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1. Schor NF: New approaches to pharmacotherapy of tumors of the nervous system during childhood and adolescence. Pharmacol Ther; 2009 Apr;122(1):44-55
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Neuroblastoma.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] New approaches to pharmacotherapy of tumors of the nervous system during childhood and adolescence.
  • Tumors of the nervous system are among the most common and most chemoresistant neoplasms of childhood and adolescence.
  • Neuroblastoma, a peripheral nervous system tumor, is the most common extracranial solid tumor of childhood, and 65% of children with this tumor have only a 10 or 15% chance of living 5 years beyond the time of initial diagnosis.
  • Novel pharmacological approaches to nervous system tumors are urgently needed.
  • This review presents the role of and current challenges to pharmacotherapy of malignant tumors of the nervous system during childhood and adolescence and discusses novel approaches aimed at overcoming these challenges.

  • MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Brain Tumors.
  • MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Childhood Brain Tumors.
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  • (PMID = 19318043.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-016X
  • [Journal-full-title] Pharmacology & therapeutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pharmacol. Ther.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS038569; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS038569-10; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA074289-09; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA074289-09; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA074289; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS038569-10
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 141
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS112040; NLM/ PMC2699440
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2. Carvalho Ade C, Parra ER, Zerbini MC, Alves VA, Capelozzi VL, Antonangelo L: Morphometric evaluation of NB84, synaptophysin and AgNOR is useful for the histological diagnosis and prognosis in peripheral neuroblastic tumors (pNTs). Clinics (Sao Paulo); 2007 Dec;62(6):731-40
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Neuroblastoma.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Morphometric evaluation of NB84, synaptophysin and AgNOR is useful for the histological diagnosis and prognosis in peripheral neuroblastic tumors (pNTs).
  • OBJECTIVE: To study the importance of NB84, synaptophysin and AgNOR and explore the quantitative association of these factors with diagnosis and outcome as well as the association between NB84 and AgNOR and other tumor and stromal factors in twenty-eight peripheral neuroblastic tumors.
  • METHODS: We assessed AgNORs, NB84, synaptophysin and several other markers in tumor tissues from 28 patients with primary neuroblastic tumors.
  • The treatment included: surgery for stage 1, chemotherapy and bone marrow transplantation for most of stages 3 and 4.
  • Histochemistry, immunohistochemistry and morphometry were used to evaluate the amount of tumor staining for AgNOR, NB84 and synaptophysin; the outcome for our study was survival time until death due to recurrent neuroblastic tumors.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Determination of NB84 and synaptophysin are useful tools for the diagnosis of peripheral neuroblastic tumors The association of the evaluation of AgNOR expression by the tumor cells may provide an important contribution to the prognostic evaluation and management approach of the patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal. Antibodies, Neoplasm. Antigens, Neoplasm / analysis. Antigens, Nuclear. Neuroblastoma / pathology. Peripheral Nervous System Neoplasms / pathology. Synaptophysin / analysis

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  • [ErratumIn] Clinics. 2008 Apr;63(2):291
  • (PMID = 18209916.001).
  • [ISSN] 1807-5932
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinics (São Paulo, Brazil)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clinics (Sao Paulo)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Neoplasm; 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Antigens, Nuclear; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Synaptophysin; 0 / nucleolar organizer region associated proteins
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3. Mazur KA: Neuroblastoma: What the nurse practitioner should know. J Am Acad Nurse Pract; 2010 May;22(5):236-45
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Neuroblastoma.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Neuroblastoma: What the nurse practitioner should know.
  • PURPOSE: To provide a comprehensive review of the background, diagnosis, and primary care management of neuroblastoma (NBL) and to describe the pathophysiology, signs and symptoms, and diagnostic tests for the patient with NBL.
  • Treatment includes a combination of surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation, as well as the newer immunotherapy.
  • The clinical presentation of NBL, the vital facts needed to ensure that this diagnosis will not be overlooked, and follow-up in a primary care setting will be reviewed.
  • [MeSH-major] Clinical Competence. Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice. Neuroblastoma / nursing. Nurse Practitioners. Primary Health Care
  • [MeSH-minor] Anthracyclines / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Autonomic Nervous System Diseases / diagnosis. Autonomic Nervous System Diseases / nursing. Autonomic Nervous System Diseases / pathology. Immunotherapy. Neural Crest / cytology. Neural Crest / pathology. Prognosis. Radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 20500737.001).
  • [ISSN] 1745-7599
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Academy of Nurse Practitioners
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Am Acad Nurse Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anthracyclines; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 26
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4. Sidi-Fragandrea V, Hatzipantelis E, Panagopoulou P, Fragandrea I, Anastasiou A, Koliouskas DE: Isolated central nervous system recurrence in a child with stage IV neuroblastoma. Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2010 Aug;27(5):387-92
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Neuroblastoma.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Isolated central nervous system recurrence in a child with stage IV neuroblastoma.
  • Neuroblastoma is the most common extracranial solid tumor in children.
  • Survival rates have improved due to advances in treatment with aggressive chemotherapy and autologous bone marrow transplantation.
  • The authors describe a 16-month-old boy with stage IV extracerebral primary neuroblastoma who died because of an isolated central nervous system (CNS) relapse.
  • High-risk patients should be followed-up with brain and spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for timely detection of metastases and appropriate management.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Neoplasms / diagnosis. Neuroblastoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Central Nervous System / pathology. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Infant. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Neoplasm Metastasis / diagnosis. Recurrence. Risk

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  • (PMID = 20469973.001).
  • [ISSN] 1521-0669
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric hematology and oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Hematol Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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5. Pérel Y, Valteau-Couanet D, Michon J, Lavrand F, Coze C, Bergeron C, Notz A, Plantaz D, Chastagner P, Bernard F, Thomas C, Rubie H: [Prognosis of neuroblastoma in childhood. Methods of assessment and clinical use]. Arch Pediatr; 2004 Jul;11(7):834-42
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Prognosis of neuroblastoma in childhood. Methods of assessment and clinical use].
  • Neuroblastoma and its benign counterpart, ganglioneuroma, are pediatric neuroblastic tumors arising in the sympathetic nervous system from neural-crest cells.
  • Neuroblastoma, the most common extra-cranial solid tumour during childhood, is unique for its broad spectrum of clinical virulence from spontaneous remission to rapid and fatal progression despite intensive multimodality therapy.
  • To a large extent, outcome could be predicted by the stage of disease and the age at diagnosis.
  • However, a number of molecular events in neuroblastoma tumors, accounting for the variability of outcome and response to therapy, have been identified over the past decades.
  • Among these, MYCN amplification is the most relevant prognostic factor and was the first genetic marker, in paediatric oncology, to be included in clinical strategies as a guide for therapeutic decision.
  • This has allowed the most suitable intensity of therapy to be delivered according to a risk-stratified strategy, from observation to megadose chemotherapy with stem cell transplantation.
  • Recent advances in understanding the biology and genetics of neuroblastoma will ultimately allow to select poor-risk patients for appropriate future biologically based therapies.
  • [MeSH-major] Genetic Markers. Neoplasm Staging. Neuroblastoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Child. Child, Preschool. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Patient Selection. Prognosis. Risk Factors. Stem Cell Transplantation

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  • (PMID = 15234382.001).
  • [ISSN] 0929-693X
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives de pédiatrie : organe officiel de la Sociéte française de pédiatrie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Pediatr
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Genetic Markers
  • [Number-of-references] 71
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6. Tonini GP, Pistoia V: Molecularly guided therapy of neuroblastoma: a review of different approaches. Curr Pharm Des; 2006;12(18):2303-17
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Molecularly guided therapy of neuroblastoma: a review of different approaches.
  • Neuroblastoma (NB) is the most frequent extra-cranial solid tumor and the first cause of lethality in pre-school age children.
  • It originates from the sympathetic nervous system and is characterized by heterogeneous pathological and clinical presentation.
  • Stage 4 NB represents approximately 50% of the cases and shows metastatic dissemination at onset; its prognosis is grim, with 20% of the patients surviving at 5 years from diagnosis in spite of aggressive chemotherapy with autologous hematopoietic stem cell support.
  • Novel therapeutic strategies are urgently needed to improve the prognosis of stage 4 NB patients.
  • Here we review the most promising approaches to NB treatment that have already reached clinical testing or have proved to be successful in preclinical models of the disease.
  • All of these approaches are molecularly guided, since their rational development has benefited from the enormous amount of information on the biology of neuroblastoma gathered through molecular biology and genetics studies.
  • The following topics are reviewed: MYCN oncogene amplification as parameter for therapeutic decision, minimal residual disease, immunotherapy, gene therapy, differentiation and apoptotic therapy, anti-angiogenic therapy, gene expression profiling as tool for generating novel therapeutic approaches.
  • Although several efforts are still needed to reach a significant cure of patients with neuroblastoma, molecularly guided approaches have opened new ways to neuroblastoma treatment and can represent useful models for other cancers of either childhood or adulthood.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiogenesis Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Genetic Therapy. Immunotherapy. Neuroblastoma / therapy. Retinoids / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Apoptosis / drug effects. Cell Differentiation / drug effects. Chromosome Deletion. Cytokines / therapeutic use. Gene Expression Profiling / methods. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / drug effects. Humans. Neoplasm, Residual. Neovascularization, Pathologic / drug therapy. Nuclear Proteins / genetics. Nuclear Proteins / metabolism. Oligonucleotides, Antisense / genetics. Oligonucleotides, Antisense / metabolism. Oncogene Proteins / genetics. Oncogene Proteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16787256.001).
  • [ISSN] 1381-6128
  • [Journal-full-title] Current pharmaceutical design
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr. Pharm. Des.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Cytokines; 0 / MYCN protein, human; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Oligonucleotides, Antisense; 0 / Oncogene Proteins; 0 / Retinoids
  • [Number-of-references] 145
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7. Modak S, Cheung NK: Neuroblastoma: Therapeutic strategies for a clinical enigma. Cancer Treat Rev; 2010 Jun;36(4):307-17
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  • [Title] Neuroblastoma: Therapeutic strategies for a clinical enigma.
  • Neuroblastoma, the most common extracranial pediatric solid tumor remains a clinical enigma with outcomes ranging from cure in >90% of patients with locoregional tumors with little to no cytotoxic therapy, to <30% for those >18months of age at diagnosis with metastatic disease despite aggressive multimodality therapy.
  • Recent research has shed light on the biology of neuroblastoma allowing more accurate stratification of patients which has permitted reducing or withholding cytotoxic therapy without affecting outcome for low-risk patients.
  • However, for children with high-risk disease, the development of newer therapeutic strategies is necessary.
  • Current surgery and radiotherapy techniques in conjunction with induction chemotherapy have greatly reduced the risk of local relapse.
  • However, refractory or recurrent osteomedullary disease occurs in most patients with high-risk neuroblastoma.
  • Toxicity limits for high-dose chemotherapy appear to have been reached without further clinical benefit.
  • Neuroblastoma is the first pediatric cancer for which monoclonal-antibody-based immunotherapy has been shown to be effective, particularly for metastatic osteomedullary disease.
  • Radioimmunotherapy appears to be a critical component of a recent, successful regimen for treating patients who relapse in the central nervous system, a possible sanctuary site.
  • The identification of newer tumor targets and the harnessing of cell-mediated immunotherapy may generate novel therapeutic approaches.
  • It is likely that a combination of therapeutic modalities will be required to improve survival and cure rates.
  • [MeSH-major] Neuroblastoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] 3-Iodobenzylguanidine / therapeutic use. Adoptive Transfer. Angiogenesis Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Humans. Immunotherapy. Neoplasm Staging

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  • [Copyright] 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
  • (PMID = 20227189.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-1967
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer treatment reviews
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Treat. Rev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA106450; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA134274; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA61017; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA72868
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 35MRW7B4AD / 3-Iodobenzylguanidine
  • [Number-of-references] 166
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8. Jarius S, Arnold S, Linke R, Noachtar S, Schlemmer M, Issels R, Voltz R: Long term survival in anti-Hu associated adult neuroblastoma. J Neurol Sci; 2009 Sep 15;284(1-2):205-8
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  • [Title] Long term survival in anti-Hu associated adult neuroblastoma.
  • We report on a young lady suffering from adult neuroblastoma and anti-Hu associated paraneoplastic encephalomyelitis (PEM) with a tumour free survival of nine years up to now.
  • Treatment included tumour surgery, radiation, high dose chemotherapy, and stem cell transplantation.
  • Serological testing demonstrated a marked decline in anti-Hu antibody titres under therapy, and subsequent disappearance of the antibody 31 months after second tumour resection.
  • [MeSH-major] Autoantibodies / immunology. Autoantigens / immunology. Autoimmune Diseases of the Nervous System / etiology. ELAV Proteins / immunology. Ganglioneuroma / complications. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / complications. Neuroblastoma / complications. Para-Aortic Bodies / pathology. Paraneoplastic Syndromes, Nervous System / etiology. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / complications. Survivors
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibodies, Viral / blood. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnostic Errors. Female. Humans. Hyperthermia, Induced. Lymphocytes, Tumor-Infiltrating / immunology. Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine / immunology. Multiple Sclerosis / diagnosis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / radiotherapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Optic Atrophy / diagnosis. Optic Atrophy / etiology. Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. T-Lymphocyte Subsets / immunology. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19442989.001).
  • [ISSN] 1878-5883
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the neurological sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurol. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Viral; 0 / Autoantibodies; 0 / Autoantigens; 0 / ELAV Proteins; 0 / Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine
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9. Mutch LS, Johnston DL: Late presentation of opsoclonus-myoclonus-ataxia syndrome in a child with stage 4S neuroblastoma. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2005 Jun;27(6):341-3
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  • [Title] Late presentation of opsoclonus-myoclonus-ataxia syndrome in a child with stage 4S neuroblastoma.
  • Opsoclonus-myoclonus-ataxia syndrome (OMA) in children is most commonly associated with occult neuroblastoma (NB).
  • The pathogenesis of OMA in NB is not well understood, but current research and treatments support an immune-mediated process.
  • The authors describe an unusual presentation of OMA occurring following 6 months of chemotherapy in a child with stage 4S NB who presented with partial Horner syndrome.
  • Further study of unusual cases of OMA in NB may provide better understanding of the syndrome and additional treatment options for these children.
  • [MeSH-major] Ataxia / etiology. Neuroblastoma / diagnosis. Neuroblastoma / drug therapy. Paraneoplastic Syndromes, Nervous System / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Immunoglobulins, Intravenous / therapeutic use. Infant. Male. Prednisone / therapeutic use. Treatment Outcome


10. Mitchell WG, Davalos-Gonzalez Y, Brumm VL, Aller SK, Burger E, Turkel SB, Borchert MS, Hollar S, Padilla S: Opsoclonus-ataxia caused by childhood neuroblastoma: developmental and neurologic sequelae. Pediatrics; 2002 Jan;109(1):86-98
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  • [Title] Opsoclonus-ataxia caused by childhood neuroblastoma: developmental and neurologic sequelae.
  • OBJECTIVE: Opsoclonus-ataxia, also called "dancing eye syndrome," is a serious neurologic condition that is often a paraneoplastic manifestation of occult neuroblastoma in early childhood.
  • Despite resection of tumor and immunosuppressive therapy, outcome generally includes significant developmental and behavioral sequelae.
  • There is controversy about how treatment alters outcome.
  • The goals of this study were to understand the ongoing neurologic and developmental deficits of children who are treated for opsoclonus-ataxia with associated neuroblastoma; to relate treatment history to outcome; and to quantify objectively the acute changes in motor function, speech, mood, and behavior related to intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) treatment.
  • METHODS: Patients were children with opsoclonus-ataxia caused by neuroblastoma, regardless of interval since diagnosis.
  • Additional examinations were performed immediately before and 2 to 3 days after treatment with IVIg in 5 children.
  • All had a stage I or II neuroblastoma resected 3 months to 11 years previously.
  • None received any other treatment for the tumor.
  • Three had received other immunosuppressive treatment, including cyclophosphamide.
  • Immediate versus delayed treatment was not associated with better outcome.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Opsoclonus-ataxia caused by neuroblastoma causes substantial developmental sequelae that are not adequately prevented by current treatment.
  • The increased deficits in older children raise concern that this represents a progressive encephalopathy rather than a time-limited single insult.
  • [MeSH-major] Abdominal Neoplasms / complications. Ataxia / etiology. Neuroblastoma / complications. Paraneoplastic Syndromes, Nervous System / etiology. Thoracic Neoplasms / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Cross-Sectional Studies. Female. Head and Neck Neoplasms / complications. Head and Neck Neoplasms / diagnosis. Head and Neck Neoplasms / drug therapy. Humans. Immunoglobulins, Intravenous / therapeutic use. Infant. Male

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  • [ErratumIn] Pediatrics 2002 Oct;110(4):853-4
  • (PMID = 11773546.001).
  • [ISSN] 1098-4275
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatrics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunoglobulins, Intravenous
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11. Plantaz D, Michon J, Valteau-Couanet D, Coze C, Chastagner P, Bergeron C, Nelken B, Martelli H, Peyroulet MC, Carpentier AF, Armari-Alla C, Pagnier A, Rubie H: [Opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome associated with non-metastatic neuroblastoma. Long-term survival. Study of the French Society of Pediatric Oncologists]. Arch Pediatr; 2000 Jun;7(6):621-8
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  • [Title] [Opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome associated with non-metastatic neuroblastoma. Long-term survival. Study of the French Society of Pediatric Oncologists].
  • In children, it could be a paraneoplastic syndrome in association with neuroblastoma, usually with a high survival rate, but having a high frequency of neurologic and psychologic sequelae.
  • OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to describe oncologic outcome (prospectively) and neurologic outcome (retrospectively) in children with non-metastatic neuroblastoma, and to determine its best treatment.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Data were collected on 21 children diagnosed with localized neuroblastoma and opsoclonus-myoclonus between 1990-1999 from the French Society of Pediatric Oncology institutions.
  • RESULTS: Median age at diagnosis was 18 months.
  • Only four tumors were initially considered as unresectable tumors and received first-line chemotherapy.
  • Complete macroscopic resection was performed in 20 cases (four after primary chemotherapy).
  • Nine children received chemotherapy.
  • Treatment for opsoclonus-myoclonus varied widely.
  • Only one child received no medical treatment for opsoclonus-myoclonus, because of complete resolution of neurologic symptoms after exclusive surgery.
  • The following agents were used: corticosteroids in 18 cases, intravenously immune globulin in five cases, and antiepileptic drugs in seven cases.
  • Ten patients experienced relapses of opsoclonus-myoclonus symptoms, mainly related to the decrease of steroid therapy (5/10).
  • There is no correlation between neurologic outcome, and either age at diagnosis or duration of neurologic symptoms, or type of treatment of the tumor, particularly chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSION: Persistent neurologic deficits are characteristic for children with neuroblastoma and opsoclonus-myoclonus.
  • Neurologic outcome seems unrelated to the treatment of neuroblastoma, which should exclusively be conducted according to oncological criteria.
  • The treatment of opsoclonus-myoclonus should be standardized, mainly based on high-dose hydrocortisone, with a very low decreasing dosage, associated to intravenously immune globulin in severe cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Neuroblastoma / complications. Paraneoplastic Syndromes, Nervous System / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adrenal Cortex Hormones / therapeutic use. Adult. Anticonvulsants / therapeutic use. Child. Female. Humans. Immunization, Passive. Male. Prognosis. Prospective Studies. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 10911528.001).
  • [ISSN] 0929-693X
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives de pédiatrie : organe officiel de la Sociéte française de pédiatrie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Pediatr
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] FRANCE
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones; 0 / Anticonvulsants
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12. Nurzyńska-Flak J, Zawitkowska-Klaczyńska J, Katski K, Kowalczyk JR: [Central nervous system metastases in children with solid tumours]. Med Wieku Rozwoj; 2004 Apr-Jun;8(2 Pt 1):175-82
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  • [Title] [Central nervous system metastases in children with solid tumours].
  • BACKGROUND: Central nervous system (CNS) metastases occur in 20-30% of adult patients with systemic cancers. but they rarely occur in children with solid tumours.
  • The diagnosis in this group was as follow: soft tissue sarcomas -- 51 patients, bone tumours -- 50.
  • Wilms' tumour -- 48, neuroblastoma (NBL) -- 36, germ cell tumours -- 33: Children with primary CNS tumours, retinoblastoma, lymphoma and rare tumours were not analysed.
  • Diagnosis of CNS metastases was confirmed by imaging studies (CT, MRI).
  • The median time from initial diagnosis to the detection of CNS metastases was 14 months.
  • One of them was also irradiated and received chemotherapy and only this child is alive and achieved complete remission.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Neoplasms / secondary. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / therapy. Leiomyosarcoma / secondary. Neuroblastoma / secondary. Teratoma / secondary. Wilms Tumor / secondary

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  • (PMID = 15738591.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Medycyna wieku rozwojowego
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med Wieku Rozwoj
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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13. Katzenstein HM, Kent PM, London WB, Cohn SL: Treatment and outcome of 83 children with intraspinal neuroblastoma: the Pediatric Oncology Group experience. J Clin Oncol; 2001 Feb 15;19(4):1047-55
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  • [Title] Treatment and outcome of 83 children with intraspinal neuroblastoma: the Pediatric Oncology Group experience.
  • PURPOSE: To investigate whether the rate of neurologic recovery or the incidence of long-term sequelae differed for children with neuroblastoma (NB) initially treated with chemotherapy versus surgical decompression with laminectomy, we reviewed the Pediatric Oncology Group (POG) experience.
  • Survival, neurologic outcome, and orthopedic sequelae were evaluated according to age of the patient at diagnosis, stage of disease, duration and severity of neurologic symptoms, and therapeutic intervention.
  • Forty-three (52%) of the patients had neurologic symptoms at diagnosis.
  • After treatment, six of 15 severely affected patients, who presented with paralysis, completely recovered neurologic function.
  • Seven of 24 assessable patients who had undergone laminectomy developed scoliosis, whereas spinal deformities were only detected in one of 49 assessable patients managed without laminectomy (P =.001).
  • The rate of neurologic recovery was similar for patients treated with chemotherapy compared to those managed with laminectomy.
  • Fewer orthopedic sequelae were observed in the children managed with chemotherapy than were seen in children managed with laminectomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Neuroblastoma / therapy. Spinal Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Laminectomy. Paresis / therapy. Peripheral Nervous System Diseases / etiology. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11181668.001).
  • [ISSN] 0732-183X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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14. Ilias I, Pacak K: Diagnosis and management of tumors of the adrenal medulla. Horm Metab Res; 2005 Dec;37(12):717-21
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  • [Title] Diagnosis and management of tumors of the adrenal medulla.
  • Pheochromocytomas are chromaffin-cell tumors; 80-85 % arise from the adrenal medulla and 15-20 % arise from extra-adrenal chromaffin tissues (paragangliomas).
  • Neuroblastomas are primitive tumors that derive from the same blastic precursor as in pheochromocytomas, and are distributed along the sympathetic nervous system.
  • The diagnosis of pheochromocytoma should first be established biochemically by measuring plasma free metanephrines (the measurement of urinary fractionated metanephrines is the second choice).
  • Measurements of homovanillic acid (HVA), norepinephrine and vanilmandelic acid (VMA) in urine are a necessity in patients with suspected neuroblastoma.
  • Anatomical (radiological) imaging with computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is necessary for both pheochromocytomas and neuroblastomas.
  • Other newer specific modalities that have been used for evaluating pheochromocytomas include positron emission tomography (PET) with [18F]-F-fluorodopamine (F-DA) and [18F]-F-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA).
  • Primary treatment for both types of tumor is surgical; chemotherapy is used for inoperable disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy. Adrenal Medulla / physiopathology. Neuroendocrine Tumors / diagnosis. Neuroendocrine Tumors / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2a / diagnosis. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2a / therapy. Neuroblastoma / diagnosis. Neuroblastoma / therapy. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / therapy. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 16372223.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-5043
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormone and metabolic research = Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung = Hormones et métabolisme
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Horm. Metab. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 39
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15. Vázquez E, Castellote A, Piqueras J, Ortuno P, Sánchez-Toledo J, Nogués P, Lucaya J: Second malignancies in pediatric patients: imaging findings and differential diagnosis. Radiographics; 2003 Sep-Oct;23(5):1155-72

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  • [Title] Second malignancies in pediatric patients: imaging findings and differential diagnosis.
  • Therapeutic advances in the treatment of pediatric neoplasms have improved the prognosis but have also increased the risk of developing rare second malignant neoplasms (SMNs).
  • Primary neoplasms that are often associated with SMNs include lymphoma, retinoblastoma, medulloblastoma, neuroblastoma, and leukemia.
  • The most common SMNs are central nervous system (CNS) tumors, sarcomas, thyroid and parotid gland carcinomas, and leukemia, particularly acute myeloblastic leukemia.
  • Genetic predisposition, chemotherapy, and especially radiation therapy are implicated as pathogenic factors in SMN.
  • Differential diagnosis can be very difficult, and outcome is often fatal.
  • Treatment protocols should be modified to reduce the risk for SMN without compromising the effectiveness of initial therapy.
  • Clinicians should individualize treatment for patients who are genetically predisposed to SMN.
  • In addition, radiologists should be familiar with the long-term consequences of antineoplastic therapy to facilitate diagnosis and anticipate adverse outcomes.
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans

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  • [Copyright] Copyright RSNA, 2003
  • (PMID = 12975507.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-1323
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiographics : a review publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiographics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 52
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16. Kadan-Lottick NS, Robison LL, Gurney JG, Neglia JP, Yasui Y, Hayashi R, Hudson M, Greenberg M, Mertens AC: Childhood cancer survivors' knowledge about their past diagnosis and treatment: Childhood Cancer Survivor Study. JAMA; 2002 Apr 10;287(14):1832-9
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  • [Title] Childhood cancer survivors' knowledge about their past diagnosis and treatment: Childhood Cancer Survivor Study.
  • CONTEXT: Adult survivors of childhood cancer are at risk for adverse effects later in life but may have limited access to information about their diagnosis and treatment.
  • OBJECTIVE: To assess knowledge of adult survivors of childhood cancer about their primary cancer diagnosis and associated therapies.
  • DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Cross-sectional survey of 635 consecutive survivors (approximately 5%) drawn from 12 156 participants 18 years or older participating in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (a multiinstitutional cohort of individuals diagnosed between January 1, 1970, and December 31,1986, at an age <21 years, who had survived 5 years from diagnosis).
  • The survey assessed knowledge of their cancer diagnosis and associated therapies in a 3- to 5-minute telephone questionnaire.
  • RESULTS: Overall, 72% accurately reported their diagnosis with precision and 19% were accurate but not precise.
  • Individuals with central nervous system (CNS) cancer (odds ratio, 5.1; 95% confidence interval, 2.6-9.9) and neuroblastoma (OR, 4.2; 95% CI, 1.8-9.6) were more likely not to know their cancer diagnosis.
  • Participants' accuracy rates for reporting their treatment history was 94% for chemotherapy, 89% for radiation, and 93% for splenectomy.
  • Among those who received anthracyclines, only 30% recalled receiving daunorubicin therapy and 52% recalled receiving doxorubicin therapy, even after prompting with the drugs' names.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Important knowledge deficits exist among adult survivors of childhood cancer regarding basic aspects of their diagnosis and treatment.


17. Gunes D, Uysal KM, Cetinkaya H, Tekin HG, Yuceer N, Sarialioglu F, Olgun N: Paravertebral malignant tumors of childhood: analysis of 28 pediatric patients. Childs Nerv Syst; 2009 Jan;25(1):63-9
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  • PURPOSE: To evaluate the clinical features and treatment results of the primary paravertebral malignant tumors (PMTs) in our department.
  • Tumor diagnoses were mostly neuroblastoma (46.4%) and soft tissue sarcomas (35.7%).
  • Others were managed by pediatric oncology: five with corticosteroids+/-chemotherapy (one unresponsive), one with radiotherapy (RT), and two with surgery for the clinical CC.
  • Surgery was tumor excision in nine, laminectomy in nine, laminotomy in one, and delayed surgery after chemotherapy in two cases.
  • In chemotherapy and surgery groups, there were neurologic sequela associated with the advanced disease at diagnosis in 38% and 37%, respectively.
  • The CC caused by PMTs should be initially managed with corticosteroids +/- chemotherapy to avoid the adverse late effects of RT and surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Neuroblastoma / therapy. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / therapy. Spinal Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infant. Male. Recovery of Function / physiology. Retrospective Studies. Sarcoma / therapy. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Cites] J Clin Oncol. 2001 Jan 1;19(1):183-90 [11134211.001]
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  • (PMID = 18843494.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-0350
  • [Journal-full-title] Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Childs Nerv Syst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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18. Ferri Niguez B, Martínez-Lage JF, Almagro MJ, Fuster JL, Serrano C, Torroba MA, Sola J: Embryonal tumor with abundant neuropil and true rosettes (ETANTR): a new distinctive variety of pediatric PNET: a case-based update. Childs Nerv Syst; 2010 Aug;26(8):1003-8
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  • BACKGROUND: Embryonal central nervous system (CNS) tumors are currently classified into three types: medulloblastoma, atypical rhabdoid/teratoid tumors, and primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET).
  • DISCUSSION: ETANTR is a recently described variety of PNET that combines microscopic features of neuroblastoma and ependymoblastoma, demonstrating areas of fine fibrillary neuropil intermingled with cellular zones and ependymoblastic rosettes.
  • In both instances, the histopathological diagnosis confirmed ETANTR.
  • Both children were treated with chemotherapy and one with radiotherapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: By reporting these two new instances of ETANTR, we want to contribute to the knowledge of this highly malignant CNS embryonal neoplasm that occurs only in young children, given its present lethal prognosis, the scarcity of reported cases, and the lack of treatment guidelines.
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Infant. Neurosurgical Procedures. Radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 20499240.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-0350
  • [Journal-full-title] Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Childs Nerv Syst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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19. Aydin GB, Kutluk MT, Buyukpamukcu M, Akyuz C, Yalcin B, Varan A: Neurological complications of neuroblastic tumors: experience of a single center. Childs Nerv Syst; 2010 Mar;26(3):359-65
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  • PATIENTS AND METHOD: Hospital file search was performed in patients with NT, and neurological complications, clinical, and treatment features were analyzed.
  • RESULTS: Out of 523 patients with NT, 19 patients had Horner's syndrome, 9 patients had opsoclonus-myoclonus-ataxia syndrome (OMA), 11 patients had central nervous system (CNS) involvement, and 49 patients had spinal cord compression (SCC) at diagnosis.
  • Survival rates were poor in patients with CNS involvement; all died at a median of 7.9 months after diagnosis.
  • The incidence of sequelae after laminectomy, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy were 46.2%, 66.6%, and 13.6%, respectively.
  • No differences in neurological improvement in patients with SCC were found between those treated with radiotherapy, laminectomy, or chemotherapy alone, but laminectomy and radiotherapy caused significant late sequelae.
  • Early diagnosis and proper management is critical to avoid long-term sequelae in patients with SCC.
  • [MeSH-major] Nervous System Diseases / complications. Nervous System Diseases / epidemiology. Neuroblastoma / complications. Neuroblastoma / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Incidence. Infant. Male. Prevalence. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19714340.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-0350
  • [Journal-full-title] Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Childs Nerv Syst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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20. Brankov O, Christosova I, Marinova L: Long term survival in five rare cases with multiple primary neuroblastomas. J BUON; 2006 Jul-Sep;11(3):313-6
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  • The tumors may arise simultaneously in different parts of the sympathetic nervous system.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: The records of children treated for neuroblastoma during a 26 year-period (1979-2005) were reviewed and analysed retrospectively.
  • RESULTS: Out of 193 children treated for neuroblastoma and followed in our department, 5 (2.6%) had multifocal lesions.
  • All were boys aged from 2 months to 4 years at the time of diagnosis, and all were treated successfully with radical surgery.
  • Four children were also administered chemotherapy with vincristine, cyclophosphamide and epirubicin; one of them received postoperative radiotherapy as well.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / therapy. Neuroblastoma / therapy

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  • (PMID = 17309155.001).
  • [ISSN] 1107-0625
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of B.U.ON. : official journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J BUON
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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21. Albert A, Cruz O, Montaner A, Vela A, Badosa J, Castañón M, Morales L: [Congenital solid tumors. A thirteen-year review]. Cir Pediatr; 2004 Jul;17(3):133-6
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  • This is an interesting group of tumors because their type, relative incidence, natural history and response to treatment differ from those seen in older children.
  • Neuroblastoma was the commonest tumor (10 cases, 37%), of which 4 were stage I, 4 stage IV-S and 2 stage III.
  • Treatment was surgical resection alone in 17 cases (68%) and surgery + chemotherapy in 8 (32%) (5 neuroblastomas, one CNS tumor, one Wilms tumor and one presacral teratoma who developed a yolk sac tumor); 3 patients died (11%): one at surgery, one of tumoural airway obstruction at birth and one with craniopharyngioma.
  • Among the 14 tumors that were initially not malignant, two can be locally agressive, one was an immature teratoma, the giant nevus with hamartoma developed in situ melanoma, the other nevus had meningeal melanosis with hydrocephalus, and one mature presacral teratoma developed a yolk sac tumor.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Diagnosis of congenital tumors is performed earlier in recent years due to the wide use of prenatal ultrasound.
  • Complete surgical excision is the treatment of choice, most cases not need adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • We ought to pass this message on to our colleagues in prenatal diagnosis, so parents get reliable information.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Neoplasms / congenital. Kidney Neoplasms / congenital. Liver Neoplasms / congenital. Neuroblastoma / congenital. Skin Neoplasms / congenital. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / congenital. Teratoma / congenital. Wilms Tumor / congenital
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infant, Newborn. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Postoperative Complications. Pregnancy. Prenatal Diagnosis. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 15503950.001).
  • [ISSN] 0214-1221
  • [Journal-full-title] Cirugía pediátrica : organo oficial de la Sociedad Española de Cirugía Pediátrica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cir Pediatr
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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22. Morovic A, Damjanov I: Neuroectodermal ovarian tumors: a brief overview. Histol Histopathol; 2008 06;23(6):765-71
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  • Primary neuroectodermal tumors of the ovary are rare monophasic teratomas composed exclusively or almost exclusively of neuroectodemal tissue.
  • These tumors were classified as ependymoma, astrocytoma, glioblastoma multiforme, ependymoblastoma or as primitive neuroepithelial tumors such as medullo-blastoma, medulloepithelioma and neuroblastoma.
  • Microscopically, they are identical to equivalent neuroectodermal tumors of the central nervous system.
  • The review of the literature shows that most patients with clinical stage I and II were treated surgically, whereas those with stage III or IV tumors received additional radiation or chemotherapy, or both.
  • The clinical stage at the time of diagnosis is the most important prognostic parameter of these tumors.
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 18366014.001).
  • [ISSN] 1699-5848
  • [Journal-full-title] Histology and histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histol. Histopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 30
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23. Dalmau J, Porta-Etessam J: [Paraneoplastic cerebral syndromes with oto-neuro-ophthalomologic manifestations]. Rev Neurol; 2000 Dec 16-31;31(12):1213-9

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  • There is no ocular movement abnormality which can be considered pathognomonic of a paraneoplastic disorder, but opsoclonus-myoclonus of infancy is often associated with neuroblastoma.
  • The management of these syndromes depends on their rapid identification as paraneoplastic disorders and on the early diagnosis and treatment of the cancer.
  • Patients with anti-Ta (or anti Ma-2) antibodies may improve with treatment of the cancer, usually a germ-cell tumor of the testis.
  • Paraneoplastic opsoclonus-myoclonus of infancy usually improves with treatment that combines chemotherapy, steroids, and intravenous immunoglobulins, although neurological sequelae (psychomotor and language retardation) are frequent.
  • Detection of antineuronal antibodies facilitates the early identification of some of these syndromes and associated tumors.
  • In general, the management of these syndromes is based on treatment of the associated cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Demyelinating Autoimmune Diseases, CNS / etiology. Paraneoplastic Syndromes, Nervous System / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibodies, Neoplasm / immunology. Autoantibodies / immunology. Autoantigens / immunology. Hearing Loss, Sensorineural / etiology. Hearing Loss, Sensorineural / immunology. Humans. Lambert-Eaton Myasthenic Syndrome / etiology. Lambert-Eaton Myasthenic Syndrome / immunology. Neoplasm Proteins / immunology. Neoplasms / complications. Neoplasms / immunology. Nerve Tissue Proteins / immunology. Neurons / immunology. Ophthalmoplegia / etiology. Ophthalmoplegia / immunology. Paraneoplastic Cerebellar Degeneration / etiology. Paraneoplastic Cerebellar Degeneration / immunology

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  • (PMID = 11205562.001).
  • [ISSN] 0210-0010
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista de neurologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Neurol
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Neoplasm; 0 / Autoantibodies; 0 / Autoantigens; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins
  • [Number-of-references] 44
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24. Rice SC, Vacek PM, Homans AH, Kendall H, Rivers J, Messier T, Finette BA: Comparative analysis of HPRT mutant frequency in children with cancer. Environ Mol Mutagen; 2003;42(1):44-9
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  • To gain insight into somatic mutational mechanisms in children who develop cancer, we determined the background mutant frequency (Mf) in the hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase (HPRT) reporter gene of peripheral blood lymphocytes from pediatric cancer patients at the time of diagnosis and prior to therapeutic intervention.
  • We studied 23 children with hematologic malignancies and 31 children with solid tumors prior to initial therapeutic intervention.
  • Children with solid tumors, specifically sarcomas, and Hodgkin's disease were significantly older and had elevated HPRT Mfs (6.1 x 10(-6) and 3.7 x 10(-6), respectively) at the time of diagnosis, compared to normal controls (2.3 x 10(-6)) and other pediatric tumor groups including children with acute lymphocytic leukemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (ALL/NHL, 1.7 x 10(-6)), central nervous system tumors (CNS, 3.6 x 10(-6)), and neuroblastoma (1.9 x 10(-6)).
  • In addition, these data demonstrate the importance of correcting for the effect of age when comparing the frequency of somatic mutations in children and should provide baseline data for future longitudinal biomonitoring studies on the genetic effects of chemotherapy in children treated for cancer.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 12874812.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-6692
  • [Journal-full-title] Environmental and molecular mutagenesis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Environ. Mol. Mutagen.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / 1F32ES058701ZRG4; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 1K01CA77737; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / 1K11HD01010; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / 1R29HD35309-01A1
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Genetic Markers; EC 2.4.2.8 / Hypoxanthine Phosphoribosyltransferase
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25. Rubio Nazábal E, Marey López J, Avarez Pérez P, López Facal S, Alonso Magdalena L: [Opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome in patient with ovarian cancer]. An Med Interna; 2003 Jul;20(7):370-2
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  • The opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome is a rare entity as a paraneoplastic disorder usually associated to neuroblastoma in children and breast cancer or oat-cell lung carcinoma in adults.
  • In both of them the opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome preceded the neoplasy, improving with its treatment.
  • In our patient opsoclonus began after ovarian cancer diagnosis, after chemotherapy and radiotherapy, improving with corticoid and clonazepan therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Paraneoplastic Syndromes, Nervous System / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Brain / pathology. Brain / radiography. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome


26. Ozkaynak MF, Sahdev I, Gross TG, Levine JE, Cheerva AC, Richards MK, Rozans MK, Shaw PJ, Kadota RP: A pilot study of addition of amifostine to melphalan, carboplatin, etoposide, and cyclophosphamide with autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in pediatric solid tumors-A pediatric blood and marrow transplant consortium study. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2008 Mar;30(3):204-9
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  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Amifostine / administration & dosage. Amifostine / adverse effects. Bone Marrow Transplantation. Bone Neoplasms / diagnosis. Bone Neoplasms / therapy. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / diagnosis. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / therapy. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Administration Schedule. Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Feasibility Studies. Hodgkin Disease / diagnosis. Hodgkin Disease / therapy. Humans. Hypocalcemia / chemically induced. Hypocalcemia / pathology. Kidney Neoplasms / diagnosis. Kidney Neoplasms / therapy. Melphalan / administration & dosage. Neuroblastoma / diagnosis. Neuroblastoma / therapy. Pilot Projects. Recurrence. Risk Factors. Sarcoma / diagnosis. Sarcoma / therapy. Transplantation, Autologous. Transplantation, Homologous. Treatment Outcome. Wilms Tumor / diagnosis. Wilms Tumor / therapy

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  • (PMID = 18376282.001).
  • [ISSN] 1077-4114
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase I; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; M487QF2F4V / Amifostine; Q41OR9510P / Melphalan
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27. Perek D, Brozyna A, Dembowska-Baginska B, Stypinska M, Sojka M, Bacewicz L, Polnik D, Kalicinski P: [Tumours in newborns and infants up to three months of life. One institution experience]. Med Wieku Rozwoj; 2006 Jul-Sep;10(3 Pt 1):711-23
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  • INTRODUCTION: Newborns and infants up to three months of life are a specific group of population in paediatric oncology due to immaturity of tissues and organs and rarity of neoplastic diseases in this group of patients (pts).
  • There are no strict therapeutic procedures established for these children.
  • THE AIM of our study was to examine distribution of tumours in newborns and infants up to 3 months of age treated in our institution and to present our own experience in the treatment of these patients.
  • Distribution of tumour types in newborns and babies from 1 to 3 months of age was analyzed separately.
  • Due to similar growth pattern, response to treatment and it's side effects in newborns and small infants, treatment results were evaluated for the whole group.
  • The most common diagnosis in this group was germ cell tumours (GCT) which constituted 60% of all tumours, amongst them 52% were mature teratomas (MT).
  • The second most common was neuroblastoma (NBL) 22%.
  • There were also 3 cases of soft tissue sarcomas (STS), 2 central nervous system tumours (CNS), 2 retinoblastoma (RB), 2 hepatoblastoma (HB).
  • Eleven pts underwent combined treatment of chemotherapy and surgery: 5 with stage III and IV NBL, 6 with other tumours.
  • Chemotherapy alone was administered to 7 pts in whom local advancement of disease enabled surgery and to pts with RBL.
  • One pt relapsed at age of 2 yrs 3 mths, probably at the primary site which was not visualized at primary diagnosis.
  • One pt, critically ill, died before any treatment.
  • GCT and neuroblastoma are the most common tumours in newborns and infants up to 3 months of age.
  • 2. Newborns and small infants with advanced neoplastic disease, similarly to older children can be cured with chemotherapy.
  • 3. Individual approach is warranted in newborns and small infants and treatment should be carried out in specialized centres.
  • 4. All patients who completed treatment of any tumour type should be followed up by a pediatric oncologist.
  • [MeSH-major] Infant Welfare / statistics & numerical data. Neoplasms / epidemiology. Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 17317902.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Medycyna wieku rozwojowego
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med Wieku Rozwoj
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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28. Gow KW, Lensing S, Hill DA, Krasin MJ, McCarville MB, Rai SN, Zacher M, Spunt SL, Strickland DK, Hudson MM: Thyroid carcinoma presenting in childhood or after treatment of childhood malignancies: An institutional experience and review of the literature. J Pediatr Surg; 2003 Nov;38(11):1574-80
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  • [Title] Thyroid carcinoma presenting in childhood or after treatment of childhood malignancies: An institutional experience and review of the literature.
  • METHODS: The authors reviewed the medical records of 8 children with PTM and 17 children with STM referred to St Jude Children's Research Hospital between February 1962 and February 2002 for evaluation and treatment of malignant thyroid carcinoma.
  • All 8 patients remain alive a median of 22.6 years after diagnosis (range, 0.7 to 30.5 years); 1 continues to receive radioactive iodine (I 131) ablation for persistent disease.
  • Seventeen patients had thyroid carcinoma as a second malignant neoplasm after treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (n = 6), Hodgkin's disease (n = 5), central nervous system tumor (n = 2), Wilms' tumor (n = 1), retinoblastoma (n = 1), non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (n = 1), or neuroblastoma (n = 1).
  • Patients with secondary thyroid carcinoma presented at a median age of 21.5 years (range, 15.3 to 42.6 years), a median of 16.2 years (range, 0.9 to 29.2 years) after diagnosis of the primary cancer.
  • Twelve of the 17 patients (70.6%) had received radiation to the thyroid gland during therapy for the primary cancer.
  • At the time of this report, all 17 patients are alive and in continue to be free of disease.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Pediatric thyroid carcinoma is uncommon and responds well to current therapy.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Cohort Studies. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Neoplasms / drug therapy. Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced / epidemiology. Retrospective Studies. Tennessee / epidemiology. Thyroidectomy. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 14614703.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-5037
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 21765
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes
  • [Number-of-references] 49
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29. Kincaid CR, Nield LS, Hsieh D, Friederich R, Pelszynski MM, Mulè F, Roberts K: Index of suspicion. Pediatr Rev; 2006 Aug;27(8):307-13
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  • [Title] Index of suspicion.

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  • (PMID = 16882760.001).
  • [ISSN] 1526-3347
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatrics in review
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Rev
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antithyroid Agents; 0 / DNA, Mitochondrial; 0 / Immunoglobulins, Intravenous; 554Z48XN5E / Methimazole
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