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1. Shapiro M, Wasik MA, Junkins-Hopkins JM, Rook AH, Vittorio CC, Itakura H, Frankel MC, Georgala S, Schuster SJ: Complete remission in advanced blastic NK-cell lymphoma/leukemia in elderly patients using the hyper-CVAD regimen. Am J Hematol; 2003 Sep;74(1):46-51
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  • [Title] Complete remission in advanced blastic NK-cell lymphoma/leukemia in elderly patients using the hyper-CVAD regimen.
  • Although its cell of origin is still controversial, the blastic NK-cell leukemia/lymphoma clearly represents a distinct type of hematopoietic neoplasm that is particularly clinically aggressive when it occurs in elderly patients as a disseminated, multi-organ disease.
  • Consistently effective treatments have not been developed for this malignancy.
  • The present report describes two elderly patients with widespread blastic NK-cell leukemia/lymphoma involving the skin, bone marrow, peripheral blood, lymph nodes, and viscera.
  • In both cases the malignant cells were CD56+, CD2+, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT) positive with no detectable T-cell receptor (TCR) gamma chain gene rearrangement.
  • The above findings support the precursor NK-cell, rather than mature NK- or non-NK-cell, origin of the malignant cells.
  • It is noteworthy that the two patients achieved complete responses to treatment with hyper-CVAD (fractionated cyclophosphamide, vincristine, doxorubicin, and dexamethasone) alternating with high-dose methotrexate/cytarabine, a regimen currently utilized in acute lymphoblastic leukemia and high-grade lymphoma.
  • The complete remission (CR) was sustained for 24 months in one patient who received four cycles (eight courses) of the treatment.
  • If similar results are obtained with future patients, a randomized study comparing the hyper-CVAD regimen to other therapeutic strategies may be warranted.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cyclophosphamide / therapeutic use. Dexamethasone / therapeutic use. Doxorubicin / therapeutic use. Killer Cells, Natural / pathology. Leukemia / drug therapy. Lymphoma, T-Cell / drug therapy. Lymphoma, T-Cell / pathology. Vincristine / therapeutic use

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 12949889.001).
  • [ISSN] 0361-8609
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01-CA89194
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate; CVAD protocol
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2. Gaiser T, Haedicke W, Becker MR: A rare pediatric case of a thymic cytotoxic and lymphoblastic T/NK cell lymphoma. Int J Clin Exp Pathol; 2010;3(4):437-42
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  • [Title] A rare pediatric case of a thymic cytotoxic and lymphoblastic T/NK cell lymphoma.
  • Attempts to establish a concise classification of lymphoblastic lymphomas (LBLs) have gained momentum in recent years, mainly due to the expanding possibilities of immunohistochemical and genetic characterization of different disease entities.
  • To further characterize and demonstrate the extended spectrum of LBL, we present an unusual pediatric case of LBL that could not be categorized into one of the subgroups and exhibited a benign course after surgical treatment and subsequent chemotherapy.
  • Further T- aand NK-cell markers CD1a, CD4, CD8, CD10, and CD56 reacted positively, but CD57, CD16 and CD 30 (Ber H2) were all negative.
  • B cell markers (CD20, CD22, Cd79a and IgM) were all negative.
  • No clonal B cell Ig or T cell gamma chain rearrangements were detectable.
  • The applied chemotherapy was tolerated well and a complete remission of the tumor was achieved (observation period three years after the initial diagnosis).
  • However, our case represents a rare pediatric lymphoma derived from a thymic precursor committed to T/NK-cell differentiation and a favourable outcome after chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Natural Killer T-Cells / pathology. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antigens, CD / biosynthesis. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cell Lineage. Child. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Immunophenotyping. Male. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Thymus Gland / cytology

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  • (PMID = 20490334.001).
  • [ISSN] 1936-2625
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of clinical and experimental pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Clin Exp Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2872750
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; T/NK cell lymphoma / lymphoblastic lymphomas / pediatric lymphoma
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3. Gruber TA, Skelton DC, Kohn DB: Requirement for NK cells in CD40 ligand-mediated rejection of Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells. J Immunol; 2002 Jan 1;168(1):73-80
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  • [Title] Requirement for NK cells in CD40 ligand-mediated rejection of Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells.
  • We have previously developed a murine model of Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia by i.v. injection of a pre-B ALL cell line (BM185) derived from Bcr-Abl-transformed BALB/c bone marrow.
  • BM185 cells expressing CD40L or CD80 alone, when injected into BALB/c mice, were rejected in approximately 25% of mice, whereas cohorts receiving BM185 cells expressing two or more immunomodulator genes rejected challenge 50-76% of the time.
  • Addition of murine rIL-12 treatments in conjunction with BM185/CD80/CD40L/GM-CSF vaccination allowed rejection of preestablished leukemia.
  • BM185 cell lines expressing CD40L were rejected in BALB/c nu/nu (nude) mice, in contrast to cell lines expressing CD80 and/or GM-CSF.
  • Nude mice depleted of NK cells were no longer protected when challenged with BM185/CD40L, demonstrating a requirement for NK cells.
  • Similarly, NK cell depletion in immunocompetent BALB/c mice resulted in a loss of protection when challenged with BM185/CD40L, confirming the data seen in nude mice.
  • The ability of CD40L to act in a T cell-independent manner may be important for clinical applications in patients with depressed cellular immunity following chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] CD40 Ligand / physiology. Killer Cells, Natural / immunology. Philadelphia Chromosome. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / immunology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antigens, CD80 / genetics. Antigens, CD80 / physiology. Cancer Vaccines. Combined Modality Therapy. Cytotoxicity Tests, Immunologic. Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor / genetics. Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor / physiology. Immunologic Memory. Interleukin-12 / therapeutic use. Lymphocyte Depletion. Male. Mice. Mice, Inbred BALB C. Mice, Nude. Neoplasm Transplantation. Survival Analysis. T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic / immunology. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 11751948.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-1767
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Immunol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD80; 0 / Cancer Vaccines; 147205-72-9 / CD40 Ligand; 187348-17-0 / Interleukin-12; 83869-56-1 / Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor
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4. Piloto O, Nguyen B, Huso D, Kim KT, Li Y, Witte L, Hicklin DJ, Brown P, Small D: IMC-EB10, an anti-FLT3 monoclonal antibody, prolongs survival and reduces nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient engraftment of some acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell lines and primary leukemic samples. Cancer Res; 2006 May 1;66(9):4843-51
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  • [Title] IMC-EB10, an anti-FLT3 monoclonal antibody, prolongs survival and reduces nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient engraftment of some acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell lines and primary leukemic samples.
  • The class III receptor tyrosine kinase FLT3 is expressed on the blasts of >90% of patients with B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemias (ALL).
  • In this report, we investigate the effects of treating ALL cell lines and primary samples with human anti-FLT3 monoclonal antibodies (mAb) capable of preventing binding of FLT3 ligand.
  • In vitro studies, examining the ability of two anti-FLT3 mAbs (IMC-EB10 and IMC-NC7) to affect FLT3 activation and downstream signaling in ALL cell lines and primary blasts, yielded variable results.
  • FLT3 phosphorylation was consistently inhibited by IMC-NC7 treatment, but in some cell lines, IMC-EB10 actually stimulated FLT3 activation, possibly as a result of antibody-mediated receptor dimerization.
  • Through antibody-dependent, cell-mediated cytotoxicity, such an antibody could still prove efficacious against leukemia cells in vivo.
  • In fact, IMC-EB10 treatment significantly prolonged survival and/or reduced engraftment of several ALL cell lines and primary ALL samples in nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient (NOD/SCID) mice.
  • This occurred even when IMC-EB10 treatment resulted in FLT3 activation in vitro.
  • Moreover, fluorescence-activated cell sorting and PCR analysis of IMC-EB10-treated NOD/SCID mice surviving 150 days post-leukemic cell injection revealed that FLT3 immunotherapy reduced leukemic engraftment below the level of detection in these assays (<0.001%).
  • Furthermore, in vivo IMC-EB10 treatment did not select for resistant cells, because cells surviving IMC-EB10 treatment remain sensitive to IMC-EB10 cytotoxicity upon retransplantation.
  • In vivo studies involving either partial depletion or activation of natural killer (NK) cells show that most of the cytotoxic effect of IMC-EB10 is mediated through NK cells.
  • Therefore, such an antibody, either naked or conjugated to radioactive isotopes or cytotoxic agents, may prove useful in the therapy of infant ALL as well as childhood and adult ALL patients whose blasts typically express FLT3.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / pharmacology. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / therapy. fms-Like Tyrosine Kinase 3 / immunology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Line, Tumor. Child. Cytotoxicity, Immunologic. Female. Humans. Immunization, Passive / methods. Killer Cells, Natural / immunology. Male. Mice. Mice, Inbred NOD. Mice, SCID. Neoplasm Transplantation. Signal Transduction / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 16651440.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-5472
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA100632; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA62924; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA70970; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA90668; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / RR00171
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; EC 2.7.10.1 / FLT3 protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / fms-Like Tyrosine Kinase 3
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5. Leung W, Neale G, Behm F, Iyengar R, Finkelstein D, Kastan MB, Pui CH: Deficient innate immunity, thymopoiesis, and gene expression response to radiation in survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Cancer Epidemiol; 2010 Jun;34(3):303-8
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  • [Title] Deficient innate immunity, thymopoiesis, and gene expression response to radiation in survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
  • BACKGROUND: Survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) are at an increased risk of developing secondary malignant neoplasms.
  • Radiation and chemotherapy can cause mutations and cytogenetic abnormalities and induce genomic instability.
  • Therefore, we sought to determine the long-term effects of ALL treatment on immune function and response to DNA damage.
  • In contrast, patients had lower numbers of all lymphocyte subsets involved in innate immunity (gammadeltaT cells and all NK subsets, including KIR2DL1+ cells, KIR2DL2/L3+ cells, and CD16+ cells), and lower natural cytotoxicity against K562 leukemia cells.
  • Thymopoiesis was lower in patients, as demonstrated by less CD45RO-/RA+ naïve T cell and less SjTREC levels in the blood, whereas the Vbeta spectratype complexity score was similar.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  • (PMID = 20413363.001).
  • [ISSN] 1877-783X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer epidemiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Epidemiol
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA021765; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA021765-24; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-21765; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA-21765-24
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS193817; NLM/ PMC2874127
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6. Hashii Y, Okuda T, Ohta H, Ozono K, Hara J: Pediatric myeloid/NK cell precursor lymphoma/leukemia expressing T/NK immunophenotype markers. Int J Hematol; 2010 Apr;91(3):525-9
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  • [Title] Pediatric myeloid/NK cell precursor lymphoma/leukemia expressing T/NK immunophenotype markers.
  • Myeloid/NK cell precursor lymphoma/leukemia has been suggested to be of precursor NK origin.
  • We report a 1-year-old boy with myeloid/NK cell precursor lymphoma/leukemia who presented with a skin nodule.
  • He received acute myeloid leukemia-oriented combination chemotherapy.
  • Being refractory to chemotherapy, he underwent stem cell transplantation from his father.
  • Although myeloid/NK cell precursor acute leukemia is characterized by CD7(+), CD56(+), CD3(-), CD34(+) and myeloid antigen(+) phenotype, the blast cells of our patients lacked CD34 and CD7 expression while expressing myeloid antigens.
  • Furthermore, CD94 1A transcripts were predominantly expressed rather than CD94 1B, implying their origin in immature NK cells.
  • After acute myeloid leukemia-oriented combination chemotherapy, his blasts acquired stable CD3 expression and TCRgammadelta rearrangement at recurrence.
  • The blast cells possessed features overlapping both myeloid/NK precursor acute leukemia and blastic NK/precursor acute lymphoma/leukemia.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor. Killer Cells, Natural / pathology. Leukemia, Myeloid / pathology. Precursor B-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Lineage. Humans. Immunophenotyping. Infant. Male

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  • (PMID = 20146030.001).
  • [ISSN] 1865-3774
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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7. Knudsen H, Grønbaek K, thor Straten P, Gisselø C, Johansen P, Timshel S, Bergmann OJ, Hansen NE, Ralfkiaer E: A case of lymphoblastoid natural killer (NK)-cell lymphoma: association with the NK-cell receptor complex CD94/NKG2 and TP53 intragenic deletion. Br J Dermatol; 2002 Jan;146(1):148-53
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  • [Title] A case of lymphoblastoid natural killer (NK)-cell lymphoma: association with the NK-cell receptor complex CD94/NKG2 and TP53 intragenic deletion.
  • The clinical, histological, phenotypic and genotypic features of a lymphoblastoid natural killer (NK)-cell lymphoma presenting in the skin in a young caucasian woman are described.
  • The disease behaved aggressively, but long-lasting remission was obtained by combination chemotherapy followed by autologous bone marrow transplantation.
  • Furthermore, the NK-cell receptor complex CD94/NKG2 was strongly expressed, as shown by examination with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction.
  • The T-cell receptor (TCR)-gamma genes were in germline, and with the exception of CD4 all T-cell antigens were negative, including CD3, TCR-beta, TCR-delta, TIA-1, granzyme B and perforin.
  • Epstein-Barr virus was negative, and no expression was seen of myeloid cell-associated markers.
  • It is suggested that lymphoblastoid NK-cell lymphoma, which is a rare but distinctive disease, originates from NK cell precursors and may be associated with and possibly caused by alterations in the TP53 gene.
  • Experience is too limited to warrant therapeutic suggestions.
  • However, stem cell transplantation may be a useful option in younger patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD / genetics. Gene Deletion. Killer Cells, Natural. Lectins, C-Type. Membrane Glycoproteins / genetics. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / genetics. Skin Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Asparaginase / administration & dosage. Bone Marrow Transplantation. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. NK Cell Lectin-Like Receptor Subfamily D. Treatment Outcome. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 11841384.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0963
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / KLRD1 protein, human; 0 / Lectins, C-Type; 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins; 0 / NK Cell Lectin-Like Receptor Subfamily D; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; EC 3.5.1.1 / Asparaginase
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8. Aoyama Y, Yamane T, Hino M, Ohta K, Nakamae H, Yamamura R, Koh KR, Takubo T, Inoue T, Tatsumi Y, Tatsumi N: Blastic NK-cell lymphoma/leukemia with T-cell receptor gamma rearrangement. Ann Hematol; 2001 Dec;80(12):752-4
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  • [Title] Blastic NK-cell lymphoma/leukemia with T-cell receptor gamma rearrangement.
  • Increased numbers of abnormal cells were observed in peripheral blood; these cells were of lymphoblastic morphology with high nuclear/cytoplasm ratios and few azurophilic granules.
  • Immunophenotypic analysis revealed positivity for CD2, CD4, CD56, and HLA-DR, and negativity for CD3, CD13, CD16, CD33, CD34, and T cell receptor (TCR).
  • Despite an initial good response to chemotherapy the disease relapsed in the early stage, and the patient died 6 months after diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Gene Rearrangement, gamma-Chain T-Cell Antigen Receptor. Killer Cells, Natural. Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell / diagnosis. Leukemia, Lymphoid / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antigens, CD / analysis. Biopsy. Bone Marrow / pathology. C-Reactive Protein / analysis. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Cytoplasm / pathology. Erythema / pathology. Fatal Outcome. HLA-DR Antigens / analysis. Humans. Immunophenotyping. L-Lactate Dehydrogenase / blood. Male. Receptors, Interleukin-2 / analysis. Skin / pathology

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  • (PMID = 11797118.001).
  • [ISSN] 0939-5555
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / HLA-DR Antigens; 0 / Receptors, Interleukin-2; 9007-41-4 / C-Reactive Protein; EC 1.1.1.27 / L-Lactate Dehydrogenase
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9. Koehl U, Sörensen J, Esser R, Zimmermann S, Grüttner HP, Tonn T, Seidl C, Seifried E, Klingebiel T, Schwabe D: IL-2 activated NK cell immunotherapy of three children after haploidentical stem cell transplantation. Blood Cells Mol Dis; 2004 Nov-Dec;33(3):261-6
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  • [Title] IL-2 activated NK cell immunotherapy of three children after haploidentical stem cell transplantation.
  • Natural killer (NK) cells are thought to be of benefit in HLA-mismatched hematopoietic transplantation (H-SCT).
  • Therefore, we developed a protocol for clinical-use expansion of highly enriched and IL-2-stimulated NK cells.
  • Purification of unstimulated leukaphereses by a two-step T cell depletion with a final CD56 enrichment procedure leads to a mean purity of 95% CD56(+)CD3- NK cells with a four- to five-log depletion of T cells.
  • So far, three pediatric patients with multiply relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) or acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) were treated with repeated transfusions post-H-SCT.
  • Directed killer immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) mismatches were demonstrated in all three cases.
  • Although all patients showed blast persistence at the time of transplant, they reached complete remission and complete donor chimerism within 1 month post-H-SCT.
  • NK cell therapy was tolerated well without graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) induction or other adverse events.
  • This initial trial showed the feasibility of good manufacturing practice (GMP)-compliant NK cell isolation and expansion for clinical applications.
  • We now launch a clinical phase I trial with activated NK cells post-H-SCT.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Immunotherapy, Adoptive. Interleukin-2 / pharmacology. Killer Cells, Natural / transplantation. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / therapy. Lymphocyte Activation / drug effects. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Graft vs Leukemia Effect / drug effects. Haplotypes. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 15528141.001).
  • [ISSN] 1079-9796
  • [Journal-full-title] Blood cells, molecules & diseases
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Blood Cells Mol. Dis.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Interleukin-2
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10. Matano S, Terahata S, Nakamura S, Kobayashi K, Sugimoto T: CD56-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Acta Haematol; 2005;114(3):160-3
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  • [Title] CD56-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
  • We report a patient with lung cancer who developed CD56-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
  • There were no rearrangements of T-cell receptor (TCR)-beta, TCR-gamma, or immunoglobulin heavy chain.
  • Systemic examination did not detect any tumors other than pulmonary adenocarcinoma, and the patient was diagnosed as having acute natural killer (NK) cell leukemia.
  • Chemotherapy was effective, and he achieved complete remission.
  • We considered that the diagnosis was blastic NK cell lymphoma/leukemia subtype.
  • However, it actually was myeloid/NK cell precursor leukemia subtype that weakly expressed CD13.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD56 / metabolism. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / immunology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Humans. Immunophenotyping. Killer Cells, Natural / classification. Killer Cells, Natural / immunology. Killer Cells, Natural / pathology. Male

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel
  • (PMID = 16227680.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5792
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta haematologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Haematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD56
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11. Romero-Guadarrama MB, Aguilar-Martínez E: Extranodal nasal NK/T-cell lymphoma with dissemination to the central nervous system: a case report. Acta Cytol; 2010 Sep-Oct;54(5 Suppl):993-7
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  • [Title] Extranodal nasal NK/T-cell lymphoma with dissemination to the central nervous system: a case report.
  • BACKGROUND: Lymphomas that infiltrate the nervous system in children correspond to those of precursor B cells, such as lymphoblastic and Burkitt's lymphoma.
  • In adults, infiltration occurs in mature B-cell lymphomas, such as mantle cell lymphoma, and, rarely, in Hodgkin's lymphoma or peripheral NK/T-cell lymphomas.
  • CASE: We report the case of a 48-year-old man, who two years before death was diagnosed with extranodal nasal NK/T-cell lymphoma nasal in the left nostril.
  • He also presented infiltration to the bone marrow and underwent chemotherapy.
  • Infiltration to the central nervous system was revealed by computed axial tomography, and cytologic study of cerebrospinal fluid revealed malignant lymphoid cells; he then received intrathecal chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSION: In Mexico, extranodal nasal NK/T-cell lymphoma occurs frequently.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System / pathology. Lymphoma, Extranodal NK-T-Cell / pathology. Nose Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antigens, CD3 / metabolism. Bone Marrow Cells / pathology. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Cerebrospinal Fluid / cytology. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Nasal Cavity / pathology. Vacuoles / pathology

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  • (PMID = 21053585.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD3
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12. Hyakuna N, Toguchi S, Higa T, Okudaira T, Taira N, Masuda M, Kitoh T, Ohta T: Childhood blastic NK cell leukemia successfully treated with L-asparagenase and allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2004 Jun;42(7):631-4
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  • [Title] Childhood blastic NK cell leukemia successfully treated with L-asparagenase and allogeneic bone marrow transplantation.
  • Blastic NK cell lymphoma/leukemia is a rare and highly malignant neoplasia in both adults and children.
  • It is characterized by lymphoblastoid morphology without cytoplasmic granules and immature NK cell immunophenotypes (CD56+, CD57-, CD16-).
  • It has predilection for extranodal organ involvement, and the prognosis of affected patients is extremely poor under the current chemotherapy.
  • We present a 14-year-old girl who was diagnosed as having blastic NK cell leukemia with mediastinal, pleural, and pericardial involvement.
  • T cell receptor (TCR) and Immunoglobulin heavy chain genes were not rearranged.
  • She received chemotherapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia incorporating L-asparaginase (L-asp) which successfully induced complete remission.
  • Bone marrow transplantation (BMT) from her HLA-identical sibling was conducted after two courses of consolidation therapy.
  • Induction and consolidation therapy incorporating L-asp followed by allo-BMT might be a promising treatment for child hood blastic NK cell leukemia, but more samples of the rare leukemia need to be studied before any definitive conclusions can be drawn.
  • [MeSH-major] Asparagine / therapeutic use. Bone Marrow Transplantation. Killer Cells, Natural / pathology. Leukemia, Lymphoid / therapy

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 15127419.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5009
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 7006-34-0 / Asparagine; EC 6.3.1.1 / Aspartate-Ammonia Ligase
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13. Jung CK, Lee KY, Kim Y, Han K, Shim SI, Kim BK, Kang CS: Epstein-Barr virus infection, drug resistance and prognosis in Korean T- and NK-cell lymphomas. Pathol Int; 2001 May;51(5):355-63
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  • [Title] Epstein-Barr virus infection, drug resistance and prognosis in Korean T- and NK-cell lymphomas.
  • T-cell lymphomas are a biologically heterogeneous group of diseases with varying clinical presentations and outcomes.
  • We tried to understand the effect of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) on lymphogenesis, prognostic factors and drug resistance of T-cell lymphomas, and to establish their relationship with international prognostic factors.
  • Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue sections from 35 patients (12 women and 23 men) with T-cell lymphomas were examined to detect the presence of EBV using RNA in situ hybridization for EBV-encoded small nuclear RNA (EBER) 1/2 and immunohistochemical stain for latent membrane protein (LMP)-1.
  • The distribution according to the subgroup was: two T-lymphoblastic lymphomas, 13 NK/T-cell lymphomas, one angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma, 17 peripheral T-cell lymphomas, unspecified, and two anaplastic large cell lymphomas.
  • The EBER was detected in 15 of 35 T-cell lymphomas (42.9%) and among these it was detected in five of 17 nodal lymphomas (29.4%) and 10 of 18 extranodal lymphomas (55.6%).
  • There was close correlation between EBER positivity and NK/T-cell lymphoma (P = 0.032).
  • There was no correlation between EBER expression and complete response (CR rate), but coexpression of EBER and p53 was associated with treatment failure (P = 0.047).
  • P-gp expression was significantly associated with treatment failure (P = 0.001) and overall survival (P = 0.0089).
  • Seventeen of 35 patients (48.6%) treated with systemic chemotherapy or radiation therapy achieved a CR after initial treatment.
  • In conclusion, high incidence of EBV was detected among Korean patients with T-cell lymphomas.
  • Our study supports the prediction that patients who express p53 and P-gp have a poorer prognosis than those who do not and this should be considered when treatment strategies for individual patients are selected.
  • [MeSH-major] Epstein-Barr Virus Infections / complications. Killer Cells, Natural / virology. Lymphoma, T-Cell / virology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Child. Child, Preschool. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Female. Herpesvirus 4, Human / genetics. Herpesvirus 4, Human / isolation & purification. Humans. In Situ Hybridization. Infant. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. P-Glycoprotein / analysis. Prognosis. RNA, Viral / analysis. Survival Analysis. Survival Rate. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / analysis

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  • (PMID = 11422793.001).
  • [ISSN] 1320-5463
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Epstein-Barr virus encoded RNA 1; 0 / Epstein-Barr virus encoded RNA 2; 0 / P-Glycoprotein; 0 / RNA, Viral; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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14. Talwar V, Sreedharan PS, Warrier NK, Guhan, Ramanan SG, Sagar TG: Acute lymphoblastic leukemia presenting as breast mass. J Assoc Physicians India; 2000 Dec;48(12):1212-3
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  • [Title] Acute lymphoblastic leukemia presenting as breast mass.
  • We present here a 34 years female who presented with bilateral breast lumps as the initial manifestation of acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
  • She was treated with consolidation chemotherapy and showed good response.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / diagnosis. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / diagnosis

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  • [CommentIn] J Assoc Physicians India. 2001 Dec;49:1213-4 [11996453.001]
  • (PMID = 11280234.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-5772
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Assoc Physicians India
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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15. Brodtman DH, Rosenthal DW, Redner A, Lanzkowsky P, Bonagura VR: Immunodeficiency in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia after completion of modern aggressive chemotherapeutic regimens. J Pediatr; 2005 May;146(5):654-61
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  • [Title] Immunodeficiency in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia after completion of modern aggressive chemotherapeutic regimens.
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence, duration, and a potential cause of humoral defect(s) in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) at least 1 year after completion of chemotherapy.
  • STUDY DESIGN: Antibody titers for mumps, rubeola, rubella, tetanus and diphtheria toxoid, poliovirus serotypes 1, 2,and 3, Haemophilus influenzae type b, varicella, and hepatitis B were obtained from 100 children with ALL.
  • The chemotherapy protocol used did not affect the ability of these children to express protective antibody responses.
  • T-, B-, and NK-cell numbers and proliferative responses to mitogens were all normal.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Children in remission from ALL have a high prevalence of humoral immune defects that are not related to any specific chemotherapy regimen.
  • This antibody deficiency may place children with ALL at risk for the development of these bacterial and viral diseases, even after completion of chemotherapy.
  • Pediatricians, oncologists, or both should periodically monitor humoral immunity after chemotherapy and re-vaccinate these children, as needed, to ensure prolonged immunoprotection.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibody Formation / drug effects. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Asparaginase / therapeutic use. Communicable Diseases / immunology. Daunorubicin / therapeutic use. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / drug therapy. Prednisone / therapeutic use. Vincristine / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 15870670.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3476
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of pediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; EC 3.5.1.1 / Asparaginase; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone; ZS7284E0ZP / Daunorubicin; PVDA protocol
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16. Mustjoki S, Ekblom M, Arstila TP, Dybedal I, Epling-Burnette PK, Guilhot F, Hjorth-Hansen H, Höglund M, Kovanen P, Laurinolli T, Liesveld J, Paquette R, Pinilla-Ibarz J, Rauhala A, Shah N, Simonsson B, Sinisalo M, Steegmann JL, Stenke L, Porkka K: Clonal expansion of T/NK-cells during tyrosine kinase inhibitor dasatinib therapy. Leukemia; 2009 Aug;23(8):1398-405
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  • [Title] Clonal expansion of T/NK-cells during tyrosine kinase inhibitor dasatinib therapy.
  • Dasatinib, a broad-spectrum tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), predominantly targets BCR-ABL and SRC oncoproteins and also inhibits off-target kinases, which may result in unexpected drug responses.
  • We identified 22 patients with marked lymphoproliferation in blood while on dasatinib therapy.
  • An abrupt lymphocytosis (peak count range 4-20 x 10(9)/l) with large granular lymphocyte (LGL) morphology was observed after a median of 3 months from the start of therapy and it persisted throughout the therapy.
  • Fifteen patients had a cytotoxic T-cell and seven patients had an NK-cell phenotype.
  • All T-cell expansions were clonal.
  • In a phase II clinical study on 46 Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia, patients with lymphocytosis had superior survival compared with patients without lymphocytosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Killer Cells, Natural / drug effects. Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive / drug therapy. Lymphocytosis / chemically induced. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / drug therapy. Protein Kinase Inhibitors / pharmacology. Pyrimidines / pharmacology. T-Lymphocyte Subsets / drug effects. T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic / drug effects. Thiazoles / pharmacology

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  • [CommentIn] Acta Haematol. 2016;136(4):219-228 [27656875.001]
  • (PMID = 19295545.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-5551
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leukemia
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors; 0 / Pyrimidines; 0 / Thiazoles; RBZ1571X5H / Dasatinib
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17. Dijoseph JF, Dougher MM, Armellino DC, Evans DY, Damle NK: Therapeutic potential of CD22-specific antibody-targeted chemotherapy using inotuzumab ozogamicin (CMC-544) for the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Leukemia; 2007 Nov;21(11):2240-5
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  • [Title] Therapeutic potential of CD22-specific antibody-targeted chemotherapy using inotuzumab ozogamicin (CMC-544) for the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
  • CMC-544 (inotuzumab ozogamicin) is a CD22-specific cytotoxic immunoconjugate of calicheamicin intended for the treatment of B-lymphoid malignancies.
  • This preclinical study investigated antitumor activity of CMC-544 against CD22+ acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL).
  • CMC-544 inhibited in vitro growth of ALL cell lines more potently than that of Ramos B-lymphoma cells.
  • When REH cells were injected intravenously in scid mice and allowed to disseminate systemically, mice developed hind-limb paralysis that was effectively prevented by treatment with CMC-544.
  • The anti-leukemia activity of CMC-544 demonstrated here further supports clinical evaluation of CMC-544 for the treatment of CD22+ leukemia.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / pharmacology. Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Immunotherapy / instrumentation. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / therapy. Sialic Acid Binding Ig-like Lectin 2 / chemistry. Sialic Acid Binding Ig-like Lectin 2 / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Cell Line, Tumor. Female. Humans. Male. Mice. Mice, Inbred BALB C. Mice, Nude. Mice, SCID. Neoplasm Transplantation

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  • (PMID = 17657218.001).
  • [ISSN] 0887-6924
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leukemia
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Inotuzumab Ozogamicin; 0 / Sialic Acid Binding Ig-like Lectin 2
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18. Yamada O, Ichikawa M, Okamoto T, Park C, Motoji T, Mizoguchi H, Shibuya A: Killer T-cell induction in patients with blastic natural killer cell lymphoma/leukaemia: implications for successful treatment and possible therapeutic strategies. Br J Haematol; 2001 Apr;113(1):153-60
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  • [Title] Killer T-cell induction in patients with blastic natural killer cell lymphoma/leukaemia: implications for successful treatment and possible therapeutic strategies.
  • A rare form of putative natural killer (NK) cell lymphoma called blastic NK cell lymphoma appears to be clinicopathologically distinctive in showing a homogenous lymphoblast, variable expression of CD2, CD4, CD56 and TdT, negative for surface CD3, T-cell receptor antigen, CD16, CD34 and lack of association with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV).
  • We report two patients with blastic NK cell lymphoma and describe the interesting clinical studies.
  • Unlike in many NK and NK-like T-cell disorders, azurophilic cytoplasmic granules were absent.
  • In spite of the advanced clinical stage, complete remission was achieved by conventional chemotherapy.
  • After interleukin 2 expansion of tumour-infiltrating bone marrow and lymph node cells from the patients, cytotoxic T-cell lines with rearranged T-cell receptor genes were established.
  • They showed specific killing activity against autologous tumour cells in an MHC-restricted fashion, with possible implications for treatment.
  • In addition, upon cessation of maintenance chemotherapy, one patient developed overt leukaemia with blasts expressing CD33 antigens, suggesting a continuous spectrum of blastic NK cell lymphoma to myeloid/NK cell precursor acute leukaemia.
  • [MeSH-major] Killer Cells, Natural / immunology. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / immunology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antigens, CD. Antigens, CD2. Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Blotting, Southern. CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes / immunology. Cyclophosphamide / therapeutic use. Cytotoxicity Tests, Immunologic. Doxorubicin / therapeutic use. Female. Flow Cytometry. Gene Rearrangement, T-Lymphocyte. Humans. Immunophenotyping. Karyotyping. Male. Middle Aged. Prednisone / therapeutic use. Remission Induction. Sialic Acid Binding Ig-like Lectin 3. Vincristine / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 11328295.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-1048
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of haematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Haematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, CD2; 0 / Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic; 0 / CD33 protein, human; 0 / Sialic Acid Binding Ig-like Lectin 3; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone; CHOP protocol
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19. Mazur B, Olejnik I, Wylezol I, Sonta-Jakimczyk D, Szczepanski T, Karpe J: Assessment of chosen parameters of the immune system in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2003 Jun;20(4):303-8
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  • [Title] Assessment of chosen parameters of the immune system in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
  • The immunosuppressive effect of cytostatics, basic therapeutic agents in the treatment of proliferative diseases of the hematopoietic system, and the rising number of children cured from acute leukaemias form together a need to monitor the status of the immune system following cessation of therapy.
  • Surface antigens in lymphocytes from peripheral blood were assessed in 16 children directly after intensive chemotherapy (i.e., after protocol II of the BMF program) and in 25 children 12-13 months following conclusion of acute lymphoblastic leukemia treatment.
  • A significant decrease in the average number of lymphocyte subpopulations was noted in the case of the treated children directly after intensive chemotherapy.
  • The average values of lymphocyte subpopulations in children with concluded treatment are within the norm, with the exception of NK and TS lymphocytes.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphocyte Subsets / immunology. Lymphocytes / immunology. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / immunology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Case-Control Studies. Child. Child, Preschool. Humans. Immune System / physiology

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  • (PMID = 12746162.001).
  • [ISSN] 0888-0018
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric hematology and oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Hematol Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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20. Huang Y, Lin TY, Wu QL, Su ZL, Huang HQ, Xia ZJ, Sun XF, Jiang WQ, Guan ZZ: [Survival outcomes of T-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: a report of 111 cases]. Ai Zheng; 2005 Apr;24(4):470-4
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  • [Title] [Survival outcomes of T-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: a report of 111 cases].
  • BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE: T-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) is a group of heterogeneous malignancies with poor prognosis, and without ideal therapeutic regimen.
  • This study was to summarize clinical and pathologic features of T-cell NHL.
  • METHODS: Records of 111 patients with T-cell NHL, treated from Jan. 1994 to Dec.
  • Of the 111 patients, 82 were men, 29 were women;45 (40.5%) were treated with chemoradiotherapy, 62 (55.8%) were treated with chemotherapy alone, and 4 (3.6%) were treated with radiotherapy alone.
  • The 3-year survival rate of the whole group was 45% with a median follow-up of 28 months.
  • The 3-year survival rates of chemoradiotherapy, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy groups were 56%, 38%, and 25%, respectively.
  • Among all histological type subgroups, the prognosis of NK/T-cell lymphoma was the worst with the 3-year survival rate of only 25%u the 3-year survival rate was 40% in unspecified peripheral T-cell lymphoma group,and 85% in angioimmunoblast T-cell lymphoma group.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Present treatment modalities for T-cell NHL patients, especially the high risk patients, can't achieve satisfactory outcomes.
  • New treatment modality for these patients needs to be explored.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma, T-Cell / drug therapy. Lymphoma, T-Cell / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. L-Lactate Dehydrogenase / blood. Lymphoma, T-Cell, Peripheral / drug therapy. Lymphoma, T-Cell, Peripheral / mortality. Lymphoma, T-Cell, Peripheral / pathology. Lymphoma, T-Cell, Peripheral / radiotherapy. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / drug therapy. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / mortality. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / pathology. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / radiotherapy. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15820072.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Ai zheng = Aizheng = Chinese journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ai Zheng
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 1.1.1.27 / L-Lactate Dehydrogenase
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21. Gruber TA, Skelton DC, Kohn DB: Recombinant murine interleukin-12 elicits potent antileukemic immune responses in a murine model of Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Cancer Gene Ther; 2005 Oct;12(10):818-24
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  • [Title] Recombinant murine interleukin-12 elicits potent antileukemic immune responses in a murine model of Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
  • Despite the success of chemotherapy regimens in the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), certain subsets of patients have a high rate of induction failure and subsequent relapse.
  • We utilized a murine model of Ph+ ALL to look at the ability of systemic interleukin 12 (IL-12) treatments to initiate antileukemic immune responses, and studied the mechanisms by which it does so.
  • We found that IL-12 was able to eliminate pre-established leukemia, and that this protection was mediated by CD4, CD8, and NK cells in combination.
  • Consistent with previous work, vaccination with irradiated leukemia cells transduced with immunomodulator genes was able to establish long-term memory, and, when used with IL-12, was able to eradicate pre-existing disease and induce resistance to subsequent leukemia challenge.
  • These studies demonstrate the feasibility of an immunotherapeutic approach towards the treatment of Ph+ ALL.
  • [MeSH-major] Immunotherapy / methods. Interleukin-12 / therapeutic use. Philadelphia Chromosome. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / immunology. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / therapy. Recombinant Proteins / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Line. Immunologic Factors / genetics. Immunologic Memory / immunology. Male. Mice. Mice, Inbred BALB C. T-Lymphocytes / immunology. Vaccination / methods

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  • (PMID = 15877085.001).
  • [ISSN] 0929-1903
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer gene therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Gene Ther.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunologic Factors; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 187348-17-0 / Interleukin-12
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22. Nagatoshi Y, Matsuzaki A, Suminoe A, Inada H, Ueda K, Kawakami K, Yanai F, Nakayama H, Moritake H, Itonaga N, Hotta N, Fujita K, Hidaka Y, Yamanaka T, Kawano Y, Okamura J: Randomized trial to compare LSA2L2-type maintenance therapy to daily 6-mercaptopurine and weekly methotrexate with vincristine and dexamethasone pulse for children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2010 Aug;55(2):239-47
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  • [Title] Randomized trial to compare LSA2L2-type maintenance therapy to daily 6-mercaptopurine and weekly methotrexate with vincristine and dexamethasone pulse for children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
  • BACKGROUND: A total of 201 pediatric cases of acute lymphoblastic leukemia were treated with the ALL-96 protocol by the Kyushu-Yamaguchi Children's Cancer Study Group.
  • PROCEDURE: Risk stratification was based on white cell counts, immunophenotype, the presence of central nervous system disease at diagnosis, organomegaly, and early treatment response (day 14 bone marrow status).
  • All of the patients were classified into standard-risk (SR) or high-risk (HR) groups and were randomly assigned to receive maintenance therapy with either LSA2L2-type or 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP)/methotrexate (MTX) with vincristine (VCR) and dexamethasone (DEX) pulse in both risk groups.
  • CONCLUSIONS: There were no differences in the EFS between the different maintenance therapies in each risk group; however, grade IV liver toxicity occurred more often in the patients receiving 6-MP/MTX with VCR and DEX therapy than in patients receiving LSA2L2.
  • [MeSH-major] 6-Mercaptopurine / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Daunorubicin / administration & dosage. Dexamethasone / administration & dosage. Drug-Induced Liver Injury. Humans. Infant. Methotrexate / administration & dosage. Prednisone / administration & dosage. Risk Assessment. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 20582970.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5017
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; E7WED276I5 / 6-Mercaptopurine; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate; ZS7284E0ZP / Daunorubicin; LSA2-L2 protocol
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23. Ek T, Mellander L, Andersson B, Abrahamsson J: Immune reconstitution after childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia is most severely affected in the high risk group. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2005 May;44(5):461-8
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  • [Title] Immune reconstitution after childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia is most severely affected in the high risk group.
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim was to examine the immune reconstitution after current chemotherapy for childhood ALL, with a special focus on finding immunologic variables that predict a poor immune response to vaccinations.
  • PROCEDURE: In a cross-sectional study of 31 children after treatment with the NOPHO ALL-1992 protocol peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets, T- and B-cell function in vitro and serum immunoglobulins (Ig) were measured.
  • All patients were examined once, at 1 or at 6 months after cessation of chemotherapy, immediately before vaccination with DT and Hib.
  • RESULTS: Lymphocytes, T-cells, and CD4+ T-cells were low at 6 months after treatment.
  • Naive T-cell subsets were more reduced than memory subsets.
  • NK-cells were low at 1 month, but normal at 6 months; however, the CD3+CD56+ (NKT) subset was reduced at both time points.
  • Total B-cell number was low at 1 month, but normal at 6 months.
  • Antigen-independent T- and B-cell function in vitro were affected at 1 month, but virtually normalized at 6 months.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that immune reconstitution after childhood ALL is slower than previously reported and emphasizes the influence of treatment intensity.
  • The most intensively treated patients still have persistent abnormalities in T-, B-, and NK-cell subsets at 6 months post therapy and show a poor response to immunization with T-cell dependent antigens.
  • In the HR group, routine re-immunizations before this time point are of limited benefit, and the effect of repeated vaccinations should be evaluated.
  • [MeSH-major] Immune System / physiology. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / drug therapy. Regeneration. Vaccination
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Antigens, CD / analysis. Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. B-Lymphocytes / cytology. B-Lymphocytes / immunology. Case-Control Studies. Child. Child, Preschool. Cross-Sectional Studies. Humans. Immunoglobulins / blood. Immunosuppression / methods. Killer Cells, Natural / cytology. Killer Cells, Natural / immunology. Lymphocyte Subsets / cytology. T-Lymphocytes / cytology. T-Lymphocytes / immunology. Time Factors


24. Flavell DJ, Boehm DA, Noss A, Warnes SL, Flavell SU: Therapy of human T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia with a combination of anti-CD7 and anti-CD38-SAPORIN immunotoxins is significantly better than therapy with each individual immunotoxin. Br J Cancer; 2001 Feb;84(4):571-8
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  • [Title] Therapy of human T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia with a combination of anti-CD7 and anti-CD38-SAPORIN immunotoxins is significantly better than therapy with each individual immunotoxin.
  • Severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice injected i.v. with the human T-ALL cell line CCRF CEM (SCID-CEM mice) develop within 50 days life-threatening multi-organ growth of leukaemia cells.
  • The development of leukaemia in SCID-CEM mice treated with three 10 microg i.v. doses of the anti-CD7 immunotoxin (IT) HB2-SAPORIN or the anti-CD38 IT OKT10-SAPORIN was significantly delayed compared with PBS sham-treated animals but 90% of animals treated with either IT eventually developed disseminated leukaemia cell growth.
  • In contrast treatment of SCID-CEM mice with a combination of both ITs led not only to a significantly greater delay in time to leukaemia development but also in the numbers of animals remaining leukaemia free (60%).
  • The native HB2 and OKT10 antibodies (both murine IgG1antibodies) exerted significant, though relatively weak therapeutic effects, probably mediated through an antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) mechanism.
  • Moreover, there was no in vivo additivity of therapeutic effect when both antibodies were used in combination.
  • Apparent, however, was that the combination of HB2-SAPORIN IT with OKT10 antibody led to an intermediate therapeutic effect that was significantly greater than that obtained when either was used alone but significantly less than that obtained when the two IT combination was utilized.
  • This result suggests that the therapeutic effect of IT + antibody treatment results from an additivity between antibody-mediated delivery of saporin combined with a SCID mouse NK cell-mediated ADCC attack on the target cell directed through target cell bound antibody Fc engagement with FcgammaRIII on the NK cell surface.
  • The combination of both ITs however gave the best therapeutic outcome in SCID-CEM mice probably as the result of (i) delivery of greater amounts of saporin to target CEM cells positive for both CD7 and CD38, (ii) delivery of an effective dose of saporin to CEM cells downregulated or negative for one of the target antigens and (iii) through ADCC mechanisms that interact additively with IT action.
  • We have previously proposed that combination IT therapy would be one means of overcoming the problem of heterogeneity of antigen expression within a global tumour cell population and these additional findings support this and provide a further strengthening of the rationale for employing cocktails of ITs for the treatment of human malignancies.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Neoplasm / pharmacology. Antigens, CD. Antigens, CD7 / immunology. Antigens, Differentiation / immunology. Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / pharmacology. Carrier Proteins. Immunotoxins / pharmacology. Leukemia-Lymphoma, Adult T-Cell / immunology. Lipoproteins, HDL. N-Glycosyl Hydrolases. NAD+ Nucleosidase / immunology. Plant Proteins / pharmacology. RNA-Binding Proteins
  • [MeSH-minor] ADP-ribosyl Cyclase. Animals. Antibody Formation. Antigens, CD38. Disease Models, Animal. Drug Therapy, Combination. Female. Flow Cytometry. Immunoglobulin G / immunology. Male. Membrane Glycoproteins. Mice. Mice, SCID. Receptors, Lipoprotein. Ribosome Inactivating Proteins, Type 1

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2001 Cancer Research Campaign.
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  • (PMID = 11207056.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0920
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Neoplasm; 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, CD7; 0 / Antigens, Differentiation; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / Immunoglobulin G; 0 / Immunotoxins; 0 / Lipoproteins, HDL; 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins; 0 / Plant Proteins; 0 / RNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Receptors, Lipoprotein; 0 / Ribosome Inactivating Proteins, Type 1; 0 / high density lipoprotein receptors; 147605-06-9 / high density lipoprotein binding protein; EC 3.2.2.- / N-Glycosyl Hydrolases; EC 3.2.2.22 / saporin; EC 3.2.2.5 / ADP-ribosyl Cyclase; EC 3.2.2.5 / Antigens, CD38; EC 3.2.2.5 / Cd38 protein, mouse; EC 3.2.2.5 / NAD+ Nucleosidase
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2363766
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25. Maruyama D, Watanabe T, Beppu Y, Kobayashi Y, Kim SW, Tanimoto K, Makimoto A, Kagami Y, Terauchi T, Matsuno Y, Tobinai K: Primary bone lymphoma: a new and detailed characterization of 28 patients in a single-institution study. Jpn J Clin Oncol; 2007 Mar;37(3):216-23
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  • [Title] Primary bone lymphoma: a new and detailed characterization of 28 patients in a single-institution study.
  • BACKGROUND: The incidence of primary bone lymphoma (PBL) is so rare that many of its aspects remain unknown.
  • All patients underwent chemotherapy with half receiving radiotherapy as their initial treatment.
  • RESULTS: Fifteen (54%) patients were male and 13 (46%) female with a median age of 47 (range: 5-81).
  • Although 19 (68%) patients had diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), other histopathological subtypes (three B-lymphoblastic lymphoma, two anaplastic large cell lymphoma, two indolent B-cell lymphoma, one NK/T-cell lymphoma (NTCL) and one Hodgkin lymphoma) were also included.
  • Only 'histopathological subtype (immunoblastic variant of DLBCL or NTCL versus others)' and 'response to initial treatment (progression versus remission)' were factors significantly affecting overall survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / pathology. Lymphoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Hodgkin Disease / pathology. Humans. Lymphoma, B-Cell / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17472971.001).
  • [ISSN] 1465-3621
  • [Journal-full-title] Japanese journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Jpn. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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26. Ando M, Sugimoto K, Kitoh T, Sasaki M, Mukai K, Ando J, Egashira M, Schuster SM, Oshimi K: Selective apoptosis of natural killer-cell tumours by l-asparaginase. Br J Haematol; 2005 Sep;130(6):860-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Selective apoptosis of natural killer-cell tumours by l-asparaginase.
  • We examined the effectiveness of various anti-tumour agents to natural killer (NK)-cell tumour cell lines and samples, which are generally resistant to chemotherapy, using flow cytometric terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end-labelling (TUNEL) assay.
  • Although NK-YS and NK-92 were highly resistant to various anti-tumour agents, l-asparaginase induced apoptosis in these two NK-cell lines.
  • NK-cell leukaemia/lymphoma and acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) samples were selectively sensitive to l-asparaginase and to doxorubicin (DXR) respectively.
  • Samples of chronic NK lymphocytosis, an NK-cell disorder with an indolent clinical course, were resistant to both drugs.
  • Our study clearly separated two major categories of NK-cell disorders and ALL according to the sensitivity to DXR and l-asparaginase.
  • We examined asparagine synthetase levels by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RQ-PCR) and immunostaining in these samples.
  • At least in nasal-type NK-cell lymphoma, there was a good correlation among asparagine synthetase expression, in vitro sensitivity and clinical response to l-asparaginase.
  • In aggressive NK-cell leukaemia, although asparagine synthetase expression was high at both mRNA and protein levels, l-asparaginase induced considerable apoptosis.
  • We confirmed rather specific anti-tumour activity of l-asparaginase against NK-cell tumours in vitro, which provides an experimental background to the clinical use of l-asparaginase for NK-cell tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Apoptosis / drug effects. Asparaginase / pharmacology. Killer Cells, Natural. Leukemia, T-Cell / pathology. Lymphoma, T-Cell / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aspartate-Ammonia Ligase / biosynthesis. Aspartate-Ammonia Ligase / genetics. Cell Line, Tumor. Doxorubicin / pharmacology. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Humans. In Situ Nick-End Labeling. Lymphocytosis / pathology. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Neoplasm / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16156856.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-1048
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of haematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Haematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; EC 3.5.1.1 / Asparaginase; EC 6.3.1.1 / Aspartate-Ammonia Ligase
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27. Sokol L, Loughran TP Jr: Large granular lymphocyte leukemia and natural killer cell leukemia/lymphomas. Curr Treat Options Oncol; 2003 Aug;4(4):289-96
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  • [Title] Large granular lymphocyte leukemia and natural killer cell leukemia/lymphomas.
  • Natural killer (NK) cell leukemia and lymphoma represent rare conditions with heterogeneity of biologic behavior, prognosis, and responsiveness to therapy.
  • The initial diagnosis of NK-cell malignancies can be difficult because of the lack of immunophenotypic clonality markers, morphologic heterogeneity, and a poor correlation between cytomorphology and prognosis.
  • Therapeutic recommendations for NK-cell malignancies are derived from retrospective studies or case reports.
  • Immature NK-cell malignancies often have aggressive behavior with poor prognosis, despite administration of acute myeloid leukemia or acute lymphocytic leukemia induction chemotherapy.
  • The use of high-dose chemotherapy with stem cell rescue resulted in a prolonged survival in a small series of patients.
  • NK-cell malignancies originating from cells with mature phenotypes form a spectrum of diseases with distinct prognosis.
  • Patients with aggressive NK-cell leukemia invariably die within several months.
  • Nasal and nasal-like NK/T-cell lymphomas with limited stage disease often respond to radiation therapy alone or combination with chemotherapy and radiation therapy, with 5-year disease-free survival rates ranging from 30% to 75%.
  • Patients with T-cell large granular lymphocyte leukemia or chronic NK-cell lymphoproliferative disease of granular lymphocytes can have an indolent clinical course with long survival without therapy.
  • However, approximately 66% of patients with T-cell large granular lymphocyte leukemia require low-dose chemotherapy with methotrexate or cyclophosphamide or immunosuppressive therapy with glucocorticosteroids or cyclosporine A for symptomatic cytopenias during the course of their disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Killer Cells, Natural. Leukemia / therapy. Lymphoma / therapy. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / therapy

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  • (PMID = 12943609.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-2729
  • [Journal-full-title] Current treatment options in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Treat Options Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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28. Song HH, Chen BA, Ding JH, Sun XM, Gao C, Sun YY, Wang J, Cheng J, Zhao G: [Effect of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in malignant hematologic disease of lymphatic system]. Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi; 2006 Oct;14(5):945-8
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  • [Title] [Effect of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in malignant hematologic disease of lymphatic system].
  • The study was aimed to investigate the effect of hematopoietic stem cells transplantation (HSCT) in treatment for hematologic malignancies of lymphatic system.
  • Through observing 8 patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and 3 patients with lymphoblastic leukemia, who received auto or allo-HSCT after chemotherapy, the hematopoietic reconstitution, complication and survival time were evaluated.
  • From 4 cases received allo-PBSCT, one patient with NHL (NK cell) was died at 79 days later, one patient with chronic lymphoblastic leukemia was surviving, another 2 cases of acute lymphoblastic leukemia were dead at 17 months and 54 days respectively after allo-PBSCT.
  • In conclusion HSCT is an effective treatment for hematologic malignancies of lymphatic system, but the replase would occur in some patients received auto-PBSCT.

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  • (PMID = 17096894.001).
  • [ISSN] 1009-2137
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhongguo shi yan xue ye xue za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] CHI
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
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29. Kuroda J, Kimura S, Kobayashi Y, Jyoko N, Kamitsuji Y, Murotani Y, Fukuda W, Akaogi T, Hayashi H, Yoshikawa T, Maekawa T: Variable manifestation in natural killer cell leukaemia. Clin Lab Haematol; 2003 Aug;25(4):239-45

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  • [Title] Variable manifestation in natural killer cell leukaemia.
  • Natural killer (NK) cell leukaemias are a relatively rare group of haematological disorders, now entitled in the T/NK lymphoproliferative disorders in the new WHO classification.
  • However, some cases with NK malignancies still remain difficult to diagnose and differentiate into their subtypes in the absence of a distinct diagnostic hallmark, especially at initial presentation.
  • We describe herein five patients with NK leukaemias with respect to the clinical, cytological, immunological and cytogenetic characteristics, varied among each case.
  • Cytologically, two aggressive NK cell leukaemia/lymphoma (ANKL/L) cases were a morphologically hypogranular variant form.
  • Systemic chemotherapy resulted in complete remission in one ANKL/L and two blastic NK cell leukaemia/lymphoma (BNKL/L) patients; however, a good long-term outcome was achieved in only one CD4-positive BNKL/L patient with allogenic bone marrow transplantation.
  • From these findings, we conclude that comprehensive individual studies should be carried out in these patients to obtain a correct diagnosis and to design an optimal therapeutic approach.
  • [MeSH-major] Killer Cells, Natural / pathology. Neoplastic Stem Cells / pathology. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 12890163.001).
  • [ISSN] 0141-9854
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical and laboratory haematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Lab Haematol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; EC 1.11.1.7 / Peroxidase
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30. Ogbomo H, Michaelis M, Klassert D, Doerr HW, Cinatl J Jr: Resistance to cytarabine induces the up-regulation of NKG2D ligands and enhances natural killer cell lysis of leukemic cells. Neoplasia; 2008 Dec;10(12):1402-10
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  • [Title] Resistance to cytarabine induces the up-regulation of NKG2D ligands and enhances natural killer cell lysis of leukemic cells.
  • Prolonged treatment of leukemic cells with chemotherapeutic agents frequently results in development of drug resistance.
  • Moreover, selection of drug-resistant cell populations may be associated with changes in malignant properties such as proliferation rate, invasiveness, and immunogenicity.
  • In the present study, the sensitivity of cytarabine (1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine, araC)-resistant and parental human leukemic cell lines (T-lymphoid H9 and acute T-lymphoblastic leukemia Molt-4) to natural killer (NK) cell-mediated killing was investigated.
  • The results obtained demonstrate that araC-resistant H9 and Molt-4 (H9(r)ARAC(100) and Molt-4(r)ARAC(100)) cell lines are more sensitive to NK cell-mediated lysis than their respective parental cell lines.
  • This increased sensitivity was associated with a higher surface expression of ligands for the NK cell-activating receptor NKG2D, notably UL16 binding protein-2 (ULBP-2) and ULBP-3 in H9(r)ARAC(100) and Molt-4(r)ARAC(100) cell lines.
  • Blocking ULBP-2 and ULBP-3 or NKG2D with monoclonal antibody completely abrogated NK cell lysis.
  • Constitutive phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) but not pAKT was higher in araC-resistant cells than in parental cell lines.
  • Inhibition of ERK using ERK inhibitor PD98059 decreased both ULBP-2/ULBP-3 expression and NK cell cytotoxicity.
  • Furthermore, overexpression of constitutively active ERK in H9 parental cells resulted in increased ULBP-2/ULBP-3 expression and enhanced NK cell lysis.
  • These results demonstrate that increased sensitivity of araC-resistant leukemic cells to NK cell lysis is caused by higher NKG2D ligand expression, resulting from more active ERK signaling pathway.
  • [MeSH-major] Cytarabine / pharmacology. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Killer Cells, Natural / metabolism. Leukemia / drug therapy. Leukemia / metabolism. NK Cell Lectin-Like Receptor Subfamily K / biosynthesis. Up-Regulation
  • [MeSH-minor] Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / pharmacology. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Survival. Drug Resistance. Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases / metabolism. Humans. Interferon-gamma / metabolism. Ligands. Phosphorylation

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  • (PMID = 19048119.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-5586
  • [Journal-full-title] Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neoplasia
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / KLRK1 protein, human; 0 / Ligands; 0 / NK Cell Lectin-Like Receptor Subfamily K; 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine; 82115-62-6 / Interferon-gamma; EC 2.7.11.24 / Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2586691
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31. Hu KX, Guo M, Yu CL, Wang DH, Sun QY, Qiao JH, Liu GX, Liu TQ, Ai HS: [Changes of lymphocyte subsets in acute leukemia patients after HLA-mismatched nonmyeloablative hematopoietic stem cell transplantation]. Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi; 2009 Dec;17(6):1527-31
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  • [Title] [Changes of lymphocyte subsets in acute leukemia patients after HLA-mismatched nonmyeloablative hematopoietic stem cell transplantation].
  • This study was purposed to investigate the reconstitution of immune system in patients with acute lymphocyte leukemia (ALL) or acute myeloid leukemia (AML) after HLA-mismatched nonmyeloablative hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (NHSCT) and its relation with infection and GVHD.
  • 6 ALL and 4 AML patients having HLA-mismatched related donors received the nonmyeloablative precondition regimen composed of fludarabine (Fln), ATG, Ara-C, CTX and total body irradiation (TBI) in dose 2 Gy.
  • The flow cytometry was used to detect the changes of total T cells, help/inducer T cells, suppressor/killer T cells, gamma/delta T cells, B cells, NK cells, NKT cells, regulatory T cells, activated T cells, naive T cells, memory T cells and ratio of CD4/CD8 in patients with remission resulting from chemotherapy before transplantation, and analyse the relation of immunofunctional cells to infection and GVHD after transplantation, compare the difference in recovery of immune system of ALL and AML patients.
  • As compared with patients without GVHD, the counts of lymphocyte subsets in patients with GVHD was higher, while the counts of gamma/delta T cells, regulatory T cells, NK cells, the counts of B cells, NK cells, naive cells and CD4/CD8 ratio as well as the counts of B cells, naive T cells and NK cells were lower at 1 month, 2 - 3 months and 6 - 8 months after transplantation respectively.
  • The total T cells and subsets recovered slowly, but NK cells and NKT cells recovered rapidly in patients with infection at early period after transplantation, the B cells and naive B cells recovered rapidly at 3 months after transplantation.
  • It is concluded that the analysis of each lymphocyte subsets may indirectly show the recovery of thymus function in patients, the changes of NK cells, B cells and naive T cells have an important significance for identifying and forecasting the GVHD and infection.

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  • (PMID = 20030940.001).
  • [ISSN] 1009-2137
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhongguo shi yan xue ye xue za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] CHI
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / HLA Antigens
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32. Nagatoshi Y, Kawano Y, Nagayama J, Okamura J: Treatment of isolated central nervous system relapse in high-risk lymphoid malignancy with allogeneic bone marrow transplantation and extended intrathecal therapy. Br J Haematol; 2004 Jun;125(6):766-8
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  • [Title] Treatment of isolated central nervous system relapse in high-risk lymphoid malignancy with allogeneic bone marrow transplantation and extended intrathecal therapy.
  • We performed allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) with an extended period of post-transplant intrathecal (IT) chemotherapy for five patients with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma who had relapsed in the central nervous system either in the very early phase or more than twice.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Marrow Transplantation. Central Nervous System Diseases / therapy. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / therapy. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Child, Preschool. Cytarabine / therapeutic use. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Hydrocortisone / therapeutic use. Injections, Spinal. Male. Recurrence. Remission Induction. Transplantation Conditioning. Transplantation, Homologous

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  • (PMID = 15180866.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-1048
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of haematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Haematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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33. Lang P, Barbin K, Feuchtinger T, Greil J, Peipp M, Zunino SJ, Pfeiffer M, Handgretinger R, Niethammer D, Fey GH: Chimeric CD19 antibody mediates cytotoxic activity against leukemic blasts with effector cells from pediatric patients who received T-cell-depleted allografts. Blood; 2004 May 15;103(10):3982-5
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  • [Title] Chimeric CD19 antibody mediates cytotoxic activity against leukemic blasts with effector cells from pediatric patients who received T-cell-depleted allografts.
  • Relapse is a major problem after transplantation in children with acute B-lineage leukemias, and new therapies are needed to increase graft-versus-leukemia (GvL) effects without inducing graft-versus-host disease (GvHD).
  • This antibody efficiently mediated ADCC against primary acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) blasts by using purified natural killer (NK) cells from healthy donors or mononuclear cells from patients as effector cells.
  • We propose that treatment with chimeric CD19 antibodies leading to ADCC by donor-derived NK cells may become a therapeutic option for the post-transplantation treatment of minimal residual B-lineage ALLs.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies / pharmacology. Antibody-Dependent Cell Cytotoxicity / drug effects. Antigens, CD19 / immunology. Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation / methods. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / therapy. T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory / immunology
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Cytotoxicity Tests, Immunologic. Humans. Killer Cells, Natural / immunology. Killer Cells, Natural / transplantation. Lymphocyte Depletion. Recombinant Fusion Proteins / biosynthesis. Recombinant Fusion Proteins / pharmacology. Transplantation, Homologous

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  • (PMID = 14764538.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-4971
  • [Journal-full-title] Blood
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Blood
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies; 0 / Antigens, CD19; 0 / Recombinant Fusion Proteins
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34. Karube K, Ohshima K, Tsuchiya T, Yamaguchi T, Suefuji H, Suzumiya J, Harada M, Kikuchi M: Non-B, non-T neoplasms with lymphoblast morphology: further clarification and classification. Am J Surg Pathol; 2003 Oct;27(10):1366-74
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  • We studied the morphologic, immunohistochemical, and clinical characteristics of 158 cases of lymphoblastic lymphoma.
  • Based on immunophenotyping and cell lineage, cases were classified into B-cell type (CD20,CD19 or CD79a+, n = 53), T-cell type (surface CD3+, n = 84), and non-B, non-T type (B cell marker- and surface CD3-, n = 21).
  • 1) CD7+ stem cell lymphoma (CD7+SCL) [CD4-, CD7+, CD33+/-, CD56-], 2) blastic natural killer cell lymphoma (B-NKL) [CD4-, CD7+/-, CD33-, CD56+, CD123-], 3) myeloid/NK precursor cell leukemia (M/NKL) [CD4-, CD7+, CD33+, CD56+], and 4) CD4+CD56+ hematodermic malignancy (CD4+CD56+) type [CD4+, CD7+/-, CD33-, CD56+, CD123+].
  • The CD7+SCL and M/NKL types frequently exhibited bone marrow invasion and mediastinal masses.
  • All CD4+CD56+ types were associated with skin lesions.
  • B-NKL type is included into Blastic NK lymphoma in new World Health Organization classification with CD4+CD56+ type.
  • But the cases of B-NKL were more reminiscent of CD7+SCL or M/NKL type than the CD4+CD56+ type, both clinically and histologically.
  • We propose that blastic NK lymphoma, a disease entity in the new WHO classification, should be divided into two types based on phenotypes and clinical features.
  • The non-B, non-T lymphomas exhibited poorer prognoses, similar to that of B-cell lymphomas, than T-cell type tumors (P = 0.009).
  • Among the 21 tumors, the prognosis of the four subtypes did not differ significantly; however, cases receiving aggressive chemotherapy and stem cell transplantation had a more favorable prognosis than those receiving only traditional chemotherapy and radiation therapy (P = 0.0089).
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD / immunology. Lymphocytes / immunology. Myeloid Cells / immunology. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / classification. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / immunology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / classification. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / immunology. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / pathology. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / therapy. Male. Middle Aged. Stem Cell Transplantation. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • [CommentIn] Am J Surg Pathol. 2004 Jun;28(6):835-7; author reply 837 [15166681.001]
  • (PMID = 14508398.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD
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35. Hiçsönmez G, Tunç B, Olcay L, Tuncer MA: Effect of short-course, high-dose steroid therapy in a child with myelodysplastic syndrome. Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2001 Dec;18(8):525-9
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  • [Title] Effect of short-course, high-dose steroid therapy in a child with myelodysplastic syndrome.
  • High-dose methylprednisolone (HDMP) has been shown to induce differentiation of myeloid leukemic cells with a remarkable antileukemic effect in children with various subtypes of acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML).
  • Here the beneficial effect of short-course HDMP therapy in a child with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is reported.
  • Oral methylprednisolone sodium succinate (Prednol-L) was administered at a single daily dose of 30 mg/kg for 5 days to a 4-year-old girl with refractory anemia with excess of blasts and hypocellular bone marrow before the initiation of chemotherapy.
  • In addition to dramatic clinical improvement, the patient's white blood cell count increased from 2.3 x 10(9)/L to 5.0 x 10(9)/L, and peripheral blood blast cells disappeared 4 days after HDMP treatment.
  • Furthermore, short-course HDMP treatment stimulated the increase in the number of peripheral blood lymphocytes and CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD19+, CD34+, and NK cells.
  • Results obtained with HDMP from the previous studies and the present case suggest that high-dose methylprednisolone is a promising agent in the treatment of AIDS and it is recommended as an initial treatment especially for MDS children with hypocellular bone marrow at presentation.
  • [MeSH-major] Methylprednisolone Hemisuccinate / administration & dosage. Myelodysplastic Syndromes / drug therapy. Steroids / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Anemia, Refractory, with Excess of Blasts / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Blood Cell Count. Bone Marrow / drug effects. Bone Marrow / pathology. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / drug therapy. Remission Induction. Treatment Outcome


36. Park SR, Kim JH, Kim DY, Lee S, Lee SY, Choi IS, Yoon SS, Park S, Kim BG, Kim NK: Treatment outcome of adult acute lymphocytic leukemia with VPD(L) regimen: analysis of prognostic factors. Korean J Intern Med; 2003 Mar;18(1):21-8
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. VINCRISTINE .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Treatment outcome of adult acute lymphocytic leukemia with VPD(L) regimen: analysis of prognostic factors.
  • Induction chemotherapy consisted of VPD with (46 cases) or without L-asparaginase (7 cases).
  • After complete remission (CR), consolidation therapy, CNS prophylaxis and maintenance chemotherapy were administered.
  • With a median follow-up time of 27.2 months (range 12.9-83.0 months) in living patients, the median overall survival (OS) for all cases was 16.7 months (13.4-20.1 months, 95% C.I.) and the estimated 4-year OS rate was 25.4% +/- 8.9%.
  • Poor prognostic factors for OS were Ph chromosome (p = 0.005) and T-cell immunophenotype (p = 0.03).
  • CONCLUSION: Despite an initial excellent response to the VPD (L) regimen, newer therapeutic strategies, including more intensive postremission therapies, are urgently needed because of the high relapse rate.
  • Future therapeutic approaches need to be stratified according to several prognostic factors.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Asparaginase / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / drug therapy. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / mortality. Prednisone / administration & dosage. Vincristine / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Disease-Free Survival. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infusions, Intravenous. Male. Maximum Tolerated Dose. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Probability. Remission Induction. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 12760264.001).
  • [ISSN] 1226-3303
  • [Journal-full-title] The Korean journal of internal medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Korean J. Intern. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; EC 3.5.1.1 / Asparaginase; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone; VPD protocol
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4531597
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37. Kovacs GT, Barany O, Schlick B, Csoka M, Gado J, Ponyi A, Müller J, Nemeth J, Hauser P, Erdelyi DJ: Late immune recovery in children treated for malignant diseases. Pathol Oncol Res; 2008 Dec;14(4):391-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • In this study we analyzed the recovery of the immune system in children after completion of the therapy.
  • We analysed 88 children (51 boys, 37 girls, mean age at diagnosis: 7.8 years) receiving chemotherapy for malignant diseases (43 acute lymphoblastic leukemia, 15 lymphoma, 20 bone tumor, ten other solid tumors).
  • Serum immunoglobulin levels (Ig), natural killer activity (NK), antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and T and B cell proliferation were determined 1 year after cessation of therapy.
  • The mean levels of Ig were in the normal range at a mean of 13 months after chemotherapy (IgG: 11.2 +/- 3.3, IgA: 1.6 +/- 0.9, IgM: 1.0 +/- 0.5 g/l), however in the leukemic patients serum IgG was below the lower limit of the normal range in 3/43 (7.0%) cases, serum IgA was low in 5/43 (11.6%) and serum IgM was decreased in 4/43 (9.3%) cases.
  • NK activity decreased in 7/43 (16.3%) leukemic patients, and in 3/45 (6.7%) solid tumor patients, ADCC decreased in 8/43 (18.6%) and 3/45 (6.7%), respectively (p < 0.001).
  • B-cell blastic transformation was decreased in 3/43 (7%) leukemic patients and in 4/45 (8.9%) solid tumor patients.
  • At the same time T-cell blastic transformation was altered in 5/43 (11.6%) and in 4/45 (8.9%) cases, respectively.
  • Leukemic patients had significantly more infections during the first year after chemotherapy than solid tumor patients (1.60 +/- 1.18 vs 0.96 +/- 1.14; p = 0.011).
  • It is concluded, that cytotoxic therapy can lead to long-term depression of the immune system, first of all in leukemic patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibody Formation / drug effects. Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects. Immunity, Cellular / drug effects. Neoplasms / immunology
  • [MeSH-minor] B-Lymphocytes / drug effects. B-Lymphocytes / immunology. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Child. Female. Humans. Immunoglobulins / blood. Immunoglobulins / drug effects. Killer Cells, Natural / drug effects. Killer Cells, Natural / immunology. Leukocyte Count. Male. T-Lymphocytes / drug effects. T-Lymphocytes / immunology

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  • (PMID = 18575827.001).
  • [ISSN] 1219-4956
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology oncology research : POR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Oncol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Immunoglobulins
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38. Jeeninga RE, Jan B, van den Berg H, Berkhout B: Construction of doxycyline-dependent mini-HIV-1 variants for the development of a virotherapy against leukemias. Retrovirology; 2006 Sep 27;3:64
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. DOXYCYCLINE .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) is a high-risk type of blood-cell cancer.
  • We describe the improvement of a candidate therapeutic virus for virotherapy of leukemic cells.
  • These minimized HIV-rtTA variants contain up to 7 deletions/inactivating mutations (TAR, Tat, vif, vpR, vpU, nef and U3) and replicate efficiently in the leukemic SupT1 T cell line, but do not replicate in normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells.
  • The therapeutic viruses use CD4 and CXCR4 for cell entry and could potentially be used against CXCR4 expressing malignancies such as T-lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma, NK leukemia and some myeloid leukemias.

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  • (PMID = 17005036.001).
  • [ISSN] 1742-4690
  • [Journal-full-title] Retrovirology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Retrovirology
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / PHS HHS / / R21-A147017-01
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents; 0 / Antigens, CD4; 0 / Gene Products, tat; 0 / Receptors, CXCR4; 0 / tat Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus; N12000U13O / Doxycycline
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1592508
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39. de Boer NK, van Asseldonk DP, van Bodegraven AA: On the malignant potential of thiopurine therapy. Blood; 2009 Jun 11;113(24):6258; author reply 6258-9
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. METHOTREXATE .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] On the malignant potential of thiopurine therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Neoplasms, Second Primary / chemically induced. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] 6-Mercaptopurine / administration & dosage. 6-Mercaptopurine / adverse effects. Administration, Oral. Combined Modality Therapy. Cranial Irradiation. Humans. Hypoxanthine Phosphoribosyltransferase / genetics. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Karyotyping. Methotrexate / administration & dosage. Methotrexate / adverse effects. Methyltransferases / metabolism. Mutation / drug effects. Prognosis. Remission Induction. Risk Factors. Stem Cell Transplantation. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • [CommentOn] Blood. 2009 Jun 11;113(24):6077-84 [19224761.001]
  • (PMID = 19520817.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-0020
  • [Journal-full-title] Blood
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Blood
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] E7WED276I5 / 6-Mercaptopurine; EC 2.1.1.- / Methyltransferases; EC 2.1.1.67 / thiopurine methyltransferase; EC 2.4.2.8 / Hypoxanthine Phosphoribosyltransferase; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate
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