cyclophosphamide / therapeutic use. Doxorubicin / therapeutic use. Humans. Immunologic Factors / therapeutic use. Mice. Mice, SCID. Prednisone / therapeutic use. Rituximab. Vincristine / therapeutic use. Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays

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  • (PMID = 19509168.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived; 0 / Antigens, CD19; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 0 / Immunoconjugates; 0 / Immunologic Factors; 0 / N2'-deacetyl-N2'-(4-mercapto-4-methyl-1-oxopentyl)maytansine; 14083FR882 / Maytansine; 4F4X42SYQ6 / Rituximab; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone; CHOP protocol
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4. Matsuo T, Ichimura K, Shinagawa K, Yoshino T: Different histopathological types of orbital lymphoma 16 years after systemic follicular lymphoma: immunohistochemical and immunogenetic analyses of two cases. J Clin Exp Hematop; 2008 Apr;48(1):17-24
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Different histopathological types of orbital lymphoma 16 years after systemic follicular lymphoma: immunohistochemical and immunogenetic analyses of two cases.
  • The purpose of this study is to show that the histopathological type of an orbital lymphoma can differ from the systemic follicular lymphoma that precedes it.
  • A 44-year-old man (Patient #1) and a 50-year-old man (Patient #2) presented with generalized lymphadenopathy due to grade 1 follicular lymphoma proven on lymph node biopsy.
  • Patient #1 was followed without treatment for 16 years when he developed a right orbital mass.
  • Patient #2 underwent several courses of combination chemotherapy as well as radiation but relapsed.
  • The second biopsy of the lymph node nine years later showed the same histopathological type of follicular lymphoma.
  • He developed an orbital mass on the right side 16 years after the initial presentation.
  • In Patient #1, excisional biopsy of the orbital masses showed extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma).
  • In Patient #2, biopsy revealed the orbital mass to be T-cell/histiocyte-rich diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.
  • In conclusion, orbital lymphomas can occur as a second lymphoma with a different histopathological type in the long-term follow-up of systemic lymphomas.
  • The original and subsequent lymphomatous lesions may or may not share neoplastic cell clonality and all genomics.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma, B-Cell / pathology. Lymphoma, B-Cell, Marginal Zone / pathology. Lymphoma, Follicular / pathology. Neoplasms, Second Primary / pathology. Orbital Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18434689.001).
  • [ISSN] 1346-4280
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical and experimental hematopathology : JCEH
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Exp Hematop
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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5. Rohatgi N, LaRocca RV, Bard V, Sethuraman G, Foon KA: Phase II trial of sequential therapy with fludarabine followed by cyclophosphamide, mitoxantrone, vincristine, and prednisone for low-grade follicular lymphomas. Am J Hematol; 2002 Jul;70(3):181-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Phase II trial of sequential therapy with fludarabine followed by cyclophosphamide, mitoxantrone, vincristine, and prednisone for low-grade follicular lymphomas.
  • Advanced follicular lymphomas, grades I and II, are indolent tumors but are not considered curable with standard therapy.
  • However, fludarabine-based combination chemotherapy regimens have been associated with significant myelotoxicity.
  • Patients with bulky stage II, stage III, or stage IV follicular lymphoma (grade I or II) were entered on this protocol.
  • Response was assessed after the 3(rd) cycle of fludarabine and after the 4(th), 6(th), and 8(th) cycles of CNOP.
  • The sequential combination of fludarabine and CNOP appears to be active and well tolerated in patients with grade I and II follicular lymphoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Lymphoma, Follicular / drug therapy. Mitoxantrone / administration & dosage. Prednisolone / administration & dosage. Vidarabine / administration & dosage. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 12111762.001).
  • [ISSN] 0361-8609
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; 9PHQ9Y1OLM / Prednisolone; BZ114NVM5P / Mitoxantrone; FA2DM6879K / Vidarabine; P2K93U8740 / fludarabine; MCOP protocol
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6. Dölken MT, Schüler F, Hirt C, Lorenz G, Hosten N, Dölken G: Multiple osteolytic lesions and testicular involvement at first relapse of follicular lymphoma grade 1 in transformation. Leuk Lymphoma; 2006 Feb;47(2):369-71
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  • [Title] Multiple osteolytic lesions and testicular involvement at first relapse of follicular lymphoma grade 1 in transformation.
  • A 62-year-old man was initially diagnosed with stage IA follicular lymphoma grade 1 of the left tonsil.
  • Shortly after radiotherapy he rapidly developed multiple painful acroosteolytic lesions and testicular involvement.
  • The histological examination revealed a transformed lymphoma in the testis (DLCL) and follicular lymphoma in the acroosteolytic lesions.
  • The clonal identity of lymphoma cells within the primary biopsy as well as in the two sites at relapse was shown by PCR and nucleotide sequence analysis of the lymphoma clone specific B-cell receptor rearrangement.
  • Chemotherapy with six cycles of CHOP followed by high dose chemotherapy and autologous blood stem cell transplantation led to a complete clinical remission with disappearance of all osteolytic lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / diagnosis. Lymphoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Testicular Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Osteolysis / etiology. Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation. Recurrence. Remission Induction. Transplantation, Autologous. Treatment Outcome


7. Saotome T, Takagi T, Sakai C, Kumagai K, Tamaru J: Combination chemotherapy with irinotecan and adriamycin for refractory and relapsed non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Ann Oncol; 2000 Jan;11(1):115-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Combination chemotherapy with irinotecan and adriamycin for refractory and relapsed non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
  • Twenty-five patients with relapsed or refractory non-Hodgkin's lymphoma were treated by combination chemotherapy with irinotecan hydrochloride (CPT-11) and adriamycin (ADM): CPT-11, 25 mg/m2 on days 1 and 2; ADM, 40 mg/m2 on day 3.
  • Fairly good responses were seen in relapsed B-cell lymphomas (4 of 8 in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and 2 of 2 in follicular lymphoma grade 1), and substantial responses in T-cell lymphomas (1 of 4 in peripheral T-cell lymphoma and 2 of 7 in adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma).
  • Combination chemotherapy with a reduced dose CPT-11 and ADM was useful in the treatment of relapsed non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

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  • (PMID = 10690400.001).
  • [ISSN] 0923-7534
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 7673326042 / irinotecan; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; XT3Z54Z28A / Camptothecin
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8. Fujiu K, Sakuma H, Shio Y, Suzuki H, Mori M: [A case of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma after chemotherapy for cancer of unknown origin]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2008 Nov;35(11):1907-9

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  • [Title] [A case of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma after chemotherapy for cancer of unknown origin].
  • We present a case of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma after chemotherapy for a cancer of unknown origin.
  • Computed tomography(CT)scans showed a swelling of the superior mediastinal lymph node and a tumor of the right lobe of thyroid gland.
  • Pathological findings of the lymph node showed adenosquamous cell carcinoma, but no malignant lesion was found in the thyroid gland.
  • Post-operative systemic survey failed to identify the origin of the adenosquamous cell carcinoma.
  • Six courses of chemotherapy consisting of carboplatin and docetaxel were carried out.
  • Seven months later, CT and positron emission tomography revealed swelling of the mediastinal lymph nodes and a tumor in the left abdominal tumor.
  • An open biopsy of the abdominal tumor demonstrated non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, mature B cell type, follicular lymphoma, grade 1.
  • Radiotherapy was done for the malignant lymphoma, and radiochemotherapy for the mediastinal lymph nodes.
  • Seven months later, the patient died of systemic metastases of the adenosquamous cell carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / drug therapy. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / pathology. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / drug therapy. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Biopsy. Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / pathology. Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / radiography. Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / surgery. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Male. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Failure

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  • (PMID = 19011340.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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9. Asahi A, Okamoto S, Matsushita H, Hattori Y, Takayama N, Ikeda Y: [Follicular lymphoma in two brothers]. Rinsho Ketsueki; 2001 May;42(5):408-13
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  • [Title] [Follicular lymphoma in two brothers].
  • Two brothers, whose parents had a history of exposure to atomic bomb radiation, developed non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
  • The younger brother, a 48-year-old man, was diagnosed as having follicular small-cleaved cell lymphoma in October, 1996.
  • He had extranodal lymphoma involvement of the right kidney, bone marrow and skin, in addition to generalized lymphadenopathy.
  • He was treated with intermittent COP chemotherapy, and good control of the lymphoma was obtained.
  • The elder brother, aged 50 years, was diagnosed as having follicular mixed cell lymphoma in May, 1998.
  • He also had extranodal lymphoma involvement of the right parotid gland and bone marrow, as well as generalized lymphadenopathy.
  • After one course of CHOP chemotherapy, he developed paresis of the lower legs and was found to have a mass at the Th5-6 vertebrae by CT scan.
  • After four courses of CHOP chemotherapy followed by ESHAP chemotherapy and radiotherapy, he achieved complete remission, and has since been well.
  • Follicular lymphoma occurring among siblings is rare.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma, Follicular / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Drug Administration Schedule. Family Health. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Nuclear Warfare. Prednisolone / administration & dosage. Prednisone / administration & dosage. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 11452461.001).
  • [ISSN] 0485-1439
  • [Journal-full-title] [Rinshō ketsueki] The Japanese journal of clinical hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rinsho Ketsueki
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; 9PHQ9Y1OLM / Prednisolone; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone; COP protocol 2; VAP-cyclo protocol
  • [Number-of-references] 15
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10. Ebisui C, Ohkubo K, Akitake H, Ohtsuka M, Yamanaka C, Maekawa T, Yoshioka S, Hama N, Kashiwazaki M, Taniguchi M, Tsujie M, Konishi M, Fujimoto T: [A case of left inguinal malignant lymphoma occurred after radical operation for gastric cancer and gastrointestinal stromal tumor]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2009 Nov;36(12):2130-2
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  • [Title] [A case of left inguinal malignant lymphoma occurred after radical operation for gastric cancer and gastrointestinal stromal tumor].
  • In March 2005, a 70-year-old male patient underwent distal gastrectomy with D2 lymph node dissection for type 3 gastric cancer located in the lower-third of the stomach, and partial gastrectomy for submucosal tumor located in the upper- third of the stomach.
  • Although the adjuvant chemotherapy of S-1 was administered, it was discontinued because of cerebral infarction.
  • In September 2008, left inguinal lymph node dissection was performed and its pathological finding was follicular lymphoma (grade 1).
  • However, it is important to follow-up the patient carefully because the relapse rate of follicular lymphoma is comparatively high.
  • [MeSH-major] Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors / surgery. Lymphoma, Follicular / pathology. Stomach Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 20037346.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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11. Jacobsen E, Lomo L, Briccetti F, Longtine J, Freedman A: Follicular lymphoma with bilateral testicular and epididymal involvement: case report and review of the literature. Leuk Lymphoma; 2005 Nov;46(11):1663-6
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  • [Title] Follicular lymphoma with bilateral testicular and epididymal involvement: case report and review of the literature.
  • Testicular involvement with indolent lymphoma is extremely rare, particularly in the absence of transformation to an aggressive histology.
  • Histologic examination of lymph node, bone marrow, and testicular/epididymal biopsies revealed involvement with grade I follicular lymphoma.
  • The patient was started on chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide, vincristine, prednisone, and rituximab in addition to intrathecal methotrexate and testicular radiation.
  • He is now 6 months into therapy and responding well.
  • A review of the literature demonstrated this to be the first confirmed case of testicular and epididymal involvement with grade I follicular lymphoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Epididymis / pathology. Lymphoma, Follicular / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Humans. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymphatic Irradiation. Male. Middle Aged. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 16236619.001).
  • [ISSN] 1042-8194
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia & lymphoma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Lymphoma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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12. Grupka NL, Seinfeld J, Ryder J, Lillehei KO, Kleinschmidt-Demasters BK: Secondary central nervous system involvement by follicular lymphoma: case report and review of the literature. Surg Neurol; 2006 Jun;65(6):590-4
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  • [Title] Secondary central nervous system involvement by follicular lymphoma: case report and review of the literature.
  • BACKGROUND: We report a patient with indolent stage IV follicular lymphoma, grade 1, initially successfully treated with chemotherapy, who later developed aggressive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in the parieto-occipital lobe 8 years after initial presentation.
  • The differing patterns of lymphomatous involvement of the central nervous system (CNS) are briefly reviewed, with a focus on the patterns seen in secondary CNS spread by low-grade lymphomas.
  • CASE DESCRIPTION: A 53-year-old man was diagnosed with stage IV follicular lymphoma, grade 1, in 1996.
  • Although initial chemotherapy was successful, he developed several recurrences of lymphoma over the following years.
  • In May 2004, he presented with a discrete, single, massive parieto-occipital lobe brain lesion.
  • The mass proved to be an aggressive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, transformed from his previous follicular cell lymphoma, with retention of strong Bcl-2 and Bcl-6 immunoreactivity.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Parenchymal brain involvement, as opposed to dural or leptomeningeal, is a relatively uncommon pattern of spread to the CNS for systemic lymphomas.
  • More significantly, follicular lymphomas are one of the least frequent types of indolent lymphomas to develop clinically apparent, secondary CNS spread.
  • The presentation of an indolent follicular lymphoma with transformation to an aggressive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma within the brain parenchyma is rare.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Neoplasms / secondary. Lymphoma, B-Cell / pathology. Lymphoma, Follicular / pathology. Occipital Lobe / pathology. Parietal Lobe / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antigens, CD / immunology. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Neoplasms, Second Primary / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16720183.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-3019
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Neurol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD
  • [Number-of-references] 16
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13. Lichtman SM, Petroni G, Schilsky RL, Johnson JL, Perri RT, Niedzwiecki D, Sklar J, Barcos M, Peterson BA: High dose cyclophosphamide plus recombinant human granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (rhG-CSF) in the treatment of follicular, low grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: CALGB 9150. Leuk Lymphoma; 2001 Nov-Dec;42(6):1255-64
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  • [Title] High dose cyclophosphamide plus recombinant human granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (rhG-CSF) in the treatment of follicular, low grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: CALGB 9150.
  • The main objectives of this study were to determine the feasibility of administering high doses of cyclophosphamide plus recombinant human granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (rhG-CSF) every 14-21 days to patients with follicular small cleaved cell lymphoma.
  • For each patient, the treatment was not considered feasible if fewer than four cycles of cyclophosphamide chemotherapy could be administered on schedule (i.e. at least every 29 days) or (1) hospitalization of the patient for longer than three days was necessary for neutropenic fever (38 degrees C) or bacteriologically documented infection in > 50% of the cycles, or (2) grade > or = 2 hemorrhage in association with thrombocytopenia of grade > or = 3 severity occurred in > 50% of the cycles or (3) non-hematologic toxicity (excluding nausea/vomiting and alopecia) of grade > or = 3 occurred in > 50% of cycles.
  • The goal was to have a treatment program feasible in 75% or more of the treated patients.
  • The secondary objectives were to determine the toxicities, the complete and partial response rates, and the time to treatment failure (TTF).
  • The trial also attempted to assess the effectiveness of this treatment program in eradicating Bcl-2 rearrangements by PCR, and to assess complete remission duration in relationship to PCR results in patients who respond to this chemotherapy program.
  • Patients were required to have histologically documented non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the subtypes follicular, predominantly small cleaved cell (IWF-B) or follicular mixed, (IWF-C).
  • The median follow-up time is 5.0 years, with a range of 2.5-6.7 years.
  • The 1-year estimated probability of freedom from treatment failure was 50% and of survival at 1 year was 92%.
  • Post-treatment specimens were submitted for seven of the 13 patients.
  • Four of the seven converted to Bcl-2 negative following treatment.
  • Eight of 13 Bcl-2 positive patients (62%) had a clinical response to treatment.
  • This study demonstrates that repetitive doses of cyclophosphamide at 4.5 g/m2 every two weeks with rhG-CSF support can be administered to selected younger patients with advanced follicular lymphoma with morphologic involvement of the bone marrow with acceptable non-hematologic toxicity.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor / administration & dosage. Lymphoma, Follicular / drug therapy. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 11911406.001).
  • [ISSN] 1042-8194
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia & lymphoma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Lymphoma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 143011-72-7 / Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide
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14. Okawa Y, Shimada T, Nagasaki E, Nozato A, Mizoroki F, Kobayashi M: [Pulmonary cryptococcosis occurring 6 months after cladribine therapy for relapsed follicular lymphoma]. Rinsho Ketsueki; 2006 Jul;47(7):650-5
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  • [Title] [Pulmonary cryptococcosis occurring 6 months after cladribine therapy for relapsed follicular lymphoma].
  • We report a case of follicular lymphoma in which pulmonary cryptococcosis occurred with cladribine therapy.
  • He was diagnosed as having follicular lymphoma, grade 1, clinical stage IVA from a tongue tumor biopsy in January 2003.
  • A total of 6 courses of R-CHOP therapy was performed, but no clear effect was found.
  • A new cervical lesion appeared, so he was treated with a total of 2 courses of R-EPOCH therapy, and the effect was classed as stable disease.
  • We started cladribine therapy (0.09 mg/kg, seven days of continuous infusion) from February 2004, and complete remission was achieved after 4 courses of cladribine therapy.
  • In January 2005, an abnormal nodular shadow in the right S10 area was found on chest CT images which was diagnosed as pulmonary cryptococcosis by serum antigen and a trans-bronchial lung biopsy.
  • Afterward, the fifth course of cladribine therapy and local radiation therapy were performed against a relapse of lymphoma, but cryptococcosis did not reappear.
  • The prolonged bone marrow suppression after cladribine therapy was considered to be a severe adverse event.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects. Cladribine / adverse effects. Cryptococcosis / etiology. Lung Diseases, Fungal / etiology. Lymphoma, Follicular / drug therapy. Opportunistic Infections
  • [MeSH-minor] Bone Marrow / drug effects. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 16910576.001).
  • [ISSN] 0485-1439
  • [Journal-full-title] [Rinshō ketsueki] The Japanese journal of clinical hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rinsho Ketsueki
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 47M74X9YT5 / Cladribine
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15. Niitsu N, Nakamine H, Hayama M, Unno Y, Nakamura S, Horie R, Iwabuchi K, Nakamura N, Miura I, Higashihara M: Ovarian follicular lymphoma: a case report and review of the literature. Ann Hematol; 2002 Nov;81(11):654-8
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  • [Title] Ovarian follicular lymphoma: a case report and review of the literature.
  • Primary ovarian lymphoma is extremely rare, and such a case is reported here.
  • Pelvic CT and MRI showed a right ovarian tumor with a diameter of 7 cm and an irregular border.
  • Microscopic examination of the right ovarian tumor revealed vaguely nodular growth of small lymphoid cells.
  • They were CD10+, Bcl-2+, Cyclin D1- and CD21-, although CD21+ follicular dendritic cell clusters were present as a background component in each vague nodule.
  • These findings led us to characterize the lesion as follicular lymphoma, grade 1.
  • The patient was free of detectable disease 9 months after initiation of post-surgical chemotherapy.
  • Since the prognosis for primary ovarian lymphoma is relatively favorable in many cases, it is important to establish therapeutic methods for the cure of this disease using chemotherapy and radiotherapy without radical surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 14. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 18. Cytogenetic Analysis. Dendritic Cells / pathology. Female. Genes, Immunoglobulin. Humans. Hysterectomy. Middle Aged. Ovariectomy. Remission Induction / methods. Translocation, Genetic


16. Witzig TE, Wiernik PH, Moore T, Reeder C, Cole C, Justice G, Kaplan H, Voralia M, Pietronigro D, Takeshita K, Ervin-Haynes A, Zeldis JB, Vose JM: Lenalidomide oral monotherapy produces durable responses in relapsed or refractory indolent non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma. J Clin Oncol; 2009 Nov 10;27(32):5404-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Lenalidomide oral monotherapy produces durable responses in relapsed or refractory indolent non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma.
  • Given its efficacy in a wide range of hematologic malignancies, we conducted a phase II trial (NHL-001) of single-agent lenalidomide in indolent non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL).
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with relapsed/refractory indolent NHL were eligible, with no limit on the number of previous therapies.
  • Patients received a median of three prior systemic therapies (range, 1 to 17) and half were refractory to last therapy.
  • Twenty-seven percent (six of 22) of patients with follicular lymphoma grade 1 or 2, and 22% (four of 18) with small lymphocytic lymphoma responded to therapy.
  • Adverse events were predictable and manageable; the most common grade 3 or 4 adverse events were neutropenia (30% and 16%, respectively) and thrombocytopenia (14% and 5%, respectively).
  • CONCLUSION: Oral lenalidomide monotherapy produces durable responses with manageable adverse events in patients with relapsed/refractory indolent NHL, warranting further investigation of treatment for indolent NHL.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / drug therapy. Thalidomide / analogs & derivatives
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Constipation / chemically induced. Diarrhea / chemically induced. Drug Administration Schedule. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Fatigue / chemically induced. Female. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Male. Middle Aged. Neutropenia / chemically induced. Recurrence. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19805688.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 4Z8R6ORS6L / Thalidomide; F0P408N6V4 / lenalidomide
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17. Spectre G, Gural A, Amir G, Lossos A, Siegal T, Paltiel O: Central nervous system involvement in indolent lymphomas. Ann Oncol; 2005 Mar;16(3):450-4

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Central nervous system involvement in indolent lymphomas.
  • BACKGROUND: Central nervous system (CNS) involvement, a well-recognized complication of aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL), has rarely been reported in indolent lymphomas.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the disease characteristics and clinical course in seven patients (six females, one male) with indolent B-cell lymphomas who developed CNS involvement during various stages of their illness.
  • RESULTS: The median ages at diagnosis of systemic and CNS lymphoma were 60 and 63 years, respectively.
  • Histologies were: small lymphocytic lymphoma (two), follicular lymphoma grade I (two), follicular lymphoma grade II (two) and unclear low-grade histology (one).
  • Systemic lymphoma was found in all patients, all but one having bone marrow involvement.
  • Four patients had a transformation to high-grade histology.
  • Six patients were treated with systemic and intra-cerebrospinal fluid chemotherapy, and two received radiotherapy as well.

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  • (PMID = 15642707.001).
  • [ISSN] 0923-7534
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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18. Mantadakis E, Samonis G: Common symptoms--different diseases: coexistence of neurosyphilis and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Infection; 2002 Jan;30(1):43-5
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  • [Title] Common symptoms--different diseases: coexistence of neurosyphilis and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
  • We describe the case of a 32-year-old man with generalized lymphadenopathy who was diagnosed with a low-grade follicular small-cleaved cell lymphoma.
  • The patient developed hearing loss, tinnitus and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pleocytosis attributed to central nervous system (CNS) infiltration by his malignancy, while receiving chemotherapy with vincristine, cyclophosphamide and prednisone.
  • Despite intrathecal chemotherapy with methotrexate, the CSF pleocytosis persisted.
  • Neurosyphilis was suspected because of prior history of gonorrhea and was confirmed with serologic studies of blood and CSF and from the decline of the anti-treponemal antibody titers with appropriate antibiotic therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / complications. Neurosyphilis / complications. Neurosyphilis / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 11876517.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-8126
  • [Journal-full-title] Infection
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Infection
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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19. Pan D, Qin J, Farber C, O'Brien J, Filippa D, Portlock CS: CHOP with high dose cyclophosphamide consolidation versus CHOP alone as initial therapy for advanced stage, indolent non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. Leuk Lymphoma; 2003 Jun;44(6):967-71
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  • [Title] CHOP with high dose cyclophosphamide consolidation versus CHOP alone as initial therapy for advanced stage, indolent non-Hodgkin's lymphomas.
  • The role of high dose therapy, including autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) in indolent non-Hodgkin's lymphomas remains controversial.
  • We evaluated a dose intense regimen of CHOP induction followed by high dose cyclophosphamide consolidation (CHOP-HC) versus CHOP alone in a prospective comparison to assess intensified therapy without ASCT.
  • Twenty-five patients with previously untreated advanced stage indolent NHL were enrolled: follicular lymphoma, grade 1 (11 patients) and grade 2 (8 patients); small lymphocytic lymphoma (5 patients); and lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma (1 patient).
  • There were no treatment-related deaths.
  • With no obvious improvement in CR and with greater hematologic toxicity than CHOP, CHOP-HC is not recommended for treatment of indolent non-Hodgkin's lymphomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Cyclophosphamide / adverse effects. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / adverse effects. Doxorubicin / analogs & derivatives. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prednisone / administration & dosage. Prednisone / adverse effects. Survival Rate. Time Factors. Vincristine / administration & dosage. Vincristine / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 12854895.001).
  • [ISSN] 1042-8194
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia & lymphoma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Lymphoma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Comparative Study; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone; CHOP protocol; CHOP protocol, modified
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