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1. El-Marakby H: Management of early breast cancer with breast conservative surgery. An egyptian experience. J Egypt Natl Canc Inst; 2009 Dec;21(4):271-8

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Management of early breast cancer with breast conservative surgery. An egyptian experience.
  • BACKGROUND: Breast conservative surgery (BCS) has been an established method for treatment of early breast cancer.
  • The volume of the procedure varies from a wide local excision to partial mastectomy and ipsilateral axillary lymphadenectomy.
  • The nipple and areola complex sparing, depends on their proximity to the tumour.
  • Radiotherapy, chemotherapy and or hormonal treatment play an integral role in the treatment of early breast cancer.
  • AIM OF THE STUDY: In the present study we present our experience at National Cancer Institute, Cairo University with breast conservative surgery in treatment of female patients with early (T1-T2) breast cancer.
  • The aim is to examine the evidence based management of those cases and the outcome of treatment in terms of loco regional recurrence and/or distant metastasis.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study includes 200 with early breast cancer patients who presented to the department of surgery, National Cancer Institute between May 2002 and February 2007.
  • The inclusion criteria included all patients presented with a breast tumor up to 4cm in greatest dimension (T1-2N0).
  • RESULTS: Sixty Eight percent of patients underwent wide local excision, 20%underwent quadrantectomies, and 12% underwent partial mastectomy with or without nipple and areola preservation.
  • All patients who underwent quadrantectomy or partial mastectomy required an augmentation mammoplasty to restore the breast volume.
  • The complications involved a total flap loss in 2 patients, partial flap loss in 2, nipple and areola sloughing in 4, wound infection in 5, haematoma in 4, seroma in 60, and donor site morbidity in 12 patients.
  • Ninety three percent of patients had a radical radiotherapy treatment (4500G) and 86 percent received adjuvant chemotherapy while only 74% were given hormonal treatment based on the protocol of treatment and the histopathological findings.
  • Late complications in the form of fat necrosis took place in 12% of patients, local recurrence developed in 7% of patients and distant metastasis in 8%, whereas 3% had both local recurrence and distant metastasis.
  • CONCLUSION: The results of the current study showed that evidence based management of early breast cancer with breast conservative surgery; in terms of the incidence of locoregional recurrence matches favorably with the reported international studies.
  • KEY WORDS: Breast conservative surgery - Loco regional recurrence - Evidence based management of breast cancer.

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  • (PMID = 21415863.001).
  • [ISSN] 1110-0362
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Egyptian National Cancer Institute
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Egypt Natl Canc Inst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Egypt
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2. Naguib SF: Oncoplastic resection of retroareolar breast cancer: central quadrantectomy and reconstruction by local skin-glandular flap. J Egypt Natl Canc Inst; 2006 Dec;18(4):334-47
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  • [Title] Oncoplastic resection of retroareolar breast cancer: central quadrantectomy and reconstruction by local skin-glandular flap.
  • BACKGROUND: Patients with central breast neoplasms account for 5 to 20% of breast cancer cases and, for a long time, they have been denied Breast Conservation Surgery (BCS) and conventionally treated with mastectomy.
  • The high incidence of Nipple-Areola-Complex (NAC) involvement usually associated with these tumors necessitates nipple and areolar resection together with an adequate safety margin around the tumor, which yields an unacceptable cosmetic result.
  • In this study central quadrantectomy and breast reconstruction by an infero-laterally based pedicled flap were evaluated.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: This study comprised 23 women with central breast tumors treated at the National Cancer Institute (NCI), Cairo University and at the Aswan Cancer Center, Egyptian Ministry of Health.
  • Twenty-two had a palpable mass, while only 1 had Paget's disease of the nipple without mass.
  • Only 9 women showed clinical suspicion of NAC involvement in the form of nipple retraction.
  • All patients underwent central quadrantectomy with NAC resection removing a cylinder of breast tissue reaching down to the pectoral muscle together with axillary dissection.
  • All patients received adjuvant radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy or hormonal therapy.
  • RESULTS: Fourteen patients showed pathological evidence of nipple infiltration (60.8%).
  • The procedure lasted a mean time of 195+/-12.7 minutes and blood loss was estimated at a mean of 225+/-64.8 mL.
  • The procedure did not delay the start of adjuvant treatment nor did it hamper clinical and mammographic follow-up.
  • Central quadrantectomy with repair by a skin-glandular flap is a relatively simple procedure that yields very satisfactory cosmetic results with minimal complications and it may be considered as one of the noteworthy therapeutic options for patients with central breast tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma, Ductal / surgery. Carcinoma, Lobular / surgery. Mammaplasty / methods. Mastectomy, Segmental / methods. Skin Transplantation. Surgical Flaps
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Nipples / surgery. Postoperative Complications. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 18301457.001).
  • [ISSN] 1110-0362
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Egyptian National Cancer Institute
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Egypt Natl Canc Inst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Egypt
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3. Lanitis S, Filippakis G, Al Mufti R, Hadjiminas DJ: Breast conserving surgery with preservation of the nipple-areola complex as a feasible and safe approach in male breast cancer: a case report. J Med Case Rep; 2008;2:126

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Breast conserving surgery with preservation of the nipple-areola complex as a feasible and safe approach in male breast cancer: a case report.
  • INTRODUCTION: Breast cancer in men is rare.
  • The evidence about treatment has been derived from data on the management of the disease in women.
  • The usual treatment is for male patients to undergo modified radical mastectomy.
  • There is insufficient experience of breast conserving surgery with preservation of the nipple.
  • CASE PRESENTATION: A 50-year-old man with a breast cancer was successfully managed with breast conserving surgery with nipple preservation combined with axillary clearance and postoperative radiotherapy, chemotherapy and hormone treatment.
  • CONCLUSION: Despite the limited indications and evidence about the safety and efficacy of breast conserving surgery with nipple preservation in men with breast cancer, it is a feasible approach if other options are declined by the patient.

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  • (PMID = 18442386.001).
  • [ISSN] 1752-1947
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medical case reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Case Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2383899
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4. Viswambharan JK, Kadambari D, Iyengar KR, Srinivasan K: Feasibility of breast conservation surgery in locally advanced breast cancer downstaged by neoadjuvant chemotherapy: a study in mastectomy specimens using simulation lumpectomy. Indian J Cancer; 2005 Jan-Mar;42(1):30-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Feasibility of breast conservation surgery in locally advanced breast cancer downstaged by neoadjuvant chemotherapy: a study in mastectomy specimens using simulation lumpectomy.
  • BACKGROUND: The response of locally advanced breast cancer (LABC) to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) offers these patients previously treated by mastectomy, the chance for breast conservation.
  • Tumors with post-chemotherapy size> 4 cm were margin positive in 10/13 (77%).
  • Tumors with post-chemotherapy size>3 cm were margin positive in 13/24 (54%).
  • Tumors with post-chemotherapy size 3 cm were margin negative in 5/6 (83%).
  • Pre-chemotherapy tumor size and post-chemotherapy tumor size were significantly associated with margin positivity (P=0.003).
  • Tumors in the subareolar location had significantly higher incidence of residual tumor in the nipple areola complex. (P=0.04).
  • Margin positivity of lumpectomy on downstaged tumors can be reduced by removing the nipple areola complex in subareolar tumors and by limiting breast conservation to tumors with post-chemotherapy size < or =3 cm.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Mastectomy / methods. Neoadjuvant Therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Prospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15805689.001).
  • [ISSN] 0019-509X
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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5. Bayramgürler D, Bilen N, Apaydin R, Erçin C: Nevoid hyperkeratosis of the nipple and areola: treatment of two patients with topical calcipotriol. J Am Acad Dermatol; 2002 Jan;46(1):131-3
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. 1,25-DIHYDROXYCHOLECALCIFEROL .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Nevoid hyperkeratosis of the nipple and areola: treatment of two patients with topical calcipotriol.
  • Nevoid hyperkeratosis of the nipple and areola, which is characterized by verrucous thickening and pigmentation of the nipple or areola, is a rare condition.
  • Different therapeutic options have been used with varying results, but there is no uniformly effective treatment.
  • We describe two patients with hyperkeratosis of the nipple and areola who responded well to topical calcipotriol ointment.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Calcitriol / analogs & derivatives. Calcitriol / therapeutic use. Nevus, Pigmented / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • [CommentIn] J Am Acad Dermatol. 2005 Mar;52(3 Pt 1):529-30 [15761439.001]
  • (PMID = 11756960.001).
  • [ISSN] 0190-9622
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 143NQ3779B / calcipotriene; FXC9231JVH / Calcitriol
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6. Kartal Durmazlar SP, Eskioglu F, Bodur Z: Hyperkeratosis of the nipple and areola: 2 years of remission with low-dose acitretin and topical calcipotriol therapy. J Dermatolog Treat; 2008;19(6):337-40
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  • [Title] Hyperkeratosis of the nipple and areola: 2 years of remission with low-dose acitretin and topical calcipotriol therapy.
  • Hyperkeratosis of the nipple and areola is a rare disorder characterized by verrucous thickening and brown pigmentation of the nipple and areola with unknown etiology.
  • Moreover, treatment regimens are not satisfactory.
  • Surgical treatment has been suggested as an initial treatment in resistant and recurrent cases because of the relapses seen after medical treatment.
  • We report a case who responded satisfactorily to low-dose acitretin and topical calcipotriol treatment with no relapses during 2 years of follow-up.
  • Among all reported medical treatments and interventional approaches, including surgery, this is the first patient reported with 2 years of remission.
  • [MeSH-major] Acitretin / administration & dosage. Breast Diseases / drug therapy. Calcitriol / analogs & derivatives. Dermatologic Agents / administration & dosage. Keratolytic Agents / administration & dosage. Keratosis / drug therapy. Nipples
  • [MeSH-minor] Acanthosis Nigricans / drug therapy. Administration, Cutaneous. Adolescent. Drug Therapy, Combination. Female. Humans. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18608736.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-1753
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of dermatological treatment
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Dermatolog Treat
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Dermatologic Agents; 0 / Keratolytic Agents; 143NQ3779B / calcipotriene; FXC9231JVH / Calcitriol; LCH760E9T7 / Acitretin
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7. Guevara-Gutiérrez E, Tarango-Martínez VM, Sandoval-Tress C, Hernández-Torres M: [Unilateral nevoid hyperkeratosis of the nipple and areola treated with topical calcitriol]. Actas Dermosifiliogr; 2008 Jul-Aug;99(6):500-1
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  • [Title] [Unilateral nevoid hyperkeratosis of the nipple and areola treated with topical calcitriol].
  • [Transliterated title] Hiperqueratosis nevoide del pezón y la areola unilateral tratada con calcitriol tópico.
  • [MeSH-major] Calcitriol / therapeutic use. Dermatologic Agents / therapeutic use. Keratosis / drug therapy. Melanosis / drug therapy. Nipples / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Acanthosis Nigricans / diagnosis. Administration, Cutaneous. Adult. Breast Neoplasms, Male / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Nevus, Pigmented / diagnosis. Paget's Disease, Mammary / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18558069.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-7310
  • [Journal-full-title] Actas dermo-sifiliográficas
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Actas Dermosifiliogr
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Dermatologic Agents; FXC9231JVH / Calcitriol
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8. Tougeron D, Wierzbicka-Hainaut E, Osdoit S, Chagneau-Derrode C, Yacoub M, Silvain C: Hyperkeratotic eczema of the nipple and areola associated with sorafenib treatment. Eur J Dermatol; 2010 Nov-Dec;20(6):854-6
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  • [Title] Hyperkeratotic eczema of the nipple and areola associated with sorafenib treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects. Benzenesulfonates / adverse effects. Breast Diseases / chemically induced. Eczema / chemically induced. Pyridines / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / drug therapy. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Male. Middle Aged. Niacinamide / analogs & derivatives. Nipples. Phenylurea Compounds

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  • (PMID = 20956109.001).
  • [ISSN] 1167-1122
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of dermatology : EJD
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Benzenesulfonates; 0 / Phenylurea Compounds; 0 / Pyridines; 25X51I8RD4 / Niacinamide; 9ZOQ3TZI87 / sorafenib
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9. Bhattacharjee PK, Ghosh S, Choudhury T, Mitra SK, Banerjee S: Stromal sarcoma of breast: a case report. J Indian Med Assoc; 2000 Apr;98(4):189-90
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  • [Title] Stromal sarcoma of breast: a case report.
  • A 34 years unmarried female was admitted with an ulcerated foul smelling growth in her right breast.
  • On examination the fungating mass measured 17.5 cm x 15 cm in central and lower part of right breast involving the nipple and areola.
  • The ulcer was covered with slough and rest part of the breast appeared bosselated.
  • Histopathological examination confirmed it was a case of stromal sarcoma of breast.
  • Chemotherapy was started with vincristine, adriamycin and cylophosphamide.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Sarcoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Breast / pathology. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Mastectomy, Simple

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  • (PMID = 11016187.001).
  • [ISSN] 0019-5847
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Indian Medical Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Indian Med Assoc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] INDIA
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10. Delay E, Gosset J, Toussoun G, Delaporte T, Delbaere M: [Post-treatment sequelae after breast cancer conservative surgery]. Ann Chir Plast Esthet; 2008 Apr;53(2):135-52
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Post-treatment sequelae after breast cancer conservative surgery].
  • [Transliterated title] Séquelles thérapeutiques du sein après traitement conservateur du cancer du sein.
  • Thanks to the earlier detection of breast cancer, the advent of neoadjuvant therapy and the development of more effective surgical procedures reducing treatment sequelae, conservative treatment has dramatically expanded over the past 15 years.
  • Several factors have recognized negative aesthetic consequences for breast cancer patients: being overweight, having voluminous or on the contrary, very small breasts, having a tumor located in the lower quadrant, having high breast-tumor: breast-volume ratio.
  • Tissue injuries induced by radiotherapy and chemotherapy, such as shrinking, fibrosis or induration, maximize the deleterious impact of surgery.
  • The results of conservative treatment also deteriorate with time: weight gain is common and may result in increased breast asymmetry.
  • Patients undergoing conservative treatment may experience sequelae including various degrees of the following dimorphisms, all possibly responsible for minor or even major breast deformity: breast asymmetry, loss of the nipple/areola complex, scar shrinkage and skin impairment, irregular shape and position of the nipple and areola.
  • Various sensory symptoms have also been reported following conservative treatment, with patients complaining of hypo- or dysesthesia or even suffering actual pain.
  • Breast lymphedema is also a common incapacitating after-effect that is believed to be largely underdiagnosed in clinical practice.
  • Finally, like mastectomy, conservative breast surgery may induce serious psychological distress in patients who suffer the loss of physical integrity, womanhood or sexual arousal.
  • There are four types of modifications as follows: increased breast density, architectural distortion at the surgical site and formation of scar, mammary fat necrosis, and occurrence of microcalcifications.
  • The management of sequelae of conservative breast treatment must therefore involve a multidisciplinary approach; patients not only expect better cosmetic appearance, but also a focus on other treatment advances such as improvement of psychological and sensory outcome.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Mastectomy / adverse effects. Mastectomy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Breast Diseases / diagnosis. Breast Diseases / etiology. Breast Diseases / physiopathology. Breast Diseases / therapy. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Pain / etiology. Postoperative Complications / diagnosis. Postoperative Complications / etiology. Postoperative Complications / physiopathology. Postoperative Complications / therapy

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  • (PMID = 18077074.001).
  • [ISSN] 1768-319X
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales de chirurgie plastique et esthétique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Chir Plast Esthet
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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11. Ohanaka CE, Ollu-Eddo AN: Paget's disease of the nipple-areola complex as seen in Benin City, Nigeria. Niger J Clin Pract; 2006 Dec;9(2):179-82
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  • [Title] Paget's disease of the nipple-areola complex as seen in Benin City, Nigeria.
  • Out of a total of 240 patients who were managed at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Nigeria, for breast cancer over a ten year period (January 1995-December 2004, 8 (3.3%) were found to have Paget's disease of the nipple-areolar complex.
  • The left breast was more affected than the right.
  • They all presented with itching, excoriation and ulceration of the nipple and diagnosis was by wedge biopsy of the nipple in early cases and by incisional biopsy in late cases.
  • They all had chemotherapy and tamoxifen.
  • Paget's disease, though rare, requires a high index of suspicion for proper diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Nipples / pathology. Paget's Disease, Mammary / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17319355.001).
  • [ISSN] 1119-3077
  • [Journal-full-title] Nigerian journal of clinical practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Niger J Clin Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Nigeria
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12. Fernández L, Delgado S, Herrero H, Maldonado A, Rodríguez JM: The bacteriocin nisin, an effective agent for the treatment of staphylococcal mastitis during lactation. J Hum Lact; 2008 Aug;24(3):311-6
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  • [Title] The bacteriocin nisin, an effective agent for the treatment of staphylococcal mastitis during lactation.
  • A solution of the bacteriocin nisin (6 microg/mL) was applied to the nipple and mammary areola of those assigned to the nisin group for 2 weeks, and a similar preparation devoid of nisin was applied to the control group.
  • On day 0, staphylococcal counts in breast milk of the nisin and control groups were similar (5.04+/-0.19 and 4.88+/-0.21 log10 CFU/mL, respectively).
  • In conclusion, nisin seems to be an efficient alternative to antibiotics for the treatment of staphylococcal mastitis.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-Bacterial Agents / therapeutic use. Mastitis / drug therapy. Nisin / therapeutic use. Staphylococcal Infections / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Colony Count, Microbial. Female. Humans. Milk, Human / microbiology. Staphylococcus / drug effects. Staphylococcus / isolation & purification. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18689718.001).
  • [ISSN] 0890-3344
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of human lactation : official journal of International Lactation Consultant Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Hum Lact
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents; 1414-45-5 / Nisin
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13. Simmons RM, Hollenbeck ST, Latrenta GS: Two-year follow-up of areola-sparing mastectomy with immediate reconstruction. Am J Surg; 2004 Oct;188(4):403-6
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  • [Title] Two-year follow-up of areola-sparing mastectomy with immediate reconstruction.
  • OBJECTIVE: Areola-sparing mastectomy (ASM) is defined as resecting the nipple and any existing surgical biopsy scar, removing all breast parenchyma, and leaving a natural envelope of skin (including the areola), which improves the aesthetic result of immediate reconstruction.
  • We previously demonstrated a <1% incidence of malignant involvement of the areola in a retrospective mastectomy series.
  • RESULTS: ASM was performed for breast cancer prophylaxis (n = 10), ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) (n = 4), and <2-cm peripheral infiltrating carcinoma (n = 3).
  • Thirteen patients were reconstructed with tissue expanders and 4 with pedicle transverse rectus abdominus myocutaneous flaps.
  • No patient received chemotherapy or radiation therapy.
  • We continue to offer ASM for selected patients including those desiring surgical breast cancer prophylaxis as well as those with DCIS or small peripheral infiltrating ductal carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Mammaplasty. Mastectomy / methods. Nipples
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 15474435.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9610
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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14. Kusama M, Imamura Y: Impact of radiofrequency ablation therapy for breast cancer in nipple-areolar complex. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):e11511

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Impact of radiofrequency ablation therapy for breast cancer in nipple-areolar complex.
  • : e11511 Background: Preservation of the safety surgical margin is difficult in BCT of a breast cancer in the vicinity of the nipple-areola complex, and mastectomy is required even for tiny tumors, with consequent poor cosmetic efects.
  • Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is an advanced, minimally invasive technique for breast cancer.
  • Its application for the tumor in the nipple-areola region has recieved considerable interest.
  • METHODS: RFA of 32 malignant lesion was performed in 30 patients with nipple-areolar breast cancer (Tis: 4, T1: 18; T2: 8).
  • One of the patients had received preoperative chemotherapy.
  • And one patient was male breast cancer(T2).Surgery was performed on an outpatient basis.A 19-gauge cooled-tip needle was used in all cases.
  • About 10-20ml of 5% glucose solutions was injected between the nipple-areola and the tumor before RFA to maintain a space to avoid heat damage that can occur due to diffusion of RF waves.
  • RESULTS: In one patient, who had undergone preoperative chemotherapy was observed a recurrence in the nipple on 9 months later, but disappeared after a second ablation of RF.
  • Cosmetic features were maintained after surgery, except in the case that received preoperative chemotherapy, in which a mild deformity in the nipple was evident.
  • CONCLUSIONS: RFA enables treatment of breast cancer in the nipple-areolar region without damage to the surrounding tissues and degradation of cosmetic features.

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  • (PMID = 27964636.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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15. Petit J, Rietjens M, Garusi C: Breast reconstructive techniques in cancer patients: which ones, when to apply, which immediate and long term risks? Crit Rev Oncol Hematol; 2001 Jun;38(3):231-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Breast reconstructive techniques in cancer patients: which ones, when to apply, which immediate and long term risks?
  • Breast reconstruction is considered as part of the breast cancer treatment when a mastectomy is required.
  • The techniques available today, allow reconstruction of the breast even in almost all the cases even in poor local conditions.
  • They provide a progressive distention of the teguments and a more natural shape after substitution of the expander with a definitive implant.
  • The symmetry is usually obtained thanks to a contralateral plastic surgery, which allows at the same time histological check up of the glandular tissue of the opposite breast.
  • The nipple areolar complex is usually reconstructed in a second stage under local anesthesia, using local flaps for the nipple and a tattoo for the colour of the areola.
  • The autologous tissue reconstruction with the rectus myocutaneous flap gives excellent cosmetic results and the most natural shape for the breast.
  • The delayed reconstruction is usually preferred when the adjuvant chemotherapy should be delivered as soon as possible after the mastectomy.
  • Complications of the reconstruction such as local necrosis or infections, leading to implant removal or revision of the flap could be detrimental to the patient in delaying the start of the chemotherapy.
  • It is not recommended to reconstruct the breast immediately in case of locally advanced breast cancer.
  • Partial breast reconstruction using plastic surgery procedures can also be performed in case of quadrantectomy in order to obtain a better cosmetic result.
  • Local glandular flaps, as well as specific incisions according to the location of the tumor in the breast allow the reshaping of the breast even in case of large resection and, therefore, provide an opportunity to increase the number of conservative treatment indications, especially in case of in-situ carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Mammaplasty / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Mastectomy. Risk Factors. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 11369256.001).
  • [ISSN] 1040-8428
  • [Journal-full-title] Critical reviews in oncology/hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Crit. Rev. Oncol. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Number-of-references] 38
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16. Yoshimura K, Momosawa A, Watanabe A, Sato K, Matsumoto D, Aiba E, Harii K, Yamamoto T, Aoyama T, Iga T: Cosmetic color improvement of the nipple-areola complex by optimal use of tretinoin and hydroquinone. Dermatol Surg; 2002 Dec;28(12):1153-7; discussion 1158
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cosmetic color improvement of the nipple-areola complex by optimal use of tretinoin and hydroquinone.
  • BACKGROUND: A successful treatment to improve the color of nipple-areola complex (NAC) has never been reported, although the number of women seeking the more attractively colored NAC is not small.
  • RESULTS: The average treatment period was 16.6 weeks.
  • The treatment was repeated after a 1-month interval of tretinoin application in 4 patients: 2 desired further improvement in color, and 2 had the second course conducted to treat the postinflammatory hyperpigmentation on the surrounding mound induced by the first course.
  • CONCLUSION: This approach appeared to be most effective for cosmetic improvement of NAC color among treatments available so far.
  • [MeSH-major] Hydroquinones / therapeutic use. Hyperpigmentation / drug therapy. Keratolytic Agents / therapeutic use. Nipples. Tretinoin / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Cutaneous. Adolescent. Adult. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Administration Schedule. Drug Therapy, Combination. Female. Gels. Humans. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 12472496.001).
  • [ISSN] 1076-0512
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatologic surgery : official publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et al.]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Gels; 0 / Hydroquinones; 0 / Keratolytic Agents; 123-31-9 / hydroquinone; 5688UTC01R / Tretinoin
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17. Tausch C, Hintringer T, Kugler F, Schmidhammer C, Bauer M, Aufschnaiter M: Breast-conserving surgery with resection of the nipple-areola complex for subareolar breast carcinoma. Br J Surg; 2005 Nov;92(11):1368-71
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Breast-conserving surgery with resection of the nipple-areola complex for subareolar breast carcinoma.
  • INTRODUCTION: Breast-conserving therapy for centrally located tumours has in the past been viewed with reservation, but is now an accepted treatment.
  • METHODS: In a prospective investigation carried out between 1996 and 2002, 44 women had surgery for 45 breast carcinomas with suspected nipple involvement.
  • The breast was conserved and the nipple-areola complex removed.
  • The mean tumour size at the time of operation was 18 (range 4-50) mm.
  • Six women received preoperative chemotherapy.
  • Six women developed distant metastasis, of whom five died.
  • CONCLUSION: Breast-conserving therapy is a safe and cosmetically acceptable alternative to mastectomy for subareolar breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / surgery. Mastectomy, Segmental / methods. Nipples / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Patient Satisfaction. Prospective Studies. Reoperation. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15997453.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-1323
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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18. Fan ZM, Song D, Wang L, Fu T, Yang M, Liu GJ: [Total mastectomy and axillary dissection with conservation of the nipple-areola complex, and immediate reconstruction with artificial prosthesis in the treatment of early breast cancer]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi; 2007 Jan 9;87(2):93-5
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  • [Title] [Total mastectomy and axillary dissection with conservation of the nipple-areola complex, and immediate reconstruction with artificial prosthesis in the treatment of early breast cancer].
  • OBJECTIVE: To study the feasibility of total mastectomy and axillary dissection with conservation of the nipple-areola complex, and immediate reconstruction with artificial prosthesis in the treatment of early breast cancer.
  • METHODS: The 20 patients with breast cancer (TNM stage I, 6 patients; stage II, 14 patients) underwent the total mastectomy axillary dissection with conservation of the nipple-areola complex, and immediate reconstruction with artificial prosthesis.
  • Post-operation they were given chemotherapy, radiotherapy, endocrine therapy.
  • CONCLUSION: Total mastectomy and axillary dissection with conservation of the nipple-areola complex, and immediate reconstruction with artificial prosthesis on selected patients with breast cancer is an oncologically acceptable procedure with superior cosmetic results, without increasing the risk of local recurrences, complications and influencing the effects of postoperative adjuvant treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Implantation. Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Mastectomy, Modified Radical / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Feasibility Studies. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Nipples / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17418014.001).
  • [ISSN] 0376-2491
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua yi xue za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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19. Roustan G, Yus ES, Simón A: Nevoid hyperkeratosis of the areola with histopathological features mimicking mycosis fungoides. Eur J Dermatol; 2002 Jan-Feb;12(1):79-81
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Nevoid hyperkeratosis of the areola with histopathological features mimicking mycosis fungoides.
  • Hyperkeratosis of the areola is a rare benign condition of unknown etiology characterized by slowly growing verrucous thickening and brown pigmentation of the areola or/and the nipple.
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Topical. Adult. Biopsy / methods. Breast Diseases / drug therapy. Breast Diseases / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Keratolytic Agents / therapeutic use. Tretinoin / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 11809604.001).
  • [ISSN] 1167-1122
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of dermatology : EJD
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Keratolytic Agents; 5688UTC01R / Tretinoin
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20. Gherardini G, Thomas R, Basoccu G, Zaccheddu R, Fortunato L, Cortino P, Evans GR, Matarasso A, D'Aiuto M, D'Aiuto G: Immediate breast reconstruction with the transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flap after skin-sparing mastectomy. Int Surg; 2001 Oct-Dec;86(4):246-51
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Immediate breast reconstruction with the transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flap after skin-sparing mastectomy.
  • Immediate breast reconstruction with the transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous (TRAM) flap after skin-sparing mastectomy is becoming an increasingly performed procedure in patients with ductal carcinoma in situ, early invasive breast cancer, and prophylactic mastectomy.
  • Through a periareolar approach, it is possible to remove the breast parenchyma along with the nipple areola complex, preserving almost all the original skin envelope and the inframmamary fold.
  • The TRAM flap is used to recreate the volume and shape of the original breast.
  • The major disadvantages, extensive scar and donor site skin color mismatch, are reduced to a minimum level because the former is limited at the natural border of the nipple areola and the latter can be effectively concealed with proper nipple reconstruction.
  • Thirty-one patients with a mean age of 39 years (range, 26-50 years) who had undergone unilateral or bilateral mastectomy for early breast cancer and immediate breast reconstruction with the pedicled TRAM flap were retrospectively reviewed.
  • Requirements for the skin-sparing mastectomy technique include suitability of donor site tissue for autologous tissue, early breast cancer or ductal carcinoma in situ, and adequate size and shape matching of the contralateral breast.
  • One patient developed abdominal bulging 1 month after the operation, during the administration of chemotherapy.
  • The nicer aesthetic result with oncological safety is achieved with immediate breast reconstruction with the TRAM flap after skin-sparing mastectomy.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / pathology. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / surgery. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Rectus Abdominis / surgery. Retrospective Studies. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 12056470.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-8868
  • [Journal-full-title] International surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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21. Li JF, Ouyang T, Wang TF, Xie YT, Fan ZQ, Lin BY: [Breast-conserving therapy for centrally located primary breast cancer]. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi; 2006 Jun;28(6):478-80
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Breast-conserving therapy for centrally located primary breast cancer].
  • OBJECTIVE: The goal of the study is to investigate the feasibility of breast-conserving therapy for early primary breast carcinoma centrally located in the breast.
  • METHODS: 157 patients with stage I or II primary breast cancer located in the central part of the breast were operated with extended local excision and axillary lymph node dissection.
  • Nipple-areola complex was excised in 18 patients.
  • Ninety-three patients received two to six cycles neo-adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • Radiotherapy was given postoperatively to the whole remaining breast.
  • RESULTS: The clinical response rate was 87.1% (81/93) and pathologic complete remission rate was 15.1% (14/93) after neo-adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • Breast conservation surgery was performed successfully for all the patients in this series.
  • After a median follow-up of 23 months (range 6-53 months), there was no recurrence in the ipsilateral breast.
  • The aesthetic effect of the conserved breast was satisfactory including excellent for 88 patients and good for 48 patients representing of 86.6% of all cases.
  • CONCLUSION: Breast conserving surgery is suitable for the early centrally located primary breast carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / surgery. Mastectomy, Segmental / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Axilla. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Feasibility Studies. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Remission Induction. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17152501.001).
  • [ISSN] 0253-3766
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua zhong liu za zhi [Chinese journal of oncology]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
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22. Senatore G, Zanotti S, Cambrini P, Montroni I, Pellegrini A, Montanari E, Santini D, Taffurelli M: [Ectopic breast fibroadenoma. Case report]. G Chir; 2010 Mar;31(3):96-9

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Ectopic breast fibroadenoma. Case report].
  • Among the rare anomalies of the breast development, polythelia is the most common, between 1% and 5% of women and men present supernumerary nipples.
  • Polymastia, usually presenting as ectopic breast tissue without areola-nipple complex, is seen mostly along the milk line, extending from the axilla to the pubic region.
  • Ectopic breast tissue is functionally analogous to mammary gland and it is subjected to the same alterations and diseases, whether benign or malignant, that affect normal breast tissue.
  • Differential diagnosis with lymphoma is the major problem in these cases.
  • The mass was removed and the intraoperative histological examination showed fibroadenoma in axillary supernumerary breast.
  • Presence of ectopic breast tissue is a rare condition; development of benign mass or malignant degeneration is possible, but it is very unusual.
  • In case of polymastia diagnosis is simple; in case of isolated nodule, without local inflammation or infection, there are greater difficulties.
  • Ultrasonography is diagnostic in case of breast fibroadenoma, but it might be inadequate in ectopic localizations owing to the shortage of mammary tissue around the mass.
  • Preoperative diagnosis is important to plan an adequate surgical treatment; lumpectomy is indicated in case of benign tissue; in case of malignancy, therapy is based on the standard treatment used for breast cancer (surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy).
  • [MeSH-major] Breast. Choristoma / diagnosis. Choristoma / surgery. Fibroadenoma / diagnosis. Fibroadenoma / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Axilla. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20426920.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-9005
  • [Journal-full-title] Il Giornale di chirurgia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] G Chir
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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23. Kronowitz SJ, Hunt KK, Kuerer HM, Strom EA, Buchholz TA, Ensor JE, Koutz CA, Robb GL: Practical guidelines for repair of partial mastectomy defects using the breast reduction technique in patients undergoing breast conservation therapy. Plast Reconstr Surg; 2007 Dec;120(7):1755-68
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Practical guidelines for repair of partial mastectomy defects using the breast reduction technique in patients undergoing breast conservation therapy.
  • BACKGROUND: The authors previously compared the local tissue rearrangement, breast reduction, and latissimus dorsi flap reconstruction techniques for repairing partial mastectomy defects and showed the benefits of breast reduction.
  • METHODS: In this study, the authors focused solely on factors influencing outcome in 41 patients who underwent repair of a partial mastectomy defect using breast reduction.
  • Fifty percent of the lower outer and central quadrant tumors required an amputative design with a free nipple graft.
  • Tumors in the upper outer quadrant of the breast were associated with the highest complication rate (35 percent).
  • Ninety percent of patients with planned repairs had a viable nipple-areola complex (p = 0.05) and did not require a free nipple graft.
  • More favorable cosmetic outcomes were achieved using an inferior pedicle; less favorable cosmetic outcomes were achieved for tumors in the upper inner quadrant of the breast.
  • Five percent of patients developed local breast cancer recurrence after a mean follow-up of 36 months.
  • CONCLUSION: The authors provide practical guidelines for repairing a partial mastectomy defect using breast reduction that should minimize the occurrence of complications and optimize the cosmetic outcome.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Breast Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / surgery. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Esthetics. Fat Necrosis / epidemiology. Fat Necrosis / etiology. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Nipples / surgery. Postoperative Complications / epidemiology. Postoperative Complications / prevention & control. Practice Guidelines as Topic. Retrospective Studies. Seroma / epidemiology. Seroma / etiology. Surgical Flaps. Treatment Outcome

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  • [CommentIn] Plast Reconstr Surg. 2008 Aug;122(2):675-6; author reply 676-7 [18626402.001]
  • (PMID = 18090737.001).
  • [ISSN] 1529-4242
  • [Journal-full-title] Plastic and reconstructive surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Plast. Reconstr. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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24. Salhab M, Al Sarakbi W, Joseph A, Sheards S, Travers J, Mokbel K: Skin-sparing mastectomy and immediate breast reconstruction: patient satisfaction and clinical outcome. Int J Clin Oncol; 2006 Feb;11(1):51-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Skin-sparing mastectomy and immediate breast reconstruction: patient satisfaction and clinical outcome.
  • BACKGROUND: Skin-sparing mastectomy (SSM) followed by immediate reconstruction has been advocated as an effective treatment option for patients with early-stage breast carcinoma.
  • It minimizes deformity and improves cosmesis through preservation of the natural skin envelope of the breast.
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate postoperative morbidity, patients' satisfaction, and oncological safety for SSM and immediate breast reconstruction (IBR) with a latissimus dorsi (LD) myocutaneous flap and/or breast prosthesis in patients with operable breast cancer.
  • METHODS: Twenty-one consecutive patients with operable breast cancer undergoing 25 SSM and immediate reconstruction with an LD flap plus implant (n = 14) or implant alone (n = 11) were retrospectively studied (from 2001 through 2005).
  • Eight of 20 (40%) patients required adjuvant chemotherapy, and only 2 patients required post-mastectomy radiation.
  • Reconstruction of the nipple-areola complex was performed in 7 patients (33%) using the trefoil local flap technique.
  • There was no delay in time to commencement of adjuvant therapies.
  • After a mean follow-up period of 13.5 months (range, 5-46 months), none of the patients developed locoregional recurrence.
  • Only 1 patient (5%) developed systemic recurrence (bony metastases).
  • CONCLUSION: SSM and IBR for operable breast cancer is associated with a high level of patient satisfaction and low morbidity.
  • The procedure seems to be oncologically safe, even in patients with high-risk (T3 or node-positive) carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / surgery. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / surgery. Mammaplasty / methods. Mastectomy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Patient Satisfaction. Retrospective Studies. Surveys and Questionnaires. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Cites] Plast Reconstr Surg. 2004 Mar;113(3):877-81 [15108879.001]
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  • (PMID = 16508729.001).
  • [ISSN] 1341-9625
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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25. Erdmann D, Sundin BM, Moquin KJ, Young H, Georgiade GS: Delay in unipedicled TRAM flap reconstruction of the breast: a review of 76 consecutive cases. Plast Reconstr Surg; 2002 Sep 1;110(3):762-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Delay in unipedicled TRAM flap reconstruction of the breast: a review of 76 consecutive cases.
  • Since its introduction in 1982, the transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous (TRAM) flap has become the standard therapy in autogenous breast reconstruction.
  • A TRAM flap delay before flap transfer has been advocated, especially in a high-risk patient population (obesity, history of cigarette smoking, radiation therapy, or abdominal scar).
  • The authors reviewed a series of 76 consecutive delayed unipedicled TRAM flap breast reconstructions during a 5-year period.
  • Data were analyzed with respect to type of procedure and time of delay, overall outcome, general surgical complications, flap-related (specific) complications (partial or complete flap loss), and patient satisfaction.
  • Seventy-six unilateral breast reconstructions using the unipedicled TRAM flap were performed between 1995 and 2000 in 76 patients (mean age, 47.4 years).
  • No acute flap take-back procedure had to be performed.
  • There was no complete flap loss, and breast reconstruction was achieved in all cases.
  • Interestingly, the majority of these cases (four of five) were secondary breast reconstructions.
  • In addition, of the five patients who had partial flap necrosis, four had a history of smoking, two received radiation therapy, three received chemotherapy, and three patients were obese (body mass index greater than or equal to 30) or overweight (body mass index greater than or equal to 25).
  • One patient developed a deep vein thrombosis.
  • Five patients developed secondary ventral hernias necessitating repair (6.6 percent).
  • Forty-one patients underwent secondary nipple-areola reconstruction.
  • In 19 patients of this group, a secondary procedure (e.g., scar revision, limited liposuction, and/or excision of contour deformities) was simultaneously performed.
  • The overall satisfaction was very high and 51 patients reported that they would recommend the procedure to others (100 percent).
  • Multiple factors such as patient selection, surgical expertise, and preoperative and postoperative management contribute to the success of any type of autogenous breast reconstruction.
  • Therefore, the delayed unipedicled TRAM flap should be regarded as a valuable option in attempted breast reconstruction using autogenous tissue in both a high-risk and the general patient population.
  • [MeSH-minor] Body Mass Index. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Patient Satisfaction. Rectus Abdominis / surgery. Risk Factors. Time Factors

  • MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Breast Reconstruction.
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  • [CommentIn] Plast Reconstr Surg. 2003 Jun;111(7):2478-9 [12794507.001]
  • (PMID = 12172136.001).
  • [ISSN] 0032-1052
  • [Journal-full-title] Plastic and reconstructive surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Plast. Reconstr. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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