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Items 1 to 26 of about 26
1. Badhe PB, Chauhan PP, Mehta NK: Brainstem gliomas--a clinicopathological study of 45 cases with p53 immunohistochemistry. Indian J Cancer; 2004 Oct-Dec;41(4):170-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: Brainstem tumors represent 10% of central nervous system tumors, accounting for 30% of pediatric posterior fossa tumors.
  • The WHO brain tumor classification and Stroink's CT classification were applied.
  • 55.55% of cases were located in the pons, 31.01% in the medulla and 13.33% in the midbrain.
  • Grade II astrocytomas were treated with excision and radiotherapy, while grade III and IV tumors were treated with radiotherapy and chemotherapy (CCNU).
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Brain Stem Neoplasms / metabolism. Glioma / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 15659871.001).
  • [ISSN] 0019-509X
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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2. Turner CD, Gururangan S, Eastwood J, Bottom K, Watral M, Beason R, McLendon RE, Friedman AH, Tourt-Uhlig S, Miller LL, Friedman HS: Phase II study of irinotecan (CPT-11) in children with high-risk malignant brain tumors: the Duke experience. Neuro Oncol; 2002 04;4(2):102-8
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  • [Title] Phase II study of irinotecan (CPT-11) in children with high-risk malignant brain tumors: the Duke experience.
  • A phase II study of irinotecan (CPT-11) was conducted at Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, to evaluate the activity of this agent in children with high-risk malignant brain tumors.
  • A total of 22 children were enrolled in this study, including 13 with histologically verified recurrent malignant brain tumors (glioblastoma multiforme [GBM] 4, anaplastic astrocytoma 1, ependymoma 5, and medulloblastoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor 3), 5 with recurrent diffuse pontine glioma, and 4 with newly diagnosed GBM.
  • All patients with recurrent tumor had prior chemotherapy and/or irradiation.
  • Patients with recurrent tumors received therapy until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity.
  • Patients with newly diagnosed tumors initially received 3 cycles of treatment to assess tumor response and then were allowed radiotherapy at physician's choice; patients who demonstrated a response to CPT-11 prior to radiotherapy were allowed to continue the drug after radiation until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity.
  • Responses were seen in 4 of 9 patients with GBM or anaplastic astrocytoma (44%; 95% confidence interval, 11%-82%) (complete response in 2 patients with recurrent GBM lasting 9 months and 48+ months; partial response in one patient with a newly diagnosed midbrain GBM lasting 18 months prior to radiotherapy; and partial response lasting 11 months in 1 patient with recurrent anaplastic astrocytoma), 1 of 5 patients with recurrent ependymoma (partial response initially followed by stable disease lasting 11 months), and none of 5 patients with recurrent diffuse pontine glioma.
  • Two of 3 patients with medulloblastoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor had stable disease for 9 and 13 months.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Camptothecin / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Astrocytoma / drug therapy. Child. Child, Preschool. Drug Administration Schedule. Ependymoma / drug therapy. Female. Glioblastoma / drug therapy. Glioma. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Medulloblastoma / drug therapy. Topoisomerase Inhibitors

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  • (PMID = 11916501.001).
  • [ISSN] 1522-8517
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuro-oncology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 0 / Topoisomerase Inhibitors; 0H43101T0J / irinotecan; XT3Z54Z28A / Camptothecin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1920653
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3. Alexandru D, Van Horn DK, Bota DA: Secondary fibrosarcoma of the brain stem treated with cyclophosphamide and Imatinib. J Neurooncol; 2010 Aug;99(1):123-8
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  • Radiation-induced midbrain fibrosarcoma is a rare, highly aggressive tumor, which is associated with poor prognosis.
  • We present the case of a 48-year old man with brainstem fibrosarcoma 20 years following radiation therapy received for a pituitary tumor.
  • We discuss this case in the context of the diagnostic criteria for these tumors, and previous reports of secondary and primary sarcomas of the central nervous system.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Brain Stem Neoplasms / drug therapy. Cyclophosphamide / therapeutic use. Fibrosarcoma / drug therapy. Piperazines / therapeutic use. Pyrimidines / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Benzamides. Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein / metabolism. Humans. Imatinib Mesylate. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Male. Mesencephalon / pathology. Middle Aged. S100 Proteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20043189.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7373
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Benzamides; 0 / Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein; 0 / Piperazines; 0 / Pyrimidines; 0 / S100 Proteins; 8A1O1M485B / Imatinib Mesylate; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2895888
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4. Ronghe M, Hargrave D, Bartels U, Tabori U, Vaidya S, Chandler C, Kulkarni A, Bouffet E: Vincristine and carboplatin chemotherapy for unresectable and/or recurrent low-grade astrocytoma of the brainstem. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2010 Sep;55(3):471-7
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  • [Title] Vincristine and carboplatin chemotherapy for unresectable and/or recurrent low-grade astrocytoma of the brainstem.
  • BACKGROUND: Radiotherapy remains a widely accepted postoperative treatment modality for unresectable or recurrent low-grade glioma (LGG).
  • However, there is increasing evidence to suggest that chemotherapy can delay and may obviate the need for radiotherapy in progressive/recurrent LGG.
  • PROCEDURE: We describe clinical characteristics and course of children with LGG of the brainstem who received carboplatin-based chemotherapy in two institutions over 10 years (1996-2006).
  • This was a retrospective review of consecutively treated children with LGG of the brainstem (midbrain, pons, medulla, and upper cervical cord).
  • Vincristine and carboplatin were first-line chemotherapy regimen used in all patients.
  • RESULTS: In this series, there were 16 children (9 males) with median age at diagnosis of 4.2 years (range 0.5-8).
  • Eight children were treated at diagnosis while the remaining eight received chemotherapy after either radiological progression or clinical deterioration.
  • After a median follow-up of 57 months (range 20-136) from initiation of chemotherapy all children are alive and 11 remain progression free (1 complete response, 8 with partial response + minor response, and 2 stable diseases).
  • CONCLUSIONS: The efficacy of this chemotherapy regimen in this series supports its role in children with progressive unresectable LGG of brainstem.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Astrocytoma / drug therapy. Brain Stem. Brain Stem Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Child. Child, Preschool. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • [Copyright] 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 20535831.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5017
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin
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5. Ben Amor S, Siddiqui K, Baessa S: Primary midbrain germinoma. Br J Neurosurg; 2004 Jun;18(3):310-3
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  • [Title] Primary midbrain germinoma.
  • Intracranial germinomas arising primarily in the midbrain are extremely rare and only one case has been reported in the literature.
  • Brain MRI showed a heterogeneous lesion in the midbrain.
  • The preoperative diagnosis included brain-stem glioma, metastasis and lymphoma.
  • Stereotactic biopsy was permitted in order to take a specimen and the diagnosis of germinoma was established.
  • The patient responded well to chemotherapy and radiotherapy.
  • Germinoma should be included in the differential diagnosis of midbrain lesions.
  • Preoperative diagnosis is difficult and biopsy is still needed for such lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Stem Neoplasms / diagnosis. Germinoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male

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  • (PMID = 15327241.001).
  • [ISSN] 0268-8697
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 22
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6. Kalra SK, Vaid VK, Jaiswal AK, Behari S, Jain VK, Kumari N: Primary midbrain germinoma. J Clin Neurosci; 2008 Nov;15(11):1282-4
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  • [Title] Primary midbrain germinoma.
  • Imaging showed an enhancing midbrain mass with an exophytic component with hydrocephalus.
  • Later he underwent a midline suboccipital craniectomy with vermian splitting and decompression of the exophytic component of the tumor from the midbrain.
  • Biopsy of the tumor revealed a germinoma.
  • Post-operatively, the patient received chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy.
  • Primary midbrain germinoma is an extremely rare entity and to the best of our knowledge only two cases to date have been reported in the literature.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Stem Neoplasms. Germinoma

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  • (PMID = 18783953.001).
  • [ISSN] 0967-5868
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical neuroscience : official journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Neurosci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
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7. Maruya J, Narita E, Nishimaki K, Heianna J, Miyauchi T, Minakawa T: Primary cystic germinoma originating from the midbrain. J Clin Neurosci; 2009 Jun;16(6):832-4
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  • [Title] Primary cystic germinoma originating from the midbrain.
  • A primary intracranial germinoma that involves the midbrain is rare.
  • We describe an unusual case of primary cystic germinoma originating from the midbrain.
  • A 29-year-old man presented with diplopia, and his MRI showed a cystic, ring-like enhanced lesion in the thalamo-mesencephalic junction.
  • Open biopsy was performed and the diagnosis of germinoma was based upon the histopathological findings.
  • Following chemotherapy and radiotherapy, the symptoms improved and the tumor disappeared.
  • We propose that primary intracranial germinoma should be included in the differential diagnosis of midbrain tumors, because early diagnosis and appropriate treatment for midbrain germinoma improves clinical outcome.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Stem Neoplasms / pathology. Central Nervous System Cysts / pathology. Germinoma / pathology. Mesencephalon / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Biopsy. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Diplopia / etiology. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Humans. Male. Radiotherapy. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19299138.001).
  • [ISSN] 0967-5868
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical neuroscience : official journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Neurosci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin
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8. Yamaguchi S, Terasaka S, Kobayashi H, Shiga T, Usui R, Hirata K, Kubota K, Murata J, Iwasaki Y: Indolent dorsal midbrain tumor: new findings based on positron emission tomography. J Neurosurg Pediatr; 2009 Apr;3(4):270-5
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  • [Title] Indolent dorsal midbrain tumor: new findings based on positron emission tomography.
  • OBJECT: Intrinsic tumors arising in the dorsal midbrain cause obstructive hydrocephalus and have an indolent clinical course.
  • Positron emission tomography (PET) with fluorine-18-labeled fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and l- [methyl-(11)C]methionine (MET) was used to evaluate the biological behaviors of dorsal midbrain tumors.
  • METHODS: The authors report on 4 patients (3 males and 1 female) with dorsal midbrain tumors who presented with obstructive hydrocephalus.
  • A diagnosis was made with MR imaging in each patient.
  • The patients did not undergo any other surgical procedures except endoscopic biopsy procedure, chemotherapy, or radiation therapy.
  • The patients in 3 cases underwent FDG- and MET-PET within 6 months of CSF-diverting procedures, and the patient in 1 case underwent PET 10 years after the procedure.
  • RESULTS: After the CSF-diverting procedure, clinical symptoms resolved or improved in all patients.
  • Although all tumors appeared hyperintense on T2-weighted MR images, their appearance on T1-weighted images was variable (iso- and/or hypointense), and partial lesion enhancement was observed on images from 2 patients.
  • The mean tumor tissue/normal tissue ratio of FDG uptake was 0.65, and that of MET was 0.99.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Positron emission tomography findings suggested that the indolent dorsal midbrain lesion had nontumorous characteristics, thus supporting a good prognosis.
  • Positron emission tomography studies may be more informative and predictive of the biological behavior of dorsal midbrain tumors than a biopsy procedure.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Stem Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Glioma / radionuclide imaging. Gliosis / radionuclide imaging. Positron-Emission Tomography

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  • (PMID = 19338404.001).
  • [ISSN] 1933-0707
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery. Pediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Neurosurg Pediatr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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9. Koizumi H, Oka H, Utsuki S, Sato S, Tanizaki Y, Shimizu S, Suzuki S, Iizuka T, Sakai F, Fujii K: Primary germinoma arising from the midbrain. Acta Neurochir (Wien); 2006 Nov;148(11):1197-200; discussion 1200
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  • [Title] Primary germinoma arising from the midbrain.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a homogenously enhanced mass in the midbrain.
  • MRI-guided stereotactic biopsy was performed, and the histologic diagnosis was pure germinoma.
  • The tumor disappeared after chemotherapy and radiotherapy.
  • Germinoma should be included in the differential diagnosis of midbrain lesions in young adults.
  • MRI-guided stereotactic biopsy provided a helpful diagnostic clue in a patient with a midbrain lesion.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Stem Neoplasms / diagnosis. Brain Stem Neoplasms / therapy. Germinoma / diagnosis. Germinoma / therapy. Mesencephalon / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Anisocoria / etiology. Anisocoria / pathology. Anisocoria / physiopathology. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biopsy. Diplopia / etiology. Diplopia / pathology. Diplopia / physiopathology. Drug Therapy. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Neuronavigation. Oculomotor Nerve Diseases / etiology. Oculomotor Nerve Diseases / pathology. Oculomotor Nerve Diseases / physiopathology. Radiotherapy. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17039305.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-6268
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neurochirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neurochir (Wien)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Austria
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10. Uchino M, Haga D, Mito T, Kuramitsu T, Nakamura N: Primary midbrain cystic germinoma mimicking glioma: a case with neuroendoscopic biopsy. J Neurooncol; 2006 Sep;79(3):255-8
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  • [Title] Primary midbrain cystic germinoma mimicking glioma: a case with neuroendoscopic biopsy.
  • Intracranial germinoma arising primarily in the midbrain is extremely rare.
  • We present the first reported case of cystic midbrain germinoma that lacked evident solid components and mimicked a midbrain glioma.
  • In a 22-year-old man with headache and diplopia, magnetic resonance imaging showed a ring-enhancing lesion in the midbrain.
  • The preoperative diagnosis included brain stem glioma, metastasis, and neuroepithelial cyst.
  • A neuroendoscopic biopsy specimen provided a histologic diagnosis of germinoma.
  • The patient responded well to chemotherapy and radiotherapy.
  • The case illustrates the diagnostic value of neuroendoscopic biopsy in the differential diagnosis of brainstem lesions in adult.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Stem Neoplasms / pathology. Germinoma / pathology. Glioma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biopsy. Diagnosis, Differential. Diplopia / etiology. Endoscopy. Headache / etiology. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male

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  • (PMID = 16557347.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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11. Koh EJ, Phi JH, Park SH, Kim IO, Cheon JE, Wang KC, Cho BK, Kim SK: Mixed germ cell tumor of the midbrain. Case Report. J Neurosurg Pediatr; 2009 Aug;4(2):137-42

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Mixed germ cell tumor of the midbrain. Case Report.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a multicystic mass with hemorrhagic fluid-fluid levels in the right midbrain, suggesting the presence of a cavernous malformation.
  • The histopathological diagnosis was of a mixed germ cell tumor (GCT) comprising mature teratoma and germinoma cells with syncytiotrophoblastic giant cells.
  • The patient underwent postoperative chemotherapy and radiotherapy, and no tumor progression was found during 1 year of follow-up.
  • Germ cell tumors in the brainstem are rare, with only 12 reported cases.
  • Among these, 4 were in the midbrain and histologically were pure germinomas.
  • To the authors' knowledge, this is the first reported case of a mixed GCT in the midbrain combining mature teratoma and germinoma cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Stem Neoplasms / diagnosis. Brain Stem Neoplasms / therapy. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / therapy

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  • (PMID = 19645547.001).
  • [ISSN] 1933-0707
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery. Pediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Neurosurg Pediatr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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12. Fujikura Y, Morishima Y, Ota K, Otsuka S, Homma S, Kurishima K, Hizawa N: [Satisfactory outcome with erlotinib after failure with gefitinib in a patient with meningeal carcinomatosis secondary to non-small cell lung cancer]. Nihon Kokyuki Gakkai Zasshi; 2010 May;48(5):391-6
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  • A 60-year-old man was admitted to our hospital because of the radiologic findings of meningeal carcinomatosis after long-term disease control of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mutant non-small cell lung cancer, with cisplatin-based chemotherapy followed by gefitinib.
  • Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed diffuse and linear enhancement on the surface of the midbrain and along the cerebellar folia.
  • He presented no symptoms at the time of diagnosis of meningeal carcinomatosis; however, within 2 weeks, neurological symptoms such as disorientation, dysarthria, and ataxic gait became apparent.
  • Since his symptoms seemed to worsen even under further treatment with different cisplatin-based chemotherapy or retreatment with gefitinib, we decided to initiate erlotinib treatment.
  • His symptoms rapidly improved within a week of beginning treatment with erlotinib, and MRI and CSF examinations also showed remarkable improvement of the meningeal carcinomatosis.
  • However, further studies are required to understand the differential efficacy of these drugs.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / pathology. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Meningeal Carcinomatosis / drug therapy. Meningeal Carcinomatosis / secondary. Protein Kinase Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Quinazolines / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Erlotinib Hydrochloride. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Treatment Failure

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  • (PMID = 20560443.001).
  • [ISSN] 1343-3490
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Kokyūki Gakkai zasshi = the journal of the Japanese Respiratory Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nihon Kokyuki Gakkai Zasshi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors; 0 / Quinazolines; DA87705X9K / Erlotinib Hydrochloride; S65743JHBS / gefitinib
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13. Ochi S, Takahashi Y, Yokoyama S: [Fulminating midbrain irradiation injury of pediatric brain tumor]. No To Shinkei; 2005 Sep;57(9):800-5
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  • [Title] [Fulminating midbrain irradiation injury of pediatric brain tumor].
  • We report two children with post radiation midbrain damage causing severe neurological symptoms.
  • He underwent gamma knife radiation surgery (central 24 Gy/peripheral 12 Gy).
  • Two months later bilateral ptosis followed by total oculomotor palsy and drowsiness developed.
  • Despite pulsed-steroid therapy the tumor size increased up to 4.6 times in volume.
  • The tumor was totally removed and was diagnosed as an early delayed radiation reaction pathologically.
  • Following total resection and a VP shunt she received conventional radiation therapy along with chemotherapy.
  • After the final irradiation she became comatose (JCS II-2) and MRI revealed diffuse midbrain damage with acute aqueduct obstruction, which recovered in two weeks.
  • Reports of irradiation injuries of the midbrain in childhood are rare but it should be considered as a possible cause of fulminant symptoms requiring emergency treatment.
  • Because of midbrain anatomical complexity, midbrain radiation therapy requires great care, especially in children.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Glioma / diagnosis. Medulloblastoma / diagnosis. Mesencephalon / radiation effects. Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16248369.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-8969
  • [Journal-full-title] Nō to shinkei = Brain and nerve
  • [ISO-abbreviation] No To Shinkei
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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14. Hojo S, Maeura Y, Yoshioka S, Fujie Y, Fukunaga H, Okada Y, Ota H, Endo W: [Two patients having recurrent breast cancer with brain metastases well controlled with a gamma knife radio-surgery]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2006 Nov;33(12):1910-2
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  • She suffered from multiple liver metastases in June 2000, so CEF therapy contained hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy, and extended right lobectomy of the liver were performed in December 2001.
  • Then she underwent simple total hysterectomy and bilateral oophorectomy for torsion of the metastatic ovarian tumor.
  • MRI study revealed brain metastases with a diameter of 1 cm in her right midbrain in April 2005, so a gamma knife radio-surgery was performed.
  • After the radio-surgery, a weekly paclitaxel therapy followed by peroral chemotherapy with capecitabine was started, and she took the regimen continuously.
  • After the radio-surgery, a weekly paclitaxel therapy with anastrozole was started.
  • In both of the two patients, the metastatic brain tumors have not shown growth so far and are under good control as of March 2006.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Radiosurgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols. Female. Hepatectomy. Humans. Infusions, Intra-Arterial. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Liver Neoplasms / surgery. Mastectomy. Middle Aged. Nitriles / administration & dosage. Paclitaxel / administration & dosage. Paclitaxel / therapeutic use. Pleurisy / etiology. Pleurisy / surgery. Pleurodesis. Triazoles / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 17212144.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Nitriles; 0 / Triazoles; 2Z07MYW1AZ / anastrozole; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
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15. Knisely JP, Berkey B, Chakravarti A, Yung AW, Curran WJ Jr, Robins HI, Movsas B, Brachman DG, Henderson RH, Mehta MP: A phase III study of conventional radiation therapy plus thalidomide versus conventional radiation therapy for multiple brain metastases (RTOG 0118). Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2008 May 1;71(1):79-86
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  • [Title] A phase III study of conventional radiation therapy plus thalidomide versus conventional radiation therapy for multiple brain metastases (RTOG 0118).
  • PURPOSE: To compare whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT) with WBRT combined with thalidomide for patients with brain metastases not amenable to resection or radiosurgery.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with Zubrod performance status 0-1, MRI-documented multiple (>3), large (>4 cm), or midbrain brain metastases arising from a histopathologically confirmed extracranial primary tumor, and an anticipated survival of >8 weeks were randomized to receive WBRT to a dose of 37.5 Gy in 15 fractions with or without thalidomide during and after WBRT.
  • Prerandomization stratification used Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) Recursive Partitioning Analysis (RPA) Class and whether post-WBRT chemotherapy was planned.
  • Endpoints included overall survival, progression-free survival, time to neurocognitive progression, the cause of death, toxicities, and quality of life.
  • A protocol-planned interim analysis documented that the trial had an extremely low probability of ever showing a significant difference favoring the thalidomide arm given the results at the time of the analysis, and it was therefore closed on the basis of predefined statistical guidelines.
  • CONCLUSION: Thalidomide provided no survival benefit for patients with multiple, large, or midbrain metastases when combined with WBRT; nearly half the patients discontinued thalidomide due to side effects.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiogenesis Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms. Cranial Irradiation / methods. Thalidomide / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cognition Disorders / etiology. Combined Modality Therapy / methods. Disease-Free Survival. Dose Fractionation. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies. Quality of Life

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  • (PMID = 18164847.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase III; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 4Z8R6ORS6L / Thalidomide
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16. Fuchs I, Kreil W, Sutter B, Papaethymiou G, Pendl G: Gamma Knife radiosurgery of brainstem gliomas. Acta Neurochir Suppl; 2002;84:85-90

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Two lesions were located primarily in the medulla, 12 in the pons and 7 in the midbrain.
  • A median dose of 12 Gy (9-20 Gy) was applied to the tumour margin by the median isodose of 45%.
  • Prior to radiosurgery 4 patients were treated by conventional radiotherapy, 1 had radiotherapy and chemotherapy, 1 patient underwent chemotherapy, and 1 patient was shunted due to hydrocephalus.
  • Microsurgical cyst fenestration was performed in 1 patient after GKRS, shunting procedure was necessary for 2 patients.
  • GKRS is an effective treatment modality for brainstem gliomas with satisfying tumour control and functional outcome.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Stem Neoplasms / surgery. Glioma / surgery. Medulla Oblongata / surgery. Mesencephalon / surgery. Pons / surgery. Radiosurgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Brain Damage, Chronic / diagnosis. Child. Cranial Nerve Diseases / diagnosis. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neurologic Examination. Postoperative Complications / diagnosis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 12379009.001).
  • [ISSN] 0065-1419
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neurochirurgica. Supplement
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neurochir. Suppl.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Austria
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17. Kuroki K, Sugiyama K, Taguchi H, Yukawa O, Kurokawa M, Kajiwara Y, Usui S, Kurisu K: [Gliomatosis cerebri. Report of two cases]. No Shinkei Geka; 2006 May;34(5):513-8
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  • Gliomatosis cerebri is a rare tumor of the central nervous system, and here we report two cases of this tumor.
  • MR imaging revealed a high intensity symmetrical lesion in the bilateral frontal and temporal regions, thalamus and midbrain on FLAIR images.
  • Radiation at 54Gy, chemotherapy (ACNU, vincristine) and gamma-knife surgery were performed, and two months later MR imaging showed that the tumor (including the ringed enhanced lesion) had shrunk markedly.
  • These cases suggest that radiation therapy is effective for gliomatosis cerebri.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Neuroepithelial / diagnosis. Oligodendroglioma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 16689395.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-2603
  • [Journal-full-title] No shinkei geka. Neurological surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] No Shinkei Geka
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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18. Fuentes S, Delsanti C, Metellus P, Peragut JC, Grisoli F, Regis J: Brainstem metastases: management using gamma knife radiosurgery. Neurosurgery; 2006 Jan;58(1):37-42; discussion 37-42
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  • Surgical risks are high and standard radiation or chemotherapy have little effect.
  • Lesions were located in the pons in 17 patients, midbrain in nine, and medulla oblongata in two.
  • At time of the radiosurgery, eight patients presented with another supratentorial metastasis.
  • The most frequent primary tumor site was the lung (13 cases) followed by the melanoma in four cases, the kidney in two, and other locations in six.
  • Only six patients underwent fractionated whole-brain radiation therapy.
  • Mean marginal radiation dose for GKRS was 19.6 Gy (range, 11-30).
  • Local tumor control was achieved in 92% of patients.
  • Owing to the high risk of surgical resection and low efficacy of medical treatment, radiosurgery can be proposed upfront.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Brain Stem. Radiosurgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Disease Progression. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Kidney Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Male. Medulla Oblongata. Melanoma / secondary. Mesencephalon. Middle Aged. Pons. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16385327.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4040
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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19. Abel TJ, Chowdhary A, Thapa M, Rutledge JC, Geyer JR, Ojemann J, Avellino AM: Spinal cord pilocytic astrocytoma with leptomeningeal dissemination to the brain. Case report and review of the literature. J Neurosurg; 2006 Dec;105(6 Suppl):508-14
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  • An intradural intramedullary spinal cord tumor was identified, and the lesion was subtotally resected and diagnosed by the pathology department to be a PCA.
  • Subsequently, the patient had recurrences of the intradural intramedullary tumor at 6 months and 2 years after his original presentation.
  • He underwent a repeated resection of the recurrent tumor and fenestration of an associated syrinx on both occasions.
  • The pathological characteristics of the reresected tumor remained consistent with those of a PCA.
  • Postoperative imaging after his last surgery revealed diffuse intracranial leptomeningeal dissemination into the cisternal space surrounding the midbrain, the suprasellar region, and the internal auditory canal, as well as nodular subarachnoid disease in the upper cervical region.
  • The patient then underwent chemotherapy, and total spine magnetic resonance (MR) imaging 2 months later demonstrated stability in the size of the spinal cord tumor and a decrease in the associated syrinx.
  • However, an MR image of the head demonstrated two new areas of supratentorial subarachnoid leptomeningeal spread of the primary spinal cord tumor at the 2-month follow-up examination.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / secondary. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Meningeal Neoplasms / secondary. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Child, Preschool. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery


20. Yamada K, Takeshima H, Sakurama T, Kuratsu J: Secondary cervical dystonia following stereotactic radiosurgery in a patient with thalamic glioma. Surg Neurol; 2007 Dec;68(6):665-70
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  • CASE DESCRIPTION: A 27-year-old woman complaining of headache and left motor weakness was found to have a thalamic tumor on the right side.
  • Histopathologically, tumor samples manifested features of anaplastic astrocytoma.
  • She underwent stereotactic radiosurgery in addition to the conventional radiation and chemotherapy.
  • Sixteen months postoperatively, the patient developed forced head tilting to the left side combined with chin lift.
  • Irregular-shaped lesion involving the thalamus, lenticular nuclei, midbrain, pons, and cerebellum was presented on magnetic resonance images.
  • Steroid therapy effectively diminished the lesion size, and her abnormal head posturing was gradually ameliorated (TWSTRS severity scale = 3).
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Glioma / surgery. Postoperative Complications / etiology. Radiosurgery / adverse effects. Torticollis / etiology


21. Morizane A, Takahashi J, Shinoyama M, Ideguchi M, Takagi Y, Fukuda H, Koyanagi M, Sasai Y, Hashimoto N: Generation of graftable dopaminergic neuron progenitors from mouse ES cells by a combination of coculture and neurosphere methods. J Neurosci Res; 2006 May 1;83(6):1015-27
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  • Parkinson's disease is characterized by a loss of midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons and is generally viewed as a potential target for stem cell therapy.
  • To investigate this possibility, we have developed a combined approach in which ES cells are cocultured with PA6 stromal cells to expose them to stromal cell-derived inducing activity (SDIA) and are then cultured as neurospheres.
  • Mouse ES cell colonies were detached from PA6 feeder cells after 8 days of SDIA treatment and then expanded as spheres for another 4 days in serum-free medium supplemented with fibroblast growth factor-2.
  • These findings suggest that progenitors of DA neurons are generated and can proliferate in ES cell-derived neurospheres induced by serial SDIA and PA6 conditioned medium treatment.
  • [MeSH-minor] 2',3'-Cyclic-Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases / metabolism. Animals. Cadherins / metabolism. Cell Differentiation / drug effects. Cell Differentiation / physiology. Coculture Techniques / methods. Cytokines / pharmacology. Embryo, Mammalian. Fluorescent Antibody Technique / methods. Gene Expression / drug effects. Gene Expression / physiology. Gene Expression Profiling / methods. Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein / metabolism. Intermediate Filament Proteins / metabolism. Male. Mice. Mice, Inbred C57BL. Microtubule-Associated Proteins / metabolism. Neoplasms / physiopathology. Nerve Tissue Proteins / metabolism. Nestin. RNA, Messenger / biosynthesis. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction / methods. Stem Cell Transplantation / methods. Stromal Cells / physiology. Time Factors. Tubulin / metabolism. Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase / metabolism

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  • [Copyright] 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 16493682.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-4012
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuroscience research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurosci. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cadherins; 0 / Cytokines; 0 / Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein; 0 / Intermediate Filament Proteins; 0 / Microtubule-Associated Proteins; 0 / Mtap2 protein, mouse; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / Nes protein, mouse; 0 / Nestin; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Tubulin; 0 / beta3 tubulin, mouse; EC 1.14.16.2 / Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase; EC 3.1.4.- / 2',3'-Cyclic-Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases; VTD58H1Z2X / Dopamine
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22. Dohi S: [Non-opioid analgesics in cancer pain]. Nihon Rinsho; 2001 Sep;59(9):1800-5
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  • Pain management using non-opioid analgesics need to avoid potential side effects, and the analgesic action of NSAIDs, cyclooxygenase inhibitors, would synergistically potentiate opioids' effects via the activation of the periaquaductal grey of the midbrain.
  • Although changing medical practice is difficult and improving pain management with the rational use of combination of drugs may especially difficult, supplementation of non-opioid analgesics for opioid treatment would provide a better quality of life of cancer patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal / therapeutic use. Neoplasms / complications. Pain / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenergic alpha-Agonists / therapeutic use. Anti-Inflammatory Agents / pharmacology. Anti-Inflammatory Agents / therapeutic use. Antidepressive Agents / pharmacology. Antidepressive Agents / therapeutic use. Baclofen / pharmacology. Baclofen / therapeutic use. Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors. Histamine H1 Antagonists / pharmacology. Histamine H1 Antagonists / therapeutic use. Humans. Hypnotics and Sedatives / therapeutic use. Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate / antagonists & inhibitors. Sodium Channel Blockers. Steroids. Tramadol / pharmacology. Tramadol / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 11554055.001).
  • [ISSN] 0047-1852
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon rinsho. Japanese journal of clinical medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Rinsho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenergic alpha-Agonists; 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents; 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal; 0 / Antidepressive Agents; 0 / Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors; 0 / Histamine H1 Antagonists; 0 / Hypnotics and Sedatives; 0 / Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate; 0 / Sodium Channel Blockers; 0 / Steroids; 39J1LGJ30J / Tramadol; H789N3FKE8 / Baclofen
  • [Number-of-references] 19
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23. Epstein JA, Moster ML, Spiritos M: Seesaw nystagmus following whole brain irradiation and intrathecal methotrexate. J Neuroophthalmol; 2001 Dec;21(4):264-5
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  • A patient developed pendular seesaw nystagmus after receiving radiation and intrathecal methotrexate treatment for central nervous system lymphoma.
  • Nystagmus developed without evidence of a brainstem lesion on magnetic resonance imaging.
  • This case expands the causes of seesaw nystagmus and lends further support to the notion that midbrain lesions are not a prerequisite for its development.
  • [MeSH-major] Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / adverse effects. Brain / drug effects. Brain / radiation effects. Methotrexate / adverse effects. Nystagmus, Pathologic / etiology. Radiation Injuries / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Brain Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Humans. Injections, Spinal. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / drug therapy. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / radiotherapy. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Middle Aged. Optic Chiasm / drug effects. Optic Chiasm / radiation effects. Optic Nerve / drug effects. Optic Nerve / radiation effects. Visual Fields

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  • (PMID = 11756856.001).
  • [ISSN] 1070-8022
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-ophthalmology : the official journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Neuroophthalmol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate
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24. Ladner E, Plattner R, Friesenecker B, Berger J, Javorsky F: [Non-opioid analgesics--irreplaceable in cancer pain therapy? Anasthesiol Intensivmed Notfallmed Schmerzther; 2000 Nov;35(11):677-84
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Non-opioid analgesics--irreplaceable in cancer pain therapy?
  • Sufficient therapy of pain is essential for the treatment of tumor patients.
  • Cancer pain is often a combination of pain caused by the tumor itself, tumor associated and pain caused by therapy.
  • Opioids ("central analgesics") inhibit neuronal transduction within the spinal cord, enhance inhibiting function of midbrain nuclei on ascending pain transduction and influence pain perception via modulation of the limbic system.
  • Adjuvant therapy is necessary to control common NSAR-side-effects like dyspepsia, ulcer and gastrointestinal bleeding.
  • Due to its exceptional analgesic, antipyretic and spasmolytic properties, metamizol is an essential substance in tumor therapy.
  • There is scientific evidence that adequate combinations of non-opioids, opioids and adjuvant drugs, considering adverse side effects, were effective and safe in the treatment of cancer pain.
  • [MeSH-major] Analgesics, Non-Narcotic / therapeutic use. Neoplasms / physiopathology. Pain / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 11130128.001).
  • [ISSN] 0939-2661
  • [Journal-full-title] Anästhesiologie, Intensivmedizin, Notfallmedizin, Schmerztherapie : AINS
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anasthesiol Intensivmed Notfallmed Schmerzther
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Analgesics, Non-Narcotic
  • [Number-of-references] 80
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25. Lesniak MS, Klem JM, Weingart J, Carson BS Sr: Surgical outcome following resection of contrast-enhanced pediatric brainstem gliomas. Pediatr Neurosurg; 2003 Dec;39(6):314-22
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the charts of all pediatric patients admitted to the Johns Hopkins Hospital with a diagnosis of a brainstem tumor between January 1985 and December 2000.
  • Fifty-seven patients (64.0%) underwent surgical resection while 32 (36%) were treated with radiation and/or chemotherapy.
  • Of the surgical candidates, 57 (100%) had an accompanying MRI scan significant for an enhancing lesion in the midbrain, pons or the medulla.
  • The remaining cases consisted of 10 patients (17.5%) with fibrillary astrocytomas, 3 (5.3%) with gangliogliomas, 1 (1.8%) with an oligodendroglioma and 1 (1.8%) with a primitive neuroectodermal tumor.
  • In our study, the majority of enhancing tumors were low grade and amenable to surgical intervention.
  • Consequently, we recommend surgical resection and pathological diagnosis of all enhancing brainstem tumors with adjuvant therapy reserved for recurrent or unresectable cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Stem Neoplasms / pathology. Brain Stem Neoplasms / surgery. Glioma / pathology. Glioma / surgery. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Contrast Media / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel
  • [CommentIn] Pediatr Neurosurg. 2004 Mar-Apr;40(2):99; author reply 100 [15292646.001]
  • (PMID = 14734866.001).
  • [ISSN] 1016-2291
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
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26. Baumgartner JE, Ater JL, Ha CS, Kuttesch JF, Leeds NE, Fuller GN, Wilson RJ: Pathologically proven cavernous angiomas of the brain following radiation therapy for pediatric brain tumors. Pediatr Neurosurg; 2003 Oct;39(4):201-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Pathologically proven cavernous angiomas of the brain following radiation therapy for pediatric brain tumors.
  • Lesions consistent with cavernous angiomas (CAs) of the brain are sometimes seen on MRI scans of the brains of patients who received radiation therapy for brain tumors as children.
  • The lesions appear years later within brain tissue that was included in radiation fields.
  • From 1995 to 1997, 3 patients previously treated with radiation therapy (45-55 Gy) for pediatric brain tumors (medulloblastoma, ependymoma, and a presumed midbrain astrocytoma) underwent resections of symptomatic and enlarging lesions that were consistent with a CA of the brain.
  • None of the patients had received chemotherapy as part of their cancer treatment.
  • The lesions appeared 7-19 years after radiation therapy and slowly enlarged on subsequent imaging studies.
  • The age at resection ranged from 15 to 23 years (10-21 years after radiation therapy).
  • Some CAs may be caused by radiation therapy for pediatric brain tumors.
  • They are radiologically and pathologically similar to sporadically occurring CAs of the brain and may enlarge over time and become symptomatic.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / radiotherapy. Brain Neoplasms / etiology. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Ependymoma / radiotherapy. Hemangioma, Cavernous, Central Nervous System / etiology. Hemangioma, Cavernous, Central Nervous System / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Medulloblastoma / radiotherapy. Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced / etiology. Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced / pathology. Radiotherapy / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Radiography. Time Factors






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