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1. Au WY: Current management of nasal NK/T-cell lymphoma. Oncology (Williston Park); 2010 Apr 15;24(4):352-8
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  • [Title] Current management of nasal NK/T-cell lymphoma.
  • Nasal natural killer (NK)/T-cell lymphoma--classified as extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma (ENKTL), nasal type, by the World Health Organization--is a non-Hodgkin lymphoma that is almost always associated with Epstein-Barr virus.
  • It is the most common type of peripheral T-cell lymphoma in many Asian countries.
  • Histologic diagnosis is essential, and staging consists of bilateral bone marrow biopsy and imaging of the neck, thorax, abdomen, and pelvis.
  • There is a marked dichotomy in treatment and survival between localized and disseminated disease.
  • Since disease incidence is rare even in prevalent areas, experience is limited and most treatment protocols are consensus-guided.
  • Early-stage, localized nasal disease is highly curable with combination therapy, but the optimal dose, combination, and sequence of radiotherapy and chemotherapy are still undefined.
  • For disseminated and refractory cases, the 5-year survival rate is below 10%, and better methods of treatment are needed.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Lymphoma, Extranodal NK-T-Cell / therapy. Nose Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Middle Aged. Radiotherapy Dosage. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • [CommentIn] Oncology (Williston Park). 2010 Apr 15;24(4):362-3 [20464849.001]
  • [CommentIn] Oncology (Williston Park). 2010 Apr 15;24(4):359, 362 [20464848.001]
  • (PMID = 20464847.001).
  • [ISSN] 0890-9091
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology (Williston Park, N.Y.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncology (Williston Park, N.Y.)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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2. Cimino L, Chan CC, Shen D, Masini L, Ilariucci F, Masetti M, Asioli S, Sartori A, Cappuccini L: Ocular involvement in nasal natural killer T-cell lymphoma. Int Ophthalmol; 2009 Aug;29(4):275-9
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  • [Title] Ocular involvement in nasal natural killer T-cell lymphoma.
  • PURPOSE: To describe the clinical, morphologic, and immunohistochemical features of a case of paranasal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma (NKTL) with ocular involvement.
  • In July she underwent a nasal computed tomography (CT) scan and multiple biopsies of the granulomatous tissue in the nasal fossae.
  • The diagnosis was NK/T non-Hodgkin's lymphoma nasal type, stage IV A.
  • In September after the diagnosis of lymphoma the patient underwent a bone marrow biopsy and thoracic and abdominal CT scan.
  • In October she started chemotherapy cycles.
  • RESULTS: A diagnosis of T-lymphoma cells in the vitreous was made; the tumor was most likely originating from her paranasal NKTL.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Nasal and paranasal sinus lymphomas are rare, but aggressive diseases with a tendency to invade tissues and spread to CNS, including the eye.
  • Ocular manifestations prior to systemic ones may be useful to monitor the response to therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Eye / pathology. Lymphoma, T-Cell / pathology. Natural Killer T-Cells. Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cyclophosphamide / therapeutic use. Doxorubicin / therapeutic use. Fatal Outcome. Female. Fundus Oculi. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Prednisone / therapeutic use. Recurrence. Uveitis / etiology. Vincristine / therapeutic use. Vitreous Body / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18438613.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-2630
  • [Journal-full-title] International ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int Ophthalmol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / Z01 EY000222-22
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone; CHOP protocol
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS55130; NLM/ PMC2714878
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3. Edinger M, Cao YA, Verneris MR, Bachmann MH, Contag CH, Negrin RS: Revealing lymphoma growth and the efficacy of immune cell therapies using in vivo bioluminescence imaging. Blood; 2003 Jan 15;101(2):640-8
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  • [Title] Revealing lymphoma growth and the efficacy of immune cell therapies using in vivo bioluminescence imaging.
  • Cancer therapeutics have achieved success in the treatment of a variety of malignancies, however, relapse of disease from small numbers of persistent tumor cells remains a major obstacle.
  • Advancement of treatment regimens that effectively control minimal residual disease and prevent relapse would be greatly accelerated if sensitive and noninvasive assays were used to quantitatively assess tumor burden in animal models of minimal residual disease that are predictive of the human response.
  • In vivo bioluminescence imaging (BLI) is an assay for the detection of small numbers of cells noninvasively and enables the quantification of tumor growth within internal organs.
  • Fusion genes that encode bioluminescent and fluorescent reporter proteins effectively couple the powerful in vivo capabilities of BLI with the subset-discriminating capabilities of fluorescence-activated cell sorting.
  • We labeled 2 murine lymphoma cell lines with dual function reporter genes and monitored radiation and chemotherapy as well as immune-based strategies that employ the tumorcidal activity of ex vivo-expanded CD8(+) natural killer (NK)-T cells.
  • Using BLI we were able to visualize the entire course of malignant disease including engraftment, expansion, metastasis, response to therapy, and unique patterns of relapse.
  • We also labeled the effector NK-T cells and monitored their homing to the sites of tumor growth followed by tumor eradication.
  • These studies reveal the efficacy of immune cell therapies and the tempo of NK-T cell trafficking in vivo.
  • The complex cellular processes in bone marrow transplantation and antitumor immunotherapy, previously inaccessible to investigation, can now be revealed in real time in living animals.
  • [MeSH-major] Diagnostic Imaging / methods. Immunotherapy, Adoptive / methods. Lymphoma / pathology. Lymphoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Cell Division / drug effects. Cell Division / genetics. Cell Division / radiation effects. Female. Genes, Reporter. Killer Cells, Lymphokine-Activated / metabolism. Killer Cells, Lymphokine-Activated / transplantation. Luminescent Measurements. Mice. Mice, Inbred BALB C. Mice, Inbred C57BL. Neoplasm Metastasis / diagnosis. Neoplasm Metastasis / pathology. Radiotherapy. Transduction, Genetic

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  • (PMID = 12393519.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-4971
  • [Journal-full-title] Blood
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Blood
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / K08 HL04505-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA49605; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P20 CA86312; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA80006; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R24 CA92862; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R33 CA88303
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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4. Tong H, Ren Y, Liu H, Xiao F, Mai W, Meng H, Qian W, Huang J, Mao L, Tong Y, Wang L, Qian J, Jin J: Clinical characteristics of T-cell lymphoma associated with hemophagocytic syndrome: comparison of T-cell lymphoma with and without hemophagocytic syndrome. Leuk Lymphoma; 2008 Jan;49(1):81-7
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  • [Title] Clinical characteristics of T-cell lymphoma associated with hemophagocytic syndrome: comparison of T-cell lymphoma with and without hemophagocytic syndrome.
  • T-cell lymphoma-associated hemophagocytic syndrome (T-LAHS) has been frequently reported in Asian countries and is considered with extremely poor prognosis.
  • To summarize its clinical characteristics and explore its early diagnosis and treatment, we retrospectively analyzed the records of 113 patients with aggressive T cell lymphoma, of which 28 were associated with LAHS.
  • According to WHO classification (2001), 22 cases were classified into peripheral T-cell lymphoma (unspecified), 2 into extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, and 4 into systemic anaplastic large cell lymphoma.
  • The elevating rates of serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) (100% vs. 55%), ferritin (100% vs. 64%), fasting triglycerides (79% vs. 43%), and hypofibrinogen (43% vs. 14%) levels were higher in the LAHS group than in the no-LAHS group (P < 0.05), so were bone marrow involvement (57% vs. 32%, P < 0.05) and liver dysfunction (40% vs. 13%, P < 0.05).
  • Eleven of the 28 LAHS patients did not receive any chemotherapy, and 14 received CHOP regimen as initial chemotherapy.
  • Three patients in critical conditions were given plasma exchange and gained the chance of initial chemotherapy.
  • Repeating biopsies of multiple parts of bone marrow may help diagnosis.
  • The therapeutic result of chemotherapy alone or combined for T-LAHS was discouraging and the survival time of most cases was no more than 1 year.
  • Plasmapheresis as initial therapy is worth considering in critical cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic / pathology. Lymphoma, T-Cell / complications. Lymphoma, T-Cell / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bone Marrow Examination. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 18203016.001).
  • [ISSN] 1029-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia & lymphoma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Lymphoma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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5. Widmer S, Tinguely M, Egli F, Thiel MA: Lethal Epstein-Barr virus associated NK/T-cell lymphoma with primary manifestation in the conjunctiva. Klin Monbl Augenheilkd; 2005 Mar;222(3):255-7

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  • [Title] Lethal Epstein-Barr virus associated NK/T-cell lymphoma with primary manifestation in the conjunctiva.
  • BACKGROUND: Lethal midline granulomas (LMG) are very rare angiocentric NK/T-cell lymphomas in association with Epstein-Barr virus.
  • The lesion had increased over a period of 2 months despite topical corticosteroid treatment.
  • Conjunctival biopsy revealed a highly malignant, CD3 + and BCL2 + extranodal T-cell lymphoma with features of an NK/T-cell origin (CD56 +, TIA + TCR-rearrangement: germline).
  • All lymphoma cells were positive for Epstein-Barr virus RNA.
  • THERAPY AND OUTCOME: Systemic 1 (st) cycle chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristin and prednisone resulted in a complete remission of the swelling within 4 days.
  • The patient died within a month because of untreatable pancytopenia due to malignant bone marrow infiltration.
  • CONCLUSIONS: LMG is a rare but highly malignant Epstein-Barr virus associated NK/T-cell lymphoma that can occur in healthy, immune competent Caucasians.
  • The LMG has a high mortality rate despite systemic treatment and can be lethal within a few months or even weeks.
  • [MeSH-major] Conjunctival Neoplasms / diagnosis. Epstein-Barr Virus Infections / diagnosis. Eyelid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Granuloma, Lethal Midline / diagnosis. Killer Cells, Natural / pathology. Lymphoma, T-Cell, Peripheral / diagnosis. T-Lymphocytes / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antigens, CD3 / analysis. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biopsy. Conjunctiva / pathology. Eyelids / pathology. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / radiotherapy. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / analysis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant

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  • (PMID = 15785994.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Klinische Monatsblätter für Augenheilkunde
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Klin Monbl Augenheilkd
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD3; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2
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6. Sakamoto M, Miyairi Y, Ishizawa M: Optimal specimen site for diagnosis of nasal T/NK cell lymphoma and treatment including bone marrow transplantation. ORL J Otorhinolaryngol Relat Spec; 2003 Sep-Oct;65(5):275-8
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  • [Title] Optimal specimen site for diagnosis of nasal T/NK cell lymphoma and treatment including bone marrow transplantation.
  • Nasal T/NK cell lymphoma is characterized by unrelenting progressive ulceration and necrosis of the nasal cavity and midline facial tissues.
  • Computer tomography scans and biopsy specimens from 4 cases were studied in order to determine the optimal sampling site.
  • Bone marrow transplantation was performed in 2 cases following chemotherapy and radiotherapy.
  • The combination of chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and bone marrow transplantation has some ability to control the disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Marrow Transplantation. Lymphoma, T-Cell / diagnosis. Lymphoma, T-Cell / therapy. Nose Neoplasms / diagnosis. Nose Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant / methods. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / analogs & derivatives. Female. Humans. Male. Prednisone / administration & dosage. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel
  • (PMID = 14730183.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-1569
  • [Journal-full-title] ORL; journal for oto-rhino-laryngology and its related specialties
  • [ISO-abbreviation] ORL J. Otorhinolaryngol. Relat. Spec.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone; CHOP protocol, modified
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7. Suzuki R, Nakamura S, Suzumiya J, Ichimura K, Ichikawa M, Ogata K, Kura Y, Aikawa K, Teshima H, Sako M, Kojima H, Nishio M, Yoshino T, Sugimori H, Kawa K, Oshimi K, NK-cell Tumor Study Group: Blastic natural killer cell lymphoma/leukemia (CD56-positive blastic tumor): prognostication and categorization according to anatomic sites of involvement. Cancer; 2005 Sep 1;104(5):1022-31
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  • [Title] Blastic natural killer cell lymphoma/leukemia (CD56-positive blastic tumor): prognostication and categorization according to anatomic sites of involvement.
  • BACKGROUND: Blastic natural killer (NK) cell lymphoma/leukemia (BNKL) is an immature CD56-positive neoplasm, which was recognized recently and characterized by systemic proliferation of tumor cells including skin, lymph node, and bone marrow.
  • Patient data were collected for the survey of the NK-Cell Tumor Study Group.
  • There were few clinicopathologic differences between the leukemia and lymphoma types.
  • Cutaneous involvement was noted at diagnosis in 28 patients, who presented a tendency for older age of onset (median: 56 vs. 46 years, P = 0.11) than patients with noncutaneous BNKL.
  • Both groups responded well to chemotherapy for lymphoid malignancies, but disease recurrence was frequent.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD56 / analysis. Killer Cells, Natural / pathology. Leukemia, Lymphoid / mortality. Lymphoma, T-Cell / mortality
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. DNA Nucleotidylexotransferase / analysis. Female. Gene Rearrangement, T-Lymphocyte. Humans. Immunophenotyping. Interleukin-3 Receptor alpha Subunit. Karyotyping. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Receptors, Interleukin-3 / analysis. Skin Neoplasms / immunology. Skin Neoplasms / mortality. Skin Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 15999368.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD56; 0 / IL3RA protein, human; 0 / Interleukin-3 Receptor alpha Subunit; 0 / Receptors, Interleukin-3; EC 2.7.7.31 / DNA Nucleotidylexotransferase
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8. Khosravi Shahi P, Díaz Muñoz de la Espada VM: [Extranodal T/NK-cell lymphoma, nasal type: a case report and review of the literature]. An Med Interna; 2005 Dec;22(12):597-600
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  • [Title] [Extranodal T/NK-cell lymphoma, nasal type: a case report and review of the literature].
  • [Transliterated title] Linfoma T/NK extraganglionar tipo nasal: caso clínico y revisión de la literatura.
  • Extranodal T/NK-cell lymphoma, nasal type: a case report and review of the literature.
  • Extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type, is an extranodal lymphoma, usually with an NK-cell phenotype and EBV positive, with a broad morphologic spectrum, frequent necrosis and angioinvasion, and most commonly presenting in the midfacial region, but also in other extranodal sites.
  • The diagnosis of the case was Extranodal T/NK-cell lymphoma, nasal type.
  • With the diagnosis of localized extranodal T/NK-cell lymphoma and reactive thrombocytosis, the patient was treated with chemotherapy and sequential radiotherapy, followed by bone marrow transplantation.
  • [MeSH-major] Killer Cells, Natural. Lymphoma, T-Cell / pathology. Nose Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16454602.001).
  • [ISSN] 0212-7199
  • [Journal-full-title] Anales de medicina interna (Madrid, Spain : 1984)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] An Med Interna
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Number-of-references] 16
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9. Hyakuna N, Toguchi S, Higa T, Okudaira T, Taira N, Masuda M, Kitoh T, Ohta T: Childhood blastic NK cell leukemia successfully treated with L-asparagenase and allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2004 Jun;42(7):631-4
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  • [Title] Childhood blastic NK cell leukemia successfully treated with L-asparagenase and allogeneic bone marrow transplantation.
  • Blastic NK cell lymphoma/leukemia is a rare and highly malignant neoplasia in both adults and children.
  • It is characterized by lymphoblastoid morphology without cytoplasmic granules and immature NK cell immunophenotypes (CD56+, CD57-, CD16-).
  • It has predilection for extranodal organ involvement, and the prognosis of affected patients is extremely poor under the current chemotherapy.
  • We present a 14-year-old girl who was diagnosed as having blastic NK cell leukemia with mediastinal, pleural, and pericardial involvement.
  • T cell receptor (TCR) and Immunoglobulin heavy chain genes were not rearranged.
  • She received chemotherapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia incorporating L-asparaginase (L-asp) which successfully induced complete remission.
  • Bone marrow transplantation (BMT) from her HLA-identical sibling was conducted after two courses of consolidation therapy.
  • Expression of aspargine synthetase (AS) protein in the leukemic cells at diagnosis was examined by an immunocytochemical method.
  • Induction and consolidation therapy incorporating L-asp followed by allo-BMT might be a promising treatment for child hood blastic NK cell leukemia, but more samples of the rare leukemia need to be studied before any definitive conclusions can be drawn.
  • [MeSH-major] Asparagine / therapeutic use. Bone Marrow Transplantation. Killer Cells, Natural / pathology. Leukemia, Lymphoid / therapy

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 15127419.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5009
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 7006-34-0 / Asparagine; EC 6.3.1.1 / Aspartate-Ammonia Ligase
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10. Takahashi N, Miura I, Chubachi A, Miura AB, Nakamura S: A clinicopathological study of 20 patients with T/natural killer (NK)-cell lymphoma-associated hemophagocytic syndrome with special reference to nasal and nasal-type NK/T-cell lymphoma. Int J Hematol; 2001 Oct;74(3):303-8
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  • [Title] A clinicopathological study of 20 patients with T/natural killer (NK)-cell lymphoma-associated hemophagocytic syndrome with special reference to nasal and nasal-type NK/T-cell lymphoma.
  • We describe the clinicopathological features of 20 patients with T/natural killer (NK)-cell lymphoma-associated hemophagocytic syndrome (T/NK-LAHS).
  • Group 1 developed HPS during the clinical course, typically at the terminal phase of the disease.
  • This group consisted of 7 patients with extranodal lymphoma arising in the nasal cavity, paranasal cavity, tonsils, or skin at presentation.
  • In 5 of these patients, the preferred diagnosis was nasal and nasal-type NK/T-cell lymphoma, whereas the disease diagnoses in the remaining 2 patients were peripheral T-cell lymphoma of unspecified type and angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma, respectively.
  • Group 2 consisted of 13 patients whose disease corresponded to so-called malignant histiocytosis-like lymphoma, which is characterized by HPS at the initial presentation and the infiltration of the liver, spleen, and/or bone marrow without tumor formation.
  • Nine of these 13 cases were found to have common histopathological features: CD56+, Epstein-Barr virus positivity, cytotoxic molecules, and nasal-type NK/T-cell lymphoma.
  • The very poor prognosis of T/NK-LAHS may be partly explained by the finding that nasal and nasal-type NK/T-cell lymphoma, which is resistant to standard chemotherapy, made up the highest percentage (70%) of the cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Histiocytosis, Non-Langerhans-Cell / pathology. Killer Cells, Natural / pathology. Lymphoma, T-Cell / pathology. Nose Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 11721967.001).
  • [ISSN] 0925-5710
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD56; 0 / RNA, Viral
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11. Aoyama Y, Yamane T, Hino M, Ohta K, Nakamae H, Yamamura R, Koh KR, Takubo T, Inoue T, Tatsumi Y, Tatsumi N: Blastic NK-cell lymphoma/leukemia with T-cell receptor gamma rearrangement. Ann Hematol; 2001 Dec;80(12):752-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Blastic NK-cell lymphoma/leukemia with T-cell receptor gamma rearrangement.
  • Immunophenotypic analysis revealed positivity for CD2, CD4, CD56, and HLA-DR, and negativity for CD3, CD13, CD16, CD33, CD34, and T cell receptor (TCR).
  • Despite an initial good response to chemotherapy the disease relapsed in the early stage, and the patient died 6 months after diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Gene Rearrangement, gamma-Chain T-Cell Antigen Receptor. Killer Cells, Natural. Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell / diagnosis. Leukemia, Lymphoid / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antigens, CD / analysis. Biopsy. Bone Marrow / pathology. C-Reactive Protein / analysis. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Cytoplasm / pathology. Erythema / pathology. Fatal Outcome. HLA-DR Antigens / analysis. Humans. Immunophenotyping. L-Lactate Dehydrogenase / blood. Male. Receptors, Interleukin-2 / analysis. Skin / pathology

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  • (PMID = 11797118.001).
  • [ISSN] 0939-5555
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / HLA-DR Antigens; 0 / Receptors, Interleukin-2; 9007-41-4 / C-Reactive Protein; EC 1.1.1.27 / L-Lactate Dehydrogenase
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12. Sawada M, Yamada T, Tsurumi H, Moriwaki H: [Nasal NK cell lymphoma with hemophagocytic syndrome developed tumor lysis syndrome after CHOP therapy]. Rinsho Ketsueki; 2002 Nov;43(11):988-92
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Nasal NK cell lymphoma with hemophagocytic syndrome developed tumor lysis syndrome after CHOP therapy].
  • Bone marrow aspiration showed many histiocytes with active hemophagocytosis.
  • A diagnosis of nasal NK cell lymphoma with hemophagocytic syndrome (clinical stage IVB) was made.
  • Following CHOP regimen chemotherapy, the tumor transiently reduced in size, but the patient developed multiple organ failure possibly due to tumor lysis syndrome.
  • His general condition was improved by intensive supporting therapy.
  • Despite salvage chemotherapy with a P-IMVP16/CBDCA regimen, the patient died of multiple organ failure due to tumor lysis syndrome.
  • Autopsy revealed diffuse necrosis and fibrosis without proliferation of lymphoma cells in the liver, spleen, bone marrow, and lymph nodes.
  • The poor prognosis of NK/T cell lymphoma might be associated with massive tissue damage with hypercytokinemia.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Cyclophosphamide / adverse effects. Doxorubicin / adverse effects. Histiocytosis, Non-Langerhans-Cell / etiology. Killer Cells, Natural. Lymphoma, T-Cell / drug therapy. Nose Neoplasms / drug therapy. Prednisone / adverse effects. Tumor Lysis Syndrome / etiology. Vincristine / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 12508484.001).
  • [ISSN] 0485-1439
  • [Journal-full-title] [Rinshō ketsueki] The Japanese journal of clinical hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rinsho Ketsueki
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone; CHOP protocol
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13. Wakabayashi S, Arai A, Oshikawa G, Araki A, Watanabe M, Uchida N, Taniguchi S, Miura O: Extranodal NK/T cell lymphoma, nasal type, of the small intestine diagnosed by double-balloon endoscopy. Int J Hematol; 2009 Dec;90(5):605-10

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Extranodal NK/T cell lymphoma, nasal type, of the small intestine diagnosed by double-balloon endoscopy.
  • Extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma (ENKL), nasal type, is rare and the small intestine is quite extraordinary as a primary lesion site.
  • He was referred to our hospital because of bloody stool and the diagnosis was made by double-balloon endoscopy (DBE) of the small intestine without surgical procedure.
  • He went into complete remission (CR) after intensive chemotherapy (DeVIC) and subsequently underwent allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT).
  • Although he remained in CR for about 8 months after BMT, he died of disease recurrence 14 months after the diagnosis was made.
  • We describe the usefulness of DBE for diagnosis and management for ENKL of the small intestine.
  • Additional cases, however, should be accumulated to establish optimal treatment strategy.
  • [MeSH-major] Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal / methods. Intestinal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Lymphoma, Extranodal NK-T-Cell / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Intestine, Small / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Nose Neoplasms

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  • (PMID = 19936878.001).
  • [ISSN] 1865-3774
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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14. Tong H, Ren Y, Qian W, Xiao F, Mai W, Meng H, Jin J: Clinicopathological study on peripheral T-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma with bone marrow involvement: a retrospective analysis from China. Int J Hematol; 2009 Oct;90(3):303-10
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Clinicopathological study on peripheral T-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma with bone marrow involvement: a retrospective analysis from China.
  • We reviewed 173 patients with an initial diagnosis of peripheral T-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (PTCL) and compared the patients with bone marrow involvement (BMI) to those without to have a better understanding of the clinical characteristics, treatments, survival and prognosis of PTCLs with BMI.
  • We found that 40% (70/173) of the patients had BMI, and its frequency was 64% in angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (TCL), 46% in PTCL unspecified, 29% in anaplastic large T-cell lymphoma, 23% in extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma and 13% in enteropathy-type TCL.
  • In the BMI group, 36% of patients had lymphoma-associated hemophagocytic syndrome (LAHS), compared with 8% of the patients without BMI (8/103, P < 0.001).
  • The median survival times of the 2 groups were 120 and 356 days.
  • The estimated 2-year OS rate of patients treated by CHOP regimen was 9%, compared with 51% of those with intensive chemotherapy, with a significant difference (log rank P = 0.0008).
  • The median survival time of the 14 patients subjected to chemotherapy combined with L: -asparaginase was 365 days and that of the 7 patients undergoing hemopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) was 575 days.
  • A total of 3 patients in a critical condition underwent plasmapheresis as initial therapy and achieved stable condition.
  • We conclude that patients with PTCLs with BMI on initial diagnosis usually have hemaphagocytic syndrome and poor prognosis.
  • Patients with anemia on initial diagnosis in the BMI group usually have poor prognosis than those without.
  • Intense chemotherapy, addition of L: -asparaginase in chemotherapy and HSCT are comparatively efficient treatments of PTCLs.
  • For patients in critical conditions, plasmapheresis before chemotherapy would lower the risk and improve the tolerance to chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bone Marrow / pathology. Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic / drug therapy. Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic / pathology. Lymphoma, T-Cell / drug therapy. Lymphoma, T-Cell / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Asparagine / therapeutic use. Child. China / epidemiology. Cyclophosphamide / therapeutic use. Doxorubicin / therapeutic use. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Male. Middle Aged. Prednisone / therapeutic use. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome. Vincristine / therapeutic use. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19728028.001).
  • [ISSN] 1865-3774
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 7006-34-0 / Asparagine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone; CHOP protocol
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15. Machet L, De Muret A, Wiezberka E, Bernez A, Abdallah-Lotf M, Linassier C, Petrella T: [Agranular CD4+ CD56+ CD123+ hematodermic neoplasm (blastic NK-cell lymphoma) revealed by cutaneous localization: 2 cases]. Ann Dermatol Venereol; 2004 Nov;131(11):969-73
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  • [Title] [Agranular CD4+ CD56+ CD123+ hematodermic neoplasm (blastic NK-cell lymphoma) revealed by cutaneous localization: 2 cases].
  • BACKGROUND: Agranular CD4+ CD56+ hematodermic neoplasm (blastic NK-cell lymphoma) has been recently described.
  • Preliminary histological examination of cutaneous biopsy taken in both patients showed a malignant proliferation suggesting a cutaneous lymphoma, and the patients were referred.
  • No rearrangement of the T-cell receptor gene or the immunoglobulin heavy chain gene were evidenced.
  • The first patient was treated with chemotherapy, with complete remission.
  • A cutaneous relapse promptly occurred, followed by bone and cerebral localizations.
  • The patient died one year after the diagnosis of the disease, in spite of intensification of the treatment.
  • Treatment is still ongoing in the second patient.
  • Some cases have been published under the "term of blastic NK lymphoma" which is the actual term for the disease in the WHO classification.
  • However, the tumor cells derive from the dendritic plasmacytoid cells, also called type 2 dendritic cells, and perhaps from a common precursor to lymphocyte T and dendritic plasmacytoid cells.
  • This justifies attempting aggressive protocols, with bone marrow allograft in the younger patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD4 / analysis. Antigens, CD56 / analysis. Killer Cells, Natural. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / immunology. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / pathology. Receptors, Interleukin-3 / analysis. Skin Neoplasms / immunology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Interleukin-3 Receptor alpha Subunit. Male. Phenotype

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  • (PMID = 15602384.001).
  • [ISSN] 0151-9638
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales de dermatologie et de vénéréologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Dermatol Venereol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD4; 0 / Antigens, CD56; 0 / IL3RA protein, human; 0 / Interleukin-3 Receptor alpha Subunit; 0 / Receptors, Interleukin-3
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16. Kato T, Tanabe J, Kanemoto M, Kobayashi C, Morita S, Karahashi T: A case of extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type mimicking typical manifestations of adult-onset Still's disease (AOSD) with hemophagocytic syndrome: diagnostic consideration between malignant lymphoma without lymphadenopathy and AOSD. Mod Rheumatol; 2009;19(6):675-80
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A case of extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type mimicking typical manifestations of adult-onset Still's disease (AOSD) with hemophagocytic syndrome: diagnostic consideration between malignant lymphoma without lymphadenopathy and AOSD.
  • Therefore, the possibility of malignant lymphoma was considered to be extremely low.
  • Leukocytopenia (2.4 x 10(3)/mul) was observed, and thus a diagnosis of adult-onset Still's disease (AOSD) with hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS) was made.
  • Bone marrow aspiration revealed the presence of lymphoma cells and hemophagocytosis, and the CD45 gating analysis showed expanding population of CD2(+), CD3(-), and CD56(+) cells.
  • Therefore, a diagnosis of extranodal natural killer (NK)/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type, concomitant with HPS was made, and treatment with dexamethasone, etoposide, ifosfamide, carboplatin (DeVIC) regimen ameliorated his symptoms and platelet transfusion dependency.
  • Later, a high titer of serum EBV-DNA was detected, which supported the diagnosis.
  • Diagnosing AOSD, extranodal presentation of malignant lymphoma such as extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type, should be carefully considered.

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  • (PMID = 19609486.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-7609
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern rheumatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod Rheumatol
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; UM20QQM95Y / Ifosfamide
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17. Stokkermans-Dubois J, Jouary T, Vergier B, Delaunay MM, Taieb A: A case of primary cutaneous nasal type NK/T-cell lymphoma and review of the literature. Dermatology; 2006;213(4):345-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A case of primary cutaneous nasal type NK/T-cell lymphoma and review of the literature.
  • INTRODUCTION: Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma subtypes are now better identified thanks to progress in immunohistochemistry.
  • This article describes a new case of primary cutaneous natural killer/T-cell lymphoma of nasal type (NKTL-NT) and reviews 18 other cases of this rare neoplasm.
  • A comprehensive workup including CT scan and bone marrow biopsy was negative and a diagnosis of NKTL-NT with a primary cutaneous involvement was made.
  • The patient was free of disease under multi-agent chemotherapy after 24 months of follow-up.
  • [MeSH-major] Killer Cells, Natural / pathology. Lymphoma, T-Cell, Cutaneous / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antigens, CD45 / analysis. Antigens, CD56 / analysis. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Leg. Lymphedema / diagnosis. Male

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 17135744.001).
  • [ISSN] 1018-8665
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatology (Basel, Switzerland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatology (Basel)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD56; EC 3.1.3.48 / Antigens, CD45
  • [Number-of-references] 12
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18. Pagano L, Gallamini A, Trapè G, Fianchi L, Mattei D, Todeschini G, Spadea A, Cinieri S, Iannitto E, Martelli M, Nosari A, Bona ED, Tosti ME, Petti MC, Falcucci P, Montanaro M, Pulsoni A, Larocca LM, Leone G, Intergruppo Italiano Linfomi: NK/T-cell lymphomas 'nasal type': an Italian multicentric retrospective survey. Ann Oncol; 2006 May;17(5):794-800
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  • [Title] NK/T-cell lymphomas 'nasal type': an Italian multicentric retrospective survey.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical characteristics and outcome of NK/T-cell lymphoma 'nasal type' developed in Italian patients.
  • PATIENTS: Between 1997 and 2004, 26 new cases of NK/T-cell lymphoma 'nasal type' were diagnosed in 10 Italian Hematology institutions.
  • In 23 cases presentation at the onset was in the nasal cavity or adjacent structures, in two cases the lymphoma onset with skin lesions was followed successively by rhynopharyngeal dissemination, while the remaining case had bone marrow and lymph node involvement followed by oro-pharyngeal involvement.
  • Diagnosis was based on the finding of a NK/T-cell phenotype at the histological and immunophenotypic examination of oropharyngeal or cutaneous lesions.
  • All patients but one were treated with chemotherapy, alone in nine cases or associated to radiotherapy in 14 cases; two patients had chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery, while one patient underwent only surgery.
  • Chemotherapy was anthracycline-based in 17 out of 25 cases.
  • In those patients in whom radiotherapy was performed, radiation dosages ranged between 36 Gy and 47.5 Gy, with a median dosage of 40 Gy.
  • Nine patients (34%) were responsive to the treatments: six patients obtained a complete remission and other three a partial remission.
  • The remaining 17 patients resulted refractory or presented a limited response to therapy.
  • The median disease-free survival was 14 months and the median overall survival time was 9 months.
  • CONCLUSION: The results of this retrospective survey confirmed that NK/T-cell lymphoma 'nasal type' is a very rare lymphoma in the Italian population, and it is characterized by a very bad prognosis.
  • Due to the rarity of this disease, a standardized therapeutic approach is lacking.
  • More data are needed to know the epidemiology of this kind of lymphoma in Europe.

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  • (PMID = 16497823.001).
  • [ISSN] 0923-7534
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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19. Stewart DA, Guo D, Luider J, Auer I, Klassen J, Morris D, Brown CB, Chaudhry A, Glück S, Russell JA: The CD3- 16+ 56+ NK cell count independently predicts autologous blood stem cell mobilization. Bone Marrow Transplant; 2001 Jun;27(12):1237-43
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  • [Title] The CD3- 16+ 56+ NK cell count independently predicts autologous blood stem cell mobilization.
  • Better predictive factors for autologous blood stem cell mobilization (BSCM) are needed.
  • The purpose of this study was to determine if an independent association exists between lymphocyte or NK cell counts and BSCM.
  • Data were analyzed on 141 consecutive patients aged 19-69 years (median 45) who received combined chemotherapy plus G-CSF for BSCM, and who had measurements of immune cells prior to BSCM.
  • Of the 141 patients, 41% had breast cancer, 14% Hodgkin's disease, 34% non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and 11% other diagnoses.
  • BSCM involved dose-intensive cyclophosphamide, etoposide, cisplatin (DICEP) plus G-CSF 300 microg (<70 kg) or 480 microg (>70 kg) for 45% of patients, while the remaining 55% received other chemotherapy plus similar doses of G-CSF.
  • The following factors were analyzed for predictors of BSCM: age, gender, prior chemotherapy, prior radiotherapy, diagnosis, disease status, marrow involvement, mobilization regimen, Hb, WBC, platelet count, B cell, T cell, and NK cell counts.
  • Using categorical variables, the only factors that independently predicted a PBCD34 count <150 x 10(6)/l were: >1 prior chemotherapy regimen (odds ratio = 5.12, P = 0.0003), not using DICEP mobilization (odds ratio = 4.94, P = 0.0001), and CD3- 16+ 56+ count <125 x 10(6)/l (odds ratio= 2.58, P = 0.0157).
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD / blood. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Mobilization. Killer Cells, Natural / immunology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Analysis of Variance. Antigens, CD3 / blood. Antigens, CD56 / blood. Breast Neoplasms / therapy. Female. Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor / administration & dosage. Hematologic Neoplasms / therapy. Humans. Leukapheresis. Lymphocyte Count. Male. Middle Aged. Predictive Value of Tests. Receptors, IgG / blood. Risk Factors. Transplantation, Autologous

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  • (PMID = 11548841.001).
  • [ISSN] 0268-3369
  • [Journal-full-title] Bone marrow transplantation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bone Marrow Transplant.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, CD3; 0 / Antigens, CD56; 0 / Receptors, IgG; 143011-72-7 / Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor
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20. Kuo TT, Shih LY, Tsang NM: Nasal NK/T cell lymphoma in Taiwan: a clinicopathologic study of 22 cases, with analysis of histologic subtypes, Epstein-Barr virus LMP-1 gene association, and treatment modalities. Int J Surg Pathol; 2004 Oct;12(4):375-87
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Nasal NK/T cell lymphoma in Taiwan: a clinicopathologic study of 22 cases, with analysis of histologic subtypes, Epstein-Barr virus LMP-1 gene association, and treatment modalities.
  • Nasal NK/T cell lymphoma is a distinctive type of extranodal lymphoma with an unique immunophenotype and a strong association with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV).
  • We studied 22 cases of nasal NK/T cell lymphoma to characterize their clinicopathologic features and to explore the possible differences between histologic subtypes and their clinical behavior as well as the prevalence of 30-base pair (bp) deleted latent membrane protein-1 (LMP-1) gene of the EBV.
  • They consisted of 5 cases of small cell type (SC), 6 cases of medium-sized cell type (MC), 6 cases of large cell type (LC), and 5 cases of pleomorphic cell type (PC).
  • The median ages of the LC type and PC type were older than the other 2 types.
  • All but 1 case had stage IE disease at the time of diagnosis.
  • Five cases developed extranasal involvement and skin was the most common site.
  • No bone marrow involvement was detected.
  • The majority of patients received local radiotherapy and chemotherapy.
  • Local irradiation was more effective than chemotherapy alone.
  • Nine cases of various cell types (41%) were also CD30+.
  • Among the 4 histologic subtypes, the SC type differed from the other types by the absence of angiodestruction and necrosis, although angioinvasive growth was seen in 2 of them.
  • Pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia was seen in only 3 cases of the SC type, and all 5 cases of the SC type were CD30-.
  • A high prevalence rate of 86% (19/22) of the 30-base pair (bp) deleted LMP-1 gene was found, but 81.5% (22/27) of the EBV-positive control reactive lymphoid tissues also had the 30-bp deleted LMP-1 gene.
  • Therefore, the high prevalence of the 30-bp deleted LMP-1 gene found in NK/T cell lymphoma could be due to the high prevalence of the deleted variant in this geographic region.
  • However, it remains possible that the high prevalence of the deleted LMP-1 gene contributed to the increased incidence of EBV-associated nasal NK/T cell lymphoma in Taiwan.
  • [MeSH-major] Herpesvirus 4, Human. Killer Cells, Natural / pathology. Lymphoma, T-Cell, Peripheral / pathology. Nose Neoplasms / pathology. Viral Matrix Proteins / genetics

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  • (PMID = 15494863.001).
  • [ISSN] 1066-8969
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / EBV-associated membrane antigen, Epstein-Barr virus; 0 / Epstein-Barr virus encoded RNA 1; 0 / RNA, Viral; 0 / Viral Matrix Proteins
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21. Yang C, Ma J, Yang X, Jia L, Liu H, Xiao J: Natural killer/T-cell nasal-type lymphoma: unusual primary spinal tumor. Spine (Phila Pa 1976); 2008 Nov 15;33(24):E929-32

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  • [Title] Natural killer/T-cell nasal-type lymphoma: unusual primary spinal tumor.
  • STUDY DESIGN: A natural killer/T-cell lymphoma originating in the spine of a 60-year-old man is first reported, along with a brief review of the literature on the topic.
  • OBJECTIVE: To describe the presentation and diagnosis of this disorder along with an emphasis on the importance of this type of rare tumor, needing early and accurate immunophenotypic profiling to make a right diagnosis.
  • SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Natural killer (NK)/T-cell lymphomas represent a rare type of lymphoma derived from either activated NK cell or rarely cytotoxic T cells.
  • It usually originates in the nasal cavity/nasopharynx and invades the surrounding tissues, which is aggressive and, usually, a delay in diagnosis could result in a fatal outcome.
  • METHODS: A 60-year-old man presented with severe pain in his chest and back for 3 weeks and developed paralysis soon.
  • After we got a negative result of lymphomatous from a bone marrow biopsy, we took a piecemeal excision of the 10th thoracic vertebra.
  • Titanium mesh with bone cement filling-in and mass screw internal fixation system were used for reconstructing the stability of the spine.
  • The histopathology was consistent with NK/T-cell lymphomas.
  • He was not suitable for any aggressive chemotherapy or radiation therapy because of his poor condition and died 20 days later.
  • CONCLUSION: NK/T-cell lymphomas originated at other sites but nasal cavity/nasopharynx do not present typical clinical features and symptoms in the absence of lymphadenopathy.
  • There are possibilities for misdiagnosis of NK/T-cell lymphoma that originates at other sites.
  • The unfavorable prognosis of this tumor emphasized the need for novel molecular targets and more effective therapies.
  • [MeSH-major] Killer Cells, Natural / pathology. Lymphoma, T-Cell, Peripheral / pathology. Spinal Neoplasms / pathology. T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic / pathology. Thoracic Vertebrae / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Back Pain / etiology. Back Pain / pathology. Chest Pain / etiology. Chest Pain / pathology. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Immunophenotyping. Joint Instability / etiology. Joint Instability / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Multiple Organ Failure / etiology. Multiple Organ Failure / pathology. Paralysis / etiology. Severity of Illness Index. Spinal Cord Compression / etiology. Spinal Cord Compression / pathology. Spinal Fractures / etiology. Spinal Fractures / pathology. Spinal Fusion. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 19011534.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-1159
  • [Journal-full-title] Spine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Spine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 15
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22. Chorianopoulos D, Samitas K, Vittorakis S, Kiriazi V, Rondoyianni D, Tsaousis G, Skoutelis A: Extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma, nasal-type. Skinmed; 2010 Jan-Feb;8(1):56-8

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma, nasal-type.
  • CT findings of the abdomen were negative, as were results of a bone marrow biopsy.
  • The differential diagnosis, considering the evidence described, included granulomatous or infectious diseases, angiocentric lymphoproliferative lesions, and lymphomas.
  • Immunohistochemical stains showed that the tumor cell were positive for CD56 and CD3 (cytoplasmic positivity) and expressed the cytotoxic proteins T-cell intracellular antigen and granzyme B (Figure 3) They lacked TdT, CD34, CD7, CD8, TCL-1, and CD123.
  • Give this result, molecular analysis ofT-cell receptor (TCR) gene rearrangements was performed using polymerase chain reaction-based TCR-gamma gene, wit negative results.
  • The morphology and the immunophenotype were consistent with natural killer/T-cell lymphoma, nasal-type.
  • Nasal involvement must be first excluded to proceed to the diagnosis of nasal-type natural killer-cell lymphoma.
  • Thus, the authors were led to the diagnosis of extranodal extranasal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma, nasal-type, CD56-positive, Ep stein-Barr virus-negative, TCR-negative.
  • The patient received combination chemotherapy and completed 4 cycles of cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin vincristine, and prednisone every 14 days for 2 months.
  • Skin lesions improved, and there was no fever soon after the initiation of therapy.
  • The patient had receive systemic salvage chemotherapy and intrathecal infusions of methotrexate.
  • Although the lung lesions had diminished at that time, the patient develope paraplegia, his clinical course rapidly deteriorated, and he eventually died.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma, Extranodal NK-T-Cell / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 20839428.001).
  • [ISSN] 1540-9740
  • [Journal-full-title] Skinmed
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Skinmed
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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23. Chang SE, Lee SY, Choi JH, Sung KJ, Moon KC, Koh JK: Cutaneous dissemination of nasal NK/T-cell lymphoma with bone marrow, liver and lung involvement. Clin Exp Dermatol; 2002 Mar;27(2):120-2
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  • [Title] Cutaneous dissemination of nasal NK/T-cell lymphoma with bone marrow, liver and lung involvement.
  • We describe a 32-year-old Korean man with a primary nasal natural killer (NK)/T-cell lymphoma (NKTCL).
  • Combination chemotherapy and radiotherapy resulted in initial complete remission.
  • However, cutaneous dissemination to the trunk and proximal extremities occurred 16 months later and further investigations revealed involvement of the liver, lymph nodes, lung and bone marrow.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Marrow Neoplasms / secondary. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Lymphoma, T-Cell, Cutaneous. Nose Neoplasms. Skin Neoplasms / secondary


24. Takenaka K, Shinagawa K, Maeda Y, Makita M, Kozuka T, Ashiba A, Yamamoto K, Fujii N, Nawa Y, Hiramatsu Y, Sunami K, Ishimaru F, Yoshimo T, Kiura K, Harada M: High-dose chemotherapy with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is effective for nasal and nasal-type CD56+ natural killer cell lymphomas. Leuk Lymphoma; 2001 Nov-Dec;42(6):1297-303
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] High-dose chemotherapy with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is effective for nasal and nasal-type CD56+ natural killer cell lymphomas.
  • CD56+ natural killer (NK) cell lymphomas occur frequently in the nasal and nasopharyngeal regions and carry a poor prognosis.
  • We have studied seven cases with NK-cell lymphomas.
  • One patient with stage I disease achieved a complete remission (CR) after treatment with involved-field irradiation, but subsequently relapsed and died.
  • The remaining six patients received combination chemotherapy as primary treatment: five patients with localized stage I or II disease and one patient with advanced stage III disease.
  • Responses to initial chemotherapy were generally poor.
  • These six patients received a variety of salvage chemotherapy regimens, but never achieved a CR.
  • Subsequently, four of six patients showed a highly aggressive clinical course and died of disseminated disease within 1 year from the diagnosis.
  • Three of six patients received high-dose chemotherapy supported by syngeneic, autologous or allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation.
  • Our clinical experience suggests that myeloablative high-dose chemotherapy and bone marrow rescue by hematopoietic stem cell transplantation may be an effective salvage treatment modality for refractory NK-cell lymphomas and could be considered as a part of the initial therapy for these patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD56 / analysis. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. Lymphoma, T-Cell / therapy. Nose Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Killer Cells, Natural. Male. Middle Aged. Salvage Therapy

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  • (PMID = 11911411.001).
  • [ISSN] 1042-8194
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia & lymphoma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Lymphoma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD56
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25. Rodriguez J, Romaguera JE, Manning J, Ordonez N, Ha C, Ravandi F, Cabanillas F: Nasal-type T/NK lymphomas: a clinicopathologic study of 13 cases. Leuk Lymphoma; 2000 Sep;39(1-2):139-44
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  • [Title] Nasal-type T/NK lymphomas: a clinicopathologic study of 13 cases.
  • Natural Killer (NK) cell lymphomas, which include the nasal and the "nasal type" varieties, are defined as angiocentric lymphomas in the revised European American Lymphoma (R.E.A.L.) classification.
  • It is associated with the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and its response to treatment and prognosis are usually very poor.
  • Thirteen patients with a diagnosis of nasal NK cell lymphoma were treated at UTMDACC from 1987 to 1999.
  • Eleven patients were treated initially with doxorubicin based chemotherapy with or without radiotherapy.
  • Typical immunophenotypes expressing CD2+, CD3- and CD56+ surface markers as well as non rearrangement of T-receptors were present in all patients.
  • Eight patients (62%) responded to therapy; six (46%) with complete response (CR) and two (16%) with partial response (PR).
  • Five patients (38%) were alive, four with no evidence of disease (NED) at 1, 2, 3, and 9 years after treatment, and one patient was alive with disease (AWD) at the time of publication.
  • One patient died while in CR from complications from allogeneic bone marrow transplant.
  • Six patients had disease progression to extranodal sites including: testis (2), central nervous system (2), lung (1), bone marrow (2), liver (2), peripheral blood (2), and skin (2).
  • Because the disease is associated with EBV virus in 90%-100% of the cases and the prognosis is poor, innovative therapies should be tried including immunotherapy that targets the expression of EBV by the tumor with or without myeloablative procedures.
  • [MeSH-major] Killer Cells, Natural. Lymphoma, T-Cell / therapy. Nose Neoplasms / therapy. Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / toxicity. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Recurrence. Remission Induction. Salvage Therapy. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 10975392.001).
  • [ISSN] 1042-8194
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia & lymphoma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Lymphoma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] SWITZERLAND
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26. Vega F, Chang CC, Schwartz MR, Preti HA, Younes M, Ewton A, Verm R, Jaffe ES: Atypical NK-cell proliferation of the gastrointestinal tract in a patient with antigliadin antibodies but not celiac disease. Am J Surg Pathol; 2006 Apr;30(4):539-44
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Atypical NK-cell proliferation of the gastrointestinal tract in a patient with antigliadin antibodies but not celiac disease.
  • We describe a unique case of atypical natural killer (NK)-cell proliferation likely related to gluten sensitivity, mimicking NK-cell lymphoma.
  • Immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry showed that the cells were NK cells expressing CD56 (aberrantly bright), T-cell intracellular antigen (TIA)-1, cytoplasmic CD3, and CD94, but not surface CD3, with bright aberrant expression of CD7 and a lack of other NK cell-associated markers.
  • Polymerase chain reaction for rearrangement of the T-cell receptor-gamma chain gene showed no evidence of a clonal T-cell population, and in situ hybridization for Epstein-Barr virus encoded RNA was negative.
  • There was no evidence of the involvement of peripheral blood or bone marrow.
  • Although a diagnosis of extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma was considered because of the atypical morphology and immunophenotypic aberrancy, no chemotherapy was given because of the relatively superficial nature of the infiltrates, lack of significant symptoms, and negativity for Epstein-Barr virus.
  • After instituting a gluten-free diet, many of the lesions regressed, suggesting that this atypical NK-cell proliferation may be driven by an anomalous immune response.
  • Awareness of this case may prevent pathologists from misdiagnosing similar lesions as NK/T-cell lymphomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies / blood. Celiac Disease / diagnosis. Gastrointestinal Tract / pathology. Gliadin / immunology. Killer Cells, Natural / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cell Proliferation. Flow Cytometry. Humans. Immunoglobulin A / immunology. Immunoglobulin G / immunology. Immunohistochemistry. Male

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  • (PMID = 16625103.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / /
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies; 0 / Immunoglobulin A; 0 / Immunoglobulin G; 9007-90-3 / Gliadin
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27. Deneau M, Wallentine J, Guthery S, O'Gorman M, Bohnsack J, Fluchel M, Bezzant J, Pohl JF: Natural killer cell lymphoma in a pediatric patient with inflammatory bowel disease. Pediatrics; 2010 Oct;126(4):e977-81
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Natural killer cell lymphoma in a pediatric patient with inflammatory bowel disease.
  • Tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) antibody agents are an effective therapy for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD); however, because of the potential for immune suppression with these drugs, TNF-α antibody agents can increase the risk of malignancy.
  • Intestinal inflammation continued and impaired his quality of life; he was diagnosed with IBD of an undetermined type (IBD-U).
  • Symptoms improved with infliximab, but he developed elevated transaminase levels with hepatosplenomegaly 1 year after scheduled infusions.
  • Skin biopsy revealed an atypical lymphoid infiltrate consistent with an Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive natural killer (NK)/T-cell lymphoma with associated hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis.
  • Bone marrow biopsy revealed a similar EBV-positive lymphoid infiltrate consistent with an NK/T-cell lymphoma.
  • EBV-positive tissue was present in gastrointestinal biopsies.
  • Flow-cytometric analysis revealed an atypical, clonal NK-cell population, and biopsy specimens from several tissue sites tested positive for CD3, CD56, and CD30.
  • The patient died soon after the diagnosis was made.
  • This patient developed an EBV-driven malignancy while receiving infliximab.
  • [MeSH-major] Inflammatory Bowel Diseases / complications. Inflammatory Bowel Diseases / drug therapy. Lymphoma, Extranodal NK-T-Cell / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibodies, Monoclonal / adverse effects. Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Child. Gastrointestinal Agents / adverse effects. Gastrointestinal Agents / therapeutic use. Humans. Infliximab. Male. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / immunology

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  • (PMID = 20837584.001).
  • [ISSN] 1098-4275
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatrics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCATS NIH HHS / TR / UL1 TR000077
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Gastrointestinal Agents; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; B72HH48FLU / Infliximab
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28. Maruyama D, Watanabe T, Beppu Y, Kobayashi Y, Kim SW, Tanimoto K, Makimoto A, Kagami Y, Terauchi T, Matsuno Y, Tobinai K: Primary bone lymphoma: a new and detailed characterization of 28 patients in a single-institution study. Jpn J Clin Oncol; 2007 Mar;37(3):216-23
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Primary bone lymphoma: a new and detailed characterization of 28 patients in a single-institution study.
  • BACKGROUND: The incidence of primary bone lymphoma (PBL) is so rare that many of its aspects remain unknown.
  • All patients underwent chemotherapy with half receiving radiotherapy as their initial treatment.
  • Although 19 (68%) patients had diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), other histopathological subtypes (three B-lymphoblastic lymphoma, two anaplastic large cell lymphoma, two indolent B-cell lymphoma, one NK/T-cell lymphoma (NTCL) and one Hodgkin lymphoma) were also included.
  • While 68% of patients had stage IV disease, none of them showed bone marrow involvement at their initial diagnosis.
  • Only 'histopathological subtype (immunoblastic variant of DLBCL or NTCL versus others)' and 'response to initial treatment (progression versus remission)' were factors significantly affecting overall survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / pathology. Lymphoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Hodgkin Disease / pathology. Humans. Lymphoma, B-Cell / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17472971.001).
  • [ISSN] 1465-3621
  • [Journal-full-title] Japanese journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Jpn. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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29. Cheung MM, Chan JK, Wong KF: Natural killer cell neoplasms: a distinctive group of highly aggressive lymphomas/leukemias. Semin Hematol; 2003 Jul;40(3):221-32
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  • [Title] Natural killer cell neoplasms: a distinctive group of highly aggressive lymphomas/leukemias.
  • Natural killer (NK) cell neoplasms, which include extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma (nasal and extranasal) and aggressive NK cell leukemia, are generally rare, but they are more common in people of Oriental, Mexican and South American descent.
  • Extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma most commonly affects the nasal cavity and other mucosal sites of the upper aerodigestive tract.
  • Patients with the extranasal form of the lymphoma often present with high-stage disease, commonly involving the skin, gastrointestinal tract, testis, and soft tissue, and the prognosis is even worse.
  • Histologically, the lymphoma can show a broad cytologic spectrum, but apoptosis, necrosis, and angioinvasion are common.
  • Based on currently available data, treatment of nasal NK/T-cell lymphoma should consist of radiotherapy, with or without multiagent chemotherapy.
  • More research is required to ascertain the role of high-dose chemotherapy with stem cell rescue and that of non-multidrug resistance-related chemotherapeutic agents.
  • Aggressive NK cell leukemia affects younger patients, who present with poor general condition, fever, and disseminated disease; they often die within a short time from systemic disease or complications such as multi-organ failure.
  • The peripheral blood and bone marrow show atypical large granular lymphocytes, which exhibit an immunophenotype similar to that of extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma.
  • Aggressive NK cell leukemia must be distinguished from T-cell large granular lymphocyte leukemia and indolent NK cell lymphoproliferative disorder, both of which are indolent.
  • [MeSH-major] Killer Cells, Natural / pathology. Leukemia / pathology. Lymphoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Lymphoma, T-Cell / diagnosis. Lymphoma, T-Cell / pathology. Lymphoma, T-Cell / therapy. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 12876671.001).
  • [ISSN] 0037-1963
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 99
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30. Kuroda J, Kimura S, Kobayashi Y, Jyoko N, Kamitsuji Y, Murotani Y, Fukuda W, Akaogi T, Hayashi H, Yoshikawa T, Maekawa T: Variable manifestation in natural killer cell leukaemia. Clin Lab Haematol; 2003 Aug;25(4):239-45

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Variable manifestation in natural killer cell leukaemia.
  • Natural killer (NK) cell leukaemias are a relatively rare group of haematological disorders, now entitled in the T/NK lymphoproliferative disorders in the new WHO classification.
  • However, some cases with NK malignancies still remain difficult to diagnose and differentiate into their subtypes in the absence of a distinct diagnostic hallmark, especially at initial presentation.
  • We describe herein five patients with NK leukaemias with respect to the clinical, cytological, immunological and cytogenetic characteristics, varied among each case.
  • Cytologically, two aggressive NK cell leukaemia/lymphoma (ANKL/L) cases were a morphologically hypogranular variant form.
  • Systemic chemotherapy resulted in complete remission in one ANKL/L and two blastic NK cell leukaemia/lymphoma (BNKL/L) patients; however, a good long-term outcome was achieved in only one CD4-positive BNKL/L patient with allogenic bone marrow transplantation.
  • From these findings, we conclude that comprehensive individual studies should be carried out in these patients to obtain a correct diagnosis and to design an optimal therapeutic approach.
  • [MeSH-major] Killer Cells, Natural / pathology. Neoplastic Stem Cells / pathology. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 12890163.001).
  • [ISSN] 0141-9854
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical and laboratory haematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Lab Haematol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; EC 1.11.1.7 / Peroxidase
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31. Kwong YL, Lam CC, Chan TM: Post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disease of natural killer cell lineage: a clinicopathological and molecular analysis. Br J Haematol; 2000 Jul;110(1):197-202
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disease of natural killer cell lineage: a clinicopathological and molecular analysis.
  • Post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD) occur after solid organ and bone marrow transplantation.
  • They are predominantly of B-cell and occasionally of T-cell lineage.
  • We report a case of PTLD of natural killer (NK) cell lineage.
  • A renal allograft recipient developed progressive pancytopenia 1 year after transplantation.
  • Serial bone marrow biopsies showed an increasing infiltration by large granular lymphoid cells.
  • A subsequent leukaemic phase also developed with systemic infiltration of other organs.
  • Genotypical analysis showed the T-cell receptor gene in germline configuration and clonal EBV episomal integration.
  • The overall features were consistent with NK cell lymphoma/leukaemia.
  • The patient did not respond to cessation of immunosuppression or anti-EBV treatment.
  • Combination chemotherapy was given, but the patient died ultimately of disseminated fungal infection.
  • In conclusion, we have demonstrated that NK cell lymphoma is another rare type of PTLD that appears to be highly aggressive and therefore may require early chemotherapy to improve treatment outcome.
  • [MeSH-major] Kidney Transplantation. Killer Cells, Natural / immunology. Lectins, C-Type. Leukemia, T-Cell / diagnosis. Postoperative Complications / immunology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antigens, CD / analysis. Antigens, CD2 / analysis. Antigens, CD3 / analysis. Antigens, CD56 / analysis. Blotting, Southern. DNA, Viral. Flow Cytometry. Herpesvirus 4, Human / genetics. Humans. Immunophenotyping. In Situ Hybridization. Kidney Failure, Chronic / immunology. Kidney Failure, Chronic / surgery. Kidney Failure, Chronic / virology. Male. Membrane Glycoproteins / analysis. NK Cell Lectin-Like Receptor Subfamily D. Transplantation, Homologous

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  • (PMID = 10930998.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-1048
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of haematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Haematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] ENGLAND
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, CD2; 0 / Antigens, CD3; 0 / Antigens, CD56; 0 / DNA, Viral; 0 / KLRD1 protein, human; 0 / Lectins, C-Type; 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins; 0 / NK Cell Lectin-Like Receptor Subfamily D
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32. Matano S, Terahata S, Nakamura S, Kobayashi K, Sugimoto T: CD56-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Acta Haematol; 2005;114(3):160-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • We report a patient with lung cancer who developed CD56-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
  • Atypical cells were found in the blood and the bone marrow.
  • There were no rearrangements of T-cell receptor (TCR)-beta, TCR-gamma, or immunoglobulin heavy chain.
  • Systemic examination did not detect any tumors other than pulmonary adenocarcinoma, and the patient was diagnosed as having acute natural killer (NK) cell leukemia.
  • Chemotherapy was effective, and he achieved complete remission.
  • The course of the disease was complicated by a lung abscess, and the patient died 3 months after the diagnosis.
  • We considered that the diagnosis was blastic NK cell lymphoma/leukemia subtype.
  • However, it actually was myeloid/NK cell precursor leukemia subtype that weakly expressed CD13.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD56 / metabolism. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / immunology

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel
  • (PMID = 16227680.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5792
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta haematologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Haematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD56
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33. Kitazawa Y, Saito F, Nomura S, Ishii K, Kadota E: A case of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis after the primary Epstein-Barr virus infection. Clin Appl Thromb Hemost; 2007 Jul;13(3):323-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection is known to result in infectious mononucleosis, hemophagocytic syndrome, chronic active EBV infection, and lymphoma.
  • Chemotherapy was performed using methyl prednisolone succinate, prednisolone, cyclosporin A, and 20 mg/kg of cyclophosphamide.
  • Further immunopathologic examination of these cells showed that the histiocyte markers were positive, whereas the T-cell marker was negative.
  • In view of these findings, definite diagnosis of EBV-related hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis could not be made at that time.
  • The immunohistologic examinations on the liver necropsy specimen provided the evidences suggesting the morbid activation of the hepatic stellate macrophage by EBV-infected T/NK cells and subsequent apoptosis induction of the liver cells through the Fas ligand pathway.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Bone Marrow / pathology. Chromosome Inversion. Cyclosporine / blood. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Liver / pathology. Liver Failure, Acute / etiology. Macrophages / pathology. Multiple Organ Failure / etiology. Splenectomy

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  • (PMID = 17636196.001).
  • [ISSN] 1076-0296
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical and applied thrombosis/hemostasis : official journal of the International Academy of Clinical and Applied Thrombosis/Hemostasis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Appl. Thromb. Hemost.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 83HN0GTJ6D / Cyclosporine
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34. Nagatoshi Y, Matsuzaki A, Suminoe A, Inada H, Ueda K, Kawakami K, Yanai F, Nakayama H, Moritake H, Itonaga N, Hotta N, Fujita K, Hidaka Y, Yamanaka T, Kawano Y, Okamura J: Randomized trial to compare LSA2L2-type maintenance therapy to daily 6-mercaptopurine and weekly methotrexate with vincristine and dexamethasone pulse for children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2010 Aug;55(2):239-47
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Randomized trial to compare LSA2L2-type maintenance therapy to daily 6-mercaptopurine and weekly methotrexate with vincristine and dexamethasone pulse for children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
  • PROCEDURE: Risk stratification was based on white cell counts, immunophenotype, the presence of central nervous system disease at diagnosis, organomegaly, and early treatment response (day 14 bone marrow status).
  • All of the patients were classified into standard-risk (SR) or high-risk (HR) groups and were randomly assigned to receive maintenance therapy with either LSA2L2-type or 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP)/methotrexate (MTX) with vincristine (VCR) and dexamethasone (DEX) pulse in both risk groups.
  • CONCLUSIONS: There were no differences in the EFS between the different maintenance therapies in each risk group; however, grade IV liver toxicity occurred more often in the patients receiving 6-MP/MTX with VCR and DEX therapy than in patients receiving LSA2L2.
  • [MeSH-major] 6-Mercaptopurine / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Daunorubicin / administration & dosage. Dexamethasone / administration & dosage. Drug-Induced Liver Injury. Humans. Infant. Methotrexate / administration & dosage. Prednisone / administration & dosage. Risk Assessment. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. PREDNISONE .
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  • [Copyright] (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 20582970.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5017
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; E7WED276I5 / 6-Mercaptopurine; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate; ZS7284E0ZP / Daunorubicin; LSA2-L2 protocol
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