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1. Weybright P, Maly P, Gomez-Hassan D, Blaesing C, Sundgren PC: MR spectroscopy in the evaluation of recurrent contrast-enhancing lesions in the posterior fossa after tumor treatment. Neuroradiology; 2004 Jul;46(7):541-9
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  • [Title] MR spectroscopy in the evaluation of recurrent contrast-enhancing lesions in the posterior fossa after tumor treatment.
  • Recurrent contrast-enhancing lesions arising within foci of prior brain neoplasms treated with chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy pose a significant diagnostic dilemma, as they may represent recurrent or residual tumor, treatment-related changes, or a combination of both.
  • Those lesions specifically in the posterior fossa are even more difficult to assess, given the technical limitations of 2D CSI in the infratentorial compartment.
  • We explored the feasibility of 2D-CSI MR spectroscopy in the evaluation of recurrent contrast-enhancing lesions in eight consecutive patients who had undergone treatment for posterior fossa or brainstem tumors.
  • Mean Cho/Cr (choline/creatine) ratios obtained by 2D-CSI in recurrent tumor, treatment-related changes, and normal white matter were 2.93, 1.62, and 0.97, respectively, mean Cho/NAA (choline/N-Acetyl aspartate) ratios were 4.34, 1.74, and 0.93, and mean NAA/Cr (N-acetyl aspartate/creatine) ratios were 0.74, 0.92, and 1.26, respectively.
  • In conclusion, also in the posterior fossa, MR spectroscopy is likely to be useful as an adjunct to conventional imaging characteristics in distinguishing recurrent tumor from treatment-related changes, irrespectively of the MRS technique used.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Brain Stem Neoplasms / diagnosis. Infratentorial Neoplasms / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 15105980.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-3940
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuroradiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuroradiology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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2. Jimbo H, Kamata S, Miura K, Asamoto S, Tada S, Endo T, Masubuchi T, Nakamura N, Fushimi C: Operative management of skull base malignant tumors arising from the nasal cavity and paranasal sinus: recent strategies used in 25 cases. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo); 2010 Jan;50(1):20-6; discussion 26
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  • The treatment of these tumors affecting the skull base is complex due to the significant anatomical features.
  • En bloc resections using anterior skull base resection, orbital resection, middle fossa resection, and combined procedures of these three resections were performed.
  • Using a combination of adjuvant radiation and chemotherapy, we have achieved a 2-year disease-free survival rate of 90% in these cases.
  • However, potential complications include cerebrospinal fluid leakage, meningitis, abscess formation, pneumocephalus, frontal brain contusion, trismus, and dysphagia as a functional complication.
  • Here we present our recent institutional experience and treatment policy employed during the past 3 years.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Combined Modality Therapy / methods. Cranial Fossa, Middle / anatomy & histology. Cranial Fossa, Middle / pathology. Cranial Fossa, Middle / surgery. Drug Therapy / methods. Drug Therapy / statistics & numerical data. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control. Orbit / anatomy & histology. Orbit / pathology. Orbit / surgery. Osteotomy / contraindications. Osteotomy / methods. Paranasal Sinuses / anatomy & histology. Paranasal Sinuses / pathology. Paranasal Sinuses / surgery. Patient Care Team. Postoperative Complications / etiology. Postoperative Complications / physiopathology. Postoperative Complications / prevention & control. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant / methods. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant / statistics & numerical data. Reconstructive Surgical Procedures / methods. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 20098020.001).
  • [ISSN] 1349-8029
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurologia medico-chirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurol. Med. Chir. (Tokyo)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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3. Geoerger B, Vassal G, Doz F, O'Quigley J, Wartelle M, Watson AJ, Raquin MA, Frappaz D, Chastagner P, Gentet JC, Rubie H, Couanet D, Geoffray A, Djafari L, Margison GP, Pein F: Dose finding and O6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase study of cisplatin combined with temozolomide in paediatric solid malignancies. Br J Cancer; 2005 Sep 5;93(5):529-37
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  • In total, 39 patients with refractory or recurrent solid tumours (median age approximately 13 years; 14 pretreated with high-dose chemotherapy, craniospinal irradiation, or having bone marrow involvement) were treated with cisplatin, followed the next day by oral temozolomide for 5 days every 4 weeks at dose levels 80 mg m(-2)/150 mg m(-2) day(-1), 80/200, and 100/200, respectively.
  • Treatment-related toxicities were thrombocytopenia, neutropenia, nausea-vomiting, asthenia.
  • Hearing loss was experienced in five patients with prior irradiation to the brain stem or posterior fossa.
  • Partial responses were observed in two malignant glioma, one brain stem glioma, and two neuroblastoma.
  • Median MGMT activity in PBMCs decreased after 5 days of temozolomide treatment: low MGMT activity correlated with increased severity of thrombocytopenia.
  • Cisplatin-temozolomide combinations are well tolerated without additional toxicity to single-agent treatments; the recommended phase II dosage is 80 mg m(-2) cisplatin and 150 mg m(-2) x 5 temozolomide in heavily treated, and 200 mg m(-2) x 5 temozolomide in less-heavily pretreated children.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Neoplasms / drug therapy. O(6)-Methylguanine-DNA Methyltransferase / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Dacarbazine / administration & dosage. Dacarbazine / analogs & derivatives. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Maximum Tolerated Dose. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Neoplasm Staging. Salvage Therapy. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16136028.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0920
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase I; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 85622-93-1 / temozolomide; EC 2.1.1.63 / O(6)-Methylguanine-DNA Methyltransferase; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2361608
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4. Massimino M, Gandola L, Spreafico F, Biassoni V, Luksch R, Collini P, Solero CN, Simonetti F, Pignoli E, Cefalo G, Poggi G, Modena P, Mariani L, Potepan P, Podda M, Casanova M, Pecori E, Acerno S, Ferrari A, Terenziani M, Meazza C, Polastri D, Ravagnani F, Fossati-Bellani F: No salvage using high-dose chemotherapy plus/minus reirradiation for relapsing previously irradiated medulloblastoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2009 Apr 1;73(5):1358-63
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  • [Title] No salvage using high-dose chemotherapy plus/minus reirradiation for relapsing previously irradiated medulloblastoma.
  • PURPOSE: Myeloablative regimens were frequently used for medulloblastoma relapsing after craniospinal irradiation (CSI): in 1997-2002, we used repeated surgery, standard-dose and myeloablative chemotherapy, and reirradiation.
  • Hematopoietic precursor mobilization followed high-dose etoposide or high-dose cyclophosphamide or cisplatin/etoposide therapy.
  • After the overall chemotherapy program, reirradiation was prescribed when possible.
  • RESULTS: Seventeen patients were treated: previous treatment included CSI of 19.5-36 Gy with posterior fossa/tumor boost and chemotherapy in 16 patients.
  • Relapse sites included leptomeninges in 9 patients, spine in 4 patients, posterior fossa in 3 patients, and brain in 1 patient.
  • Additional relapses appeared in 13 patients continuing the treatment.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Despite responses being obtained and ample use of surgery and reirradiation, second-line therapy with myeloablative schedules was not curative, barring a few exceptions.
  • A salvage therapy for medulloblastoma after CSI still needs to be sought.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cerebellar Neoplasms. Medulloblastoma. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Salvage Therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Carboplatin / adverse effects. Child. Child, Preschool. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Cisplatin / adverse effects. Combined Modality Therapy / methods. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Cyclophosphamide / adverse effects. Disease-Free Survival. Drug Administration Schedule. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Etoposide / adverse effects. Female. Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor / administration & dosage. Humans. Male. Methotrexate / administration & dosage. Methotrexate / adverse effects. Radiotherapy Dosage. Remission Induction / methods. Thiotepa / administration & dosage. Thiotepa / adverse effects. Vincristine / administration & dosage. Vincristine / adverse effects. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19019566.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-355X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 143011-72-7 / Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; 905Z5W3GKH / Thiotepa; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate
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5. Grill J, Le Deley MC, Gambarelli D, Raquin MA, Couanet D, Pierre-Kahn A, Habrand JL, Doz F, Frappaz D, Gentet JC, Edan C, Chastagner P, Kalifa C, French Society of Pediatric Oncology: Postoperative chemotherapy without irradiation for ependymoma in children under 5 years of age: a multicenter trial of the French Society of Pediatric Oncology. J Clin Oncol; 2001 Mar 01;19(5):1288-96
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  • [Title] Postoperative chemotherapy without irradiation for ependymoma in children under 5 years of age: a multicenter trial of the French Society of Pediatric Oncology.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate a strategy that avoids radiotherapy in first-line treatment in children under 5 years of age with brain or posterior fossa ependymoma, by exclusively administering 16 months of adjuvant multiagent chemotherapy after surgery.
  • Children received adjuvant conventional chemotherapy after surgery consisting of seven cycles of three courses alternating two drugs at each course (procarbazine and carboplatin, etoposide and cisplatin, vincristine and cyclophosphamide) over a year and a half.
  • Systematic irradiation was not envisaged at the end of chemotherapy.
  • In the event of relapse or progression, salvage treatment consisted of a second surgical procedure followed by local irradiation with or without second-line chemotherapy.
  • RESULTS: Conventional chemotherapy was well tolerated and could be administered in outpatient clinics.
  • No radiologically documented response to chemotherapy more than 50% was observed.
  • Overall, 40% (95% CI, 29% to 51%) of the patients were alive having never received radiotherapy 2 years after the initiation of chemotherapy and 23% (95% CI, 14% to 35%) were still alive at 4 years without recourse to this modality.
  • CONCLUSION: A significant proportion of children with ependymoma can avoid radiotherapy with prolonged adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • Deferring irradiation at the time of relapse did not compromise overall survival of the entire patient population.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Ependymoma / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child, Preschool. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Disease-Free Survival. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Procarbazine / administration & dosage. Prognosis. Treatment Outcome. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 11230470.001).
  • [ISSN] 0732-183X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 35S93Y190K / Procarbazine; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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6. Kunschner LJ, Kuttesch J, Hess K, Yung WK: Survival and recurrence factors in adult medulloblastoma: the M.D. Anderson Cancer Center experience from 1978 to 1998. Neuro Oncol; 2001 07;3(3):167-73
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  • Medulloblastoma is a rare adult primary brain tumor for which limited retrospective studies are available to elucidate natural history or to guide therapy.
  • Statistical analysis of prognostic factors and overall survival was performed for a subgroup of 28 patients who were followed exclusively at our institution from the time of diagnosis until death or last follow-up.
  • Univariate analysis of clinical features, such as age, sex, extent of local disease, extent of resection, and use of adjuvant chemotherapy, did not identify any prognostic variables for survival among the 28 patients.
  • Patterns of recurrence revealed that the posterior fossa was the most common site (56%), followed by bone marrow (25%).
  • Adult medulloblastoma appears to have a favorable prognosis after treatment with maximally surgically feasible resection followed by craniospinal irradiation.
  • Optimal treatment remains to be clarified, as both standard-risk and poor-risk patients have prolonged disease-free survival.
  • The marked difference between survival and progression-free survival suggests that salvage therapy, usually with combination chemotherapy in this cohort of patients, is of benefit.
  • More formal analysis of the survival benefit was not possible, however, because of the small number of patients treated at recurrence with any one therapeutic regimen.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Medulloblastoma / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Bone Marrow Neoplasms / secondary. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 11465397.001).
  • [ISSN] 1522-8517
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuro-oncology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1920617
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7. Zhang Q, Wojno TH, Yaffe BM, Grossniklaus HE: Myxofibrosarcoma of the orbit: a clinicopathologic case report. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg; 2010 Mar-Apr;26(2):129-31
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  • A 27-year-old woman developed a rapidly progressive left orbital tumor that extended in the cranial fossa.
  • Complete excision with postoperative adjuvant radiation therapy and chemotherapy was performed, and the patient had no evidence of tumor recurrence within 6 months' follow-up.
  • Myxofibrosarcoma is a fibroblast-derived soft tissue neoplasm with up to a 60% local recurrence rate, and metastasis may be associated with intermediate to high-grade tumors.

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  • (PMID = 20305519.001).
  • [ISSN] 1537-2677
  • [Journal-full-title] Ophthalmic plastic and reconstructive surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / P30 EY006360; None / None / / P30 EY006360-25; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / P30 EY006360-25
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS239382; NLM/ PMC2983108
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8. Travis LB, Beard C, Allan JM, Dahl AA, Feldman DR, Oldenburg J, Daugaard G, Kelly JL, Dolan ME, Hannigan R, Constine LS, Oeffinger KC, Okunieff P, Armstrong G, Wiljer D, Miller RC, Gietema JA, van Leeuwen FE, Williams JP, Nichols CR, Einhorn LH, Fossa SD: Testicular cancer survivorship: research strategies and recommendations. J Natl Cancer Inst; 2010 Aug 4;102(15):1114-30
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  • Given the young average age at diagnosis, it is estimated that effective treatment approaches, in particular, platinum-based chemotherapy, have resulted in an average gain of several decades of life.
  • Genome-wide association studies and other translational molecular approaches now provide opportunities to identify testicular cancer survivors at greatest risk for therapy-related complications to develop evidence-based long-term follow-up guidelines and interventional strategies.
  • Recommendations include 1) institution of lifelong follow-up of testicular cancer survivors within a large cohort setting to ascertain risks of emerging toxicities and the evolution of known late sequelae, 2) development of comprehensive risk prediction models that include treatment factors and genetic modifiers of late sequelae, 3) elucidation of the effect(s) of decades-long exposure to low serum levels of platinum, 4) assessment of the overall burden of medical and psychosocial morbidity, and 5) the eventual formulation of evidence-based long-term follow-up guidelines and interventions.

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  • (PMID = 20585105.001).
  • [ISSN] 1460-2105
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the National Cancer Institute
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Natl. Cancer Inst.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 5U56CA118635
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Platinum Compounds
  • [Number-of-references] 251
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2914759
  •  go-up   go-down


9. International Prognostic Factors Study Group, Lorch A, Beyer J, Bascoul-Mollevi C, Kramar A, Einhorn LH, Necchi A, Massard C, De Giorgi U, Fléchon A, Margolin KA, Lotz JP, Germa Lluch JR, Powles T, Kollmannsberger CK: Prognostic factors in patients with metastatic germ cell tumors who experienced treatment failure with cisplatin-based first-line chemotherapy. J Clin Oncol; 2010 Nov 20;28(33):4906-11
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. CIS-DIAMINEDICHLOROPLATINUM .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Prognostic factors in patients with metastatic germ cell tumors who experienced treatment failure with cisplatin-based first-line chemotherapy.
  • PURPOSE: To develop a prognostic model in patients with germ cell tumors (GCT) who experience treatment failure with cisplatin-based first-line chemotherapy.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Data from 1,984 patients with GCT who progressed after at least three cisplatin-based cycles and were treated with cisplatin-based conventional-dose or carboplatin-based high-dose salvage chemotherapy was retrospectively collected from 38 centers/groups worldwide.
  • Primary end point was the 2-year progression-free survival after salvage treatment.
  • Histology, primary tumor location, response, and progression-free interval after first-line treatment, as well as levels of alpha fetoprotein, human chorionic gonadotrophin, and the presence of liver, bone, or brain metastases at salvage were identified as independent prognostic variables and used to build a prognostic model in the training set.
  • CONCLUSION: Prognostic variables are important in patients with GCT who experienced treatment failure with cisplatin-based first-line chemotherapy and can be used to construct a prognostic model to guide salvage strategies.
  • [MeSH-major] Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Humans. L-Lactate Dehydrogenase / blood. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Treatment Failure

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  • [CommentIn] Eur Urol. 2011 Nov;60(5):1124-5 [21961745.001]
  • (PMID = 20956623.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 1.1.1.27 / L-Lactate Dehydrogenase; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
  • [Investigator] Lorch A; Neubauer A; Beyer J; Rick O; Einhorn LH; Necchi A; Nicolai N; Salvioni R; Fizazi K; Massard C; De Giorgi U; Aieta M; Chioni A; De Vivo R; Fornarini G; Palmieri G; Banna GL; Scandurra G; Berretta M; Pessa S; Messina C; Valcamonico F; Pedrazzoli P; Schiavetto I; Ortega C; Vormola R; Lo Re G; Tumolo S; Basso U; Sava T; Morelli F; Tedeschi L; Simonelli M; Zucali P; Pizzocaro G; Boyle H; Droz JP; Fléchon A; Margolin KA; Baron A; Lotz JP; Fernández A; Germà JR; Maroto P; Mellado B; Martínez del Prado P; Vázquez S; Arranz JA; Castellanos D; Sastre J; Terrasa J; González E; Lainez N; Sánchez M; Gumà J; Dorta FJ; Almenar D; Aparicio J; Climent MA; Gironés R; Saenz A; Powles T; Shamash J; Kollmannsberger CK; Hartmann JT; Mayer F; Kirby J; Mead B; Simmonds P; Bokemeyer C; Honecker F; Oechsle K; Fossa S; Oldenburg J; Rodenhuis S; Fenner M; Papiani G; Rosti G; Bosl G; Feldman D; Motzer R; Turkula S; Savage P; Gauler T; Hayes-Lattin B; Moore C; Nichols C; Rehmsmeier C; Berdel WE; DeSantis M; Jahn-Kuch D; Cavallin-Stahl E; Cohn-Cedermark G; Dahl O; Higano C; Daugaard G; Hentrich M; Dieing A; Sammler C; Wandt H; Metzner B; Schöffski P; Binh B; Houede N; Gerl A; Gillessen S; Cathomas R
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10. Fritz MA, Sade B, Bauer TW, Wood BG, Lee JH: Benign fibrous histiocytoma of the pterygopalatine fossa with intracranial extension. Acta Neurochir (Wien); 2006 Jan;148(1):73-6; discussion 76

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  • [Title] Benign fibrous histiocytoma of the pterygopalatine fossa with intracranial extension.
  • A very rare case of fibrous histiocytoma arising in the pterygopalatine fossa with intracranial extension is described.
  • The aggressive nature of our patient's tumor confirms previous observations that an aggressive radiographic appearance has prognostic value when dealing with skeletal and soft tissue tumors.
  • The benefit of multimodal therapy has not been established in these rare head and neck lesions.
  • In the subset of fibrous histiocytomas that invade bone, however adjunctive treatment with radiation and or chemotherapy may be appropriate.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain / pathology. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Palate, Hard. Skull Base Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Fatal Outcome. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness

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  • (PMID = 16200478.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-6268
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neurochirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neurochir (Wien)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Austria
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11. Lassaletta A, Perez-Olleros P, Scaglione C, Sirvent S, De Prada I, Perez-Martinez A, Ruiz-Hernandez A, Madero L: Successful treatment of intracranial ependymoma with leptomeningeal spread with systemic chemotherapy and intrathecal liposomal cytarabine in a two-year-old child. J Neurooncol; 2007 Jul;83(3):303-6
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  • [Title] Successful treatment of intracranial ependymoma with leptomeningeal spread with systemic chemotherapy and intrathecal liposomal cytarabine in a two-year-old child.
  • Neuraxis dissemination at the time of diagnosis is rare and occurs in fewer than 10% of patients.
  • Recent advances in neuroimaging, neurosurgery, and radiation therapy have improved disease control and functional outcomes for children with ependymoma.
  • It is not clear if age alone, or a combination of risk factors such us unfavorable location, which may prevent gross total resection, and withholding radiation therapy may have contributed to poor outcomes in younger age groups.
  • Therefore, new therapeutic approaches must be attempted.
  • This is a case report of a posterior fossa ependymoma with leptomeningeal dissemination in a two-year-old child, successfully treated with dose intensive chemotherapy and intrathecal liposomal cytarabine.
  • [MeSH-major] Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Cytarabine / therapeutic use. Ependymoma / drug therapy. Meningeal Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Drug Administration Routes. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Injections, Spinal. Liposomes. Male. Neoplasm Invasiveness

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  • [Cites] J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2004 Jan;26(1):56-9 [14707716.001]
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  • (PMID = 17245619.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Liposomes; 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine
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12. Gutiérrez Morales JC, Gutiérrez Morales SE, González AA: "Posterior fossa lesion 45 years after ocular trauma". Brain Pathol; 2010 Sep;20(5):989-92
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  • [Title] "Posterior fossa lesion 45 years after ocular trauma".
  • We describe a patient who developed an isolated brain metastasis four years after his right eye was treated for conjunctival melanoma by excision and local chemotherapy.
  • Metastasis of this kind of neoplasm to brain is a rare event, especially without evidence of prior or concurrent regional lymph node involvement.
  • [MeSH-major] Cranial Fossa, Posterior / pathology. Eye Diseases / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Conjunctiva / pathology. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Male. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods

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  • (PMID = 20695871.001).
  • [ISSN] 1750-3639
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain pathology (Zurich, Switzerland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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13. Raco A, Raimondi AJ, D'Alonzo A, Esposito V, Valentino V: Radiosurgery in the management of pediatric brain tumors. Childs Nerv Syst; 2000 May;16(5):287-95
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  • [Title] Radiosurgery in the management of pediatric brain tumors.
  • The tumor locations break down as follows: 36 in the cerebral hemispheres, 14 in the region of the hypothalamus/optic chiasm, 21 in the III ventricle/pineal region, 3 in the basal ganglia, 27 in the posterior fossa, 13 in the brain stem.
  • Seventy-nine patients had multivariate/combined treatment consisting of surgery or biopsy followed by chemotherapy, radiotherapy and/or radiosurgery.
  • Thirty-five were not operated on or biopsied but were treated primarily by radiosurgery, which was associated with chemotherapy and conventional radiotherapy.
  • The short- and long-term results were evaluated separately for each pathology in an attempt to derive guidelines for future treatment.
  • For tumors of the pineal region, we are of the opinion that radiosurgery is the treatment of choice in children and that more than one-third of patients can be cured by this means.
  • The remaining patients require surgery and/or chemotherapy in addition.
  • For medulloblastomas radiosurgery may be useful to control local recurrence if coupled with chemotherapy.
  • We fear that limiting treatment to radiosurgery, rather than prescribing conventional radiotherapy when indicated, could permit CNS seeding.
  • In glial tumors radiosurgery helped either to "sterilize" the tumor bed after removal or to treat remnants of the lesions in critical areas; for diffuse brain stem gliomas it should be considered the treatment of choice.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain / surgery. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Radiosurgery / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infant. Karnofsky Performance Status. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Seeding. Neoplasm, Residual / surgery. Prognosis. Radiotherapy. Reoperation. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 10883372.001).
  • [ISSN] 0256-7040
  • [Journal-full-title] Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Childs Nerv Syst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] GERMANY
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14. Shankar A, Chacko G, Chacko AG: Intratumoral abscess: an unusual complication of ventriculoperitoneal shunt infection. Childs Nerv Syst; 2004 Mar;20(3):204-6
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  • INTRODUCTION: Ventriculoperitoneal shunts were routinely used in the past in children with posterior fossa tumors and hydrocephalus.
  • CASE REPORT: This report highlights a previously unencountered phenomenon of a pyogenic abscess forming within a posterior fossa ependymoma as a result of shunt infection.
  • Only a partial excision of the tumor was possible, as the inflammatory response caused by the abscess had obliterated tissue planes.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Abscess / diagnosis. Cerebellar Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ependymoma / diagnosis. Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections / diagnosis. Hydrocephalus / surgery. Postoperative Complications / diagnosis. Prosthesis-Related Infections / diagnosis. Skull Base Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Amikacin / therapeutic use. Cefotaxime / therapeutic use. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Cranial Fossa, Posterior / pathology. Cranial Fossa, Posterior / surgery. Cranial Irradiation. Drug Therapy, Combination / therapeutic use. Humans. Male. Neoplasm, Residual / diagnosis. Neoplasm, Residual / radiotherapy. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant

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  • (PMID = 14747956.001).
  • [ISSN] 0256-7040
  • [Journal-full-title] Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Childs Nerv Syst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 84319SGC3C / Amikacin; N2GI8B1GK7 / Cefotaxime
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15. Koeller KK, Rushing EJ: From the archives of the AFIP: medulloblastoma: a comprehensive review with radiologic-pathologic correlation. Radiographics; 2003 Nov-Dec;23(6):1613-37
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  • Medulloblastoma is the most common pediatric central nervous system malignancy and the most common primary tumor of the posterior fossa in children.
  • This highly malignant neoplasm occurs more frequently in males and usually before 10 years of age.
  • Surgical resection, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy have substantially lowered the mortality associated with this tumor, with 5-year survival rates now commonly well above 50%.
  • Still, both dissemination at the time of diagnosis and recurrence remain obstacles in achieving a cure.
  • Evidence of leptomeningeal metastatic spread is present in 33% of all cases at the time of diagnosis and is well evaluated with contrast-enhanced MR imaging of the brain and the spine.
  • With continued research, treatment of these common neoplasms should improve, perhaps even achieving a cure in the future.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebellar Neoplasms / radiography. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Medulloblastoma / radiography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Meninges / pathology. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Prognosis. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 14615567.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-1323
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiographics : a review publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiographics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 102
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16. Gorelick J, Ross D, Marentette L, Blaivas M: Sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma: case series and review of the literature. Neurosurgery; 2000 Sep;47(3):750-4; discussion 754-5
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  • SNUC tends to present with advanced-stage disease, often with intracranial invasion, and requires an aggressive treatment approach that includes surgical resection.
  • INTERVENTION: All four patients underwent multimodal treatment with chemotherapy, radiotherapy (60-65 Gy), and aggressive surgical resection via a combined bifrontal craniotomy and a subcranial approach to the anterior cranial fossa.
  • Three of four patients died as a result of their disease, an average of 15 months after diagnosis.
  • Only one patient remains alive, although with metastatic intracranial disease, at 24 months after diagnosis.
  • CONCLUSION: SNUC is a rare neoplasm with a poor prognosis despite an aggressive multimodal approach to treatment.
  • On the basis of our experience, we advocate radical resection as part of the initial combined therapy for patients who present with locally advanced, nonmetastatic disease but we suggest reserving surgery for patients with early brain invasion until there has been a radiographically proven central nervous system response to adjuvant therapy.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Craniotomy. Female. Frontal Lobe / pathology. Frontal Lobe / surgery. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant

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  • (PMID = 10981763.001).
  • [ISSN] 0148-396X
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Number-of-references] 16
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17. Cieślak E, Kepka L, Fijuth J, Marchel A, Kroh H: Very late relapse of medulloblastoma. Folia Neuropathol; 2004;42(1):49-53
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  • At the age of 24, the patient underwent resection of medulloblastoma of the right cerebellar lobe, followed by the craniospinal orthovoltage irradiation (3600 R to the brain, and 3000 R to the spinal cord).
  • The patient was unfit for chemotherapy due to poor bone marrow reserve following the previous treatment.
  • The reirradiation of the posterior cranial fossa was performed postoperatively.
  • The patient was given 45 Gy in 25 fractions to the recurred tumour volume with 2 cm margin within 41 days.
  • The treatment was performed by 6 MV photons with conformal technique and noncoplanar beams arrangement.

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  • (PMID = 15119746.001).
  • [ISSN] 1641-4640
  • [Journal-full-title] Folia neuropathologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Folia Neuropathol
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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18. Marcus KJ, Goumnerova L, Billett AL, Lavally B, Scott RM, Bishop K, Xu R, Young Poussaint T, Kieran M, Kooy H, Pomeroy SL, Tarbell NJ: Stereotactic radiotherapy for localized low-grade gliomas in children: final results of a prospective trial. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2005 Feb 1;61(2):374-9
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  • PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy of stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) for small, localized, pediatric brain tumors and to determine the patterns of failure.
  • Of the 81 patients, 50 had low-grade astrocytoma, 23 had residual or recurrent craniopharyngioma, 4 had posterior fossa ependymoma, and 4 had other histologic types.
  • All patients underwent biopsy for diagnosis, with the exception of patients with neurofibromatosis and radiographic evidence of an optic system tumor.
  • The indications for treatment of patients with low-grade gliomas were progression during or after chemotherapy or progression after surgery alone.
  • CT and MRI fusion was used for treatment planning.
  • Three to nine arcs were used to deliver a mean total dose of 52.2 Gy in 1.8-Gy daily fractions.
  • Five patients, all with optic system/hypothalamic primary tumors, developed central nervous system dissemination 1.0-7.4 years after SRT.
  • One patient developed a presumed radiation-induced primitive neuroectodermal tumor 6 years after initial treatment.
  • All 6 cases of local progression were within the primary tumor bed at the time of progression and had received the full prescription dose.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / surgery. Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Radiosurgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Confidence Intervals. Disease Progression. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Prospective Studies. Radiotherapy Dosage

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  • (PMID = 15667955.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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19. Milker-Zabel S, Zabel A, Thilmann C, Zuna I, Hoess A, Wannenmacher M, Debus J: Results of three-dimensional stereotactically-guided radiotherapy in recurrent medulloblastoma. J Neurooncol; 2002 Dec;60(3):227-33
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  • PURPOSE: To evaluate survival rates and side effects after stereotactically-guided radiotherapy (SRT) in patients with recurrent medulloblastoma of the brain.
  • All patients had prior cranio-spinal radiotherapy plus boost to the posterior fossa with a total dose of 54 Gy.
  • Time to recurrence was 33 months mean.
  • Chemotherapy was given according to current international study protocols (HIT) in all patients.
  • Mean total dose for re-irradiation was 24 Gy for fractionated stereotactically-guided radiotherapy, and 15 Gy for radiosurgery.
  • A multifocal intracranial progression was seen in 9 patients, 5 patients developed additional spinal metastases.
  • No late toxicity > CTC II(o) especially no brain radionecrosis was seen after radiotherapy.
  • CONCLUSION: SRT is effective and safe in the treatment of recurrent medulloblastoma to improve local control without evident side effects.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / mortality. Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Medulloblastoma / mortality. Medulloblastoma / surgery. Radiosurgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / mortality. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Spinal Neoplasms / secondary. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 12510774.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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20. Kochbati L, Ghorbel I, Chaari N, Besbes M, Maalej M: [Frontal relapse of medulloblastoma. Causes and consequences (a case report)]. Cancer Radiother; 2008 Dec;12(8):860-2
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  • Medulloblastoma is a common paediatric brain tumor.
  • We report the case of a 10-year-old boy who was treated in 1998 for a medulloblastoma with surgery and radiotherapy of the craniospinal axis (24 Gy) and the posterior fossa (54 Gy).
  • A new surgery and chemotherapy were used with a complete response.
  • A second frontal relapse associated with posterior fossa recurrence was detected after one year of the second treatment and treated by chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Cerebellar Neoplasms / radiography. Medulloblastoma / radiotherapy. Medulloblastoma / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / radiography
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Ifosfamide / therapeutic use. Male. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18571966.001).
  • [ISSN] 1278-3218
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer radiothérapie : journal de la Société française de radiothérapie oncologique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Radiother
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] UM20QQM95Y / Ifosfamide
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21. de Tella OI Jr, Agner C, Aguiar PH, Herculano MA, Prandini MN, Stavile JN: Aggressive management of orbital meningeal melanocytoma. Acta Neurochir (Wien); 2003 Dec;145(12):1121-6
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  • OBJECTIVE: Meningeal melanocytoma generally occurs in the posterior fossa.
  • Computed tomography (CT) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of the brain showed an expansive intraconal mass lesion occupying the superior orbital compartment, the entire orbital apex, and the optic foramen.
  • Chemotherapy and irradiation followed the initial intervention.
  • They are predominant in the posterior fossa and spinal cord and frequently mistaken for melanomas, especially on frozen sections.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antigens, Neoplasm. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Craniotomy. Diagnosis, Differential. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Melanoma-Specific Antigens. Microsurgery. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Orbit / pathology. Orbit / surgery. Postoperative Complications / diagnosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. S100 Proteins / analysis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 14663571.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-6268
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neurochirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neurochir (Wien)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Austria
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Melanoma-Specific Antigens; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / S100 Proteins
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22. Akyüz C, Emir S, Akalan N, Söylemezoğlu F, Kutluk T, Büyükpamukçu M: Intracranial ependymomas in childhood--a retrospective review of sixty-two children. Acta Oncol; 2000;39(1):97-100
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  • Tumour sites were in the posterior fossa in 47 patients and supratentorial in 15 patients.
  • Two slightly different types of chemotherapy protocols were applied for an average of one year in 47 patients.
  • Twenty children suffered relapse 4 to 55 months after diagnosis (median 16 months).
  • Sex, histopathologic type, localization of the tumour, extent of surgery, and chemotherapy did not influence the prognosis in our study.
  • New treatment strategies should be developed in order to improve local control.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Ependymoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 10752661.001).
  • [ISSN] 0284-186X
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta oncologica (Stockholm, Sweden)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] NORWAY
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23. Grill J, Pascal C, Chantal K: Childhood ependymoma: a systematic review of treatment options and strategies. Paediatr Drugs; 2003;5(8):533-43
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  • [Title] Childhood ependymoma: a systematic review of treatment options and strategies.
  • Adjuvant therapy is therefore necessary for most, if not all, patients.
  • Despite some indication that benign ependymoma (WHO grade II) could show a better outcome, histology cannot be used at present to stratify treatment protocols.Craniospinal irradiation combined with posterior fossa boost has deleterious adverse effects on cognition.
  • Consequently, pediatric oncology teams have, firstly, tried to use chemotherapy to delay or avoid irradiation, and secondly, progressively reduced irradiation fields to the tumor bed without altering the prognosis.
  • As the use of chemotherapy with current agents is questionable, phase II studies with new agents and combinations are necessary.
  • Since the main problem of this disease is local relapse, it may not be necessary to irradiate the whole posterior fossa.
  • In this respect, hyperfractionation or radiosensitizers may be valuable therapeutic options.
  • The treatment of children with ependymoma is a challenge for all caregivers.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Ependymoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Child, Preschool. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Drug Therapy, Combination. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 12895136.001).
  • [ISSN] 1174-5878
  • [Journal-full-title] Paediatric drugs
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Paediatr Drugs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 120
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24. Spatola C, Privitera G: Recurrent intracranial hemangiopericytoma with extracranial and unusual multiple metastases: case report and review of the literature. Tumori; 2004 Mar-Apr;90(2):265-8
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  • The neoplasm was located in the posterior fossa.
  • The patient underwent primary surgery in 1990, not followed by any adjuvant therapy because of the histopathological diagnosis of meningioma.
  • After being free from disease for eight years she developed a local recurrence in 1998.
  • Subtotal excision of the tumor, which was finally identified as a hemangiopericytoma, was carried out, followed by adjuvant radiotherapy (64 Gy).
  • A radical metastasectomy was performed, followed by systemic chemotherapy.
  • One year later (2001) the tumor recurred again intracranially and a metastases was detected in the right breast, so the patient again underwent cranial irradiation (40 Gy) and second-line chemotherapy.
  • She died in September 2002, 12 years after the diagnosis.
  • We may conclude that, despite the tumor's natural tendency to recur several times and the ability of intracranial hemangiopericytoma to spread outside the CNS, it is possible to ensure a long survival time.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Hemangiopericytoma / secondary. Hemangiopericytoma / therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local
  • [MeSH-minor] Breast Neoplasms / secondary. Breast Neoplasms / therapy. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Kidney Neoplasms / secondary. Kidney Neoplasms / therapy. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Liver Neoplasms / therapy. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 15237597.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-8916
  • [Journal-full-title] Tumori
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tumori
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 15
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25. Komaki R, Roth JA, Walsh GL, Putnam JB, Vaporciyan A, Lee JS, Fossella FV, Chasen M, Delclos ME, Cox JD: Outcome predictors for 143 patients with superior sulcus tumors treated by multidisciplinary approach at the University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2000 Sep 1;48(2):347-54
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  • Prognostic factors and most effective treatments are controversial.
  • In this study, we examine the 5-year survival rate by pretreatment tumor and patient characteristics and by the treatments received.
  • RESULTS: Overall predictors of 5-year survival were weight loss (p < 0.01), supraclavicular fossa (p = 0.
  • 03), or vertebral body (p = 0.05) involvement, stage of the disease (p < 0.01), and surgical treatment (p < 0.01).
  • For patients with Stage IIB disease, surgical treatment (p < 0.01) and weight loss (p = 0.01) were significant independent predictors of 5-year survival.
  • Patients without gross residual disease after surgical resection who received postoperative radiation therapy with total doses of 55 to 64 Gy had a 5-year survival rate of 82% as compared with the 5-year survival rate of 56% in patients who received 50 to 54 Gy.
  • Of these, 4 patients (17%) received radiation therapy alone or in combination with chemotherapy without surgical resection.
  • The other 19 patients (83%) had resection combined with radiation therapy and/or chemotherapy.
  • Disease that is minimally invading surrounding normal structures can be resected followed by radiation therapy in doses of 55 to 64 Gy.
  • Further investigation of treatment strategies combining high-dose radiation therapy (>/=66 Gy) with chemotherapy is indicated for patients with unresectable and/or node-positive (N2) SST.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Analysis of Variance. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Karnofsky Performance Status. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Radiotherapy Dosage. Retrospective Studies. Spinal Neoplasms / secondary. Survival Rate. Survivors. Texas. Treatment Outcome. Weight Loss

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  • (PMID = 10974447.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01CA06294; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30CA16672; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / T32CA77050
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
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26. Massimino M, Gandola L, Cefalo G, Lasio G, Riva D, Fossati-Bellani F, Gianni MC, Luksch R, Tesoro-Tess JD, Lombardi F: Management of medulloblastoma and ependymoma in infants: a single-institution long-term retrospective report. Childs Nerv Syst; 2000 Jan;16(1):15-20
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  • To reduce the sequelae from CNS irradiation (RT), 16 children younger than 3 years with medulloblastoma-PNET (13 cases) and ependymoma (3 cases) were treated between 1987-1993 according to different postsurgical chemotherapy (CT) programs.
  • Adjuvant therapy depended on patients' age, postsurgical status and parents' consent to radiotherapy (RT).
  • Nine of the 16 infants remained alive in continuous complete remission from the first neoplasm (median follow-up 7 years).
  • Three of them had been treated with CT alone and 6 with combined CT + RT (posterior fossa 4, whole CNS 2).
  • Seven patients relapsed a median of 13 months after diagnosis, and all 7 of them died of their disease.
  • One child in whom the entire CNS was irradiated developed glioblastoma multiforme 120 months after the first diagnosis of medulloblastoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Cerebellar Neoplasms / surgery. Ependymoma / surgery. Medulloblastoma / surgery. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Cranial Irradiation. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infant. Male. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 10672424.001).
  • [ISSN] 0256-7040
  • [Journal-full-title] Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Childs Nerv Syst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] GERMANY
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27. Peltier J, Vinchon M, Baroncini M, Kerdraon O, Dhellemmes P: Bifocal mixed germ-cell tumor with growing teratoma syndrome and metachronous mature metastases: case report. J Neurooncol; 2008 Oct;90(1):111-5
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  • The histological diagnosis obtained during endoscopic ventriculocisternostomy was germinoma.
  • MRI revealed an increase of the neoplasm during chemotherapy with recurrent obstructive hydrocephalus.
  • Subsequently, this patient developed metachronous cystic metastases in the cerebello-pontine angles, which were resected and identified as mature teratoma, then we observed a lesion of the brachium conjunctivum which stayed stable after 29 consecutive months.
  • The patient is alive and feels well 6 years after the initial diagnosis and 5 years after the first metastasis.
  • To our knowledge, this is the fifth case of the growing teratoma syndrome located in the brain but the first case with simultaneously bifocal location and infratentorial disseminated metastasis.
  • Obviously surgical removal is the treatment of reference for teratomas.
  • Primary intracranial germ-cell tumors (CGT) arise in the midline of the brain and are located in the diencephalon.
  • Curiously, teratomas are able to grow during the first weeks of chemotherapy while serum markers remain normal.
  • Here we report the rare occurrence of a GTS in a teenager who presented metachronous cystic metastases located in posterior fossa which were histologically mature.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Teratoma / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Neurosurgical Procedures. Pineal Gland / pathology. Pineal Gland / physiopathology

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  • [CommentIn] J Neurooncol. 2009 Sep;94(3):449-50 [19347253.001]
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  • (PMID = 18574668.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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28. Hong TS, Mehta MP, Boyett JM, Donahue B, Rorke LB, Zeltzer PM: Patterns of treatment failure in infants with primitive neuroectodermal tumors who were treated on CCG-921: a phase III combined modality study. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2005 Oct 15;45(5):676-82
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  • [Title] Patterns of treatment failure in infants with primitive neuroectodermal tumors who were treated on CCG-921: a phase III combined modality study.
  • PURPOSE: To analyze patterns of treatment failure in infants with primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs) who were treated primarily with chemotherapy in a large multi-institutional study.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty-five prospectively staged patients with PNET confirmed by central pathology review, who were 18 months or younger were treated on Children's Cancer Group Study 921 (CCG-921) primarily with chemotherapy.
  • Forty-six patients had posterior fossa (PF) primary tumors and 19 patients had supratentorial (ST) primaries.
  • Patterns of sites of initial treatment failure were analyzed and compared to failure patterns of 180 older children who had PF-PNETs, and 44 older children with ST-PNETs who were treated on the same protocol.
  • Cumulative 5-year relapse incidence (+/-SE) for younger patients with PF-PNETs was 64.5 +/- 8.9% for patients without metastases (M0) compared to 71.4 +/- 13.4% for patients with metastases (M+).
  • The overall treatment failure rate was significantly higher for younger compared to older patients with PF-PNET and ST-PNET.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Despite aggressive chemotherapy, younger children with PNETs have high rates of treatment failure and fare worse than high-risk, older patients with PF-PNETs, indicating the need to maximize local, regional, and systemic therapies.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Clinical Trials, Phase III as Topic. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease Progression. Disease-Free Survival. Humans. Infant. Infratentorial Neoplasms / mortality. Infratentorial Neoplasms / pathology. Infratentorial Neoplasms / therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Supratentorial Neoplasms / mortality. Supratentorial Neoplasms / pathology. Supratentorial Neoplasms / therapy. Survival Rate. Treatment Failure

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  • (PMID = 16007595.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5009
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA21765
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
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29. Rieken S, Gaiser T, Mohr A, Welzel T, Witt O, Kulozik AE, Wick W, Debus J, Combs SE: Outcome and prognostic factors of desmoplastic medulloblastoma treated within a multidisciplinary treatment concept. BMC Cancer; 2010;10:450
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  • [Title] Outcome and prognostic factors of desmoplastic medulloblastoma treated within a multidisciplinary treatment concept.
  • Today, all medulloblastoma patients receive intensive multimodal treatment including surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy.
  • This study was set up to investigate treatment outcome and prognostic factors after radiation therapy in patients with desmoplastic medulloblastomas.
  • Two patients underwent whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT), and 18 patients received craniospinal irradiation (CSI).
  • In all patients, an additional boost was delivered to the posterior fossa.
  • The median dose to the whole brain and the craniospinal axis was 35.2 Gray (Gy), and 54.4 Gy to the posterior fossa.
  • Fourteen patients received chemotherapy, including seven who were treated with combined radiochemotherapy and twelve who received adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • Treatment-associated toxicity was acceptable.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cerebellar Neoplasms / therapy. Cranial Irradiation. Medulloblastoma / therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / therapy. Neurosurgical Procedures
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Radiotherapy Dosage. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20731859.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2939548
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30. Khalil EM: Treatment results of adults and children with medulloblastoma NCI, Cairo University experience. J Egypt Natl Canc Inst; 2008 Jun;20(2):175-86
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  • [Title] Treatment results of adults and children with medulloblastoma NCI, Cairo University experience.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate treatment outcome and prognostic factors of adults and pediatric medulloblastoma patients treated by adjuvant postoperative craniospinal irradiation (CSI) and chemotherapy.
  • All patients were treated by craniospinal radiotherapy (RT); with a median dose of 34Gy to the whole brain, 54Gy to the posterior fossa and 32Gy to the spinal axis.
  • Thirty four pediatric patients (67% ) received concomitant chemotherapy, while 61% received adjuvant (postoperative) chemotherapy and 57% received sequential chemotherapy.
  • Only 33% of patients did not receive chemotherapy.
  • Fourteen patients (21% ) relapsed (10 pediatric and 4 adults) at a median time of 11 months vs. 23 months and a median follow-up period of 8 and 12 months respectively; Neuro-axis was the most common site of relapse (11 patients).
  • Ninety percent (9/10) of the pediatric relapses were of the high risk group (8 received no chemotherapy) and took place within 2 years; similarly all adult relapses were of the high risk group; three relapses took place after 2 years.
  • Patients who did not receive chemotherapy had a 69% 5-year DFS vs. 76% (p=0.286).
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Cerebellar Neoplasms / therapy. Cranial Irradiation. Medulloblastoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / therapy. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Radiotherapy Dosage. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20029474.001).
  • [ISSN] 1110-0362
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Egyptian National Cancer Institute
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Egypt Natl Canc Inst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Egypt
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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31. Slampa P, Pavelka Z, Dusek L, Hynkova L, Sterba J, Ondrova B, Princ D, Novotny T, Kostakova S: Longterm treatment results of childhood medulloblastoma by craniospinal irradiation in supine position. Neoplasma; 2007;54(1):62-7
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  • [Title] Longterm treatment results of childhood medulloblastoma by craniospinal irradiation in supine position.
  • Medulloblastoma, a primitive neuroectodermal tumor growing in cerebellum, is one of the most sensitive to radiation therapy childhood brain tumors.
  • The radiotherapy is an essential method of treatment for these tumours, but the surgery is the primary treatment of choice in medulloblastoma.
  • All tumors were histologically proved and were localizated infratentorially in the posterior fossa.
  • All of the patients were irradiated with a dose of 24-36 Gy to the whole craniospinal axis and boost with conformal therapy restricted to the tumor bed to the total dose of 50-54 Gy (30-36 Gy "high risk", 24-30 Gy "standard risk" group).
  • Chemotherapy received 26 patients (78%).
  • Irradiation was performed using standard fractionation (5 fractions per week) with a single dose of 1.5-1.8 Gy for craniospinal axis by photon beam (6 MV) of the linear accelerator.
  • Endocrine deficits occurred in 45% (8 patients of the group were hypothyroid, 6 patients needed growth hormone replacement therapy, 1 patient had early puberty).
  • Further evaluation of the effectiveness of our therapy is not feasible due to the small number of patients.
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Radiotherapy Dosage. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome


32. Yazigi-Rivard L, Masserot C, Lachenaud J, Diebold-Pressac I, Aprahamian A, Avran D, Doz F: [Childhood medulloblastoma]. Arch Pediatr; 2008 Dec;15(12):1794-804
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  • Medulloblastoma is one of the most common malignant childhood brain tumors.
  • Brain and spinal MRI can establish the diagnosis of posterior fossa tumor and define the extent of the disease.
  • Histologic examination of the tumor confirms the diagnosis of medulloblastoma.
  • Tumor molecular genetic findings allow the use of emerging prognostic factors and may ultimately contribute to the development of targeted therapy.
  • Current treatment in the oldest children combines surgical resection followed by radiotherapy and chemotherapy.
  • Treatment in younger patients is as much as possible restricted to surgery and chemotherapy.
  • However, long-term sequelae after treatment for medulloblastoma remain frequent and the detection and treatment of those sequelae is an essential part of the follow-up of the patients.
  • [MeSH-minor] Age Factors. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Meta-Analysis as Topic. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasms, Second Primary / etiology. Prognosis. Prospective Studies. Radiotherapy / adverse effects. Radiotherapy Dosage. Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic. Risk Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18995998.001).
  • [ISSN] 0929-693X
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives de pédiatrie : organe officiel de la Sociéte française de pédiatrie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Pediatr
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Number-of-references] 52
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33. Raney RB, Meza J, Anderson JR, Fryer CJ, Donaldson SS, Breneman JC, Fitzgerald TJ, Gehan EA, Michalski JM, Ortega JA, Qualman SJ, Sandler E, Wharam MD, Wiener ES, Maurer HM, Crist WM: Treatment of children and adolescents with localized parameningeal sarcoma: experience of the Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study Group protocols IRS-II through -IV, 1978-1997. Med Pediatr Oncol; 2002 Jan;38(1):22-32
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  • [Title] Treatment of children and adolescents with localized parameningeal sarcoma: experience of the Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study Group protocols IRS-II through -IV, 1978-1997.
  • BACKGROUND: We reviewed 611 patients with parameningeal sarcoma entered on Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study Group (IRSG) Protocols-II through IV (1978-1997), to delineate treatment results and evaluate prognostic factors.
  • PROCEDURE: Primary sites were the middle ear/mastoid (N = 138), nasopharynx/nasal cavity (N = 235), paranasal sinuses (N = 132), parapharyngeal region (N = 29), and the pterygopalatine/infratemporal fossa (N = 77).
  • Treatment was initial biopsy or surgery followed by multiagent chemotherapy and radiation therapy (XRT).
  • Beginning in 1977, patients with cranial nerve palsy, cranial base bony erosion, and/or intracranial extension at diagnosis were considered as having meningeal involvement.
  • They received triple intrathecal medications, whole brain XRT, and then spinal XRT.
  • These treatments were successively eliminated from 1980 to 1991.
  • Favorable prognostic factors were: age 1-9 years at diagnosis; primary tumor in the nasopharynx/nasal cavity, middle ear/mastoid, or parapharyngeal areas; no meningeal involvement; and non-invasive tumors (T1).
  • Thirty-five of 526 patients (6.7%) with information about presence/absence of meningeal involvement at diagnosis developed central nervous system (CNS) extension at 5-164 weeks (median, 46 weeks) after starting therapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Biopsy, XRT to the target volume, and systemic chemotherapy are successful treatments for the large majority of patients with localized parameningeal sarcoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Head and Neck Neoplasms / therapy. Meningeal Neoplasms / therapy. Outcome Assessment (Health Care). Rhabdomyosarcoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Child. Child, Preschool. Clinical Protocols. Combined Modality Therapy. Cytarabine / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Hydrocortisone / administration & dosage. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Injections, Spinal. Male. Methotrexate / administration & dosage. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Prognosis. Radiation Dosage. Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2002 Wiley‐Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 11835233.001).
  • [ISSN] 0098-1532
  • [Journal-full-title] Medical and pediatric oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med. Pediatr. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-24507; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-29511; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-72989
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate
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34. Sakuma I, Tomura N, Omachi K, Takahashi S, Watarai J, Sasajima T, Mizoi K: [A case of astrocytoma with extracranial extension after malignant transformation]. No To Shinkei; 2003 Feb;55(2):153-6
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  • The initial diagnosis was made as low-grade astrocytoma.
  • After surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy were performed.
  • The tumor invades the skull base and extended into the infratemporal fossa 25 months after surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Glioblastoma / pathology. Skull Base Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 12684996.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-8969
  • [Journal-full-title] Nō to shinkei = Brain and nerve
  • [ISO-abbreviation] No To Shinkei
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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35. Chelliah D, Mensah Sarfo-Poku C, Stea BD, Gardetto J, Zumwalt J: Medulloblastoma with extensive nodularity undergoing post-therapeutic maturation to a gangliocytoma: a case report and literature review. Pediatr Neurosurg; 2010;46(5):381-4
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  • [Title] Medulloblastoma with extensive nodularity undergoing post-therapeutic maturation to a gangliocytoma: a case report and literature review.
  • A gross total resection was performed followed by adjuvant systemic chemotherapy due to his young age; however, the tumor recurred locally in the posterior fossa 7 months later.
  • The recurrent tumor was excised and he received craniospinal radiation with a boost given to the posterior fossa followed by high-dose chemotherapy.
  • A routine follow-up MRI of the brain revealed an enhancing mass.
  • The apparent maturation of primitive medulloblastoma cells is a rare phenomenon, which may have ensued from the long-term effects of adjuvant therapies inducing advanced cellular maturation.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebellar Neoplasms / surgery. Ganglioneuroma / surgery. Medulloblastoma / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 21389751.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0305
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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36. Lutterbach J, Liegibel J, Koch D, Madlinger A, Frommhold H, Pagenstecher A: Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors in adult patients: case report and review of the literature. J Neurooncol; 2001 Mar;52(1):49-56
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  • Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a posterior fossa mass.
  • Despite a 6 week course of oral temozolomide, the tumor progressed and the patient died 11 months after diagnosis.
  • Oral chemotherapy was not effective in controlling diffuse tumor spread.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Dacarbazine / analogs & derivatives. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / diagnosis. Rhabdoid Tumor / diagnosis. Teratoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Delivery, Obstetric. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Pregnancy. Radiosurgery. Radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 11451202.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; YF1K15M17Y / temozolomide
  • [Number-of-references] 33
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37. Zacharoulis S, Ji L, Pollack IF, Duffner P, Geyer R, Grill J, Schild S, Jaing TH, Massimino M, Finlay J, Sposto R: Metastatic ependymoma: a multi-institutional retrospective analysis of prognostic factors. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2008 Feb;50(2):231-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • PURPOSE: Metastatic ependymoma is exceedingly rare at diagnosis with variable prognosis reported in the literature.
  • PROCEDURE: Data regarding diagnosis, treatment and follow-up for 40 patients from eight institutional cohorts were collected.
  • RESULTS: Twenty-nine (72%) patients were less than 36 months of age at the time of diagnosis, 28% were females, and 90% of the patients had posterior fossa tumors.
  • Adjuvant therapy was variable and included craniospinal irradiation (CSRT), chemotherapy, and chemotherapy with focal irradiation.
  • The 5-year event free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) from the time of diagnosis were 29% (+/-7%) and 43% (+/-8%), respectively.
  • Age at diagnosis was associated significantly with both EFS and OS (P < 0.001 for EFS, and P = 0.01 for OS).
  • Patients who were 24-35 months of age at diagnosis had a 5-year EFS of 66% and a 5-year OS of 73%; both survival rates were superior to those of patients younger than 24 months of age or older than 36 months.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Ependymoma / pathology. Ependymoma / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Child, Preschool. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Male. Neoplasm Metastasis. Proportional Hazards Models. Retrospective Studies

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 17610266.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5017
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
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38. Schönegger K, Gelpi E, Prayer D, Dieckmann K, Matula C, Hassler M, Hainfellner JA, Marosi C: Recurrent and metastatic clivus chordoma: systemic palliative therapy retards disease progression. Anticancer Drugs; 2005 Nov;16(10):1139-43
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  • [Title] Recurrent and metastatic clivus chordoma: systemic palliative therapy retards disease progression.
  • Within the first 4 years, the patient underwent surgery four times.
  • Thereafter, he received radiotherapy and subsequent chemotherapy.
  • Stabilization of disease was achieved repeatedly for variable periods under local radiotherapy, systemic chemotherapy, immunomodulatory and anti-angiogenic therapy with isotretinoin and interferon-alpha, followed by thalidomide.
  • Due to the occurrence of brain and lung metastases 8 years after initial diagnosis, liposomal doxorubicin was added to thalidomide.
  • Our observations show that multimodal therapy including a systemic palliative approach is associated with long quiescent intervals in recurrent chordoma and with regression of its metastases.
  • Use of substances with high efficacy on tumor tissue and low toxicity, allowing long-term administration, seems promising in similar situations.
  • [MeSH-major] Chordoma / secondary. Chordoma / therapy. Cranial Fossa, Posterior. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / therapy. Palliative Care. Skull Base Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy. Disease Progression. Humans. Karnofsky Performance Status. Male. Middle Aged. Recurrence. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16222158.001).
  • [ISSN] 0959-4973
  • [Journal-full-title] Anti-cancer drugs
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Drugs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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39. Agaoglu FY, Ayan I, Dizdar Y, Kebudi R, Gorgun O, Darendeliler E: Ependymal tumors in childhood. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2005 Sep;45(3):298-303
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Ependymomas represent 5-10% of intracranial neoplasm in children.
  • In this study, demographic data and the treatment results of pediatric patients with ependymal tumors, treated in a single institute, is reported.
  • Postoperative treatment consisted of regional (8 patients) or craniospinal (CSI) (9 patients) radiotherapy (RT) in patients with ependymoma; regional (7 patients) or CSI RT (14 patients) with chemotherapy (ChT) in patients with anaplastic ependymoma; ChT only (1 patient) in patients less than 3 years of age.
  • The standard technique for posterior fossa irradiation was parallel-opposed lateral fields and total dose was 45-54 Gy.
  • Median time for progression or relapse was 24.3 months and there were 19 patients (43.6%) with relapse or progression.
  • Treatment failure occurred mainly within the first 2 years, and outcome was dismal for patients who relapsed or had progressive disease.
  • The median age at diagnosis is 6 years in our patient group; younger children (less than 3 years old) have less favorable outcome.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms. Ependymoma

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 15770637.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5009
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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40. Kokufu I, Tanei T, Taniguchi H, Kimura F, Fukuda K, Yamamoto M, Yano T, Yamada K, Tamaoka K, Hosono M: [Two cases of effective weekly paclitaxel administration and concurrent radiation for metastatic breast cancer]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2003 Jan;30(1):111-4
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  • Case 1: A 50-year-old woman was found to have atelectasis of the middle lobe after treatment for brain metastasis.
  • She received weekly TXL administration and concurrent radiation to the mediastinum and supraclavicular fossa.
  • The metastatic lymph nodes had disappeared one month after the treatment.
  • The lung and pleural metastases had disappeared and the orbital metastasis was decreased by 75% one month after the treatment, and the case was assessed as a partial response.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / therapeutic use. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Breast Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Paclitaxel / therapeutic use. Radiation-Sensitizing Agents / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Combined Modality Therapy. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Humans. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 12557714.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 0 / Radiation-Sensitizing Agents; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
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41. Massimino M, Giangaspero F, Garrè ML, Genitori L, Perilongo G, Collini P, Riva D, Valentini L, Scarzello G, Poggi G, Spreafico F, Peretta P, Mascarin M, Modena P, Sozzi G, Bedini N, Biassoni V, Urgesi A, Balestrini MR, Finocchiaro G, Sandri A, Gandola L, AIEOP Neuro-Oncology Group: Salvage treatment for childhood ependymoma after surgery only: Pitfalls of omitting "at once" adjuvant treatment. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2006 Aug 1;65(5):1440-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Salvage treatment for childhood ependymoma after surgery only: Pitfalls of omitting "at once" adjuvant treatment.
  • PURPOSE: To discuss the results obtained by giving adjuvant treatment for childhood ependymoma (EPD) at relapse after complete surgery only.
  • RESULTS: Mean time to first local progression in group B had been 14 months.
  • Tumors originated in the posterior fossa (PF) in 10 children and were supratentorial (ST) in 4; 11 had first been completely excised (NED) and 3 had residual disease (ED).
  • All received radiotherapy (RT) to tumor bed and 5 also had pre-RT chemotherapy.
  • Considering only PF tumors and setting time 0 as at the last surgery for group B, progression-free survival and overall survival were 32% and 50% for group B and 52% (p < 0.20)/70% (p < 0.29) for the 46 patients in group A with PF tumors.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Relapsers after surgery only, especially if with PF-EPD, do worse than those treated after first diagnosis; subsequent surgery for tumor relapse has severe neurologic sequelae.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Ependymoma / radiotherapy. Salvage Therapy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Neoplasm, Residual. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16863927.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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