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1. Kyan A, Kato SN: [Renal cell carcinoma metastatic to the base of tongue: a case report]. Hinyokika Kiyo; 2004 Nov;50(11):791-3
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  • [Title] [Renal cell carcinoma metastatic to the base of tongue: a case report].
  • An otolaryngeal examination revealed a tumor about 1.3 cm in size at the base of tongue, and the tumor was resected.
  • It was pathologically diagnosed as clear cell carcinoma and as tongue metastasis of RCC.
  • At present, two years after the treatment, neither growth of lung metastasis nor recurrence of tongue tumor are noticed.
  • Tongue metastasis of RCC is rare and its prognosis is poor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / surgery. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / secondary. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary. Tongue Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Humans. Interferon-alpha / therapeutic use. Interleukin-2 / therapeutic use. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Nephrectomy. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15628540.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-1994
  • [Journal-full-title] Hinyokika kiyo. Acta urologica Japonica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hinyokika Kiyo
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Interferon-alpha; 0 / Interleukin-2
  • [Number-of-references] 18
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2. Wang HM, Wang CS, Chen JS, Chen IH, Liao CT, Chang TC: Cisplatin, tegafur, and leucovorin: a moderately effective and minimally toxic outpatient neoadjuvant chemotherapy for locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Cancer; 2002 Jun 1;94(11):2989-95
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  • [Title] Cisplatin, tegafur, and leucovorin: a moderately effective and minimally toxic outpatient neoadjuvant chemotherapy for locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck.
  • BACKGROUND: To evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of cisplatin, tegafur, and leucovorin as neoadjuvant chemotherapy (CT) for patients with advanced, nonmetastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN).
  • PTL was initiated with the intent of organ preservation and it was continued for a maximum of six cycles before locoregional therapy.
  • CT was discontinued immediately upon evidence of tumor progression or excessive toxicity.
  • The primary tumor sites were the tongue base, 14, and the hypopharynx, 83.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Head and Neck Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Adult. Aged. Ambulatory Care Facilities. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Humans. Infusions, Intravenous. Leucovorin / administration & dosage. Male. Middle Aged. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Neoplasm Staging. Tegafur / administration & dosage. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2002 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 12115388.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 1548R74NSZ / Tegafur; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; Q573I9DVLP / Leucovorin
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3. Schwartz DL, Hutcheson K, Barringer D, Tucker SL, Kies M, Holsinger FC, Ang KK, Morrison WH, Rosenthal DI, Garden AS, Dong L, Lewin JS: Candidate dosimetric predictors of long-term swallowing dysfunction after oropharyngeal intensity-modulated radiotherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2010 Dec 1;78(5):1356-65
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: Thirty-one patients with Stage IV oropharyngeal squamous carcinoma enrolled on a Phase II trial were prospectively evaluated by modified barium swallow studies at baseline, and 6, 12, and 24 months post-IMRT treatment.
  • Candidate dysphagia-associated organs at risk were retrospectively contoured into original treatment plans.
  • Twenty-one (68%) cases were base of tongue and 10 (32%) were tonsil.
  • Thirteen patients (42%) received concurrent chemotherapy during IMRT.
  • Mean dose to glottic larynx for the cohort was limited to 18 Gy (range, 6-39 Gy) by matching IMRT to conventional low-neck fields.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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  • (PMID = 20646872.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-355X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA016672; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA132281; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA132281
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS575664; NLM/ PMC4034521
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4. Sugi M, Yanishi M, Shimada O, Kawakita S, Murota T, Shikata N: [Neuroendocrine differentiation and metastasized to brain stem, intraorbit and base of tongue in prostate cancer during hormonal treatment: a case report]. Hinyokika Kiyo; 2008 May;54(5):373-6
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  • [Title] [Neuroendocrine differentiation and metastasized to brain stem, intraorbit and base of tongue in prostate cancer during hormonal treatment: a case report].
  • Prostatic neuroendocrine (NE) carcinoma is a rare disease and the NE differentiation in prostate cancer is characterized by poor prognosis, rapidly progressing tumor and an androgen-independent state, for which there is currently no successful therapy.
  • Herein, we report a case of NE differentiatiated prostatic cancer, which metastasized to the base of tongue, intraorbit and brain stem.
  • This is the first Japanese report of prostate cancer metastasis to the brain stem and base of the tongue.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Brain Stem Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / pathology. Cell Differentiation. Orbital Neoplasms / secondary. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology. Tongue Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Androgen Antagonists / therapeutic use. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Humans. Male. Middle Aged


5. LoTempio MM, Wang MB, Sadeghi A: Treatment of advanced oropharyngeal cancers with chemotherapy and radiation. Ear Nose Throat J; 2003 May;82(5):367-70
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  • [Title] Treatment of advanced oropharyngeal cancers with chemotherapy and radiation.
  • We conducted a retrospective chart review of treatment outcomes in 17 adults who had been selected to undergo concomitant chemotherapy and radiation (chemo/XRT) for late-stage oropharyngeal cancers.
  • Nine patients had a primary tumor at the base of the tongue, five had a primary tumor in the tonsillar area, and three had a tumor that affected both sites.
  • Of this group, 15 patients completed one to three cycles of chemo/XRT, and the remaining two died during therapy.
  • At the most recent follow-up, 9 of the 17 patients (52.9%) were documented to still be alive; seven patients had earlier died as a result of their primary tumor or a distant metastasis, and one patient had been lost to follow-up after completing treatment.
  • At study's end, the duration of post-treatment survival ranged from 2 to 36 months (mean: 12.5).
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Brachytherapy / methods. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Oropharyngeal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Oropharyngeal Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Palliative Care / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Radiation Dosage. Retrospective Studies. Risk Assessment. Sampling Studies. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 12789762.001).
  • [ISSN] 0145-5613
  • [Journal-full-title] Ear, nose, & throat journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ear Nose Throat J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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6. Zeng J, Yu QW, Liu WW, Zeng ZY: [Combined usage of taxotere in induction chemotherapy of head and neck neoplasms]. Ai Zheng; 2003 Aug;22(8):877-9
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  • [Title] [Combined usage of taxotere in induction chemotherapy of head and neck neoplasms].
  • BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE: There were few reports about combined usage of taxotere in induction chemotherapy of head and neck cancer.
  • METHODS: Twenty-five cases with head and neck cancers in Guangzhou Tumor Hospital from January 1999 to June 2002 were reviewed.
  • All cases underwent induction chemotherapy using TPF regimen (taxotere 75 mg/m(2), i.v. drip, d1; DDP 20 mg/m(2), i.v. drip, d1-3; 5-FU 300 mg/m(2), i.v. drip, d1-3; repeat per 3 weeks).
  • All cases were followed up during chemotherapy and their response was evaluated after induction chemotherapy.
  • RESULTS: Six cases (24.0%) and 12 cases(48.0%) presented complete remission (CR) and partial remission (PR) after induction chemotherapy using TPF regimen, respectively.
  • The total response rate (CR+PR) after TPF induction chemotherapy was 72.0%.
  • The response rates in oral cancers and the cancers in other primary sites including the base of tongue, larynx, hypopharynx, and nasopharynx were compared.
  • In this study, there were 9 cases that relapsed after first treatment.
  • Their response rate after TPF induction chemotherapy was 44.4% (4/9), which had 1 case of CR and 3 cases of PR.
  • CONCLUSION: Induction chemotherapy using TPF regimen in local advanced head and neck cancers could have good chemotherapy response.
  • It is effective for local relapse cases after first treatment and its side effects are tolerable.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Head and Neck Neoplasms / drug therapy. Taxoids / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local

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  • (PMID = 12917040.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Ai zheng = Aizheng = Chinese journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ai Zheng
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Taxoids; 15H5577CQD / docetaxel; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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7. Hancock SB, Krempl GA, Canfield V, Bogardus C, Kojouri K, Kaneaster SK, Medina JE: Treatment of base of tongue cancer with paclitaxel, ifosfamide, and cisplatinum induction chemotherapy followed by chemoradiotherapy. Laryngoscope; 2008 Aug;118(8):1357-61
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  • [Title] Treatment of base of tongue cancer with paclitaxel, ifosfamide, and cisplatinum induction chemotherapy followed by chemoradiotherapy.
  • OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: To assess the efficacy of paclitaxel, ifosfamide, and cisplatinum induction chemotherapy plus concurrent chemoradiation in the treatment of stage III and IV base of tongue cancer.
  • STUDY DESIGN: Subgroup analysis of patients with base of tongue cancer enrolled in a single-institution prospective phase II trial, evaluating an organ-preservation approach in the treatment of locally advanced head and neck cancer.
  • METHODS: Eighteen patients with tumors ranging from stage T2-T4, any N, or M0 were treated with a protocol of induction chemotherapy, with Taxol, ifosfamide, cisplatin every 21 days for up to three cycles.
  • If the primary tumor exhibited a complete or partial response, patients were treated with radiation and weekly taxol and carboplatin for 7 weeks.
  • Neck dissection was performed in cases with clinical or radiological evidence of persistent disease in the neck 6 to 8 weeks after completion of treatment.
  • Only 1 of them developed distant metastases 30 months after completion of treatment.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The treatment regimen studied is remarkably effective in stage III and IV base of tongue cancer with 100% of patients completing the protocol alive to date.
  • Although some patients required persistent percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy use, no patient experienced significant enough toxicity during the protocol to delay or withdraw from treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Tongue Neoplasms / drug therapy. Tongue Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Ifosfamide / administration & dosage. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Staging. Nervous System Diseases / chemically induced. Paclitaxel / administration & dosage. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 18528311.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-4995
  • [Journal-full-title] The Laryngoscope
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Laryngoscope
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; UM20QQM95Y / Ifosfamide
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8. Furutani K, Fuwa N, Kodaira T, Matsumoto A, Kamata M, Tachibana H, Sakahara H: Continuous selective intraarterial chemotherapy in combination with irradiation for locally advanced cancer of the tongue and tongue base. Oral Oncol; 2002 Feb;38(2):145-52
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  • [Title] Continuous selective intraarterial chemotherapy in combination with irradiation for locally advanced cancer of the tongue and tongue base.
  • We retrospectively evaluated the results of the concurrent combination therapy of selective continuous intraarterial chemotherapy and radiotherapy in 39 patients with locally advanced cancer of the tongue and tongue base between September 1992 and January 2000.
  • The primary lesion was present in the mobile tongue in 33 patients and the tongue base in six.
  • External irradiation (median dose, 48.6 Gy) was performed in all patients, and interstitial brachytherapy using an Au grain or Cs needle (median dose, 50 Gy) in 21.
  • In intraarterial chemotherapy, a catheter was selectively inserted into the lingual artery via the superficial temporal artery, and carboplatin (CBDCA) was continuously infused (median dose, 460 mg/m(2)) concurrently with radiotherapy.
  • In 13 patients with cervical lymph node metastasis, two courses of systemic chemotherapy with 5-FU (700 mg/m(2) x 5 days) and cisplatin (40-50 mg/m(2)x2 days) or its analog was also performed.
  • In 37 (94.9%) of the 39 patients in whom this combination therapy was completed, the response rate was 94.6%.
  • This combination therapy was effective for locally advanced cancer of the tongue and tongue base without causing severe adverse side effects, and a local control rate comparable to that by surgery can be expected.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Carboplatin / therapeutic use. Tongue Neoplasms / drug therapy. Tongue Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Catheters, Indwelling. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infusions, Intra-Arterial. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Radiotherapy, High-Energy. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11854061.001).
  • [ISSN] 1368-8375
  • [Journal-full-title] Oral oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oral Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin
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9. Grau JJ, Domingo J, Blanch JL, Verger E, Castro V, Nadal A, Alós L, Estapé J: Multidisciplinary approach in advanced cancer of the oral cavity: outcome with neoadjuvant chemotherapy according to intention-to-treat local therapy. A phase II study. Oncology; 2002;63(4):338-45
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  • [Title] Multidisciplinary approach in advanced cancer of the oral cavity: outcome with neoadjuvant chemotherapy according to intention-to-treat local therapy. A phase II study.
  • OBJECTIVES: To determine outcomes in local-regional control and overall survival in patients with squamous locally advanced cancer of the oral cavity, based on intention-to-treat with neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by surgery or radiation therapy.
  • All had squamous cell carcinomas of the oral cavity in stage III or in nonmetastatic stage IV and were selected for surgery or radiation therapy (if located in the tonsils or in the base of the tongue).
  • Chemotherapy was based on cisplatin 120 mg/m(2) i.v. day 1 plus bleomycin 20 mg/m(2) days 1-5 in continuous i.v. perfusion or plus 5-fluorouracil 1,000 mg/m(2) days 1-5 in continuous i.v. perfusion.
  • Definitive surgery (n = 73; plus adjuvant radiation therapy) or definitive radiation therapy (n = 131) was performed.
  • RESULTS: One hundred thirty-five out of 204 (66%) patients were chemotherapy responders, 16% complete and 50% partial.
  • One hundred ninety-four patients (95%) completed 2 courses of chemotherapy.
  • After neoadjuvant chemotherapy, 34 out of 46 patients considered inoperable initially (74%) obtained a disease-free status with surgery.
  • Eighty-three percent of surgical patients obtained a disease-free status (initial tumor control) versus 72% of radiation therapy patients.
  • A better prognosis was observed in stage III over IV (p = 0.02); primary tumor in the retromolar trigone, palate or buccal mucosa over tongue, tonsil or floor of the mouth (p = 0.0085); negative cervical nodes over positive (p = 0.0186); responders to chemotherapy over nonresponders (p = 0.0003); and adjuvant postsurgical radiation therapy (p = 0.0013).
  • CONCLUSIONS: In locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity, neoadjuvant chemotherapy induces a high response rate that may facilitate definitive surgery or radiotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Mouth Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Bleomycin / administration & dosage. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Neoplasm Staging. Survival Analysis

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel
  • (PMID = 12417788.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-2414
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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10. Kutter J, Ozsahin M, Monnier P, Stupp R: Combined modality treatment with full-dose chemotherapy and concomitant boost radiotherapy for advanced head and neck carcinoma. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol; 2005 Jan;262(1):1-7
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  • [Title] Combined modality treatment with full-dose chemotherapy and concomitant boost radiotherapy for advanced head and neck carcinoma.
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of a treatment concept combining three cycles of full-dose chemotherapy (CT) with concomitant accelerated uninterrupted radiotherapy (RT).
  • The primary tumor involved the hypopharynx (n=7), base of the tongue (n=10), nasopharynx (n=2) or upper esophagus (n=1) or its location was unknown (n=3).
  • Treatment consisted of three cycles of chemotherapy (cisplatin 100 mg/m2 on day 1; 5-FU 1,000 mg/m2 per day for 5 days as a continuous infusion, preceded by amifostine 910 mg/m2), repeated every 3 weeks.
  • Uninterrupted concomitant boost-accelerated RT (total dose of 70 Gy in 6 weeks) started together on day 1 of the second cycle.
  • Concomitant boost-accelerated RT combined with concurrent full-dose cisplatin/5-FU chemotherapy and amifostine is feasible with manageable, although substantial, toxicity.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Esophageal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Esophageal Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Hypopharyngeal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Hypopharyngeal Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Tongue Neoplasms / drug therapy. Tongue Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Amifostine / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Radiotherapy Dosage

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  • (PMID = 15004704.001).
  • [ISSN] 0937-4477
  • [Journal-full-title] European archives of oto-rhino-laryngology : official journal of the European Federation of Oto-Rhino-Laryngological Societies (EUFOS) : affiliated with the German Society for Oto-Rhino-Laryngology - Head and Neck Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] M487QF2F4V / Amifostine; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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11. Pedruzzi PA, Kowalski LP, Nishimoto IN, Oliveira BV, Tironi F, Ramos GH: Analysis of prognostic factors in patients with oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma treated with radiotherapy alone or in combination with systemic chemotherapy. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg; 2008 Nov;134(11):1196-204
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  • [Title] Analysis of prognostic factors in patients with oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma treated with radiotherapy alone or in combination with systemic chemotherapy.
  • OBJECTIVE: To assess the prognostic significance of several factors in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma treated with radiotherapy alone or in combination with chemotherapy.
  • INTERVENTIONS: Radiotherapy alone or with chemotherapy.
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Disease-free survival, overall survival, and treatment response.
  • RESULTS: Most tumors were located at the tonsil (46.8%) or base of the tongue (28.0%) and were at clinical stage III or IV (92.8%).
  • Treatment response was associated with Zubrod scale score, weight loss, number of comorbidities, symptom-severity and Piccirillo stages, hemoglobin level, tumor site, macroscopic appearance of the tumor, and clinical stage.
  • The significant prognostic variables were age; Zubrod scale score; weight loss; comorbidities; Berg, Piccirillo, and symptom-severity staging; involvement of adjacent soft-tissue areas and bone; lymph node mobility; clinical stage; and radiotherapy doses.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Oropharyngeal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Oropharyngeal Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Radiotherapy Dosage. Retrospective Studies. Tongue Neoplasms / drug therapy. Tongue Neoplasms / mortality. Tongue Neoplasms / pathology. Tongue Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Tonsillar Neoplasms / drug therapy. Tonsillar Neoplasms / mortality. Tonsillar Neoplasms / pathology. Tonsillar Neoplasms / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 19015451.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-361X
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of otolaryngology--head & neck surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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12. Weinstein GS, Quon H, O'Malley BW Jr, Kim GG, Cohen MA: Selective neck dissection and deintensified postoperative radiation and chemotherapy for oropharyngeal cancer: a subset analysis of the University of Pennsylvania transoral robotic surgery trial. Laryngoscope; 2010 Sep;120(9):1749-55
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  • [Title] Selective neck dissection and deintensified postoperative radiation and chemotherapy for oropharyngeal cancer: a subset analysis of the University of Pennsylvania transoral robotic surgery trial.
  • There were 29 males and two females, with ages ranging from 36 to 76 years (median = 55 years) with one palate, one lateral wall, 17 tonsil, 11 base of tongue, and one vallecula primary tumor classified as follows: T1 (n = 9, 29%), T2 (n = 15, 48.4%), T3 (n = 7, 22.6%), N0 (n = 6, 19.4%), N1 (n = 15, 48.4%), N2b (n = 10, 32.3%), and N2c (n = 1, 3.2%).
  • Twenty-two patients were treated postoperatively with adjuvant therapy (12 radiation alone and 12 combined radiation and chemotherapy).
  • CONCLUSIONS: SND after TORS resection of primary OPSCC enables the use of selective and deintensified adjuvant therapy to reduce regional recurrence rates.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Endoscopy. Neck Dissection / instrumentation. Oropharyngeal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Oropharyngeal Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Oropharyngeal Neoplasms / surgery. Robotics / instrumentation
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. Prospective Studies. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant

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  • (PMID = 20717944.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-4995
  • [Journal-full-title] The Laryngoscope
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Laryngoscope
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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13. Jegannathen A, Swindell R, Yap B, Lee L, Sykes A, Mais K, Sanghera P, Hartley A, Glaholm J, Slevin N: Can synchronous chemotherapy be added to accelerated hypofractionated radiotherapy in patients with base of tongue cancer? Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol); 2010 Apr;22(3):185-91
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  • [Title] Can synchronous chemotherapy be added to accelerated hypofractionated radiotherapy in patients with base of tongue cancer?
  • AIM: To evaluate the tolerability of synchronous chemotherapy and accelerated hypofractionated radiotherapy in patients with locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the base of the tongue.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between 1999 and 2004, 43 patients with stage II-IV squamous cell carcinoma of the base of the tongue were treated with a combined modality of radiotherapy (prescribed 55 Gy in 20 fractions), synchronous chemotherapy and in some cases surgical neck dissection.
  • All patients completed radiotherapy and 30% received neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
  • The median time for the completion of treatment was 27 days (range 25-36).
  • Overall, only 42% completed the prescribed synchronous chemotherapy.
  • However, compliance increased to 60% in patients who did not receive neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
  • Grade 3 mucositis developed in 90% of patients.
  • Prolonged grade 3 mucositis (>4 weeks) was seen in 24/43 (56%) and none developed grade 4 mucositis.
  • CONCLUSION: The addition of synchronous chemotherapy to accelerated hypofractionated radiotherapy consistently led to grade 3 mucositis.
  • Tumour control rates compare well with published outcomes.
  • Higher mucosal toxicity and lower synchronous chemotherapy compliance compared with other series may suggest that this approach is at the limit of patient tolerability.
  • However, the tumour site investigated and the choice of synchronous chemotherapy agent may also be important.
  • Longer fractionation will probably increase compliance with chemotherapy, particularly when induction is used before synchronous treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. Radiotherapy / methods. Tongue Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20116980.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-2981
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical oncology (Royal College of Radiologists (Great Britain))
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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14. Rapidis AD, Trichas M, Stavrinidis E, Roupakia A, Ioannidou G, Kritselis G, Liossi P, Giannakouras G, Douzinas EE, Katsilieris I: Induction chemotherapy followed by concurrent chemoradiation in advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck: final results from a phase II study with docetaxel, cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil with a four-year follow-up. Oral Oncol; 2006 Aug;42(7):675-84
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  • [Title] Induction chemotherapy followed by concurrent chemoradiation in advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck: final results from a phase II study with docetaxel, cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil with a four-year follow-up.
  • Encouraging results have recently been reported in patients (pts) with locally advanced unresectable squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) when induction chemotherapy (IC) is used and followed by radiotherapy (RT).
  • The present study assessed the therapeutic response of an aggressive regimen consisting of docetaxel (TXT), cisplatin (CDDP) and 5-fluorouracil (5-Fu) as IC and concurrent with RT in pts with locally advanced (stages III and IV) SCCHN.
  • The site of the primary tumors was the anterior mouth in 9 pts, base of tongue and oropharynx in 12, middle third of the face in 8 and larynx in 13.
  • IC consisted of TXT (40 mg/m2), CDDP (40 mg/m2) and 5-Fu (350 mg/m2) every two weeks (wks) for a total of four courses and repeated, coupled with RT (66-68 cGys total dose fractionated at 200 Gy per day, 5 days a week), for up to seven wks.
  • In total, pts received eight courses of chemotherapy (CT) at the end of RT treatment.
  • 41 pts were eligible for evaluation after IC (one died from myocardial infarction) and 39 after completion of treatment (two died during RT).
  • At the end of the treatment the RR in the intention-to-treat population were CR for 25 pts (64.1%), and PR for 14 (35.9%).
  • 14 pts died during follow-up time.
  • The mean survival time is 41 mts and the median 40.
  • 2 pts with CR developed local recurrence and two distant metastases, whereas all pts with PR developed progressive disease (PD) and all but two are dead from disease.
  • Results are encouraging and further study of the toxicity and follow-up is needed to validate treatment effectiveness.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Head and Neck Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Distribution. Aged. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Cisplatin / adverse effects. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Fluorouracil / adverse effects. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Radiation Injuries / etiology. Radiotherapy / adverse effects. Remission Induction. Sex Distribution. Survival Analysis. Taxoids / administration & dosage. Taxoids / adverse effects. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16731029.001).
  • [ISSN] 1368-8375
  • [Journal-full-title] Oral oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oral Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Taxoids; 15H5577CQD / docetaxel; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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15. Steiner W, Fierek O, Ambrosch P, Hommerich CP, Kron M: Transoral laser microsurgery for squamous cell carcinoma of the base of the tongue. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg; 2003 Jan;129(1):36-43
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  • [Title] Transoral laser microsurgery for squamous cell carcinoma of the base of the tongue.
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine the role of transoral laser microsurgery for base of tongue squamous cell carcinoma.
  • DESIGN: Retrospective unicenter study of the oncologic and functional results of laser microsurgery of tongue base carcinoma performed between 1986 and 1997.
  • PATIENTS: We reviewed 48 previously untreated patients with base of tongue squamous cell carcinoma, who were treated with transoral laser microsurgery.
  • Selective neck dissection was performed in 43 patients; 23 patients underwent postoperative radiotherapy with or without simultaneous chemotherapy.
  • Twenty-one patients survived at least 5 years after treatment.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our concept of organ and function preserving laser microsurgery for selected patients with base of tongue cancer seems to be justified considering the achieved oncological and functional results.
  • Final proof of the effectiveness of the new therapeutic concept presented herein requires well-designed prospective studies.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Laser Therapy. Tongue Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Male. Microsurgery. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 12525192.001).
  • [ISSN] 0886-4470
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of otolaryngology--head & neck surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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16. Laccourreye O, Seccia V, Ménard M, Garcia D, Vacher C, Holsinger FC: Extended lateral pharyngotomy for selected squamous cell carcinomas of the lateral tongue base. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol; 2009 Jun;118(6):428-34
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  • [Title] Extended lateral pharyngotomy for selected squamous cell carcinomas of the lateral tongue base.
  • OBJECTIVES: In a retrospective review of an inception cohort of 26 patients with an isolated, previously untreated, moderately to well-differentiated invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the lateral tongue base, consecutively managed with an extended lateral pharyngotomy approach at a single tertiary referral care center, the authors review the key surgical points, highlight the potential technical pitfalls, and document the complications and long-term functional and oncological outcomes in terms of survival and local control.
  • METHODS: The adjunctive measures included induction chemotherapy, ipsilateral neck dissection, and postoperative radiotherapy, used in 96.1%, 96.1%, and 38.5% of patients, respectively.
  • The main causes of death were metachronous second primary tumor, intercurrent disease, and distant metastasis, resulting in 84.6%, 64%, and 46.9% 1-, 3-, and 5-year Kaplan-Meier actuarial survival estimates, respectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Such results suggest that extended lateral pharyngotomy should be integrated among the various conservative treatment options available to patients with selected carcinomas of the lateral tongue base.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Neck Dissection / methods. Pharynx / surgery. Tongue Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Cohort Studies. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19663374.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-4894
  • [Journal-full-title] The Annals of otology, rhinology, and laryngology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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17. Grandi C, Guzzo M, Cavina R, Gardani G, Tana S, Licitra L, Rossi N, Barbaccia C, Mingardo M, Fallahdar D, Bruno P, Molinari R: Treatment of cancer of the base of the tongue and glosso-epiglottic region: a multicenter Italian survey. GLOCC Group. Gruppo di Lavoro in Oncologia Cervico Cefalica. Tumori; 2000 May-Jun;86(3):215-23
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  • [Title] Treatment of cancer of the base of the tongue and glosso-epiglottic region: a multicenter Italian survey. GLOCC Group. Gruppo di Lavoro in Oncologia Cervico Cefalica.
  • BACKGROUND: The current treatment options for cancer of the base of the tongue and glosso-epiglottic region are surgery, radiotherapy, or a combination of both modalities.
  • Comparisons between different modalities are not common in the literature, and a real standard of treatment has not yet been established.
  • The purpose of our study was to evaluate the results of treatment in a large series of patients from 18 Italian institutions in relation to the main treatment adopted.
  • Survival was slightly better for patients with tumors of the glosso-epiglottic region than for those with a tumor of the base of the tongue.
  • Five-year disease-free survival was 55% for patients treated with surgery +/- radiochemotherapy and 26% for those submitted to radiotherapy alone or in combination with chemotherapy.
  • As far as the total dose and the treatment duration were concerned, only 26% of the patients of the radiotherapy group met the established criteria of adequacy, but in patients with adequate radiation the control rate was better only for small tumors (T1-T2).
  • [MeSH-major] Glottis. Laryngeal Neoplasms / therapy. Tongue Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Dose Fractionation. Female. Humans. Italy. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 10939602.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-8916
  • [Journal-full-title] Tumori
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tumori
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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18. Han P, Hu K, Frank DK, Sessions RB, Harrison LB: Management of cancer of the base of tongue. Otolaryngol Clin North Am; 2005 Feb;38(1):75-85, viii
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  • [Title] Management of cancer of the base of tongue.
  • The management of base of tongue cancer has evolved steadily over time.
  • Organ preservation with primary radiation therapy has produced excellent oncologic and functional outcomes.
  • Concomitant chemotherapy has become important in patients with locoregionally advanced disease.
  • Planned neck dissection after organ preservation therapy continues to be an integral step for regional control.
  • This article reports the results of a literature review of base of tongue cancer emphasizing a multidisciplinary approach to obtain optimal results in terms of cure and quality of life.
  • [MeSH-major] Tongue Neoplasms / pathology. Tongue Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Glossectomy. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Quality of Life. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15649500.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-6665
  • [Journal-full-title] Otolaryngologic clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Otolaryngol. Clin. North Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 31
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19. Hillyer S, Vicens JC, Levinson H, Bhayani R, Mesea L, Chaudhry R, Fayans E, Fogler R: Alveolar soft-part sarcoma of the tongue in a 17-month-old. Ear Nose Throat J; 2009 Oct;88(10):E4-9
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  • [Title] Alveolar soft-part sarcoma of the tongue in a 17-month-old.
  • Alveolar soft-part sarcoma (ASPS) is a rare and often fatal tumor.
  • ASPS accounts for 5% of all pediatric soft-tissue sarcomas other than rhabdomyosarcomas.
  • In children, ASPS rarely occurs in the oral cavity, and to the best of our knowledge, only 12 cases of ASPS of the tongue occurring during the first decade of life have been previously reported in the literature.
  • Because of the rarity of lingual ASPS in children, no specific treatment protocols have been developed, which makes its management difficult.
  • Our patient was a 17-month-old girl whose tumor was located at the base of the tongue.
  • She was successfully treated with surgical excision without adjuvant radiation or chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Sarcoma, Alveolar Soft Part / diagnosis. Tongue Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infant. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neoplasm Staging. Neoplasm, Residual / diagnosis. Neoplasm, Residual / pathology. Neoplasm, Residual / surgery. Radionuclide Imaging. Sodium Pertechnetate Tc 99m. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Tongue / pathology. Tongue / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19826991.001).
  • [ISSN] 1942-7522
  • [Journal-full-title] Ear, nose, & throat journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ear Nose Throat J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] A0730CX801 / Sodium Pertechnetate Tc 99m
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20. Nakamura T, Kodaira T, Tachibana H, Tomita N, Yokouchi J, Fuwa N: Clinical outcome of oropharyngeal carcinoma treated with platinum-based chemoradiotherapy. Oral Oncol; 2009 Sep;45(9):830-4
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  • A retrospective survey of 91 patients who underwent platinum-based chemotherapy and radiotherapy for oropharyngeal cancer at Aichi Cancer Center Hospital between 1971 and 2003.
  • Nine patients who had a tumor in the base of the tongue were also treated with arterial infusion chemotherapy.
  • At a median follow-up of 63months (range, 2-190 months), 26 (29%) patients developed recurrence.
  • Five patients (5%) developed distant metastases.
  • The 5-year local control rate for each subsite was: anterior wall, 90%; lateral wall, 80%; posterior wall, 67%; and superior wall, 64%.
  • Two patients developed grade 3 (mandibular bone necrosis) or 4 (laryngeal edema) late toxicities.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Oropharyngeal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Oropharyngeal Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy / methods. Disease-Free Survival. Feasibility Studies. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Humans. Japan. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Organoplatinum Compounds / administration & dosage. Radiotherapy Dosage. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19457713.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-0593
  • [Journal-full-title] Oral oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oral Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Organoplatinum Compounds; 8UQ3W6JXAN / nedaplatin; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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21. Walvekar RR, Li RJ, Gooding WE, Gibson MK, Heron D, Johnson JT, Ferris RL: Role of surgery in limited (T1-2, N0-1) cancers of the oropharynx. Laryngoscope; 2008 Dec;118(12):2129-34
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  • METHODS: Forty-nine limited oropharyngeal squamous cell cancers of the tonsil, tongue base, or posterior pharyngeal wall-treated surgically were identified.
  • Among 35 disease-free patients, 28% (4/20) of stage I/II patients received postoperative radiation and chemotherapy was avoided in 80% (12/15) of stage III patients.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Surgical staging identifies patients in whom intensification of treatment with chemotherapy can be most appropriately applied, and enables de-intensification of therapy in pathology confirmed stage I/II disease.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cohort Studies. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant

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  • (PMID = 18948826.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-4995
  • [Journal-full-title] The Laryngoscope
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Laryngoscope
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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22. Nguyen NP, Vos P, Smith HJ, Nguyen PD, Alfieri A, Karlsson U, Dutta S, Lemanski C, Nguyen LM, Sallah S: Concurrent chemoradiation for locally advanced oropharyngeal cancer. Am J Otolaryngol; 2007 Jan-Feb;28(1):3-8
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  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective survey of patients who underwent chemotherapy and radiation for locally advanced oropharyngeal carcinoma at the Veteran Affairs North Texas Health Care System, Dallas, Tex.
  • RESULTS: Between December 1999 and September 2004, 48 patients with locally advanced oropharyngeal cancer underwent concurrent chemotherapy and radiation.
  • Seventeen patients (35%) developed recurrences.
  • Distant metastases developed in 8 patients (5 alone, 3 associated with locoregional failures).
  • Four patients (8%) developed second primaries.
  • No difference was observed in survival between base of tongue and tonsillar carcinoma (P = .32).
  • No patient with T1-T2 tumors developed distant metastases (P = .04).
  • Forty-five patients (94%) developed toxicity grade 3 to 4 (40 mucositis and 26 hematological).
  • Eight patients (16%) developed aspiration pneumonia during and after treatment.
  • Five patients (10%) died of aspiration (2 during and 3 post treatment).
  • Four patients (8%) developed esophageal strictures requiring repeated dilatations post treatment.
  • Two patients had radionecrosis (1 soft tissue and 1 bone) requiring hyperbaric oxygen.
  • Eighteen patients (37%) had prolonged tube feedings (>3 months) after treatments because of severe dysphagia or aspiration.
  • [MeSH-major] Oropharyngeal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Oropharyngeal Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Fluorouracil / therapeutic use. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Prognosis. Radiotherapy Dosage. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17162122.001).
  • [ISSN] 0196-0709
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of otolaryngology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Otolaryngol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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23. Treaba DO, Eklund JW, Wayne J, Nelson BP, Winter JN: Classical Hodgkin's lymphoma presenting with tongue involvement: a case report and review of the literature. Clin Lymphoma Myeloma; 2006 Mar;6(5):410-3
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  • [Title] Classical Hodgkin's lymphoma presenting with tongue involvement: a case report and review of the literature.
  • We report an unusual case of mixed cellularity classical Hodgkin's lymphoma with prominent involvement of the base of the tongue at diagnosis.
  • Waldeyer's ring involvement by Hodgkin's lymphoma is uncommon with < 200 cases reported in the English literature and only 5 previous reports of Hodgkin's lymphoma involving the tongue.
  • [MeSH-major] Hodgkin Disease / drug therapy. Hodgkin Disease / pathology. Tongue Neoplasms / drug therapy. Tongue Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biopsy, Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Risk Assessment. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16640820.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-9190
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical lymphoma & myeloma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Lymphoma Myeloma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA60553-12
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 37
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24. Gourin CG, Johnson JT: Surgical treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the base of tongue. Head Neck; 2001 Aug;23(8):653-60
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  • [Title] Surgical treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the base of tongue.
  • INTRODUCTION: Squamous cell carcinoma (SSC) of the tongue base has historically been shown to be associated with a poor prognosis.
  • We reviewed our experience with primary surgery followed by postoperative radiation therapy (XRT) to determine the impact of our treatment protocols on outcome.
  • METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the records of all patients presenting to the University of Pittsburgh with previously untreated SSC of the tongue base between 1980-1997.
  • Adjuvant chemotherapy was offered if histologic signs of aggressive behavior were identified (multiple nodes or extracapsular spread).
  • Local recurrence occurred in 5 patients, regional recurrence occurred in 12 patients, and distant metastases developed in 22 patients.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Surgical treatment of SCC of the tongue base is highly effective in achieving local disease control and disease-free survival for early lesions.
  • Because both functional outcome and survival are poor after surgical treatment of advanced lesions, we now offer brachytherapy with XRT or participation in a combined chemoradiation protocol rather than primary surgical therapy to patients with advanced disease.
  • Prospective studies are needed to compare the effect of these organ-preserving therapies with traditional combined surgery and XRT to determine the effect on functional outcome and quality of life.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Tongue Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Glossectomy. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Postoperative Complications. Prognosis. Radiotherapy Dosage. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 11443748.001).
  • [ISSN] 1043-3074
  • [Journal-full-title] Head & neck
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Head Neck
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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25. Hicks J, Flaitz C: Mucoepidermoid carcinoma of salivary glands in children and adolescents: assessment of proliferation markers. Oral Oncol; 2000 Sep;36(5):454-60
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  • Proliferation was assessed by determining the percentage of tumor cells immunoreactive for PCNA and Ki-67.
  • Tumor site was 16 parotid, eight submandibular, one base of tongue and one maxillary lip.
  • Median tumor size was 2.5 cm (range 1.5-5 cm).
  • Mean percentage of tumor cells immunoreactive for proliferation markers is as follows: PCNA: LG 9%, IG 17%, HG 32%; and Ki-67: LG 7%, IG 12%, HG 26%.
  • Treatment was surgical in 21 cases, and surgery with chemotherapy and radiotherapy in five cases.
  • MECs were second malignancies in two children with prior radiotherapy and chemotherapy for leukemia and histiocytosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma, Mucoepidermoid / chemistry. Salivary Gland Neoplasms / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Cell Division. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Ki-67 Antigen / chemistry. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen / analysis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 10964053.001).
  • [ISSN] 1368-8375
  • [Journal-full-title] Oral oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oral Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] ENGLAND
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen
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26. Mendenhall WM, Morris CG, Amdur RJ, Hinerman RW, Mancuso AA: Parameters that predict local control after definitive radiotherapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Head Neck; 2003 Jul;25(7):535-42
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  • [Title] Parameters that predict local control after definitive radiotherapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck.
  • PURPOSE: To analyze parameters that may influence the likelihood of local control after definitive radiotherapy for head and neck cancer.
  • METHODS: Between April 1980 and January 2000, 404 patients were treated with definitive RT alone (358 patients) or combined with adjuvant chemotherapy (46 patients) at our institution and were followed up for 0.25 to 20.25 years (median, 3.5 years.
  • All patients had the primary tumor volume calculated on pretreatment CT.
  • Parameters evaluated in multivariate analyses of these end points included primary site, T stage, primary tumor volume, N stage, histologic differentiation, fractionation schedule, adjuvant chemotherapy, and gender.
  • RESULTS: The rates of local control and local control without a severe late complication after RT were significantly influenced by primary tumor volume for patients with cancer of the supraglottic larynx and true vocal cord.
  • In contrast, the rates of local control and local control without severe complications for patients with tumors of the oropharynx and hypopharynx were less influenced by tumor volume.
  • Multivariate analyses stratified by primary site revealed that tumor volume significantly influenced local control for patients with cancers of the supraglottis (p =.0220) and glottis (p =.0042) but not for those with lesions of the tonsillar fossa/posterior tonsillar pillar (p =.0892), base of tongue (p =.9493), anterior tonsillar pillar/soft palate (p =.5909), and hypopharynx (p =.2282).
  • Primary tumor volume also significantly influences the probability of local control in cancers of the supraglottis and glottis.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Female. Fluorouracil / therapeutic use. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Neoplasm Staging. Predictive Value of Tests. Radiotherapy / adverse effects. Radiotherapy Dosage

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 25: 535-542, 2003
  • (PMID = 12808656.001).
  • [ISSN] 1043-3074
  • [Journal-full-title] Head & neck
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Head Neck
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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27. Janinis J, Papadakou M, Panagos G, Panousaki A, Georgoulias V, Hatzidaki D, Lefantzis D, Dokianakis G: Sequential chemoradiotherapy with docetaxel, cisplatin, and 5-fluorouracil in patients with locally advanced head and neck cancer. Am J Clin Oncol; 2001 Jun;24(3):227-31
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  • Patients with locally advanced HNC, a World Health Organization performance status 0 to 2, and no prior history of chemotherapy or radiotherapy were included.
  • Treatment consisted of docetaxel 80 mg/m2 (1-hour infusion) on day 1, cisplatin 40 mg/m2 (1-hour infusion) on days 2 and 3, and 5-fluorouracil 1,000 mg/m2 (24-hour continuous infusion), on days 1 to 3, repeated every 28 days for a maximum of 4 cycles per patient.
  • Radiation therapy (RT) to the primary tumor site and neck lymph nodes was planned within 5 weeks of the last cycle of chemotherapy.
  • The primary tumor site received 60 to 70 Gy.
  • The most common acute nonhematologic toxicities from DCF induction chemotherapy included alopecia, mucositis, peripheral sensory neuropathy, onycholysis, and asthenia.
  • Febrile neutropenia developed in two patients and grade IV diarrhea in one patient.
  • There were no treatment-related deaths.
  • The overall response rate (RR) after DCF induction chemotherapy was 90% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 76.8-103.1%).
  • Organ preservation was achieved in eight patients with laryngeal cancer and one patient with base of tongue involvement.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Fluorouracil / therapeutic use. Head and Neck Neoplasms / drug therapy. Head and Neck Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Paclitaxel / analogs & derivatives. Paclitaxel / therapeutic use. Taxoids
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 11404490.001).
  • [ISSN] 0277-3732
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Taxoids; 15H5577CQD / docetaxel; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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28. Chennupati SK, Norris R, Dunham B, Kazahaya K: Osteosarcoma of the skull base: case report and review of literature. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol; 2008 Jan;72(1):115-9
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  • [Title] Osteosarcoma of the skull base: case report and review of literature.
  • Osteosarcomas are an aggressive neoplasm composed of spindle cells producing osteoid.
  • They primarily affect the long bones, particularly after radiation or chemotherapy for other neoplasms; however, 6-7% present in the head and neck.
  • A case report presentation of a skull base osteosarcoma in a teenage female.
  • There were also findings consistent with chronic denervation of her right tongue and pharynx.
  • During the evaluation process, she developed diplopia from a right cranial nerve VI palsy.
  • Repeat imaging revealed progression of the skull base lesion with extension into the right sphenoid sinus.
  • An endoscopic sphenoidotomy was performed to obtain tissue.
  • The diagnosis of high-grade osteosarcoma was made by histologic morphology and immunohistochemistry.
  • The child was treated primarily with chemotherapy.
  • Other adjunctive therapies are being considered.
  • Osteosarcoma of the skull base is a rare entity.
  • The rapid progression, treatment options, and prognosis are discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Osteosarcoma / diagnosis. Skull Base Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17980919.001).
  • [ISSN] 0165-5876
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of pediatric otorhinolaryngology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Pediatr. Otorhinolaryngol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Number-of-references] 9
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29. Simon C, Goepfert H, Rosenthal DI, Roberts D, El-Naggar A, Old M, Diaz EM Jr, Myers JN: Presence of malignant tumor cells in persistent neck disease after radiotherapy for advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx is associated with poor survival. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol; 2006 Apr;263(4):313-8
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  • [Title] Presence of malignant tumor cells in persistent neck disease after radiotherapy for advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx is associated with poor survival.
  • Non-surgical therapy consisting of external beam radiation with or without chemotherapy is an effective treatment for patients with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the oropharynx with advanced neck disease (N2a or greater).
  • It is reported that nearly 50% of the neck dissection specimens contain residual viable tumor cells that may indicate partial radiation failure and as a consequence poor survival.
  • In order to address the significance of this finding, we conducted a nonrandomized retrospective study, including 35 patients who underwent definitive radiation therapy followed by either a radical or modified radical (RND/MRND) or a selective neck dissection (SND) for clinically persistent neck disease 6 weeks after completing therapy for stage III/IV SCC of the oropharynx (base of the tongue =15, tonsil =12, soft palate =7 and pharyngeal wall =1).
  • All neck dissection specimens were reviewed according to histological criteria indicating viable residual tumor.
  • The presence of malignant tumor cells in residual disease in the neck correlated with poor disease-specific and overall survival (P =0.03 and P =0.01, respectively).
  • In conclusion, the presence of viable cancer cells in radiated neck nodes is a novel prognostic marker for disease-specific survival in patients treated for SCCs of the oropharynx with advanced neck disease and may serve as an identifier for patients who will benefit from post-treatment chemoprevention.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Cell Survival. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Neck Dissection. Neoplasm, Residual. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis

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  • [Cites] Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 1992;23(4):737-42 [1618666.001]
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  • (PMID = 16328403.001).
  • [ISSN] 0937-4477
  • [Journal-full-title] European archives of oto-rhino-laryngology : official journal of the European Federation of Oto-Rhino-Laryngological Societies (EUFOS) : affiliated with the German Society for Oto-Rhino-Laryngology - Head and Neck Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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30. Culp LR, Pou AM, Jones DV, Bayouth J, Sanguineti G: A case of radiation recall mucositis associated with docetaxel. Head Neck; 2004 Feb;26(2):197-200
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  • METHODS: We report a case of a 45-year-old man diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma of the base of tongue.
  • He was treated with surgery followed by chemotherapy and radiation therapy.
  • Several months after completing treatment, he had a recurrence develop outside of the previously irradiated field.
  • He was offered radiation therapy concurrent with docetaxel as salvage therapy.
  • RESULTS: During salvage therapy, acute recall mucositis developed corresponding to his previously irradiated fields.
  • His chemotherapy with docetaxel was withheld, and his symptoms rapidly improved.
  • Given the potential severity of the reaction and increasing use of docetaxel as second-line treatment of recurrent head and neck cancers, it is important to be aware of this phenomenon.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / adverse effects. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Mucous Membrane / drug effects. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / radiotherapy. Radiation-Sensitizing Agents / adverse effects. Radiodermatitis / etiology. Taxoids / adverse effects. Tongue Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Inflammation / etiology. Male. Middle Aged. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 26: 197-200, 2004
  • (PMID = 14762890.001).
  • [ISSN] 1043-3074
  • [Journal-full-title] Head & neck
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Head Neck
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 0 / Radiation-Sensitizing Agents; 0 / Taxoids; 15H5577CQD / docetaxel
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31. Smith JE, Suh JD, Erman A, Nabili V, Chhetri DK, Blackwell KE: Risk factors predicting aspiration after free flap reconstruction of oral cavity and oropharyngeal defects. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg; 2008 Nov;134(11):1205-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Aspiration risk factors analyzed included age; sex; tumor T and N stage; comorbidity level (American Society of Anesthesiologists classification); preoperative swallowing function; history of tobacco use; surgical approach used for tumor resection; defect classification; type of free flap; history of radiation therapy, surgery, and/or chemotherapy; and surgical defect classification.
  • RESULTS: The following risk factors were significant predictors of postoperative aspiration on univariate analysis: prior radiation therapy (P < .001), tongue base resection classification (P = .001), tumor N stage (P < .001), hypoglossal nerve sacrifice (P = .004), and presence of a mandibular osteotomy (P = .01).
  • On multivariate analysis, only a history of radiation therapy (P = .002) and tongue base resection (P = .008) remained statistically significant predictors of aspiration.
  • CONCLUSION: Patients with resection of more than half of the tongue base and patients with a history of radiation therapy are at high risk of having early postoperative aspiration after free flap reconstruction.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Combined Modality Therapy. Deglutition Disorders / etiology. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 19015452.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-361X
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of otolaryngology--head & neck surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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32. Milano MT, Vokes EE, Kao J, Jackson W, List MA, Stenson KM, Witt ME, Dekker A, MacCracken E, Garofalo MC, Chmura SJ, Weichselbaum RR, Haraf DJ: Intensity-modulated radiation therapy in advanced head and neck patients treated with intensive chemoradiotherapy: preliminary experience and future directions. Int J Oncol; 2006 May;28(5):1141-51
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Intensity-modulated radiation therapy in advanced head and neck patients treated with intensive chemoradiotherapy: preliminary experience and future directions.
  • We review our recent experience with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and conventional three-dimensional radiation therapy (C3DRT) in advanced head and neck cancer.
  • Sixty-nine patients with Stage IV head and neck cancer (and stage III base of tongue and hypopharynx) enrolled in a Phase II study of definitive chemoradiation; 20 received all or part of their radiation with IMRT.
  • Six weekly doses of induction carboplatin (AUC=2) and paclitaxel (135 mg/m2) were followed by alternating weekly chemoradiation to 75 Gy with 1.5 Gy BID fractions, concurrent with paclitaxel (100 mg/m2/week), 5-fluorouracil (600 mg/m2/d) and hydroxyurea (500 mg PO BID).
  • Two consecutive cohorts enrolled, differing in radiation scheme: 75 Gy to gross disease in both, 60 or 54 Gy to first echelon lymphatics and 45 or 39 Gy to second echelon lymphatics.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Combined Modality Therapy. Head and Neck Neoplasms / drug therapy. Head and Neck Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biopsy. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Paclitaxel / administration & dosage. Radiotherapy / adverse effects. Radiotherapy Dosage. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 16596230.001).
  • [ISSN] 1019-6439
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA14599; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / P50 DE11921-04
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
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33. Rusthoven KE, Raben D, Schneider C, Witt R, Sammons S, Raben A: Freedom from local and regional failure of contralateral neck with ipsilateral neck radiotherapy for node-positive tonsil cancer: results of a prospective management approach. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2009 Aug 1;74(5):1365-70

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • PURPOSE: To review the outcomes of a prospective management approach using ipsilateral neck radiotherapy in the treatment of node-positive squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil with a well-lateralized primary lesion.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: Between August 2003 and June 2007, 20 patients who presented with squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil, without involvement of the base of the tongue or midline soft palate, and with Stage N1-N2b disease were prospectively treated with radiotherapy to the primary site and ipsilateral neck.
  • In addition, 18 patients received concurrent chemotherapy.
  • Acute and late toxicity were prospectively evaluated using the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3, and Radiation Therapy Oncology Group criteria.
  • Late Radiation Therapy Oncology Group grade 2 xerostomia occurred in 1 patient (5%).
  • CONCLUSION: In carefully selected patients with node-positive, lateralized tonsillar cancer, treatment of the ipsilateral neck and primary site does not appear to increase the risk of contralateral nodal failure and reduces late morbidity compared with historical controls.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Combined Modality Therapy / methods. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis / radiotherapy. Male. Middle Aged. Neck. Neoplasm Staging. Prospective Studies. Radiotherapy Dosage. Radiotherapy, Conformal / methods. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19168295.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-355X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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34. Shiley SG, Hargunani CA, Skoner JM, Holland JM, Wax MK: Swallowing function after chemoradiation for advanced stage oropharyngeal cancer. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg; 2006 Mar;134(3):455-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • We reported previously functional outcomes after surgical resection with free-tissue transfer.
  • Most patients had base of tongue lesions (67%) and Stage IV disease (93%).
  • Gastrostomy was carried out in 22 (82%) patients either before or during treatment.
  • One year after treatment, 53% (10 of 19) had an exclusively oral diet whereas 47% still required tube feeds including 1 patient (5%) who was NPO.
  • A higher rate of G-tube dependence was observed in patients treated for base of tongue lesions vs tonsil lesions (67% vs 25%, P = 0.049, chi(2) analysis).
  • CONCLUSIONS: At this institution, the short-term (3-4 months) rate of G-tube dependence was similar after surgical and non-surgical treatment of oropharyngeal cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Deglutition / physiology. Oropharyngeal Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Enteral Nutrition. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Gastrostomy. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Parenteral Nutrition. Radiotherapy Dosage. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Tongue Neoplasms / drug therapy. Tongue Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Tonsillar Neoplasms / drug therapy. Tonsillar Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16500444.001).
  • [ISSN] 0194-5998
  • [Journal-full-title] Otolaryngology--head and neck surgery : official journal of American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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