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1. Viswambharan JK, Kadambari D, Iyengar KR, Srinivasan K: Feasibility of breast conservation surgery in locally advanced breast cancer downstaged by neoadjuvant chemotherapy: a study in mastectomy specimens using simulation lumpectomy. Indian J Cancer; 2005 Jan-Mar;42(1):30-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Feasibility of breast conservation surgery in locally advanced breast cancer downstaged by neoadjuvant chemotherapy: a study in mastectomy specimens using simulation lumpectomy.
  • BACKGROUND: The response of locally advanced breast cancer (LABC) to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) offers these patients previously treated by mastectomy, the chance for breast conservation.
  • AIM: This study aims to assess the feasibility of lumpectomy in patients with LABC treated by NACT, with residual tumor < or =5 cm.
  • Simulation lumpectomy was performed on the mastectomy specimens to achieve 1 to 2 cm clearance from tumor and hence margin negativity.
  • Fourteen out of thirty (47%) had tumor involvement of margins.
  • Tumors with post-chemotherapy size> 4 cm were margin positive in 10/13 (77%).
  • Tumors with post-chemotherapy size>3 cm were margin positive in 13/24 (54%).
  • Tumors with post-chemotherapy size 3 cm were margin negative in 5/6 (83%).
  • Pre-chemotherapy tumor size and post-chemotherapy tumor size were significantly associated with margin positivity (P=0.003).
  • Tumors in the subareolar location had significantly higher incidence of residual tumor in the nipple areola complex. (P=0.04).
  • Margin positivity of lumpectomy on downstaged tumors can be reduced by removing the nipple areola complex in subareolar tumors and by limiting breast conservation to tumors with post-chemotherapy size < or =3 cm.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Mastectomy / methods. Neoadjuvant Therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Prospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15805689.001).
  • [ISSN] 0019-509X
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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2. Sato T, Muto I, Hasegawa M, Aono T, Okada T, Tamura T, Sakai T: A rare case of invasive ductal carcinoma with hyperprolactinemia. Breast Cancer; 2007;14(3):302-6
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  • We report here a rare form of invasive ductal carcinoma composed of a mass protruding from the tip of the nipple in a 43-year-old woman with hyperprolactinemia.
  • She presented with a mass on the left nipple that had been growing for 6 months.
  • Morphologically, the mass resembled adenoma of the nipple.
  • Histopathologically, the tumor of the nipple was invasive ductal carcinoma, which had extended intraductally from another invasive ductal carcinoma in the subareolar region, and had infiltrated the epidermis of the nipple (Paget's disease).
  • The patient was treated with bromocriptine mesilate, in addition to adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer, and the plasma prolactin level has since normalized.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / diagnosis. Hyperprolactinemia / etiology. Nipples / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Mammography

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  • (PMID = 17690509.001).
  • [ISSN] 1340-6868
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer (Tokyo, Japan)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Number-of-references] 24
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3. Thompson PA, Hsu CH, Green S, Stopeck AT, Johnson K, Alberts DS, Chow HH: Sulindac and sulindac metabolites in nipple aspirate fluid and effect on drug targets in a phase I trial. Cancer Prev Res (Phila); 2010 Jan;3(1):101-7
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  • [Title] Sulindac and sulindac metabolites in nipple aspirate fluid and effect on drug targets in a phase I trial.
  • Regular use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) has been associated with reduced risk of breast cancer.
  • We conducted a phase Ib trial in 30 women at increased risk for breast cancer to evaluate the breast tissue distribution of sulindac at two dose levels (150 mg daily and 150 mg twice daily for 6 weeks), using nipple aspirate fluid (NAF) as a surrogate of breast tissue drug exposure.
  • We also explored the effect of sulindac on drug-induced biomarkers in NAF.
  • These results are the first to show partitioning of sulindac and metabolites to human breast tissue and the first evidence for a potential dose-dependent effect of sulindac on growth differentiation factor 15 levels in NAF.

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  • (PMID = 20051377.001).
  • [ISSN] 1940-6215
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer prevention research (Philadelphia, Pa.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Prev Res (Phila)
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CN / N01 CN035158; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / N01CN35158; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CN / N01CN35158
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase I; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / GDF15 protein, human; 0 / Growth Differentiation Factor 15; 184SNS8VUH / Sulindac; 363-23-5 / 15-keto-13,14-dihydroprostaglandin E2; 9007-41-4 / C-Reactive Protein; K7Q1JQR04M / Dinoprostone
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS150145; NLM/ PMC3993089
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4. El-Marakby H: Management of early breast cancer with breast conservative surgery. An egyptian experience. J Egypt Natl Canc Inst; 2009 Dec;21(4):271-8

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  • BACKGROUND: Breast conservative surgery (BCS) has been an established method for treatment of early breast cancer.
  • The volume of the procedure varies from a wide local excision to partial mastectomy and ipsilateral axillary lymphadenectomy.
  • The nipple and areola complex sparing, depends on their proximity to the tumour.
  • Radiotherapy, chemotherapy and or hormonal treatment play an integral role in the treatment of early breast cancer.
  • AIM OF THE STUDY: In the present study we present our experience at National Cancer Institute, Cairo University with breast conservative surgery in treatment of female patients with early (T1-T2) breast cancer.
  • The aim is to examine the evidence based management of those cases and the outcome of treatment in terms of loco regional recurrence and/or distant metastasis.
  • The inclusion criteria included all patients presented with a breast tumor up to 4cm in greatest dimension (T1-2N0).
  • RESULTS: Sixty Eight percent of patients underwent wide local excision, 20%underwent quadrantectomies, and 12% underwent partial mastectomy with or without nipple and areola preservation.
  • The complications involved a total flap loss in 2 patients, partial flap loss in 2, nipple and areola sloughing in 4, wound infection in 5, haematoma in 4, seroma in 60, and donor site morbidity in 12 patients.
  • Ninety three percent of patients had a radical radiotherapy treatment (4500G) and 86 percent received adjuvant chemotherapy while only 74% were given hormonal treatment based on the protocol of treatment and the histopathological findings.
  • Late complications in the form of fat necrosis took place in 12% of patients, local recurrence developed in 7% of patients and distant metastasis in 8%, whereas 3% had both local recurrence and distant metastasis.

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  • (PMID = 21415863.001).
  • [ISSN] 1110-0362
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Egyptian National Cancer Institute
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Egypt Natl Canc Inst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Egypt
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5. Naguib SF: Oncoplastic resection of retroareolar breast cancer: central quadrantectomy and reconstruction by local skin-glandular flap. J Egypt Natl Canc Inst; 2006 Dec;18(4):334-47
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  • BACKGROUND: Patients with central breast neoplasms account for 5 to 20% of breast cancer cases and, for a long time, they have been denied Breast Conservation Surgery (BCS) and conventionally treated with mastectomy.
  • The high incidence of Nipple-Areola-Complex (NAC) involvement usually associated with these tumors necessitates nipple and areolar resection together with an adequate safety margin around the tumor, which yields an unacceptable cosmetic result.
  • Twenty-two had a palpable mass, while only 1 had Paget's disease of the nipple without mass.
  • Only 9 women showed clinical suspicion of NAC involvement in the form of nipple retraction.
  • All patients underwent central quadrantectomy with NAC resection removing a cylinder of breast tissue reaching down to the pectoral muscle together with axillary dissection.
  • All patients received adjuvant radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy or hormonal therapy.
  • RESULTS: Fourteen patients showed pathological evidence of nipple infiltration (60.8%).
  • The procedure lasted a mean time of 195+/-12.7 minutes and blood loss was estimated at a mean of 225+/-64.8 mL.
  • The procedure did not delay the start of adjuvant treatment nor did it hamper clinical and mammographic follow-up.
  • Central quadrantectomy with repair by a skin-glandular flap is a relatively simple procedure that yields very satisfactory cosmetic results with minimal complications and it may be considered as one of the noteworthy therapeutic options for patients with central breast tumors.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Nipples / surgery. Postoperative Complications. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 18301457.001).
  • [ISSN] 1110-0362
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Egyptian National Cancer Institute
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Egypt Natl Canc Inst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Egypt
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6. Chie EK, Kim K, Noh DY, Choe KJ, Kim TY, Im SA, Bang YJ, Ha SW: Negative impact of heat exposure on cosmesis after conservative treatment for breast cancer. Tumori; 2007 Nov-Dec;93(6):591-6
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  • [Title] Negative impact of heat exposure on cosmesis after conservative treatment for breast cancer.
  • AIM AND BACKGROUND: To identify the factors influencing cosmesis after conservative treatment in breast cancer.
  • Whole breast irradiation up to 50.4 Gy was delivered in 28 fractions followed by a 10 Gy boost in 5 fractions to the tumor bed.
  • Breast symmetry was analyzed by the relative distance from the sternal notch to the nipple, using photos taken prior to radiotherapy and 2 years after its completion.
  • Breast symmetry was worse for patients who had tumors >2 cm (P < 0.0001), upper quadrant tumor location (P < 0.0001), chemotherapy in combination with radiotherapy (P = 0.0136), lymph node irradiation (P = 0.0006) and heat exposure (P = 0.0355).
  • CONCLUSIONS: With larger tumor size, lymph node irradiation, and chemotherapy in combination with radiotherapy, heat exposure was found to have a negative impact on cosmesis in patients undergoing conservative treatment for breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Dose Fractionation. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis / radiotherapy. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Radiotherapy Dosage. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18338495.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-8916
  • [Journal-full-title] Tumori
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tumori
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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7. Shi P, Wang M, Zhang Q, Sun J: Lipid-rich carcinoma of the breast. A clinicopathological study of 49 cases. Tumori; 2008 May-Jun;94(3):342-6
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  • The presenting symptoms included a breast mass or lump and nipple discharge.
  • Axillary lymph node metastases were found in 79.2% of the patients at the time of surgery.
  • All patients received surgery plus chemotherapy with or without radiotherapy.
  • In vitro MTT assay showed taxol- or platinum-based chemotherapy to be the most effective.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Lipid-rich carcinoma has a biopathological profile significantly different from other types of breast cancer, with a predominance of unfavorable prognostic parameters.
  • Early diagnosis and active treatment may be helpful to increase its overall survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Breast Neoplasms / chemistry. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma / chemistry. Carcinoma / pathology. Lipids / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Ki-67 Antigen / analysis. Mastectomy / methods. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Receptor, ErbB-2 / analysis. Receptors, Estrogen / analysis. Receptors, Progesterone / analysis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 18705401.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-8916
  • [Journal-full-title] Tumori
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tumori
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Lipids; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; EC 2.7.10.1 / ERBB2 protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2
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8. Lerouge D, Touboul E, Lefranc JP, Genestie C, Moureau-Zabotto L, Blondon J: Combined chemotherapy and preoperative irradiation for locally advanced noninflammatory breast cancer: updated results in a series of 120 patients. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2004 Jul 15;59(4):1062-73
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  • [Title] Combined chemotherapy and preoperative irradiation for locally advanced noninflammatory breast cancer: updated results in a series of 120 patients.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate our updated data concerning survival and locoregional control in a prospective study of locally advanced noninflammatory breast cancer (LABC) after primary chemotherapy (CT) followed by external preoperative irradiation (RT).
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: Between 1982 and 1998, 120 patients (75 Stage IIIA, 41 Stage IIIB, and 4 Stage IIIC according to AJCC staging system 2002) were treated by four courses of induction CT with anthracycline-containing combinations followed by preoperative RT (45 Gy to the breast and nodal areas) and a fifth course of CT.
  • Three different locoregional approaches were proposed depending on tumor characteristics and tumor response.
  • After completion of local therapy, all patients received a sixth course of CT and a maintenance adjuvant CT regimen without anthracycline.
  • The median follow-up from the beginning of treatment was 140 months.
  • RESULTS: Mastectomy and axillary dissection were performed in 49 patients (with residual tumor larger than 3 cm in diameter or located behind the nipple or with bifocal tumor), and conservative treatment in 71 patients (39 achieved clinical complete response or partial response >90% and received additional radiation boost to initial tumor bed; 32 had residual mass < or =3 cm in diameter and were treated by wide excision and axillary dissection followed by a boost to the excision site).
  • After multivariate analysis, possibility of breast-conserving therapy was related to initial tumor size (<6 cm vs. > or =6 cm in diameter, p = 0.002).
  • After multivariate analysis, metastatic disease-free survival rates were significantly influenced by clinical stage (Stage IIIA-B vs. IIIC, p = 0.0003), N-stage (N0 vs. N1-2a, and 3c, p = 0.017), initial tumor size (<6 cm vs. > or =6 cm in diameter, p = 0.008), and tumor response after induction CT and preoperative RT (clinically complete response + partial response vs. nonresponder, p = 0.0015).
  • In the nonconservative breast treatment group, of the 32 patients with no change in clinical tumor size after induction CT, the 10-year metastatic disease-free survival rate was 59% with only one local relapse.
  • On the other hand, the rate of local failure seems to be high in patients with clinical partial tumor response after induction CT and breast-conserving treatment combining preoperative RT and large wide excision.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Breast Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Analysis of Variance. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Axilla. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cobalt Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Mastectomy, Segmental. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Staging. Prospective Studies. Remission Induction. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15234040.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cobalt Radioisotopes
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9. Hali F, Chiheb S, El Ouazzani T, Lakhdar H: [Male breast cancer in Morocco]. Ann Dermatol Venereol; 2002 May;129(5 Pt 1):699-702
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  • [Transliterated title] Cancer du sein chez l'homme au Maroc.
  • The aim of this work was to analyze the different clinical and therapeutic features for this disease in men.
  • The skin was involved by tumor in 11 cases.
  • Ulceration of the skin by tumor was seen in eight patients, and direct extension of the tumor into the nipple without ulceration was seen in three patients.
  • Treatment was usually surgical.
  • Complementary treatment included radiotherapy, chemotherapy and/or hormonotherapy.
  • DISCUSSION: Although breast cancer in men is far less common than breast cancer in women, it is associated with less favorable prognosis because diagnosis is usually made at an advanced stage.
  • Concerted efforts must be made to educate both the public and health professionals, in order to make earlier diagnosis and thereby improve prognosis.

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  • (PMID = 12124511.001).
  • [ISSN] 0151-9638
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales de dermatologie et de vénéréologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Dermatol Venereol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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10. Yin WJ, Di GH, Liu GY, Wu J, Lu JS, Han QX, Shen ZZ, Shao ZM: Clinicopathological features of breast cancer patients with nipple discharge. Mol Med Rep; 2010 Sep-Oct;3(5):863-8
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  • [Title] Clinicopathological features of breast cancer patients with nipple discharge.
  • The demographic features and prognostic profiles of breast cancer patients with nipple discharge (ND) have not been well elucidated in previous studies.
  • According to the initial symptoms at diagnosis, a total of 3,317 patients were categorized into the ND (2.74%) and non-ND (NND; 97.26%) subgroups.
  • As ND and ERBB2 status were time-varying covariates (global test, both P<0.05), the Cox non-proportional hazards regression model was used.
  • In this model, ND status (P=0.028; RR=2.174, 95% CI 1.086‑4.351), as well as tumor size (P<0.001; RR=1.779, 95% CI 1.406-2.250), ALN status (P<0.001; RR=2.257, 95% CI 1.886-2.702), ERBB2 status (P=0.011; RR=0.759, 95% CI 0.613-0.940) and use of adjuvant chemotherapy (P=0.048; RR=0.642, 95% CI 0.414-0.995) were independent prognosticators for RFS.

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  • (PMID = 21472327.001).
  • [ISSN] 1791-3004
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular medicine reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol Med Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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11. Katz A, Strom EA, Buchholz TA, Theriault R, Singletary SE, McNeese MD: The influence of pathologic tumor characteristics on locoregional recurrence rates following mastectomy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2001 Jul 1;50(3):735-42
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  • [Title] The influence of pathologic tumor characteristics on locoregional recurrence rates following mastectomy.
  • PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of pathologic factors other than tumor size and number of involved axillary nodes on the risk of locoregional recurrence (LRR) following mastectomy.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: We reviewed the medical records of 1031 patients treated with mastectomy and doxorubicin-based chemotherapy without radiation on 5 prospective clinical trials.
  • Patients with lymph-vascular space invasion (LVSI) or involvement of the skin or nipple also experienced high rates of LRR (25%, 32%, and 50%, respectively).
  • On multivariate analysis, the presence of 4 or more involved axillary nodes, tumor size of greater than 5 cm, close or positive surgical margins, and gross multicentric disease were found to be independent predictors of LRR (all, p < 0.01).
  • In a separate analysis including only patients with 1-3 involved axillary nodes, microscopic invasion of the skin or nipple, pectoral fascial invasion, and the presence of close or positive margins were significant predictors of LRR.
  • CONCLUSION: In addition to the extent of primary and nodal disease, other factors that predict for high rates of LRR include the presence of LVSI, involvement of the skin, nipple or pectoral fascia, close or positive margins, or gross multicentric disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Clinical Trials as Topic. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Mastectomy. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Predictive Value of Tests. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 11395242.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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12. Iizuka M, Sengoku N, Nakakuma T, Yoshimura N, Hayashi K, Enomoto T, Kuranami M, Watanabe M: [A case of stage IV breast cancer in which a long-term no change state (NC) was attained by a combination of S-1 and TAM following AC-T as a primary systemic therapy (PST)]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2008 Nov;35(12):2228-30
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  • [Title] [A case of stage IV breast cancer in which a long-term no change state (NC) was attained by a combination of S-1 and TAM following AC-T as a primary systemic therapy (PST)].
  • We here describe a case of advanced breast cancer (Stage IV) in which an oral S-1+TAM therapy following a primary systemic chemo-radiotherapy has been effective in maintaining the patient's QOL.
  • A 40-year-old woman visited our hospital because of her left breast tumor.
  • On physical examination, the tumor had invaded to the skin adjacent to the nipple forming a skin ulcer and marked deformity of the entire breast.
  • Subsequently, radiographic imaging tests revealed that the tumor had metastasized to the liver and lungs, as well as the skull.
  • Accordingly, a primary systemic chemotherapy (4 series of AC/T) was started and followed by local radiation therapy (60 Gys) immediately after completing the chemotherapy.
  • The metastasizing lesions in the liver, lungs, and skull had markedly reduced in the size and number, and the skin ulceration had healed up by these treatments.
  • She has been quite well without any adverse effects by S-1 and TAM, and the primary as well as metastasizing lesions remain stable with normalized tumor marker levels (NC) for nearly 3 years.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Oxonic Acid / therapeutic use. Paclitaxel / therapeutic use. Tegafur / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Biopsy. Combined Modality Therapy. Cyclophosphamide / therapeutic use. Cytarabine / therapeutic use. Doxorubicin / therapeutic use. Drug Combinations. Female. Humans. Mitoxantrone / therapeutic use. Neoplasm Staging. Time Factors. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Topotecan / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 19106579.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Drug Combinations; 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine; 150863-82-4 / S 1 (combination); 1548R74NSZ / Tegafur; 5VT6420TIG / Oxonic Acid; 7M7YKX2N15 / Topotecan; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; BZ114NVM5P / Mitoxantrone; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel; AC protocol; TAM protocol
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13. Abboud B, Abou Jaoude S, Breidi C, Abadjian G, Chahine G: [Metaplastic carcinoma of the breast: case report of a sarcomatoid type and literature review]. J Med Liban; 2003 Oct-Dec;51(4):234-7
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  • [Title] [Metaplastic carcinoma of the breast: case report of a sarcomatoid type and literature review].
  • [Transliterated title] Carcinome metaplasique du sein: a propos d'un cas de type sarcomatoïde et revue de la littérature.
  • We report a case of sarcomatoid breast cancer and insist on the diagnosis and treatment of this rare tumor.
  • CASE REPORT: A 71-year-old female patient presented for a right breast mass above the nipple, between the upper inner and upper outer quadrants, of 20 mm of diameter, highly dense on mammography with cystic and solid components on ultrasound.
  • The workout for distant metastasis was negative and the treatment was completed by a modified radical mastectomy and adjuvant CMF chemotherapy.
  • Six months after treatment there was no evidence of locoregional recurrence nor distant metastases.
  • CONCLUSION: Although metaplastic carcinoma is a rare breast malignancy, with no specific clinical or radiologic features, it should be considered as an independent entity and included in the differential diagnosis of breast tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Sarcoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Mastectomy, Modified Radical. Metaplasia / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 15623141.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-9852
  • [Journal-full-title] Le Journal médical libanais. The Lebanese medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Liban
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Lebanon
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14. Kusama M, Imamura Y: Impact of radiofrequency ablation therapy for breast cancer in nipple-areolar complex. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):e11511

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  • [Title] Impact of radiofrequency ablation therapy for breast cancer in nipple-areolar complex.
  • : e11511 Background: Preservation of the safety surgical margin is difficult in BCT of a breast cancer in the vicinity of the nipple-areola complex, and mastectomy is required even for tiny tumors, with consequent poor cosmetic efects.
  • Its application for the tumor in the nipple-areola region has recieved considerable interest.
  • METHODS: RFA of 32 malignant lesion was performed in 30 patients with nipple-areolar breast cancer (Tis: 4, T1: 18; T2: 8).
  • One of the patients had received preoperative chemotherapy.
  • About 10-20ml of 5% glucose solutions was injected between the nipple-areola and the tumor before RFA to maintain a space to avoid heat damage that can occur due to diffusion of RF waves.
  • RFA was continued until the moisture of the tumor was vaporized.
  • RESULTS: In one patient, who had undergone preoperative chemotherapy was observed a recurrence in the nipple on 9 months later, but disappeared after a second ablation of RF.
  • Cosmetic features were maintained after surgery, except in the case that received preoperative chemotherapy, in which a mild deformity in the nipple was evident.
  • CONCLUSIONS: RFA enables treatment of breast cancer in the nipple-areolar region without damage to the surrounding tissues and degradation of cosmetic features.

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  • (PMID = 27964636.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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15. Jacobs LK, Khouri N, Jeter S, Powers P, Rudek M, Gabrielson E, Zhang Z, Sukumar S, Tsangaris T, Stearns V: A phase I study assessing the feasibility and safety of intraductal pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) in women with breast cancer. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):e11506

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  • Preclinical data suggest that intraductal administration of chemotherapy including PLD decrease tumor volume, prevent the development of new lesions, and eradicate pre-malignant disease.
  • Preoperative chemotherapy was allowed.
  • Nipple aspiration and ductal cannulation were completed and the first 3 women received 5 mL of intraductal dextrose.
  • At mastectomy (completed at least 2 weeks after intraductal administration of PLD), blue dye was injected into the treated duct and tissue was obtained for pharmacokinetic and biomarker analysis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: We have established the logistics of intraductal administration of agents in an outpatient setting and it is feasible in women with and without prior chemotherapy.

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  • (PMID = 27964594.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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16. de la Taille A, Buttyan R, Hayek O, Bagiella E, Shabsigh A, Burchardt M, Burchardt T, Chopin DK, Katz AE: Herbal therapy PC-SPES: in vitro effects and evaluation of its efficacy in 69 patients with prostate cancer. J Urol; 2000 Oct;164(4):1229-34
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  • [Title] Herbal therapy PC-SPES: in vitro effects and evaluation of its efficacy in 69 patients with prostate cancer.
  • In groups 1 control and 2 full dose therapy was started the same day of the tumor injection.
  • In groups 3 control, 4 half dose and 5 full dose PC-SPES therapy was initiated 1 week after tumor injection.
  • Immunodeficient mice xenografted with the PC3 cell line had reduced tumor volume compared with sham treated controls when they were treated with a PC-SPES extract from the time of tumor cell implantation (931 +/- 89 versus 1,424 +/- 685 mm.3, p not significant) but not when the treatment was begun 1 week after tumor cell implantation.
  • Of the patients with prostate cancer 82% had decreased serum PSA 2 months, 78% 6 months and 88% 12 months after treatment with PC-SPES.
  • Side effects in the treated patient population included nipple tenderness in 42% and phlebitis requiring heparinization in 2%.
  • The overwhelming majority of patients with prostate cancer treated with the agent experienced a decrease in serum PSA but also demonstrated a side effect profile comparable to estrogen treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / therapeutic use. Drugs, Chinese Herbal. Plant Extracts / therapeutic use. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Animals. Apoptosis. Evaluation Studies as Topic. Humans. Male. Mice. Mice, Nude. Middle Aged. Prostate-Specific Antigen / blood. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 10992371.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-5347
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01CA70769
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 0 / Drugs, Chinese Herbal; 0 / Plant Extracts; 0 / herbal preparation PC-SPES; EC 3.4.21.77 / Prostate-Specific Antigen
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17. Mikhaimer NC, Kähler KC, Schwarz T, Mundhenke C, Hauschild A: Giant basal cell carcinoma of the breast mimicking paget's disease: complete remission after photodynamic therapy. Onkologie; 2010;33(11):613-5
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  • [Title] Giant basal cell carcinoma of the breast mimicking paget's disease: complete remission after photodynamic therapy.
  • BACKGROUND: Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) in the nipple area is extremely rare and can be mistaken for Paget's disease.
  • CASE REPORT: A 47-year-old woman complained of a slowly growing, scaly erythematous plaque around her right nipple which had developed over several years.
  • The maximum tumor thickness was measured as 1 mm.
  • Considering the superficial character of the tumor, photodynamic therapy (PDT) as a non-invasive approach was performed.
  • [MeSH-major] Amino Acids, Neutral / therapeutic use. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / drug therapy. Photochemotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Paget's Disease, Mammary / diagnosis. Paget's Disease, Mammary / therapy. Photosensitizing Agents / therapeutic use. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 20975308.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0240
  • [Journal-full-title] Onkologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Onkologie
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Amino Acids, Neutral; 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 660-88-8 / 5-aminovaleric acid
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18. Caliskan M, Gatti G, Sosnovskikh I, Rotmensz N, Botteri E, Musmeci S, Rosali dos Santos G, Viale G, Luini A: Paget's disease of the breast: the experience of the European Institute of Oncology and review of the literature. Breast Cancer Res Treat; 2008 Dec;112(3):513-21
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  • BACKGROUND: Paget's disease of the breast is an uncommon presentation of breast malignancy, accounting for 1-3% of all the breast tumors and presents in different histopathologic patterns: in association with an underlying invasive or non invasive carcinoma, or without any underlying neoplasia.
  • In the literature, different methods are used for the treatment.
  • Mastectomy with or without axillary dissection has been considered as the standard treatment procedure for many years.
  • Several studies have already shown that breast conservation with radiation therapy is an oncologically safe option.
  • The median age of the patients was 54 years at the time of the diagnosis.
  • Each patient was evaluated after surgery at a multidisciplinary meeting to selecting systemic therapy.
  • Adjuvant systemic therapies were based on the final tumor, node and metastasis stage: thirty patients received adjuvant chemotherapy alone, fourteen received endocrine treatment alone, twenty-six patients were evaluated to receive both chemo and endocrine therapy.
  • Five patients developed local recurrence, one had regional recurrence, another two had loco-regional recurrences and fourteen had distant metastasis as a first event.
  • Malignancy-related deaths were censored in the statistical analyses cancer for and due to another tumor in eleven patients.
  • Breast conserving surgery combined with breast irradiation for patients with invasive and non invasive breast carcinoma has become the treatment of first choice.
  • All surgical conservative approaches should include the complete nipple-areolar complex and margins of resected specimen free of tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms / epidemiology. Paget's Disease, Mammary / diagnosis. Paget's Disease, Mammary / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Breast / pathology. Clinical Trials as Topic. Female. Humans. Mastectomy. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Retrospective Studies. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy / methods. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18240020.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7217
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer research and treatment
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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19. Kronowitz SJ, Hunt KK, Kuerer HM, Strom EA, Buchholz TA, Ensor JE, Koutz CA, Robb GL: Practical guidelines for repair of partial mastectomy defects using the breast reduction technique in patients undergoing breast conservation therapy. Plast Reconstr Surg; 2007 Dec;120(7):1755-68
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  • [Title] Practical guidelines for repair of partial mastectomy defects using the breast reduction technique in patients undergoing breast conservation therapy.
  • BACKGROUND: The authors previously compared the local tissue rearrangement, breast reduction, and latissimus dorsi flap reconstruction techniques for repairing partial mastectomy defects and showed the benefits of breast reduction.
  • RESULTS: Tumor location had a significant effect on the design of the parenchymal pedicle (p = 0.05).
  • Fifty percent of the lower outer and central quadrant tumors required an amputative design with a free nipple graft.
  • Ninety percent of patients with planned repairs had a viable nipple-areola complex (p = 0.05) and did not require a free nipple graft.
  • Only 7 percent of patients had a positive tumor margin.
  • Five percent of patients developed local breast cancer recurrence after a mean follow-up of 36 months.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Breast Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / surgery. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Esthetics. Fat Necrosis / epidemiology. Fat Necrosis / etiology. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Nipples / surgery. Postoperative Complications / epidemiology. Postoperative Complications / prevention & control. Practice Guidelines as Topic. Retrospective Studies. Seroma / epidemiology. Seroma / etiology. Surgical Flaps. Treatment Outcome

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  • [CommentIn] Plast Reconstr Surg. 2008 Aug;122(2):675-6; author reply 676-7 [18626402.001]
  • (PMID = 18090737.001).
  • [ISSN] 1529-4242
  • [Journal-full-title] Plastic and reconstructive surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Plast. Reconstr. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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20. Niu Y, Fu XL, Yu Y, Wang PP, Cao XC: Intra-operative frozen section diagnosis of breast lesions: a retrospective analysis of 13,243 Chinese patients. Chin Med J (Engl); 2007 Apr 20;120(8):630-5
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  • [Title] Intra-operative frozen section diagnosis of breast lesions: a retrospective analysis of 13,243 Chinese patients.
  • BACKGROUND: Although cytological methods for breast oncology have been used in recent decades, intra-operative frozen section has been playing a vital role in making therapeutic decisions.
  • The diagnosis of 47 cases (0.4%) was delayed.
  • Six types (false invasion, peri-papilloma, adenoma of nipple duct, florid adenosis, sclerosing adenosis, and granulose cell tumor) of lesions may lead to false positive, and four types (morphological changes responding chemotherapy, well differentiated papillary carcinoma, invasive lobular carcinoma, and tubular carcinoma) to a false negative.
  • Gross and microscopic findings may be inconsistent in two types of lesions (radial scar and florid adenosis) microscopic and clinical findings in three types (ganulomatous mastitis mammary, duct ectasia, and fat necrosis), and three types (abundant fat or sclerous tissues; borderline lesions and changes of post-chemotherapy) were likely wrongly classified.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Diseases / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Frozen Sections / methods

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  • (PMID = 17517175.001).
  • [ISSN] 0366-6999
  • [Journal-full-title] Chinese medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chin. Med. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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21. Herrmann BL, Mann K: [Hypophyseal coma]. Internist (Berl); 2003 Oct;44(10):1253-9
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  • Pituitary coma occurs more often in patients with well-known pituitary deficiency than in patients with intrasellar tumor.
  • Clinical manifestations are hypotonia, bradycardia, decreased skin and nipple pigmentation, muscle weakness, vomitus, nausea, obstipation, hypothermia, and hypoventilation.
  • Since thyroxine accelerates the degradation of cortisol and can precipitate adrenal crisis in patients with limited pituitary reserve, hydrocortisone replacement should always precede levothyroxine therapy.
  • ACTH stimulation test, CRH stimulation test and insulin tolerance test (optional) should be performed after therapeutic compensation to determine pituitary function.
  • [MeSH-major] Coma / etiology. Hypopituitarism / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Insufficiency / diagnosis. Adrenal Insufficiency / etiology. Adrenal Insufficiency / therapy. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Fluid Therapy. Humans. Hydrocortisone / administration & dosage. Hypophysectomy. Male. Pituitary Function Tests. Postoperative Complications / diagnosis. Thyroxine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 14689087.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-9554
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Internist
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Internist (Berl)
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] Q51BO43MG4 / Thyroxine; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
  • [Number-of-references] 23
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22. Petit J, Rietjens M, Garusi C: Breast reconstructive techniques in cancer patients: which ones, when to apply, which immediate and long term risks? Crit Rev Oncol Hematol; 2001 Jun;38(3):231-9
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  • Breast reconstruction is considered as part of the breast cancer treatment when a mastectomy is required.
  • They provide a progressive distention of the teguments and a more natural shape after substitution of the expander with a definitive implant.
  • The symmetry is usually obtained thanks to a contralateral plastic surgery, which allows at the same time histological check up of the glandular tissue of the opposite breast.
  • The nipple areolar complex is usually reconstructed in a second stage under local anesthesia, using local flaps for the nipple and a tattoo for the colour of the areola.
  • The autologous tissue reconstruction with the rectus myocutaneous flap gives excellent cosmetic results and the most natural shape for the breast.
  • The delayed reconstruction is usually preferred when the adjuvant chemotherapy should be delivered as soon as possible after the mastectomy.
  • Complications of the reconstruction such as local necrosis or infections, leading to implant removal or revision of the flap could be detrimental to the patient in delaying the start of the chemotherapy.
  • Local glandular flaps, as well as specific incisions according to the location of the tumor in the breast allow the reshaping of the breast even in case of large resection and, therefore, provide an opportunity to increase the number of conservative treatment indications, especially in case of in-situ carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Mastectomy. Risk Factors. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 11369256.001).
  • [ISSN] 1040-8428
  • [Journal-full-title] Critical reviews in oncology/hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Crit. Rev. Oncol. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Number-of-references] 38
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23. Matsui K, Tazawa K, Karato M, Nagata T, Shimada Y, Tsukada K: [An elderly advanced breast cancer with a good response to anastrozole]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2010 Aug;37(8):1557-60
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  • In December 2005, she became aware of a tumor in her right breast at the nipple, gradually increasing in size and bleeding, and visited our department in April 2006.
  • Roughly 3.5 cm in size, the tumor had a prominent large skin surface, bled profusely, and a dark red-colored was found at the E area of the right breast.
  • Ultrasonography and mammography revealed that the tumor had invaded the skin and pectoralis major muscle (T4b).
  • We started anastrozole 1mg/day treatment.
  • Tumor blood loss after one month was confirmed.
  • After six months, the primary tumor size was reduced to 2 cm and the axillary lymph nodes disappeared.
  • Administration continued about three years, and the tumor showed only the scar-like changes, and was unclear from ultrasonography (cPR).
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Aromatase Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Nitriles / therapeutic use. Triazoles / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 20716886.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Aromatase Inhibitors; 0 / Nitriles; 0 / Triazoles; 2Z07MYW1AZ / anastrozole
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24. Sauter ER, Ganz PA, Ehya H, Hewett JE, Schlatter L, Kliethermes B, Daly MB: Prospective multicenter trial to determine the feasibility of collection and predictive ability of breast fluid analysis in postmenopausal women receiving SERMs. Breast; 2007 Oct;16(5):489-94
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  • (1) our ability to collect nipple aspirate fluid (NAF) in postmenopausal women taking medication to decrease breast proliferation and (2) NAF biomarkers associated with breast cancer.
  • NAF was collected before and 6 months after starting treatment.
  • We were able to collect fluid in 84% of the subjects who produced NAF at baseline and returned for second aspiration after 6 months of treatment.
  • Median PSA increased from 37.5 to 112 ng/L after treatment.
  • In conclusion, after treatment with tamoxifen or raloxifene, changes in both NAF cytology and PSA were generally favorable, consistent with their expected antiproliferative effective effect on the breast.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Fine-Needle / methods. Body Fluids / chemistry. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Nipples / pathology. Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Female. Humans. Postmenopause. Predictive Value of Tests. Prospective Studies. United States

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  • (PMID = 17482465.001).
  • [ISSN] 0960-9776
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast (Edinburgh, Scotland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators
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25. Grunwald S, Ohlinger R, Schwesinger G, Köhler G: [Primary intracystic squamous cell cancer of female breast]. Zentralbl Gynakol; 2004 Feb;126(1):36-40
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  • [Transliterated title] Primäres intrazystisches Plattenepithelkarzinom der Brust.
  • Repeat sonography in our institution showed a lesion at 1 o'clock, 1 cm deep, and 3-8 cm from the nipple.
  • Histopathologic analysis of 5 high-speed biopsy tissue cores demonstrated an invasive large-cell ductal carcinoma (G2-3).
  • Final histopathologic assessment subsequent to breast-preserving resection and axillary node dissection confirmed the initial diagnosis: keratinizing intracystic squamous cell carcinoma (G2-3, pT2, pN0 (0/15)).
  • The postoperative management consisted of a total of 6 cycles of chemotherapy (Cisplatinum 75 mg/m (2) BSA and Paclitaxel 175 mg/m (2) BSA every 21 days) and subsequent percutaneous radiotherapy.
  • In accordance with published reports, the diagnostic and therapeutic management was analogous to that of adenocarcinoma of the breast.
  • However, some authors recommend the same chemotherapy as used for squamous cell carcinomas of other organs.
  • It remains difficult to make any statements regarding the adjuvant therapy and prognosis, since this type of tumor is so infrequent, especially as an intracystic lesion.
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Needle. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Mammography. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 14981568.001).
  • [ISSN] 0044-4197
  • [Journal-full-title] Zentralblatt für Gynäkologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zentralbl Gynakol
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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26. Fukuda Y, Hirao S, Koyama I, Takatori H, Terakura M, Mayumi K, Tsukazaki Y, Kinoshita H: [Advanced breast cancer with multiple bone metastases successfully treated with combined chemoendocrine-therapy of CEF (cyclophosphamide, epirubicin, 5-fluorouracil) and 5'-DFUR (5'-deoxy-5-fluorouridine) + MPA (medroxyprogesterone acetate)--a case report]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2001 Feb;28(2):217-20
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  • [Title] [Advanced breast cancer with multiple bone metastases successfully treated with combined chemoendocrine-therapy of CEF (cyclophosphamide, epirubicin, 5-fluorouracil) and 5'-DFUR (5'-deoxy-5-fluorouridine) + MPA (medroxyprogesterone acetate)--a case report].
  • A hard mass of about 3.0 cm in diameter was palpated just below the nipple.
  • There were no estrogen or progesterone receptors in the tumor.
  • Postoperative adjuvant therapy with 10 cycles of CEF therapy was undertaken for one year.
  • Combined chemoendocrine therapy with 5'-DFUR and MPA was also conducted for 11 months.
  • It is suggested that this combination therapy may be useful for advanced breast cancer patients with multiple bone metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Bone Neoplasms / drug therapy. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Epirubicin / administration & dosage. Floxuridine / administration & dosage. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Medroxyprogesterone / administration & dosage. Progesterone Congeners / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Drug Therapy, Combination. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11242649.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Progesterone Congeners; 039LU44I5M / Floxuridine; 3Z8479ZZ5X / Epirubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; HSU1C9YRES / Medroxyprogesterone; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil; V1JK16Y2JP / doxifluridine; FEC protocol
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27. Delay E, Gosset J, Toussoun G, Delaporte T, Delbaere M: [Post-treatment sequelae after breast cancer conservative surgery]. Ann Chir Plast Esthet; 2008 Apr;53(2):135-52
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  • [Title] [Post-treatment sequelae after breast cancer conservative surgery].
  • [Transliterated title] Séquelles thérapeutiques du sein après traitement conservateur du cancer du sein.
  • Thanks to the earlier detection of breast cancer, the advent of neoadjuvant therapy and the development of more effective surgical procedures reducing treatment sequelae, conservative treatment has dramatically expanded over the past 15 years.
  • Several factors have recognized negative aesthetic consequences for breast cancer patients: being overweight, having voluminous or on the contrary, very small breasts, having a tumor located in the lower quadrant, having high breast-tumor: breast-volume ratio.
  • Tissue injuries induced by radiotherapy and chemotherapy, such as shrinking, fibrosis or induration, maximize the deleterious impact of surgery.
  • The results of conservative treatment also deteriorate with time: weight gain is common and may result in increased breast asymmetry.
  • Patients undergoing conservative treatment may experience sequelae including various degrees of the following dimorphisms, all possibly responsible for minor or even major breast deformity: breast asymmetry, loss of the nipple/areola complex, scar shrinkage and skin impairment, irregular shape and position of the nipple and areola.
  • Various sensory symptoms have also been reported following conservative treatment, with patients complaining of hypo- or dysesthesia or even suffering actual pain.
  • There are four types of modifications as follows: increased breast density, architectural distortion at the surgical site and formation of scar, mammary fat necrosis, and occurrence of microcalcifications.
  • The management of sequelae of conservative breast treatment must therefore involve a multidisciplinary approach; patients not only expect better cosmetic appearance, but also a focus on other treatment advances such as improvement of psychological and sensory outcome.
  • [MeSH-minor] Breast Diseases / diagnosis. Breast Diseases / etiology. Breast Diseases / physiopathology. Breast Diseases / therapy. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Pain / etiology. Postoperative Complications / diagnosis. Postoperative Complications / etiology. Postoperative Complications / physiopathology. Postoperative Complications / therapy

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  • (PMID = 18077074.001).
  • [ISSN] 1768-319X
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales de chirurgie plastique et esthétique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Chir Plast Esthet
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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28. Kurebayashi J: [Biomarkers in breast cancer]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2004 Jul;31(7):1021-6
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  • Biomarkers are measured in the management of breast cancer patients for the following purposes. (1) Early detection of breast cancer: blood tumor markers such as CA 15-3 are useless for this detection because of a low sensitivity.
  • Proteomics profiling has recently been investigated using blood or nipple aspirate fluid for the detection.
  • Measurement of CEA and HER 2 in abnormal nipple discharge has been approved for diagnosis of breast cancer in Japan. (2) Monitoring of breast cancer patients: serum tumor markers are routinely measured for early detection of recurrent diseases, evaluation of therapeutic response and monitoring outcome of patients by a majority of breast cancer experts in Japan.
  • Study results investigated by the Study Group of the Japanese Breast Cancer Society in 2001 are presented with regard to the questionnaire survey on the present status of tumor marker measurement and the clinical study on usefulness of tumor markers for the evaluation for therapeutic response. (3) Prognostic factors: new biomarkers have been investigated to select patients at high risk for distant metastases, which could not be selected by classic prognostic factors.
  • Three prognostic factors (UPA/PAI-1, cyclin E, gene profiling), which were discussed at the 8th St. Gallen International Consensus Meeting last year, are mainly discussed. (4) Predictive factors for therapeutic response: hormone receptors (HR) have been used as reliable predictive factors for response to endocrine therapy.
  • Other biomarkers have been investigated to select patients with tumors HR-positive but unresponsive to endocrine therapy.
  • Current status, clinical significance, problems and future directions on predictive factors for response to cytotoxic chemotherapy are also discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 15272579.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Carcinoembryonic Antigen; 0 / Cyclin E; 0 / Mucin-1; 0 / Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2
  • [Number-of-references] 23
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29. Salhab M, Al Sarakbi W, Joseph A, Sheards S, Travers J, Mokbel K: Skin-sparing mastectomy and immediate breast reconstruction: patient satisfaction and clinical outcome. Int J Clin Oncol; 2006 Feb;11(1):51-4
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  • BACKGROUND: Skin-sparing mastectomy (SSM) followed by immediate reconstruction has been advocated as an effective treatment option for patients with early-stage breast carcinoma.
  • Eight of 20 (40%) patients required adjuvant chemotherapy, and only 2 patients required post-mastectomy radiation.
  • Reconstruction of the nipple-areola complex was performed in 7 patients (33%) using the trefoil local flap technique.
  • Tumor size ranged from 5 to 90 mm.
  • There was no delay in time to commencement of adjuvant therapies.
  • After a mean follow-up period of 13.5 months (range, 5-46 months), none of the patients developed locoregional recurrence.
  • Only 1 patient (5%) developed systemic recurrence (bony metastases).
  • The procedure seems to be oncologically safe, even in patients with high-risk (T3 or node-positive) carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Patient Satisfaction. Retrospective Studies. Surveys and Questionnaires. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Cites] Plast Reconstr Surg. 2004 Mar;113(3):877-81 [15108879.001]
  • [Cites] Br J Plast Surg. 1999 Jul;52(5):360-4 [10618978.001]
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  • [Cites] Plast Reconstr Surg. 2004 May;113(6):1617-28 [15114121.001]
  • [Cites] Ann Surg. 2002 Jun;235(6):814-9 [12035037.001]
  • [Cites] Am J Surg. 2004 Jul;188(1):78-84 [15219490.001]
  • [Cites] Ann Surg. 1997 May;225(5):570-5; discussion 575-8 [9193184.001]
  • (PMID = 16508729.001).
  • [ISSN] 1341-9625
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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30. Mehta VK, Goffinet D: Postmastectomy radiation therapy after TRAM flap breast reconstruction. Breast J; 2004 Mar-Apr;10(2):118-22
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  • [Title] Postmastectomy radiation therapy after TRAM flap breast reconstruction.
  • Postmastectomy chest wall and nodal radiation therapy decreases local recurrence and improves disease-free and overall survival.
  • The indication for radiotherapy included tumor size, involved lymph nodes, or positive margins.
  • All patients received chemotherapy before radiotherapy and three patients also received concurrent chemotherapy.
  • The median dose to the chest wall was 50.4 Gy in 28 fractions of 1.8 Gy using a 6 or 4 MV linear accelerator.
  • The patients were all computed tomography (CT) planned in the treatment position.
  • On alternating days, a customized bolus was applied to the chest wall that spared the central region where the subsequent nipple reconstruction would be performed.
  • Sixty-six percent of the patients received treatment without any treatment breaks.
  • Only 10% of the patients developed desquamation of the TRAM flap skin.
  • Thirty percent developed grade II erythema of the TRAM flap.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Mammaplasty / methods. Mastectomy / rehabilitation. Middle Aged. Postoperative Complications. Radiation Dosage. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 15009038.001).
  • [ISSN] 1075-122X
  • [Journal-full-title] The breast journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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