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1. Morgenstern BZ, Krivoshik AP, Rodriguez V, Anderson PM: Wilms' tumor and neuroblastoma. Acta Paediatr Suppl; 2004 May;93(445):78-84; discussion 84-5
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  • [Title] Wilms' tumor and neuroblastoma.
  • Significant differences exist between the European and North American treatment protocols for Wilms' tumor and neuroblastoma.
  • There are variations in biopsy technique, timing and extent of initial surgery, chemotherapy protocols and dosage routines, as well as the type of salvage therapy.
  • With the consolidation of the two major North American study groups into a single entity (Children's Oncology Group), the European and North American study groups represent the only remaining large-scale venues for treatment comparison.
  • It is important to study and understand the variation in treatment protocols in order to maintain an open forum of scientific investigation that will lead to improving the care and outcome of children with cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Kidney Neoplasms / diagnosis. Kidney Neoplasms / therapy. Neuroblastoma / diagnosis. Neuroblastoma / therapy. Wilms Tumor / diagnosis. Wilms Tumor / therapy


2. Hero B, Graf N, Simon T, Weirich A, Tröger J, Berthold F: Neuroblastoma preoperatively treated as nephroblastoma: does inadequate therapy worsen the prognosis? Klin Padiatr; 2002 Jul-Aug;214(4):157-61
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  • [Title] Neuroblastoma preoperatively treated as nephroblastoma: does inadequate therapy worsen the prognosis?
  • BACKGROUND: The current standard in the treatment of nephroblastoma is preoperative chemotherapy based on radiological appearance.
  • After subsequent surgical removal few tumours proved histologically to be neuroblastoma.
  • We asked whether initial chemotherapy according to nephroblastoma trials would change the prognosis for those neuroblastoma patients.
  • RESULTS: Out of 1603 patients registered in the German neuroblastoma trials, 29 patients (1.8 %) have preoperatively been treated according nephroblastoma protocols.
  • Patients with preoperative nephroblastoma treatment were older than the patients of the control group.
  • The outcome of the patients with preoperative chemotherapy according nephroblastoma trials was worse than that of the control group, but risk group adapted survival analysis revealed no disadvantage.
  • CONCLUSION: The prognosis of children with neuroblastoma tumours, which have been radiologically classified as nephroblastoma, is inferior compared to the prognosis of patients without preoperative nephroblastoma therapy.
  • The difference appears to be associated rather with more unfavourable biology than with the element "preoperative chemotherapy".
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Kidney Neoplasms / drug therapy. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Neuroblastoma / drug therapy. Wilms Tumor / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Diagnosis, Differential. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Infant. Kidney Function Tests. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 12165895.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-8630
  • [Journal-full-title] Klinische Pädiatrie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Klin Padiatr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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3. Escobar MA, Grosfeld JL, Powell RL, West KW, Scherer LR 3rd, Fallon RJ, Rescorla FJ: Long-term outcomes in patients with stage IV neuroblastoma. J Pediatr Surg; 2006 Feb;41(2):377-81
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  • [Title] Long-term outcomes in patients with stage IV neuroblastoma.
  • AIM OF STUDY: Long-term outcome studies in survivors with stage IV neuroblastoma (NB) are sparse.
  • Age at diagnosis was 29.1 +/- 31.7 months in survivors.
  • Treatment in survivors included surgery in 51 (75% [39/51] complete tumor resection [CTR]); chemotherapy, 50; radiation, 17; stem cell transplantation, 20; and bone marrow transplant, 1.
  • Recurrence was local (1), distant (2), and both (3) and was treated by resection, chemotherapy, and radiation.
  • Long-term complications occurred in 23 (44%) survivors, including endocrine disturbances (7), orthopedic (5), cataracts (2), adhesive bowel obstruction (2), hypertension (1), bronchiolitis (1), blindness (1), peripheral neuropathy (1), nonfunctioning kidney (1), cholelithiasis (1), and thyroid nodule (1).
  • CONCLUSION: Only 34% of patients with stage IV NB survived despite aggressive multimodal therapy.
  • New methods of treatment are required to achieve better outcomes.
  • [MeSH-major] Neuroblastoma / pathology. Neuroblastoma / therapy. Survivors
  • [MeSH-minor] Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 16481255.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-5037
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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4. Shet T, Viswanathan S: The cytological diagnosis of paediatric renal tumours. J Clin Pathol; 2009 Nov;62(11):961-9
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  • [Title] The cytological diagnosis of paediatric renal tumours.
  • Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is used for preoperative diagnosis of paediatric renal tumours, especially in centres where preoperative chemotherapy is advocated in Wilms' tumour.
  • This review focuses on salient cytological features in specific paediatric renal tumours, the approach to resolving a differential diagnosis and the role of ancillary methods in diagnosis of paediatric renal tumours.
  • Crucial differential diagnoses include distinguishing: Wilms' tumour from benign tumours in the kidney like multicystic nephroma or congenital mesoblastic nephroma; aggressive non-Wilms' tumours of kidney like rhabdoid tumour of kidney; and Wilms' tumour from other paediatric round cell sarcomas like neuroblastoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma etc.
  • An approach based on classifying smears according to their cellular patterns as triphasic, round cell, spindle cell or epithelioid cell type assists in classifying paediatric renal tumours on cytology.
  • Immunocytochemistry for WT1, cytokeratin, synaptophysin, leucocyte common antigen and MIC2 will aid in evaluating round cell tumours in the renal region, while WT1, bcl2, vimentin and desmin will be useful for spindle cell tumours in that region.
  • A checklist of common tumours in a particular age group, relevant clinical information, awareness of distinctive and overlapping cytological features, and appropriate use of immunocytochemistry with cytogenetics go a long way in ensuring an accurate cytological diagnosis.
  • Used judiciously, FNAC is as effective a tool as a core biopsy for preoperative diagnosis of paediatric renal tumours, and with experience a 92% accuracy rate can be achieved.
  • [MeSH-major] Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Wilms Tumor / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Age Distribution. Biopsy, Fine-Needle / methods. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / pathology. Child. Child, Preschool. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Nephroma, Mesoblastic / pathology. Rhabdoid Tumor / pathology. Sarcoma, Clear Cell / pathology. Sarcoma, Ewing / pathology. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19700411.001).
  • [ISSN] 1472-4146
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 36
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5. Bergeron C, Dubourg L, Chastagner P, Mechinaud F, Plouvier E, Desfachelles AS, Dusol F, Pautard B, Edan C, Plantaz D, Froehlich P, Rubie H: Long-term renal and hearing toxicity of carboplatin in infants treated for localized and unresectable neuroblastoma: results of the SFOP NBL90 study. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2005 Jul;45(1):32-6
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  • [Title] Long-term renal and hearing toxicity of carboplatin in infants treated for localized and unresectable neuroblastoma: results of the SFOP NBL90 study.
  • Pediatr Oncol 2001;36:247-250) was the concern in this infant population for possible carboplatin-(CBDCA) induced late side effects including impaired renal and hearing functions.
  • PROCEDURE: Glomerular filtration rate (GFR), tubular function (TF), pure tone audiometry (PTA), high-frequency, and transient evoked-otoacoustic emission were prospectively assessed in 30 children alive and disease-free 6 years after the end of the treatment.
  • RESULTS: Median age at diagnosis and at assessment was 4.7 months and 7 years, respectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: With a 6-year follow-up the combination of VP16 and carboplatin given at conventional doses is safe on renal and hearing functions in infants with unresectable neuroblastomas treated according to SFOP NB90.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects. Carboplatin / adverse effects. Hearing Loss / chemically induced. Kidney Diseases / chemically induced. Neuroblastoma / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols. Female. France / epidemiology. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male

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  • (PMID = 15768383.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5009
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin
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6. Ravindra S, Kini U: Cytomorphology and morphometry of small round-cell tumors in the region of the kidney. Diagn Cytopathol; 2005 Apr;32(4):211-6
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  • [Title] Cytomorphology and morphometry of small round-cell tumors in the region of the kidney.
  • Small round-cell tumors (SRCTs), with malignant cell components measuring 10 m or less in diameter with scanty cytoplasm in alcohol-fixed smears, pose a diagnostic challenge at fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC), especially when they are situated in and around the kidney and need facilities such as electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry, tissue culture, and cytogenetics for their subtyping.
  • A precise cytodiagnosis of SRCTs is important because a definite diagnosis is mandatory in preoperative diagnostic workup for presurgical chemotherapy in these cases.
  • With this view in mind, an attempt has been made to diagnose SRCTs in the region of the kidney based on cytomorphology and morphometry alone so as to facilitate its diagnosis in a simple cytology laboratory of a developing country where facilities for auxiliary techniques are not easily available.
  • Of 2,028 abdominal aspirates in a 12-yr period, 36 SRCTs were diagnosed in the region of the kidney by correlating with histology, radiology, and clinical features.
  • Twenty-one were diagnosed as Wilms' tumor (WT), 10 were diagnosed as neuroblastoma (NB), 3 were ganglioneuroblastoma (GNB), 1 was a cellular congenital mesoblastic nephroma (CMN), and 1 was an adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC).
  • The latter were appreciated only on retrospective analysis after histological confirmation.Thus, morphometry in correlation with cytology, clinical history, physical findings, and radiological data is helpful in guided FNA for a definite diagnosis of SRCT in the region of the kidney.
  • [MeSH-major] Kidney / pathology. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 15754373.001).
  • [ISSN] 8755-1039
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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7. Berrebi D, Lebras MN, Belarbi N, Couturier J, Fattet S, Faye A, Peuchmaur M, de Lagausie P: Bilateral adrenal neuroblastoma and nephroblastoma occurring synchronously in a child with Fanconi's anemia and VACTERL syndrome. J Pediatr Surg; 2006 Jan;41(1):e11-4
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  • [Title] Bilateral adrenal neuroblastoma and nephroblastoma occurring synchronously in a child with Fanconi's anemia and VACTERL syndrome.
  • This child had numerous congenital anomalies (horseshoe kidney, cerebella hypoplasia, microcephaly, sacral agenesis) and esophageal atresia, which was repaired in neonatal period.
  • Such association led quickly to the diagnosis of FA.
  • At age of 11 months, she developed simultaneously a renal tumor in a horseshoe kidney and bilateral adrenal tumors.
  • Histological analysis concluded to adrenal neuroblastoma and nephroblastoma.
  • We also evaluated the c-kit expression in these tumors to propose a therapeutic alternative to chemotherapy by oral agent STI-571 (Gleevec; Novartis, East Hanover, NJ).
  • Unfortunately, she quickly developed a posterior cerebellar fossa tumor and died 1 month later.
  • Further studies are necessary to test if STI-571 treatment could be efficient in such patients with pediatric tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Fanconi Anemia / complications. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Neuroblastoma / pathology. Wilms Tumor / pathology


8. Chauty A, Raimondo G, Vergeron H, Branchereau S, Dessemme P, Devictor D, Hartmann O: [Discovery of a neuroblastoma producing cardiogenic shock in a 2-month-old child]. Arch Pediatr; 2002 Jun;9(6):602-5
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  • [Title] [Discovery of a neuroblastoma producing cardiogenic shock in a 2-month-old child].
  • CT scan showed a tumor of 7 x 6 x 8 cm, forcing back both the left kidney and the aorta.
  • A biopsy allowed the diagnosis of neuroblastoma without MYCN oncogene amplification.
  • Under chemotherapy the tumor volume decreased significantly and complete surgical excision became possible.
  • Three years after diagnosis, the patient remained in complete remission.
  • CONCLUSION: Clinical presentation of this neuroblastoma was extremely uncommon.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Hypertension, Malignant / etiology. Neuroblastoma / complications. Neuroblastoma / diagnosis. Shock, Cardiogenic / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biopsy. Catecholamines / secretion. Diagnosis, Differential. Hemodynamics. Humans. Infant. Male

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  • (PMID = 12108315.001).
  • [ISSN] 0929-693X
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives de pédiatrie : organe officiel de la Sociéte française de pédiatrie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Pediatr
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Catecholamines
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9. Vujanić GM, Kelsey A, Mitchell C, Shannon RS, Gornall P: The role of biopsy in the diagnosis of renal tumors of childhood: Results of the UKCCSG Wilms tumor study 3. Med Pediatr Oncol; 2003 Jan;40(1):18-22
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  • [Title] The role of biopsy in the diagnosis of renal tumors of childhood: Results of the UKCCSG Wilms tumor study 3.
  • BACKGROUND: The United Kingdom Children's Cancer Study Group (UKCCSG) Wilms Tumor Study 3 has adopted preoperative chemotherapy for Wilms tumors (WT), but required prechemotherapy biopsy for histologic diagnosis.
  • The aims of this review were to assess the usefulness and safety of prechemotherapy biopsy and to compare histologic features of WT before and after chemotherapy.
  • PROCEDURE: There were 286 eligible patients but only 241 biopsies and 226 nephrectomy case slides were submitted for panel review.
  • The presence of different histologic components of WT before and after chemo therapy was retrospectively assessed.
  • One child required emergency nephrectomy due to massive intratumoral bleeding, another had tumor rupture and subsequently died, and a third developed a needle track recurrence 8 months after the biopsy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: A number of renal tumors (12%) can have the correct histologic diagnosis made by PCNB.
  • Preoperative chemo therapy markedly decrease in the number of samples with preserved blastema.
  • Needle biopsy of any renal mass prior to initiation of chemotherapy is recommended.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Needle. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Wilms Tumor / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Renal Cell / pathology. Child. Female. Great Britain. Humans. Male. Nephrectomy. Neuroblastoma / pathology. Predictive Value of Tests. Retrospective Studies. Rhabdoid Tumor / pathology. Sarcoma, Clear Cell / pathology. Sensitivity and Specificity. Surveys and Questionnaires

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 12426681.001).
  • [ISSN] 0098-1532
  • [Journal-full-title] Medical and pediatric oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med. Pediatr. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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10. Gutierrez JC, Koniaris LG, Cheung MC, Byrne MM, Fischer AC, Sola JE: Cancer care in the pediatric surgical patient: a paradigm to abolish volume-outcome disparities in surgery. Surgery; 2009 Jan;145(1):76-85
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to define the prognostic significance of hospital surgical volume on outcomes for pediatric neuroblastoma and Wilms tumor.
  • RESULTS: Of the 869 patients with neuroblastoma identified, 463 were treated at 5 high-volume centers (HVC) and 406 were treated at 61 low-volume centers (LVC).
  • There were no differences in sex, age at diagnosis, race, ethnicity, or stage of disease between the 2 groups.
  • The 5- and 10-year survival rates were identical between treatment groups (70.6% and 67.7% at HVC vs 69.3% and 65.2% at LVC, P = .243).
  • Multivariate analysis identified age at diagnosis and tumor stage as independent prognostic factors.
  • There were no differences in sex, age of diagnosis, or stage of disease between the 2 groups.
  • The 5- and 10-year survival rates were identical between treatment groups (91.3% and 89.9% at HVC vs 89.7% and 88.5% at LVC, P = .698).
  • Multivariate analysis identified ethnicity, tumor stage, and use of chemotherapy as independent prognostic factors.
  • CONCLUSION: Survival rates for patients with neuroblastoma and Wilms tumor are unrelated to the hospital surgical volume or patient race.
  • Models used for pediatric patient care for cancer may provide insight into ways to improve the treatment of adult patients in need of complex cancer care.
  • [MeSH-major] Healthcare Disparities. Kidney Neoplasms / surgery. Neuroblastoma / surgery. Wilms Tumor / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Cohort Studies. Databases, Factual. Female. Health Facility Size. Humans. Infant. Male. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome


11. Freidl T, Lackner H, Huber J, Sovinz P, Moser A, Schroettner B, Schwinger W, Urban C: Focal nodular hyperplasia in children following treatment of hemato-oncologic diseases. Klin Padiatr; 2008 Nov-Dec;220(6):384-7
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  • [Title] Focal nodular hyperplasia in children following treatment of hemato-oncologic diseases.
  • Although uncommon in children, a cumulative incidence is reported in oncologic patients after ending their therapy.
  • Differential diagnosis to other focal liver lesions especially to metastases is often difficult.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: We report on four children (female n=2, male n=2; age at initial diagnosis: 9 months, 20 months, 11.5 and 14 years) with different non-hepatic primary tumors (gastrointestinal stroma-tumor, neuroblastoma (n=2) and nephroblastoma) who developed focal liver lesions 2, 2.5, 3 and 8 years after successful treatment of their primary malignancy, respectively.
  • RESULTS: Diagnosis of focal nodular hyperplasia was established by sonography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging.
  • Median interval from the end of chemotherapy to the onset of FNH was 3.9 years (range 2-8 years).
  • CONCLUSION: Diagnosis of FNH has to be included in the differential diagnosis of uncertain liver lesions.
  • A wait and see strategy is recommended, specific treatment is not necessary.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy. Focal Nodular Hyperplasia / diagnosis. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors / secondary. Kidney Neoplasms / therapy. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Liver Neoplasms / therapy. Neuroblastoma / secondary. Stomach Neoplasms / therapy. Wilms Tumor / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Biopsy, Needle. Child. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infant. Liver / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Ultrasonography


12. Madre C, Orbach D, Baudouin V, Brisse H, Bessa F, Schleiermacher G, Pacquement H, Doz F, Michon J: Hypertension in childhood cancer: a frequent complication of certain tumor sites. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2006 Oct;28(10):659-64
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  • OBJECTIVES: Retrospective descriptive study of the case files of 31 patients followed in the Institut Curie Department of Pediatric Oncology between 1999 and 2004 and presenting severe HT at the time of diagnosis of their tumor.
  • The tumors presented by these children were: Wilms tumor (n=17, ie, 20% of all Wilms tumors treated during this period), neuroblastoma (n=12, ie, 10% of all neuroblastomas treated during this period) or other tumors (n=2).
  • Initial management consisted of etiologic treatment by primary chemotherapy and/or surgical resection of the tumor, associated with antihypertensive therapy, initially administered by intravenous injection for 12 children (nicardipine, labetalol) and then orally in all children (calcium channel blockers, n=23; angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, n=16; beta-blockers, n=4; alpha/beta-blockers, n=2; diuretics, n=1).
  • Dual therapy was necessary in 7 cases and triple therapy was necessary in 1 case.
  • The median duration of antihypertensive therapy was 40 days (range: 9 to 195).
  • No child developed a serious complication of HT.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Initial HT is a frequent complication of Wilms tumor and neuroblastoma and affects young children (< 2.5 y).
  • It is often severe, asymptomatic, but needs specific treatment and resolves after treatment of the tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Hypertension / complications. Kidney Neoplasms / complications. Lymphoma, B-Cell / complications. Neuroblastoma / complications. Rhabdoid Tumor / complications. Wilms Tumor / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Antihypertensive Agents / administration & dosage. Antihypertensive Agents / adverse effects. Antihypertensive Agents / therapeutic use. Child. Child, Preschool. Cohort Studies. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infant. Male. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome


13. Dombrovskii V: [Wilm's tumor. Diagnostic capacities of magnetic resonance imaging. MRI-pathomorphological comparison]. Vestn Rentgenol Radiol; 2001 Nov-Dec;(6):29-43
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  • The accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the diagnosis of Wilms' tumor (WT) and in the evaluation of preoperative chemotherapy (PCH) efficiency was investigated and compared with histopathological data of 56 children and infants with proven retroperitoneum neoplasma (WT--49, neuroblastoma--6, congenital mesoblastic nephroma--1).
  • The author described the WT MRI-semiotics in general and in particular for its changes during the preoperative chemotherapy.
  • At the same time, the specific MRI criteria for the different histological types of WT were not found.
  • [MeSH-major] Kidney Neoplasms / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Wilms Tumor / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 11858031.001).
  • [ISSN] 0042-4676
  • [Journal-full-title] Vestnik rentgenologii i radiologii
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vestn Rentgenol Radiol
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia
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14. Shields JA, Shields CL, Brotman HK, Carvalho C, Perez N, Eagle RC Jr: Cancer metastatic to the orbit: the 2000 Robert M. Curts Lecture. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg; 2001 Sep;17(5):346-54
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  • RESULTS: Of 100 patients, the primary tumor site was breast in 53 (53%), prostate gland in 12 (12%), lung in 8 (8%), skin (melanoma) in 6 (6%), kidney in 5 (5%), gastrointestinal tract in 5 (5%), choroid (melanoma) in 2 (2%), parotid gland in 1 (1%), and adrenal gland (neuroblastoma) in 1 (1%).
  • Of patients in whom a detailed history was available, there was no history of cancer at the time of presentation in 19%.
  • There were 36 male patients and 64 female patients whose mean age at diagnosis was 62 years (median 60 years, range 5 to 91 years).
  • Treatment included chemotherapy, hormone therapy, irradiation, surgical excision, or observation, depending on clinical circumstances.
  • Among patients with sufficient follow-up, 95% died of metastasis, with overall mean survival of 15 months (median 15 months; range 3 to 96 months) after orbital diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / secondary. Melanoma / secondary. Neoplasms / pathology. Neuroblastoma / secondary. Orbital Neoplasms / secondary. Sarcoma / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Tomography, X-Ray Computed


15. Powis M: Neonatal renal tumours. Early Hum Dev; 2010 Oct;86(10):607-12
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  • [Title] Neonatal renal tumours.
  • Neonatal renal tumours are rare, with only 7% of all neonatal tumours arising from the kidney.
  • Given the low malignant potential of these tumours, treatment is by radical nephroureterctomy, except in cases with bilateral disease or syndromic patients with a high incidence of metachronous tumours.
  • Chemotherapy is rarely indicated.
  • Survival is generally excellent for all tumour types in this age group, the exception being malignant rhabdoid tumour of the kidney which may have metastases at presentation.
  • [MeSH-major] Kidney Neoplasms / diagnosis. Nephroma, Mesoblastic / diagnosis. Wilms Tumor / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Anatomy, Cross-Sectional. Diagnosis, Differential. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Humans. Imaging, Three-Dimensional. Infant, Newborn. Neuroblastoma / diagnosis. Practice Guidelines as Topic. Risk Factors

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20888153.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-6232
  • [Journal-full-title] Early human development
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Early Hum. Dev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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16. Albert A, Cruz O, Montaner A, Vela A, Badosa J, Castañón M, Morales L: [Congenital solid tumors. A thirteen-year review]. Cir Pediatr; 2004 Jul;17(3):133-6
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  • This is an interesting group of tumors because their type, relative incidence, natural history and response to treatment differ from those seen in older children.
  • Neuroblastoma was the commonest tumor (10 cases, 37%), of which 4 were stage I, 4 stage IV-S and 2 stage III.
  • Treatment was surgical resection alone in 17 cases (68%) and surgery + chemotherapy in 8 (32%) (5 neuroblastomas, one CNS tumor, one Wilms tumor and one presacral teratoma who developed a yolk sac tumor); 3 patients died (11%): one at surgery, one of tumoural airway obstruction at birth and one with craniopharyngioma.
  • Among the 14 tumors that were initially not malignant, two can be locally agressive, one was an immature teratoma, the giant nevus with hamartoma developed in situ melanoma, the other nevus had meningeal melanosis with hydrocephalus, and one mature presacral teratoma developed a yolk sac tumor.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Diagnosis of congenital tumors is performed earlier in recent years due to the wide use of prenatal ultrasound.
  • Complete surgical excision is the treatment of choice, most cases not need adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • We ought to pass this message on to our colleagues in prenatal diagnosis, so parents get reliable information.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Neoplasms / congenital. Kidney Neoplasms / congenital. Liver Neoplasms / congenital. Neuroblastoma / congenital. Skin Neoplasms / congenital. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / congenital. Teratoma / congenital. Wilms Tumor / congenital
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infant, Newborn. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Postoperative Complications. Pregnancy. Prenatal Diagnosis. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 15503950.001).
  • [ISSN] 0214-1221
  • [Journal-full-title] Cirugía pediátrica : organo oficial de la Sociedad Española de Cirugía Pediátrica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cir Pediatr
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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17. Rao S, Azmy A, Carachi R: Neonatal tumours: a single-centre experience. Pediatr Surg Int; 2002 Sep;18(5-6):306-9
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  • We present our experience of managing neonatal tumours in a tertiary reference centre to study the incidence, pathology and types, efficacy of treatment, and impact of antenatal diagnosis on the management in our practice in a retrospective study of case-notes and pathology reports.
  • Teratomas were the commonest type (n = 33, 40%) followed by neuroblastomas (NB) (14), renal (13), soft-tissue (10), hepatic (4), and miscellaneous tumours (2).
  • Surgery remains the mainstay of treatment.
  • Chemotherapy has also become safer.
  • Therapeutic complications were responsible for 50% of deaths before 1986; from 1986 onwards, there has been no therapy-related mortality.
  • The small numbers of neonatal tumours seen by individual centres underline the need for an international effort to optimise therapy and improve understanding of these tumours.
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Infant, Newborn. Kidney Neoplasms / surgery. Male. Neuroblastoma / surgery. Retrospective Studies. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / surgery. Teratoma / surgery

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  • (PMID = 12415344.001).
  • [ISSN] 0179-0358
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric surgery international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr. Surg. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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18. Miniati D, Gay AN, Parks KV, Naik-Mathuria BJ, Hicks J, Nuchtern JG, Cass DL, Olutoye OO: Imaging accuracy and incidence of Wilms' and non-Wilms' renal tumors in children. J Pediatr Surg; 2008 Jul;43(7):1301-7
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  • [Title] Imaging accuracy and incidence of Wilms' and non-Wilms' renal tumors in children.
  • PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to determine the actual incidence, age distribution, and preoperative imaging accuracy of non-Wilms' tumors (nWT) in children with renal masses.
  • METHODS: Pathologic reports from all tumor nephrectomies or open renal biopsies performed at a single institution from September 1999 to June 2005 were analyzed.
  • The nWT group included congenital mesoblastic nephroma (5), clear cell sarcoma (4), neuroblastoma (4), renal cell carcinoma (4), lymphoma (2), angiomyolipoma (2), teratoma (1), hemangioma (1), and renal epithelial tumor (1).
  • Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value for computed tomography (CT) determining a diagnosis of WT were 0.92, 0.55, 0.84, and 0.73, respectively.
  • The CT reports explicitly stated a potential diagnosis in 89% of cases, with a diagnostic accuracy of 82%.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Non-Wilms' tumors may represent a significant proportion of renal tumors in children, especially in children aged less than 6 months or greater than 12 years.
  • These data have significant implications for parental counseling, surgical plan, and the choice of neoadjuvant chemotherapy and argue in favor of obtaining a tissue diagnosis before instituting therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Kidney / pathology. Kidney Neoplasms / diagnosis. Wilms Tumor / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18639686.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-5037
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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19. Tröbs RB, Hänsel M, Friedrich T, Bennek J: A 23-year experience with malignant renal tumors in infancy and childhood. Eur J Pediatr Surg; 2001 Apr;11(2):92-8
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  • [Title] A 23-year experience with malignant renal tumors in infancy and childhood.
  • A retrospective analysis of 77 children treated between 1974 and 1996 was undertaken to evaluate morbidity and the evolution of therapy.
  • We observed 3 children of school age with renal carcinoma and one patient with an intrarenal neuroblastoma.
  • According to the SIOP/GPOH protocol in 1989, the regimen was switched from primary surgery to preoperative chemotherapy without biopsy in 1989 (11 pats.).
  • In 3 patients preoperative diagnosis by means of imaging failed.
  • During preoperative chemotherapy a venous occlusive disease of the liver occurred in 2 patients.
  • Preoperative chemotherapy led to an impressive tumor shrinkage in the majority of patients.
  • In our experience, reduction of tumor volume due to preoperative chemotherapy facilitates tumor removal by surgery and may prevent tumor spillage and the deleterious effects of radiation in young children.
  • Surgery without delay is necessary if the diagnosis is unclear or the tumor fails to respond to preoperative chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Kidney Neoplasms / surgery. Wilms Tumor / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Child, Preschool. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 11371043.001).
  • [ISSN] 0939-7248
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of pediatric surgery : official journal of Austrian Association of Pediatric Surgery ... [et al] = Zeitschrift für Kinderchirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Pediatr Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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20. Herrera JM, Krebs A, Harris P, Barriga F: Childhood tumors. Surg Clin North Am; 2000 Apr;80(2):747-60, xii
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  • Specific genetic anomalies with pathogenic significance, which have helped to define the diagnosis better and to improve the prognosis of children with these tumors, recently have been discovered.
  • Survival of children with solid tumors also has improved significantly because of effective multidisciplinary care, which, in this case, always involves chemotherapy and surgery.
  • Diagnostic and therapeutic principles for the most common childhood solid tumors are discussed in this article, with an emphasis on surgical procedures.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Bone Neoplasms / surgery. Child. Hepatoblastoma / therapy. Humans. Kidney Neoplasms / surgery. Liver Neoplasms / therapy. Neoplasm Staging. Neuroblastoma / therapy. Osteosarcoma / surgery. Patient Care Team. Rhabdomyosarcoma / therapy

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  • (PMID = 10836015.001).
  • [ISSN] 0039-6109
  • [Journal-full-title] The Surgical clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Clin. North Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Number-of-references] 98
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21. Ozkaynak MF, Sahdev I, Gross TG, Levine JE, Cheerva AC, Richards MK, Rozans MK, Shaw PJ, Kadota RP: A pilot study of addition of amifostine to melphalan, carboplatin, etoposide, and cyclophosphamide with autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in pediatric solid tumors-A pediatric blood and marrow transplant consortium study. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2008 Mar;30(3):204-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Amifostine / administration & dosage. Amifostine / adverse effects. Bone Marrow Transplantation. Bone Neoplasms / diagnosis. Bone Neoplasms / therapy. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / diagnosis. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / therapy. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Administration Schedule. Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Feasibility Studies. Hodgkin Disease / diagnosis. Hodgkin Disease / therapy. Humans. Hypocalcemia / chemically induced. Hypocalcemia / pathology. Kidney Neoplasms / diagnosis. Kidney Neoplasms / therapy. Melphalan / administration & dosage. Neuroblastoma / diagnosis. Neuroblastoma / therapy. Pilot Projects. Recurrence. Risk Factors. Sarcoma / diagnosis. Sarcoma / therapy. Transplantation, Autologous. Transplantation, Homologous. Treatment Outcome. Wilms Tumor / diagnosis. Wilms Tumor / therapy

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  • (PMID = 18376282.001).
  • [ISSN] 1077-4114
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase I; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; M487QF2F4V / Amifostine; Q41OR9510P / Melphalan
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