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1. Agarwal R, Strickland S, McNeish IA, Patel DC, Foskett M, Boultbee JE, Newlands ES, Seckl MJ: Doppler ultrasonography of the uterine artery and the response to chemotherapy in patients with gestational trophoblastic tumors. Clin Cancer Res; 2002 May;8(5):1142-7
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  • [Title] Doppler ultrasonography of the uterine artery and the response to chemotherapy in patients with gestational trophoblastic tumors.
  • Here, we assess whether the UAPI can provide independent prognostic information predictive of methotrexate resistance (MTX-R), a drug central to the management of GTT.
  • Of the 164 patients for whom all data were available, 47 subsequently developed MTX-R, defined as a plateaued or rising hCG in two consecutive samples.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The UAPI, as an indirect in vivo measure of functional tumor vascularity, independently predicts the response to chemotherapy in GTTs.
  • [MeSH-major] Trophoblastic Neoplasms / pathology. Ultrasonography, Doppler / methods. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology. Uterus / blood supply
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Arteries / ultrasonography. Chorionic Gonadotropin / analysis. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Female. Humans. Logistic Models. Methotrexate / therapeutic use. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Odds Ratio. Pregnancy. Prognosis. Pulsatile Flow. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 12006530.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate
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2. Randall TC, Coukos G, Wheeler JE, Rubin SC: Prolonged remission of recurrent, metastatic placental site trophoblastic tumor after chemotherapy. Gynecol Oncol; 2000 Jan;76(1):115-7
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  • [Title] Prolonged remission of recurrent, metastatic placental site trophoblastic tumor after chemotherapy.
  • BACKGROUND: Placental site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT) is a form of gestational trophoblastic neoplasm that is frequently resistant to chemotherapy.
  • In most cases disease is confined to the uterus and can be cured by curettage or simple hysterectomy.
  • Patients with metastases, however, frequently have progression of disease and die despite aggressive multiagent chemotherapy.
  • Imaging studies revealed multiple lung lesions, a liver lesion, and an enlarged irregular uterus.
  • CONCLUSION: Treatment with multiagent chemotherapy can produce long-term remission, even in patients with recurrent, metastatic PSTT.
  • Addition of platinum may be helpful in patients who have recurred or progressed after treatment with non-platinum-containing regimens.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Trophoblastic Tumor, Placental Site / drug therapy. Uterine Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Metastasis / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Pregnancy. Prognosis. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2000 Academic Press.
  • (PMID = 10620452.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
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3. Gonzalez-Angulo AM, Walters RS, Carpenter RJ Jr, Ross MI, Perkins GH, Gwyn K, Theriault RL: Paclitaxel chemotherapy in a pregnant patient with bilateral breast cancer. Clin Breast Cancer; 2004 Oct;5(4):317-9
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  • [Title] Paclitaxel chemotherapy in a pregnant patient with bilateral breast cancer.
  • She presented after right mastectomy and anthracycline-based chemotherapy at an outside facility.
  • Staging studies at our hospital before taxane administration demonstrated a 19-20-week gravid uterus and tumor in the remaining left breast.
  • Weekly paclitaxel was given preoperatively during pregnancy.
  • Upon completion of chemotherapy, the patient underwent mastectomy and axillary lymph node dissection followed by comprehensive radiation therapy to the chest wall.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / therapeutic use. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Paclitaxel / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Pregnancy. Pregnancy Outcome. Receptors, Estrogen / metabolism. Receptors, Progesterone / metabolism. Tamoxifen / administration & dosage. Tamoxifen / therapeutic use. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15507181.001).
  • [ISSN] 1526-8209
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical breast cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Breast Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; 094ZI81Y45 / Tamoxifen; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
  • [Number-of-references] 15
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4. Coulson LE, Kong CS, Zaloudek C: Epithelioid trophoblastic tumor of the uterus in a postmenopausal woman: a case report and review of the literature. Am J Surg Pathol; 2000 Nov;24(11):1558-62
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  • [Title] Epithelioid trophoblastic tumor of the uterus in a postmenopausal woman: a case report and review of the literature.
  • We report an epithelioid trophoblastic tumor (ETT), a recently delineated type of gestational trophoblastic tumor (GTT), discovered in the uterus of a 66-year-old woman.
  • She had been treated for a hydatidiform mole 17 years previously without chemotherapy.
  • The resected uterus contained a solid/cystic tumor located entirely within the myometrium.
  • Our findings indicate that ETT, like other types of GTT, can occur in postmenopausal women, even years after a gestational event.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Pregnancy. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 11075860.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
  • [Number-of-references] 13
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5. García-Manero M, Royo MP, Espinos J, Pina L, Alcazar JL, López G: Pregnancy associated breast cancer. Eur J Surg Oncol; 2009 Feb;35(2):215-8
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  • [Title] Pregnancy associated breast cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Breast carcinoma during pregnancy put the health of the mother in conflict with that of the foetus.
  • The aim is to give optimal treatment to the mother to maximise the chances of survival, whilst minimising the risk of harm of the foetus.
  • We report the epidemiology, pathology, clinical picture, therapeutic management and foetal outcome of pregnant women with breast cancer treated in our institution.
  • Parents were surveyed by mail or telephone regarding outcomes of children exposed to chemotherapy in uterus.
  • RESULTS: The treatment of breast cancer pregnancy should conform as closely as possible to standardised protocols for patients without concomitant pregnancy.
  • Most of the patients underwent surgery during pregnancy In four cases diagnosed during the first trimester chemotherapy was initiated during the 10th week when organogenesis period was finished.
  • None of the children exposed to chemotherapy during this trimester presented congenital malformations.
  • CONCLUSION: Breast cancer can be treated with FAC chemotherapy during the second and third trimesters without significant complications for the children exposed to chemotherapy in uterus.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / etiology. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Biopsy, Needle. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Gestational Age. Humans. Infant, Newborn. Male. Mastectomy / methods. Neoplasm Staging. Pregnancy. Pregnancy Outcome. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome. Ultrasonography, Mammary

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  • (PMID = 18550321.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-2157
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of surgical oncology : the journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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6. Shen DH, Khoo US, Ngan HY, Ng TY, Chau MT, Xue WC, Cheung AN: Coexisting epithelioid trophoblastic tumor and choriocarcinoma of the uterus following a chemoresistant hydatidiform mole. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2003 Jul;127(7):e291-3
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  • [Title] Coexisting epithelioid trophoblastic tumor and choriocarcinoma of the uterus following a chemoresistant hydatidiform mole.
  • The epithelioid trophoblastic tumor is an unusual type of trophoblastic tumor.
  • Herein, we describe a patient with coexisting epithelioid trophoblastic tumor and choriocarcinoma in the uterus.
  • The patient had a history of hydatidiform mole with recurrent elevation of human chorionic gonadotrophin level that is resistant to chemotherapy.
  • The development of epithelioid trophoblastic tumor may be related to the persistence of locally invasive disease, which was unresponsive to chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Choriocarcinoma. Chorionic Gonadotropin / blood. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Epithelioid Cells / pathology. Hydatidiform Mole / drug therapy. Trophoblastic Neoplasms. Uterine Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Pregnancy

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  • (PMID = 12823059.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin
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7. Feng F, Xiang Y, Li L, Wan X, Yang X: Clinical parameters predicting therapeutic response to surgical management in patients with chemotherapy-resistant gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. Gynecol Oncol; 2009 Jun;113(3):312-5
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  • [Title] Clinical parameters predicting therapeutic response to surgical management in patients with chemotherapy-resistant gestational trophoblastic neoplasia.
  • OBJECTIVE: Several studies have reported that surgical management of chemotherapy-resistant gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) is a useful adjunct to chemotherapy.
  • We investigated the pretreatment predictive factors of therapeutic response in response to surgical management combined with chemotherapy.
  • METHODS: The study involved 61 patients with chemotherapy-resistant GTN who underwent surgery between January 1996 and January 2007.
  • Responses to the combination therapy with surgery and chemotherapy were assessed after the end of treatment.
  • Statistical analyses were performed to identify preoperative clinical factors associated with response of chemotherapy-resistant GTN.
  • RESULTS: After the end of combination therapy, 47 (77.0%), 4 (6.6%), 1 (1.6%), and 9 (14.8%) of 61 patients showed complete response (CR), partial remission (PR), stable disease (SD), and progressive disease (PD), respectively.
  • Univariate analysis found that predictors of response were age (p=0.022), antecedent pregnancy (p=0.022), site of metastasis (p=0.026), and preoperative serum human chorionic gonadotropin-beta subunit (beta-hCG) level (p=0.027).
  • All patients with treatment failure had 2 or more of unfavorable factors, including age older than 35 years, antecedent non-molar pregnancy, distant metastasis outside of lungs and uterus, and preoperative serum beta-hCG level greater than 10 IU/L.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The data suggest that age older than 35 years, antecedent non-molar pregnancy, distant metastasis outside of lungs and uterus, and a preoperative serum beta-hCG level greater than 10 IU/L are important clinical predictors of treatment failure to surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Gestational Trophoblastic Disease / drug therapy. Gestational Trophoblastic Disease / surgery. Salvage Therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Factors. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human / blood. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Pregnancy. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Failure. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19345988.001).
  • [ISSN] 1095-6859
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human
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8. Behtash N, Ansari S, Sarvi F: Successful pregnancy after localized resection of perforated uterus in choriocarcinoma and a literature review. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2006 Jan-Feb;16 Suppl 1:445-8
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  • [Title] Successful pregnancy after localized resection of perforated uterus in choriocarcinoma and a literature review.
  • Choriocarcinoma is an aggressive neoplasm arising in the body of the uterus.
  • In this study, we present the cases of two young patients (18 and 19 years of age) with acute abdominal pain and shock, while they were under chemotherapy due to persistent trophoblastic disease.
  • During emergent exploratory laparotomy, localized resection of uterus was performed.
  • They had their first successful term pregnancy 5 and 4 years after surgery, respectively.
  • Hysterectomy is recommended in emergency conditions, but localized resection of uterus should be considered in women who are desirous of future fertility.
  • [MeSH-major] Choriocarcinoma / therapy. Hysterectomy / methods. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic. Uterine Neoplasms / therapy. Uterine Perforation / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Curettage. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Dactinomycin / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Hydatidiform Mole / pathology. Hydatidiform Mole / therapy. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / therapy. Methotrexate / administration & dosage. Pregnancy. Pregnancy Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16515643.001).
  • [ISSN] 1048-891X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 1CC1JFE158 / Dactinomycin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate; MAC combination
  • [Number-of-references] 15
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9. Case AM, Wilson S, Colgan TJ, Greenblatt EM: Fertility-sparing surgery, with subsequent pregnancy, in persistent gestational trophoblastic neoplasia: case report. Hum Reprod; 2001 Feb;16(2):360-4
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  • [Title] Fertility-sparing surgery, with subsequent pregnancy, in persistent gestational trophoblastic neoplasia: case report.
  • In most instances, it is cured by surgical evacuation of the uterus, with persistent disease being very sensitive to chemotherapy.
  • Hysterectomy, recommended for persistent chemotherapy-resistant uterine disease, may be unacceptable to the woman who wishes to maintain her fertility.
  • The literature is reviewed and potential pregnancy complications of this management, particularly uterine rupture, are discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Choriocarcinoma / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Uterine Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Fertility. Humans. Infant, Newborn. Male. Pregnancy. Uterine Rupture / prevention & control

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  • (PMID = 11157835.001).
  • [ISSN] 0268-1161
  • [Journal-full-title] Human reproduction (Oxford, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Reprod.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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10. Qian JH, Ye DF, Xie X: [Clinical analysis of 13 cases of gestational trophoblastic tumor misdiagnosed as ectopic pregnancy]. Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi; 2005 Feb;40(2):91-4
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  • [Title] [Clinical analysis of 13 cases of gestational trophoblastic tumor misdiagnosed as ectopic pregnancy].
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate clinical-pathological features, diagnosis and therapy of gestational trophoblastic tumor (GTT) misdiagnosed as ectopic pregnancy.
  • METHODS: From 1999 to 2003, a total of 13 patients with GTT misdiagnosed as ectopic pregnancy were retrospectively analyzed.
  • The lesions of GTT misdiagnosed as ectopic pregnancy were fallopian tube, horn of uterus, peritoneal cavity, greater omentum, recto-uterine pouch.
  • All patients were treated by complete surgical resection combined with subsequent adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Misdiagnosis leads to delay in therapy with resultant increased morbidity of GTT.
  • Analysis on serial hCG is helpful to differential diagnosis between ectopic pregnancy and GTT.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Gestational Trophoblastic Disease / diagnosis. Pregnancy, Ectopic / diagnosis. Uterine Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Amenorrhea / etiology. Amenorrhea / pathology. Choriocarcinoma / diagnosis. Choriocarcinoma / pathology. Choriocarcinoma / therapy. Combined Modality Therapy. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Dactinomycin / administration & dosage. Diagnostic Errors. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Humans. Hydatidiform Mole, Invasive / diagnosis. Hydatidiform Mole, Invasive / pathology. Hydatidiform Mole, Invasive / therapy. Methotrexate / administration & dosage. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging / standards. Pregnancy. Retrospective Studies


11. Arck PC, Hertwig K, Hagen E, Hildebrandt M, Klapp BF: Pregnancy as a model of controlled invasion might be attributed to the ratio of CD3/CD8 to CD56. Am J Reprod Immunol; 2000 Jul;44(1):1-8
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  • [Title] Pregnancy as a model of controlled invasion might be attributed to the ratio of CD3/CD8 to CD56.
  • PROBLEM: Pregnancy can be considered as a model of successfully controlled tissue invasion.
  • METHOD OF STUDY: Decidual tissue from first trimester normal pregnancies (NP; n = 15) and abortion (AB; n = 12), endometrial samples from premenopausal women (NE; n = 8), and endometrioid adenocarcinoma (EA; n = 8) were examined by immunohistochemistry using monoclonal antibody against large spectrum cytokeratin, and against the receptors CD3, CD8, CD56 and CD68, respectively.
  • The differences in ratio between normal pregnancy and abortion were not statistically significant.
  • Studying different pathological situations in the uterus, such as malignancies or ectopic pregnancies, might help us to understand the mechanisms involved in the maintenance of pregnancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD / analysis. Lymphocyte Subsets / immunology. Neoplasm Invasiveness / immunology. Pregnancy / immunology
  • [MeSH-minor] Abortion, Induced. Abortion, Spontaneous / immunology. Adenocarcinoma / immunology. Adult. Antigens, CD3 / analysis. Antigens, CD56 / analysis. Antigens, CD8 / analysis. Decidua / cytology. Decidua / immunology. Endometrial Neoplasms / immunology. Endometrium / immunology. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Lymphocyte Count. Middle Aged. Pregnancy Trimester, First / immunology. Premenopause / immunology

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  • (PMID = 10976806.001).
  • [ISSN] 1046-7408
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of reproductive immunology (New York, N.Y. : 1989)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Reprod. Immunol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] DENMARK
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, CD3; 0 / Antigens, CD56; 0 / Antigens, CD8
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12. Benabu-Saada L, Roussel E, Body G, Marret H: [Trophoblastic pregnancy persistant disease with a menopausal woman: ultrasonography-Doppler benefits]. Gynecol Obstet Fertil; 2008 Apr;36(4):403-6
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  • [Title] [Trophoblastic pregnancy persistant disease with a menopausal woman: ultrasonography-Doppler benefits].
  • We present the case of a 53-year-old menopaused woman who developed an invasive persistent trophoblastic uterine disease with several lung metastasis.
  • Monitoring of the treatment and vascularity evolution of the tumor was followed through pelvic endovaginal ultrasound using 3D and contrast enhancement as well as HCG decrease in the context of uterus conservation that was wished by the patient.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols. Trophoblastic Neoplasms / pathology. Ultrasonography, Doppler / methods. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Chorionic Gonadotropin / blood. Female. Humans. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18420442.001).
  • [ISSN] 1297-9589
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynécologie, obstétrique & fertilité
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol Obstet Fertil
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin
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13. Xiang Y, Yang X, Du J, Song H: The role of hysterectomy in the therapy of gestational trophoblastic tumor. Chin Med Sci J; 2000 Mar;15(1):45-8
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  • [Title] The role of hysterectomy in the therapy of gestational trophoblastic tumor.
  • RESULTS: Twenty-three elder patients who didn't desire to preserve fertility were selected for hysterectomy after shorter courses of chemotherapy, 22 of them had a complete remission (95.6%), the total average courses of chemotherapy was 4.2.
  • Of twenty-seven chemorefractory cases who were suspected of a refractory isolated lesion in the uterus, delayed hysterectomy as an adjunct to chemotherapy was performed, 20 of them got a complete remission (71.1%), the total average courses of chemotherapy were 9.4.
  • Emergency hysterectomy is indicated in 18 patients with uterine perforation or life-threatening hemorrhage, 17 cases had a complete remission (94.4%), the total average courses of chemotherapy were 7.6.
  • CONCLUSION: Although the development of effective chemotherapy has resulted in improved survival of patients with gestational trophoblastic tumor, hysterectomy remains an important adjuncts in the treatment of a selected subset of patients; in order to operate more completely and prevent recurrence, it's better to perform extended hysterectomy for the indicated patients.

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  • (PMID = 12899400.001).
  • [ISSN] 1001-9294
  • [Journal-full-title] Chinese medical sciences journal = Chung-kuo i hsueh k'o hsueh tsa chih
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chin. Med. Sci. J.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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14. Farley JH, Heathcock RB, Branch W, Larsen W, Homas D: Treatment of metastatic gestational choriocarcinoma with oral methotrexate in a combat environment. Obstet Gynecol; 2005 May;105(5 Pt 2):1250-4
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  • [Title] Treatment of metastatic gestational choriocarcinoma with oral methotrexate in a combat environment.
  • BACKGROUND: Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) is a rare neoplastic complication of pregnancy.
  • This disease can be successfully treated with parenteral intravenous or intramuscular chemotherapy.
  • We present a case of metastatic gestational choriocarcinoma following a term pregnancy that was treated successfully with oral methotrexate therapy.
  • The uterus was slightly enlarged, 5 weeks in size, and without any adnexal masses.
  • Pelvic ultrasound examination revealed a 5-cm uterus with a 2-cm endometrial stripe.
  • Chest radiograph revealed multiple bilateral ill-defined pulmonary nodules confirmed by computerized tomography.
  • The patient underwent dilation and curettage productive of a moderate amount of tissue.
  • The patient continued to have positive serum beta-HCGs and was given the presumptive diagnosis of FIGO stage III gestational choriocarcinoma.
  • The patient completed one course of chemotherapy, followed by an interval total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy.
  • The patient had a complete response to therapy and was treated with oral methotrexate for 2 courses after a negative serum beta-HCG.
  • The patient tolerated the chemotherapy without any complication.
  • CONCLUSION: Methotrexate is routinely used in a parenteral intramuscular fashion for the treatment of gestational choriocarcinoma.
  • Physicians should be aware that, in very limited situations, oral methotrexate in combination with hysterectomy still could offer a patient successful treatment for stage III GTN.
  • [MeSH-major] Choriocarcinoma / secondary. Choriocarcinoma / therapy. Gestational Trophoblastic Disease / diagnosis. Gestational Trophoblastic Disease / therapy. Methotrexate / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Adult. Biopsy, Needle. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Hysterectomy / methods. Immunohistochemistry. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging. Postpartum Period. Pregnancy. Risk Assessment. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15863599.001).
  • [ISSN] 0029-7844
  • [Journal-full-title] Obstetrics and gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Obstet Gynecol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate
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15. Metindir J, Pak I, Ozdilekcan C, Eren E: Chemoresistant placental site trophoblastic tumor with hilar lymph node metastasis: an unusual site of involvement. Gynecol Oncol; 2005 Feb;96(2):552-5
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  • In most cases, disease is confined to the uterus and treated with a simple hysterectomy.
  • Patients with metastases frequently have progression of disease and die despite aggressive multiagent chemotherapy.
  • Primary surgical treatment consisting of abdominal hysterectomy and unilateral salpingo-oophorectomy was followed by six cycles of EMA/CO (etoposide, methotrexate, actinomycin D, cyclophosphamide, and vincristine) chemotherapy.
  • After the completion of chemotherapy, betahCG titers stayed within normal range, but a repeated CT scan of chest revealed enlargement of the hilar lymph nodes.
  • [MeSH-major] Trophoblastic Tumor, Placental Site / drug therapy. Trophoblastic Tumor, Placental Site / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Dactinomycin / administration & dosage. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Methotrexate / administration & dosage. Pregnancy. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 15661251.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 1CC1JFE158 / Dactinomycin; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate; EMA-CO protocol
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16. Kunz J, Bannwart F: [Placental site trophoblastic tumor: case report and review of literature]. Praxis (Bern 1994); 2008 Apr 2;97(7):387-94
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  • This is a rare tumour with malignant potential, whose prognosis depends on the stage of the primary tumour, the period of time between the last pregnancy and onset of disease, the patient's age, and the rate of mitosis, and whose progress cannot be assessed using the WHO Prognostic Index Score for Gestational Trophoblastic Disease.
  • In therapeutic terms, hysterectomy is recommended.
  • Chemosensitivity is low and, due to the infrequency of the tumours, the most suitable chemotherapy scheme is unknown.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Cervix Uteri / pathology. Female. Humans. Hysterectomy. Inhibins / analysis. Neoplasm Staging. Pancreatin / analysis. Pregnancy. Reoperation. Uterine Rupture / surgery. Uterus / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18548819.001).
  • [ISSN] 1661-8157
  • [Journal-full-title] Praxis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Praxis (Bern 1994)
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 57285-09-3 / Inhibins; 8049-47-6 / Pancreatin
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17. Bilgin T, Ozan H, Ozuysal S, Ozkan L: Successful salvage therapy of resistant gestational trophoblastic disease with etoposide, methotrexate, actinomycin-D, etoposide, cisplatin (EMA/EP). Arch Gynecol Obstet; 2004 Jan;269(2):159-60
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  • [Title] Successful salvage therapy of resistant gestational trophoblastic disease with etoposide, methotrexate, actinomycin-D, etoposide, cisplatin (EMA/EP).
  • A 26-year-old woman who had been treated for nonmetastatic gestational trophoblastic tumor with three courses of methotrexate with folinic acid rescue and had been lost to follow up for 4 years was referred with the fractional curettage diagnosis of choriocarcinoma that had been performed for abnormal vaginal bleeding.
  • The uterus was 12 weeks pregnant-size and a 6 x 6-cm tumor mass was seen within the anterior uterine wall at ultrasonography.
  • Whole brain radiation of 30 Gy in 3 weeks for brain metastasis, discovered in magnetic resonance imaging was given after the first course.
  • Since serum betahCG levels plateaued after three courses of chemotherapy and multiple pulmonary metastases persisted, treatment was shifted to etoposide, methotrexate, actinomycin-D, etoposide, cisplatin (EMA/EP) regimen.
  • She was in remission after three courses of chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Trophoblastic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Uterine Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Dactinomycin / administration & dosage. Diagnosis, Differential. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Hysterectomy. Methotrexate / administration & dosage. Pregnancy. Salvage Therapy


18. Sarwar N, Newlands ES, Seckl MJ: Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia: the management of relapsing patients and other recent advances. Curr Oncol Rep; 2004 Nov;6(6):476-82
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  • The treatment of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) represents one of the modern success stories in cancer medicine.
  • Early diagnosis, effective treatments, monitoring of response with a series of serum human chorionic gonadotropin levels, and centralized care have all contributed to this success.
  • Nevertheless, some patients relapse after initial chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Gestational Trophoblastic Disease / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Hydatidiform Mole / pathology. Medical Oncology / methods. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging / methods. Pregnancy. Prognosis. Recurrence. Remission Induction. Uterus / surgery

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  • (PMID = 15485618.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-6269
  • [Journal-full-title] Current oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Oncol Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 50
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19. Zhao J, Xiang Y, Wan XR, Feng FZ, Cui QC, Yang XY: [Genetic genesis of choriocarcinoma]. Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi; 2010 Jan;45(1):35-40
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  • OBJECTIVE: To distinguish choriocarcinoma from gestational or non-gestational choriocarcinoma and also identify the causative pregnancy of gestational choriocarcinoma by the genetic origin through molecular genetic analysis.
  • METHODS: Twelve patients with choriocarcinoma, who had experienced surgery prior to chemotherapy were enrolled in this study.
  • Peripheral venous blood samples and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded blocks of choriocarcinoma tissue microdissected from haematoxylin and eosin-stained sections of tissue by microdissection method were available from the patient and (or) her husband.
  • DNA was then prepared from the couples' blood samples and choriocarcinoma tissue by using standard techniques.
  • PCR amplification and fluorescent microsatellite genotyping were performed by using DNA from the couples and captured choriocarcinoma tissues.
  • The genetic contributions to the choriocarcinoma tissue were determined by comparing the fragments of genes from the choriocarcinoma tissue to those from blood samples of the couples.
  • The primary lesion was uterus in 5 cases, which were all gestational choriocarcinoma confirmed by genetic analyses.
  • CONCLUSION: Microsatellite polymorphism analysis is a molecular approach for distinguishing the non-gestational choriocarcinoma from the gestational one, and also be used to identify the causative pregnancy of gestational choriocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Choriocarcinoma / genetics. DNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Hydatidiform Mole / genetics. Microsatellite Repeats / genetics. Ovarian Neoplasms / genetics. Uterine Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Choriocarcinoma, Non-gestational / diagnosis. Choriocarcinoma, Non-gestational / genetics. Choriocarcinoma, Non-gestational / pathology. Female. Humans. Male. Polymerase Chain Reaction / methods. Polymorphism, Genetic. Pregnancy. Retrospective Studies. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20367924.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-567X
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua fu chan ke za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA, Neoplasm
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20. Desai SR, Dombale VD, Jadhav AJ: Placental site trophoblastic tumor. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2005 Oct;48(4):505-7
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  • It is a gestational trophoblastic neoplasm which follows normal or molar pregnancy.
  • It is usually confined to uterus & 15-20% behave in a malignant fashion.
  • Though several trophoblastic lesions & tumors enter in the differential diagnosis, microscopically the diagnosis is usually straightforward in hysterectomy specimens.
  • Hysterectomy is the treatment with or without chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Hysterectomy. Pregnancy

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  • (PMID = 16366112.001).
  • [ISSN] 0377-4929
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pathology & microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pathol Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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21. Park JY, Kim DY, Kim JH, Kim YM, Kim YT, Nam JH: Surgical management of borderline ovarian tumors: The role of fertility-sparing surgery. Gynecol Oncol; 2009 Apr;113(1):75-82
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  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the recurrence, survival, and pregnancy outcomes of patients with borderline ovarian tumors (BOT) treated with fertility-sparing surgery.
  • Fertility-sparing surgery was defined as the preservation of the uterus and ovarian tissue in one or both adnexa.
  • After surgery, 45 patients received adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • After a median follow-up time of 70 months (range, 3-216 months), 18 patients had recurrent disease and 5 died of disease.
  • In the fertility-sparing surgery group, however, the most common site of recurrence was the remaining ovarian tissue which was successfully salvaged with a second round of fertility-sparing surgery.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Fertility-sparing surgery for patients with BOT is safe and can permit future pregnancy, suggesting that such surgery should be considered for young patients who wish to preserve fertility.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Fertility. Humans. Laparoscopy / methods. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Pregnancy. Pregnancy Outcome. Retrospective Studies. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19171373.001).
  • [ISSN] 1095-6859
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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22. Papadopoulos AJ, Foskett M, Seckl MJ, McNeish I, Paradinas FJ, Rees H, Newlands ES: Twenty-five years' clinical experience with placental site trophoblastic tumors. J Reprod Med; 2002 Jun;47(6):460-4
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  • The antecedent pregnancy was a full-term, normal one in 18 cases (53%), a molar pregnancy in 7 (21%) and a missed abortion in 5 (15%).
  • The mean interval from the last pregnancy to diagnosis was 3.4 years (95% CI 1.9-4.9).
  • The range of serum hCG concentrations at diagnosis was 0-58,000, 79% with levels < 1,000 and 58% < 500. hCG was raised in all with active disease.
  • At diagnosis, the disease was localized to the uterus in 15 (44%); there was pelvic involvement in 8 (24%) and lung secondaries in 10 (29%).
  • All seven deaths were disease related (21%); all had lung secondaries and presented more than four years since the last pregnancy.
  • Excluding the seven deaths, the primary treatment was surgery alone in 10 cases (37%) (8 hysterectomies and 2 dilatation and curettages); 4 had surgery followed by adjuvant chemotherapy; 5 had neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by surgery; 1 had chemotherapy alone, and the disease recurred and was successfully rechallenged; and 5 had surgery between chemotherapy cycles.
  • CONCLUSION: Risk factors for death include lung metastatic involvement (50%) and an antecedent pregnancy interval of four years or more (100%).
  • In contrast, those with no extrapelvic disease or a pregnancy interval of less than four years had 100% survival.
  • In two-thirds of patients with disease limited to the uterus, surgery alone was curative.
  • Patients with PSTT should be managed separately from those with other types of GTD, as the disease behavior is different.
  • [MeSH-major] Trophoblastic Tumor, Placental Site / therapy. Uterine Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Birth Intervals. Cause of Death. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Chorionic Gonadotropin / blood. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Hysterectomy. London / epidemiology. Maternal Age. Neoplasm Staging. Pregnancy. Pregnancy Outcome. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome. Uterine Hemorrhage / etiology

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  • (PMID = 12092014.001).
  • [ISSN] 0024-7758
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of reproductive medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Reprod Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin
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23. Ohmaru T, Yamakawa H, Netsu S, Nokubi M, Konno R: Placental site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT) with multiple metastases and extremely poor prognosis. Int J Clin Oncol; 2009 Oct;14(5):452-6
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  • Placental site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT) is a rare type of gestational trophoblastic disease.
  • PSTT limited to the uterus is in a good prognosis group, but PSTT with metastasis is a lethal disease.
  • A 36-year-old woman had abnormal irregular vaginal bleeding 14 months after her third pregnancy and delivery.
  • It would have been difficult to remove the tumor by surgery because of the tumor size and its invasion, so we suggested chemotherapy.
  • During the sixth cycle of EMA/CO, the disease became drug-resistant and she died 8 months after the first symptom.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Biopsy. Cell Differentiation. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Dactinomycin / administration & dosage. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Methotrexate / administration & dosage. Mitotic Index. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Pregnancy. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Failure. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 19856056.001).
  • [ISSN] 1437-7772
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 1CC1JFE158 / Dactinomycin; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate; EMA-CO protocol
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24. Park JY, Kim DY, Suh DS, Kim JH, Kim YM, Kim YT, Nam JH: Outcomes of fertility-sparing surgery for invasive epithelial ovarian cancer: oncologic safety and reproductive outcomes. Gynecol Oncol; 2008 Sep;110(3):345-53
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • We therefore assessed tumor recurrence, patient survival and pregnancy outcomes in patients with invasive EOC who underwent fertility-sparing surgery.
  • METHODS: Records of 62 patients with invasive EOC who underwent fertility-sparing surgery, defined as the preservation of ovarian tissue in one or both adnexa and the uterus, between May 1990 and October 2006, were retrospectively reviewed.
  • Forty-eight patients received platinum-based adjuvant chemotherapy (mean 4.6 cycles, range 1-9 cycles).
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / surgery. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / surgery. Adult. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / pathology. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / surgery. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Gynecologic Surgical Procedures / adverse effects. Gynecologic Surgical Procedures / methods. Humans. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Pregnancy. Pregnancy Outcome. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • [CommentIn] Gynecol Oncol. 2009 Mar;112(3):673-4; author reply 674 [18986689.001]
  • (PMID = 18586310.001).
  • [ISSN] 1095-6859
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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25. Jelincic D, Hudelist G, Singer CF, Bauer M, Horn LC, Bilek K, Czerwenka K: Clinicopathologic profile of gestational trophoblastic disease. Wien Klin Wochenschr; 2003 Jan 31;115(1-2):29-35
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  • Diagnosis is still limited by following persistently elevated or rising postevacutation beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (beta-hCG) titers.
  • Seventy-five percent (n = 27) of the examined cases showed spontaneous regression after evacuation, including 2 patients who received additional chemotherapy.
  • The median time between antecedent pregnancy and GTD was 45.4 months.
  • [MeSH-major] Trophoblastic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Uterine Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Austria. Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human / blood. Combined Modality Therapy. DNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / physiology. Genes, erbB-2 / genetics. Genetic Predisposition to Disease / genetics. Humans. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Karyotyping. Ploidies. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Pregnancy. Receptor, ErbB-2 / genetics. Uterus / pathology

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  • (PMID = 12658908.001).
  • [ISSN] 0043-5325
  • [Journal-full-title] Wiener klinische Wochenschrift
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Wien. Klin. Wochenschr.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Austria
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human; 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2
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26. Kim SJ: Placental site trophoblastic tumour. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol; 2003 Dec;17(6):969-84
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  • PSTT can occur after a normal pregnancy, abortion, term delivery, ectopic pregnancy or molar pregnancy.
  • It displays a wide clinical spectrum, and when metastatic, can be difficult to control even with surgery and chemotherapy.
  • Diagnosis is confirmed by dilatation and curettage (D and E) and hysterectomy but meticulous evaluation of metastasis is mandatory.
  • Most cases are confined to the uterus but pelvic involvement, lung and other organ metastasis has been reported.
  • For the PSTT patient, surgery is the primary treatment of choice.
  • For patients desiring future childbearing, D and C and adjuvant chemotherapy is an option.
  • Because these tumours tend to be less sensitive than other types of GTD to chemotherapy, the most successful regimen to date has been with EMA/CO or EMA/EP.
  • Good prognosis is anticipated in cases localized to the uterus, and when the interval between antecedent pregnancy and treatment is less than 2 years.
  • In cases with distant metastasis or delayed treatment, the outcome is dismal.
  • [MeSH-major] Trophoblastic Tumor, Placental Site / therapy. Uterine Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic. Chorionic Gonadotropin / blood. Combined Modality Therapy / methods. Female. Humans. Hysterectomy / methods. Neoplasm Metastasis. Pregnancy. Risk Factors. Treatment Outcome. Trophoblasts / pathology

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  • (PMID = 14614893.001).
  • [ISSN] 1521-6934
  • [Journal-full-title] Best practice & research. Clinical obstetrics & gynaecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin
  • [Number-of-references] 48
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27. Zanetta G, Gabriele A, Vecchione F, Landoni F, Isimbaldi G: Unusual recurrence of cervical adenosquamous carcinoma after conservative surgery. Gynecol Oncol; 2000 Mar;76(3):409-12
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  • The use of less radical procedures for the treatment of early cervical cancers is gaining interest among physicians and young patients.
  • After a polypectomy, a young patient had a diagnosis of stage Ia(2) cervical adenosquamous carcinoma in 1995.
  • In 1998, at the 13th week of gestation, she had a diagnosis of a pelvic mass.
  • She received chemotherapy postoperatively and remains alive without evidence of disease.
  • When the uterus is preserved we must also consider the possibility of a recurrence involving the corpus.
  • With wider acceptance of limited therapeutic approaches we must be prepared for the detection of previously unknown patterns of recurrence and the follow-up modalities must be consequently adapted.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / secondary. Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Ovarian Neoplasms / secondary. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Conization. Female. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Pregnancy. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology. Uterine Neoplasms / surgery

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2000 Academic Press.
  • (PMID = 10684719.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
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28. Zwischenberger BA, Boren T: Placental site trophoblastic tumor presenting as a friable cervical mass. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2010;31(5):570-2
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  • In contrast to other forms of GTN, PSTT presents with only mildly elevated levels of beta-hCG and immunohistochemical staining of tissue samples is a helpful tool for diagnosis.
  • The uterus was mildly enlarged, midline, and mobile with minimal discomfort.
  • Computed tomography revealed a mass within the endometrial cavity and cervix but no significant lymphatic adenopathy or metastasis.
  • Biopsies of this mass lead to the correct diagnosis.
  • Clinically, it is prudent for physicians to differentiate PSTT from other forms of GTN because of the poor response of PSTT to chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Pregnancy. Tomography, X-Ray Computed


29. Hurst SA, Hartzfeld KM, Del Priore G: Occult myometrial recurrence after progesterone therapy to preserve fertility in a young patient with endometrial cancer. Fertil Steril; 2008 Mar;89(3):724.e1-3
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  • [Title] Occult myometrial recurrence after progesterone therapy to preserve fertility in a young patient with endometrial cancer.
  • OBJECTIVE: We report a case of endometrial cancer treated by fertility-preserving P therapy, who subsequently presented with an abnormal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the myometrium despite normal endometrial biopsies.
  • PATIENT(S): A 31-year-old patient with grade 1, stage I endometrial cancer presented for treatment with fertility-preserving P therapy.
  • INTERVENTION(S): Progestogen therapy, laparoscopic-assisted vaginal hysterectomy, oophoropexy, and assisted reproductive techniques (ART) and surrogate.
  • RESULT(S): Eight years after initial diagnosis, the patient remains cancer free and has conceived by surrogate reproductive techniques.
  • Routine pelvic MRI should be considered for follow-up of endometrial cancer patients who retain their uterus.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Endometrial Neoplasms / drug therapy. Fertility. Infertility, Female / prevention & control. Megestrol Acetate / therapeutic use. Myometrium / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Progestins / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Dilatation and Curettage. Female. Humans. Hysterectomy, Vaginal. Hysteroscopy. Laparoscopy. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Ovariectomy. Pregnancy. Quality of Life. Reproductive Techniques, Assisted. Surrogate Mothers. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17570366.001).
  • [ISSN] 1556-5653
  • [Journal-full-title] Fertility and sterility
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Fertil. Steril.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Progestins; TJ2M0FR8ES / Megestrol Acetate
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