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1. Hashimoto M, Umekita N, Noda K: Non-Hodgkin lymphoma as a cause of obstructive jaundice with simultaneous extrahepatic portal vein obstruction: a case report. World J Gastroenterol; 2008 Jul 7;14(25):4093-5
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  • [Title] Non-Hodgkin lymphoma as a cause of obstructive jaundice with simultaneous extrahepatic portal vein obstruction: a case report.
  • We present a 50-year-old patient with obstructive jaundice whose extrahepatic portal vein was obstructed by the invasion of a peripancreatic non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
  • Computed tomography (CT) revealed a 10 cm mass in the retroperitoneal space behind the head of the pancreas causing obstruction of the distal bile duct and the PV.
  • The resected specimen showed endoluminal invasion of both the bile duct and the PV.
  • The pathologic diagnosis was diffuse large B-cell type non-Hodgkin lymphoma and the patient was transferred to the Department of Hematology and Oncology for chemotherapy.
  • He received four cycles of combined chemotherapy including cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone plus rituximab, and three cycles of intrathecal chemoprophylaxis including methotorexate, cytosine arbinoside and prednisone.
  • The patient is alive with no evidence of the disease for 7 mo after operation and will receive additional courses of chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols. Bile Ducts / pathology. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Humans. Jugular Veins / transplantation. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Pancreaticoduodenectomy. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18609698.001).
  • [ISSN] 1007-9327
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2725353
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2. Aljiffry M, Walsh MJ, Molinari M: Advances in diagnosis, treatment and palliation of cholangiocarcinoma: 1990-2009. World J Gastroenterol; 2009 Sep 14;15(34):4240-62
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  • [Title] Advances in diagnosis, treatment and palliation of cholangiocarcinoma: 1990-2009.
  • Several advances in diagnosis, treatment and palliation of cholangiocarcinoma (CC) have occurred in the last decades.
  • CC is a relatively rare tumor and the main risk factors are: chronic inflammation, genetic predisposition and congenital abnormalities of the biliary tree.
  • The only curative treatment for CC is surgical resection with negative margins.
  • Liver transplantation has been proposed only for selected patients with hilar CC that cannot be resected who have no metastatic disease after a period of neoadjuvant chemo-radiation therapy.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging/magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography, positron emission tomography scan, endoscopic ultrasound and computed tomography scans are the most frequently used modalities for diagnosis and tumor staging.
  • Adjuvant therapy, palliative chemotherapy and radiotherapy have been relatively ineffective for inoperable CC.
  • Photodynamic therapy is an emerging palliative treatment that seems to provide pain relief, improve biliary patency and increase survival.
  • The clinical utility of other emerging therapies such as transarterial chemoembolization, hepatic arterial chemoinfusion and high intensity intraductal ultrasound needs further study.
  • [MeSH-major] Bile Duct Neoplasms / diagnosis. Bile Duct Neoplasms / therapy. Bile Ducts, Extrahepatic. Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic. Cholangiocarcinoma / diagnosis. Cholangiocarcinoma / therapy. Palliative Care / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Disease Progression. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 19750567.001).
  • [ISSN] 2219-2840
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Number-of-references] 303
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2744180
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3. Rhomberg W, Stephan H, Böhler F, Erhart K, Eiter H: Radiotherapy and razoxane in advanced bile duct carcinomas. Anticancer Res; 2005 Sep-Oct;25(5):3613-8
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Bile Duct Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Radiotherapy and razoxane in advanced bile duct carcinomas.
  • OBJECTIVES: Little is known about the radiation sensitivity of bile duct carcinomas.
  • The current study was undertaken to prospectively assess the objective response rates in bile duct carcinomas treated with radiotherapy and razoxane.
  • They received a total tumor dose of 48 Gy (range 1.7-60) at the ICRU point with single fractions of 1.7 to 2 Gy.
  • Objective tumor responses were seen in 4/4 gallbladder carcinomas (1 CR, 3 PR), 4/5 extrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas (2 CR 2 PR), and 1/5 hepatobiliary cancers (1 PR), leading to an overall response rate of 64%.
  • On an intention-to-treat basis, all patients with different biliary cancer without distant metastases had a median-survival time of 10 months (range 1 to 48) from the start of the radiotherapy; the 1-year survival was 43%.
  • Tolerance to the treatment was fairly good.
  • Obstacles to the treatment were complications of the disease and frequent metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Bile Duct Neoplasms / drug therapy. Bile Duct Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Razoxane / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Bile Ducts, Extrahepatic / pathology. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Gallbladder Neoplasms / drug therapy. Gallbladder Neoplasms / pathology. Gallbladder Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Radiation-Sensitizing Agents / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 16101189.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Radiation-Sensitizing Agents; 5AR83PR647 / Razoxane
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4. Fingas CD, Blechacz BR, Smoot RL, Guicciardi ME, Mott J, Bronk SF, Werneburg NW, Sirica AE, Gores GJ: A smac mimetic reduces TNF related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL)-induced invasion and metastasis of cholangiocarcinoma cells. Hepatology; 2010 Aug;52(2):550-61
COS Scholar Universe. author profiles.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) cells paradoxically express tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), a death ligand that, failing to kill CCA cells, instead promotes their tumorigenicity and especially the metastatic behaviors of cell migration and invasion.
  • Second mitochondria-derived activator of caspase (smac) mimetics are promising cancer therapeutic agents that enhance proapoptotic death receptor signaling by causing cellular degradation of inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) proteins.
  • Treatment with JP1584 inhibited TRAIL-induced NF-kappaB activation as well as TRAIL-mediated up-regulation of the NF-kappaB target gene, matrix metalloproteinase 7 (MMP7).
  • Finally, in a syngeneic rat orthotopic CCA model, JP1584 administration reduced MMP7 messenger RNA levels and extrahepatic metastases.
  • These data support the emerging concept that IAPs are prometastatic and represent targets for antimetastatic therapies.

  • MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Bile Duct Cancer.
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  • (PMID = 20683954.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-3350
  • [Journal-full-title] Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hepatology
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA083650-10; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK084567-016281; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA 39225; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK059427-11; None / None / / R01 DK059427-11; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA 83650; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK059427; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R56 DK059427; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA083650; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA039225-26; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK84567; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / P30 DK084567-016281; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA039225; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK59427; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / P30 DK084567
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DIABLO protein, human; 0 / Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / Mitochondrial Proteins; 0 / TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS231866; NLM/ PMC2957364
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5. Dubaniewicz A, Dubaniewicz A: [Cholangiocarcinoma--bile ducts cancer]. Wiad Lek; 2003;56(1-2):57-60
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Bile Duct Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Cholangiocarcinoma--bile ducts cancer].
  • Cholangiocarcinoma (CC) is a malignant neoplasm deriving from intra- and extrahepatic bile ducts.
  • Usually the tumor grows slowly and metastazes late locally and even less frequently extrahepaticly.
  • CC often causes symptoms by blocking the bile ducts, abdominal pain, weight loss, signs of portal hypertension, rare ascites and thrombophlebitis.
  • CC as usually non-vascularized nonencapsulated tumor with a large amount of fibrosis.
  • Recently, FDG positron emission tomography has been suggested to be a sensitive technique in identifying small bile duct cancers.
  • The adjuvant radio- and chemotherapy and transplantation are not satisfactory.
  • Palliative therapy includes surgical biliary-intestinal bypass procedures as well as operative and nonoperative techniques for biliary intestinal drainage.
  • Recently, the local treatment of CC by photodynamic therapy as a palliative strategy is very promising.
  • Ordinary CC is reported as a neoplasm with a poor prognosis.
  • Post resection 5-year survival is affirmed in about 25% of CC, whereas after palliative treatment only 1 year.
  • [MeSH-major] Bile Duct Neoplasms. Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic. Cholangiocarcinoma
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / complications. Bile Ducts / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Hepatitis, Chronic / complications. Humans. Liver / pathology. Palliative Care. Prognosis. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 12901270.001).
  • [ISSN] 0043-5147
  • [Journal-full-title] Wiadomości lekarskie (Warsaw, Poland : 1960)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Wiad. Lek.
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 29
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6. Nio Y, Itakura M, Koike M, Omori H, Hashimoto K, Yano S, Higami T: A self-expandable metallic stent in combination with cholangioscopic microwave coagulation therapy and chemotherapy with oral TS-1 against obstructive jaundice due to recurrent gastric cancer: a case report of successful treatment. Anticancer Res; 2003 Mar-Apr;23(2C):1795-801
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Stomach Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A self-expandable metallic stent in combination with cholangioscopic microwave coagulation therapy and chemotherapy with oral TS-1 against obstructive jaundice due to recurrent gastric cancer: a case report of successful treatment.
  • She was treated with percutaneous transhepatic cholangio-drainage, followed by radiotherapy and chemotherapy with cisplatin, epirubicin and 5-FU, which resulted in a prominent response and a self-expandable metallic stent was placed into the bile duct.
  • After 11 months, however, the tumor recurred and the bile duct was obstructed again by an invading tumor.
  • She was retreated with percutaneous transhepatic cholangio-drainage for jaundice, followed by chemotherapy with oral TS-1.
  • Her recurrent tumor dramatically responded again, and cholangioscopic microwave coagulation therapy was applied for the first time through a cholangio-drainage route and an additional metallic stent was inserted into the bile duct.
  • After these therapies she has been disease--free for more than 2 years.
  • In conclusion, the placement of a self-expandable metallic stent in combination with cholangioscopic microwave coagulation therapy and TS-1 was very effective in managing the obstructive jaundice due to the local recurrence of gastric cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Cholestasis, Extrahepatic / therapy. Microwaves / therapeutic use. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / complications. Oxonic Acid / therapeutic use. Pyridines / therapeutic use. Stents. Stomach Neoplasms / complications. Tegafur / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Bile Ducts / surgery. Cautery / methods. Combined Modality Therapy. Drainage. Drug Combinations. Female. Humans. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 12820461.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Drug Combinations; 0 / Pyridines; 150863-82-4 / S 1 (combination); 1548R74NSZ / Tegafur; 5VT6420TIG / Oxonic Acid
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7. Jarnagin WR: Cholangiocarcinoma of the extrahepatic bile ducts. Semin Surg Oncol; 2000 Sep-Oct;19(2):156-76
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cholangiocarcinoma of the extrahepatic bile ducts.
  • Malignancies of the biliary tree, particularly the extrahepatic bile ducts, remain difficult clinical problems.
  • Complete resection remains the most effective therapy, but is usually possible in the minority of patients.
  • Palliating the effects of biliary obstruction is thus often the primary therapeutic goal.
  • Chemotherapy and radiation therapy have not been proven to reduce the incidence of recurrence after resection nor to improve survival in patients with unresectable disease.
  • This review focuses on cholangiocarcinoma of the extrahepatic bile ducts.
  • [MeSH-major] Bile Duct Neoplasms / surgery. Bile Ducts, Extrahepatic. Cholangiocarcinoma / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Clinical Trials as Topic. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neoplasm Staging. Palliative Care. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 11126380.001).
  • [ISSN] 8756-0437
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 135
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8. Fukuda S, Okuda K, Imamura M, Imamura I, Eriguchi N, Aoyagi S: Surgical resection combined with chemotherapy for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma with tumor thrombus: report of 19 cases. Surgery; 2002 Mar;131(3):300-10
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Surgical resection combined with chemotherapy for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma with tumor thrombus: report of 19 cases.
  • BACKGROUND: Prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with tumor thrombus in the main portal vein (MPV), inferior vena cava (IVC), or extrahepatic bile duct (EBD) treated by conventional therapies has been considered poor.
  • This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy after surgical resection as an adjuvant therapy or as a treatment for intrahepatic recurrence of HCC with tumor thrombus in MPV, IVC, or EBD.
  • METHODS: Nineteen patients with HCC and tumor thrombus in the MPV, IVC, or EBD who underwent hepatectomy with thrombectomy were reviewed retrospectively.
  • Two patients with postoperative residual tumor thrombus died within 6 months owing to rapid progression of the residual tumor thrombus.
  • Tumors disappeared completely in 3 patients after hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy with a combination of cisplatinum and 5-fluorouracil, and the longest survival period was 17 years and 11 months in a patient with EBD thrombus.
  • CONCLUSIONS: If hepatic reserve is satisfactory, an aggressive surgical approach combined with chemotherapy seems to be of benefit for patients having HCC with tumor thrombus in the MPV, IVC, or EBD.
  • [MeSH-major] Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / surgery. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Liver Neoplasms / surgery. Thrombosis / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Angiography. Bile Ducts, Extrahepatic / blood supply. Cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopic Retrograde. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Infusions, Intra-Arterial. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Postoperative Complications. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 11894035.001).
  • [ISSN] 0039-6060
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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9. Christophides T, Samstein B, Emond J, Bhagat G: Primary follicular lymphoma of the extrahepatic bile duct mimicking a hilar cholangiocarcinoma: case report and review of the literature. Hum Pathol; 2009 Dec;40(12):1808-12
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  • [Title] Primary follicular lymphoma of the extrahepatic bile duct mimicking a hilar cholangiocarcinoma: case report and review of the literature.
  • Imaging studies revealed a mass measuring 6.0 x 8.0 cm at the porta hepatis extending to the right lobe of the liver and obstructing the common hepatic duct, causing mild to moderate intrahepatic biliary dilation and variable occlusion of the right portal vein.
  • At laparotomy, an infiltrative neoplasm was noted at the hilum that involved the common bile duct, right and left hepatic ducts, and the right lobe of the liver.
  • Extended right hepatectomy and resection of the extrahepatic bile duct and right portal vein was performed.
  • The patient subsequently received chemotherapy.
  • To the best of our knowledge, this is the third report of a primary extranodal follicular lymphoma of the extrahepatic biliary system.
  • [MeSH-major] Bile Ducts, Extrahepatic / pathology. Lymphoma, Follicular / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Bile Duct Neoplasms / pathology. Cholangiocarcinoma / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Klatskin Tumor / pathology. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 19716158.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8392
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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10. Furuse J, Okusaka T, Ohkawa S, Nagase M, Funakoshi A, Boku N, Yamao K, Yamaguchi T, Sato T: A phase II study of uracil-tegafur plus doxorubicin and prognostic factors in patients with unresectable biliary tract cancer. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol; 2009 Dec;65(1):113-20
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  • PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to clarify the safety and efficacy of combination chemotherapy of uracil-tegafur (UFT) and doxorubicin (UFD regimen), and to identify the prognostic factors in patients with unresectable advanced biliary tract cancer who received systemic chemotherapy.
  • METHODS: Patients with histologically or cytologically confirmed, measurable biliary tract cancer, including intrahepatic or extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, gallbladder cancer, and ampullary cancer, who were not suitable candidates for surgery, were eligible for the study.
  • The median progression-free survival was 1.6 months, and the overall median survival time was 6.5 months.
  • In the 85 patients who received this UFD chemotherapy in previous and late phase II studies, multivariate analysis revealed the ECOG performance status 1 (P = 0.001), gallbladder as the primary cancer site (P = 0.014), T-factor 4 of the TNM classification (P = 0.035), and elevated serum lactate dehydrogenase levels (P = 0.043) as being associated with a significantly shorter survival.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Combination chemotherapy of UFT and doxorubicin had minimum activity against advanced biliary tract cancer.
  • Performance status was identified as the most important prognostic factor in patients who received systemic chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bile Duct Neoplasms / drug therapy. Biliary Tract Neoplasms / drug therapy. Cholangiocarcinoma / drug therapy. Gallbladder Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Ampulla of Vater / pathology. Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic / pathology. Common Bile Duct Neoplasms / diagnosis. Common Bile Duct Neoplasms / drug therapy. Common Bile Duct Neoplasms / mortality. Disease-Free Survival. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. L-Lactate Dehydrogenase / blood. Male. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Survival Rate. Tegafur / administration & dosage. Treatment Outcome. Uracil / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 19404641.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-0843
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer chemotherapy and pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 1548R74NSZ / Tegafur; 56HH86ZVCT / Uracil; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; EC 1.1.1.27 / L-Lactate Dehydrogenase
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11. Zheng SS, Qin YS, Liang TB, Huang DS, Zhang M, Wang WL, Shen Y, Wang JH: [Long-term results of 84 surgically treated patients with extrahepatic bile duct carcinoma]. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi; 2005 Sep;27(9):554-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Long-term results of 84 surgically treated patients with extrahepatic bile duct carcinoma].
  • OBJECTIVE: Extrahepatic bile duct carcinoma is a rare but dismal malignacy.
  • This study is conducted to show retrospective review and analysis of the correlation between the prognosis and different treatment modalities.
  • RESULTS: Of the 84 patients, 33 had complete resection, 19 palliative resection, 12 exploration alone, and the remaining 20 were treated by chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy.
  • The mean follow-up time was 592 days.
  • The 1-, 3- and 5-year survival rate following complete resection was 76.8%, 52.6% and 30.5% respectively, which was significantly higher than those of palliative surgery or chemotherapy/radiotherapy (P < 0.01).
  • CONCLUSION: The prognosis of extrahepatic bile duct carcinoma remains poor even after complete resection as shown to have a 5-year survival of 30.5%.
  • More effective adjuvant therapy is needed.
  • Early diagnosis and early treatment is still the key to improve the long-term survival of extrahepatic bile duct carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Bile Duct Neoplasms / surgery. Bile Ducts, Extrahepatic / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biliary Tract Surgical Procedures / methods. Biliary Tract Surgical Procedures / mortality. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16438856.001).
  • [ISSN] 0253-3766
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua zhong liu za zhi [Chinese journal of oncology]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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12. Anderson C, Kim R: Adjuvant therapy for resected extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma: a review of the literature and future directions. Cancer Treat Rev; 2009 Jun;35(4):322-7
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  • [Title] Adjuvant therapy for resected extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma: a review of the literature and future directions.
  • Cholangiocarcinoma is a rare neoplasm originating from the intra- or extrahepatic bile duct epithelium.
  • Adjuvant therapy has the potential to play a crucial role in prolonging survival and local control.
  • Retrospective series have suggested benefit to adjuvant radiation, chemotherapy or concurrent chemo-radiation.
  • The scarce prospective data has not shown a survival benefit to adjuvant therapy.
  • In this article we review and summarize the published data regarding adjuvant therapy for resected extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma.
  • Prospective, multi-institutional randomized trials are needed to clarify the role of adjuvant therapy in this disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Bile Duct Neoplasms / mortality. Bile Duct Neoplasms / therapy. Bile Ducts, Extrahepatic. Cholangiocarcinoma / mortality. Cholangiocarcinoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biliary Tract Surgical Procedures / methods. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation. Female. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Quality of Life. Radiotherapy Dosage. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic. Risk Assessment. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19147294.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-1967
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer treatment reviews
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Treat. Rev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Number-of-references] 57
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13. Kim S, Kim SW, Bang YJ, Heo DS, Ha SW: Role of postoperative radiotherapy in the management of extrahepatic bile duct cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2002 Oct 1;54(2):414-9
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  • [Title] Role of postoperative radiotherapy in the management of extrahepatic bile duct cancer.
  • PURPOSE: To analyze the outcome of postoperative radiotherapy (RT) or chemoradiation for patients with extrahepatic bile duct cancer who had undergone either curative or palliative surgery, and to identify the prognostic factors for these patients.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: Between March 1982 and December 1994, 91 patients with extrahepatic bile duct cancer underwent RT at the Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital.
  • All the patients received >40 Gy of external beam RT after surgery.
  • Concurrent 5-fluorouracil was administered during external beam RT in 71 patients, and maintenance chemotherapy was performed in 61 patients after RT completion.
  • On univariate analysis using the Kaplan-Meier product limit method, the use of chemotherapy, performance status, N stage, size of residual tumor, stage, and tumor location were significant prognostic factors.
  • CONCLUSION: Long-term survival can be expected in patients with extrahepatic bile duct cancer who undergo radical surgery and postoperative chemoradiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Bile Duct Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Bile Ducts, Extrahepatic
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Analysis of Variance. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Postoperative Period. Prognosis. Proportional Hazards Models. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Treatment Failure

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  • (PMID = 12243816.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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14. Hasegawa K, Kubota K, Aoki T, Hirai I, Miyazawa M, Ohtomo K, Makuuchi M: Ischemic cholangitis caused by transcatheter hepatic arterial chemoembolization 10 months after resection of the extrahepatic bile duct. Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol; 2000 Jul-Aug;23(4):304-6

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Ischemic cholangitis caused by transcatheter hepatic arterial chemoembolization 10 months after resection of the extrahepatic bile duct.
  • Ten months prior to TAE the patient had undergone central bisegmentectomy for hepatocellular carcinoma with resection of the extrahepatic bile duct.
  • Eleven days after TAE, he developed suppurative cholangitis and multiple organ failure.
  • Prior surgical ligation of the peribiliary arteries around the extrahepatic bile duct followed by TAE was considered to have played a crucial role in the development of ischemic cholangitis.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Bile Ducts, Extrahepatic / surgery. Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic / blood supply. Chemoembolization, Therapeutic / adverse effects. Cholangitis / chemically induced. Ischemia / chemically induced
  • [MeSH-minor] Angiography. Bile Duct Neoplasms / diagnosis. Bile Duct Neoplasms / drug therapy. Bile Duct Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / surgery. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Hepatic Artery. Humans. Injections, Intra-Arterial. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Liver Neoplasms / surgery. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / drug therapy. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / surgery. Suction. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 10960546.001).
  • [ISSN] 0174-1551
  • [Journal-full-title] Cardiovascular and interventional radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
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15. Kaiho T, Tanaka T, Tsuchiya S, Yanagisawa S, Takeuchi O, Miura M, Saigusa N, Hayasaka A, Matsuzaki O, Miyazaki M: A case of small cell carcinoma of the common bile duct. Hepatogastroenterology; 2005 Mar-Apr;52(62):363-7
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  • [Title] A case of small cell carcinoma of the common bile duct.
  • We report a case of small cell carcinoma which occurred in the common bile duct.
  • Computed tomography and ultrasonography showed a mass near the pancreas head and dilatation of the intrahepatic bile ducts.
  • Endoscopic nasobiliary drainage was undertaken, and it revealed obstruction of the common bile duct.
  • The patient was diagnosed preoperatively as having extrahepatic bile duct cancer.
  • Upon laparotomy, a tumor was found to be located in the middle common bile duct.
  • The main trunk of the portal vein and the right hepatic artery were resected concomitantly because of tumor involvement.
  • Postoperative pathological examination revealed well-differentiated papillary adenocarcinoma on the surface of the bile duct lumen, but a large part of the extraductal component was small cell carcinoma.
  • The patient then underwent two postoperative courses of systemic chemotherapy.
  • Nevertheless, she died of cancer recurrence eight months after the operation, which showed that the tumor had a highly lethal nature, with rapid and widespread dissemination.
  • Further therapeutic trials are needed to improve survival in such cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Bile Duct Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Small Cell / diagnosis. Common Bile Duct
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cholangiopancreatography, Magnetic Resonance. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Pancreaticoduodenectomy / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 15816436.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-6390
  • [Journal-full-title] Hepato-gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hepatogastroenterology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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16. Jarnagin WR, Shoup M: Surgical management of cholangiocarcinoma. Semin Liver Dis; 2004 May;24(2):189-99
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Tumors arising from the gallbladder are the most common; those of bile duct origin, or cholangiocarcinoma, are less frequently encountered, constituting approximately 2% of all reported cancers.
  • Twenty to 30% of cholangiocarcinomas originate in the lower bile duct, and approximately 10% arise within the intrahepatic biliary tree and will present as an intrahepatic mass.
  • Complete resection remains the most effective and only potentially curative therapy for cholangiocarcinoma.
  • Distal cholangiocarcinomas, on the other hand, are treated like all periampullary malignancies and typically require pancreaticoduodenectomy.
  • Most patients with cholangiocarcinoma present with advanced disease that is not amenable to surgical treatment, and even with a complete resection, recurrence rates are high.
  • Adjuvant therapy (chemotherapy and radiation therapy) has not been shown clearly to reduce recurrence risk.
  • [MeSH-major] Bile Duct Neoplasms / surgery. Cholangiocarcinoma / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Bile Ducts, Extrahepatic / surgery. Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic / surgery. Hepatectomy. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Palliative Care

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  • (PMID = 15192791.001).
  • [ISSN] 0272-8087
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in liver disease
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin. Liver Dis.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 68
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17. Saikusa N, Naito S, Iinuma Y, Ohtani T, Yokoyama N, Nitta K: Invasive cholangiocarcinoma identified in congenital biliary dilatation in a 3-year-old boy. J Pediatr Surg; 2009 Nov;44(11):2202-5
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  • Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a dilated extrahepatic bile duct.
  • A diagnosis of Todani's type 1a CBD was made.
  • Intraoperative cholangiography demonstrated the presence of pancreaticobiliary maljunction but could not reveal any tumor lesion in the bile duct.
  • The excision of extrahepatic bile duct and gallbladder and Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy were performed.
  • On gross inspection, we could not find any tumor lesion in the resected specimen.
  • Most of the carcinoma remained within the mucosal layer, and the carcinoma was identified at both the distal and proximal surgical margins of the bile duct.
  • A close follow-up with abdominal computed tomography has been going on without either additional surgery or adjuvant chemotherapy about for 1 year.
  • [MeSH-major] Bile Duct Neoplasms / pathology. Bile Duct Neoplasms / surgery. Cholangiocarcinoma / pathology. Cholangiocarcinoma / surgery. Common Bile Duct / pathology. Common Bile Duct / surgery. Dilatation, Pathologic / congenital. Dilatation, Pathologic / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Age Factors. Anastomosis, Roux-en-Y / methods. Bile Ducts, Extrahepatic / radiography. Bile Ducts, Extrahepatic / surgery. Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic / pathology. Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic / surgery. Biliary Tract Surgical Procedures / methods. Child, Preschool. Cholangiography. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Neoplasm Invasiveness / radiography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19944233.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-5037
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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18. Gusani NJ, Balaa FK, Steel JL, Geller DA, Marsh JW, Zajko AB, Carr BI, Gamblin TC: Treatment of unresectable cholangiocarcinoma with gemcitabine-based transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE): a single-institution experience. J Gastrointest Surg; 2008 Jan;12(1):129-37
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  • [Title] Treatment of unresectable cholangiocarcinoma with gemcitabine-based transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE): a single-institution experience.
  • BACKGROUND: Survival for patients with unresectable cholangiocarcinoma is reported to range from only 5-8 months without treatment.
  • Systemic chemotherapy has not been shown to significantly improve survival, but newer regimens involving gemcitabine have shown increased response rates.
  • Transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) has been shown to prolong survival in hepatocellular carcinoma patients, but experience using TACE in the treatment of cholangiocarcinoma is limited.
  • We report our experience treating cholangiocarcinoma with TACE using chemotherapeutic regimens based on the well-tolerated drug gemcitabine.
  • Chemotherapy regimens used for TACE included: gemcitabine only (n=18), gemcitabine followed by cisplatin (n=2), gemcitabine followed by oxaliplatin (n=4), gemcitabine and cisplatin in combination (n=14), and gemcitabine and cisplatin followed by oxaliplatin (n=4).
  • RESULTS: Patients were 59 years of age (range 36-86) and received a median of 3.5 TACE treatments (range 1-16).
  • Nineteen patients (45%) had extrahepatic disease.
  • Grade 3 adverse events (AEs) after TACE treatments were seen in five patients, whereas grade 4 AEs occurred in two patients.
  • Median survival from time of first treatment was 9.1 months overall.
  • Results did not vary by patient age, sex, size of largest initial tumor, or by the presence of extra-hepatic disease.
  • Treatment with gemcitabine-cisplatin combination TACE resulted in significantly longer survival (13.8 months) compared to TACE with gemcitabine alone (6.3 months).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our report represents the largest series to date regarding hepatic-artery-directed therapy for unresectable cholangiocarcinoma and provides evidence in favor of TACE as a promising treatment modality in unresectable cholangiocarcinoma.
  • Our results suggest that gemcitabine-based TACE is well tolerated and confers better survival when given in combination therapy (with cisplatin or oxaliplatin) for patients with unresectable cholangiocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Bile Duct Neoplasms / therapy. Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic. Chemoembolization, Therapeutic / methods. Cholangiocarcinoma / therapy. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Hepatectomy / contraindications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy. Cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopic Retrograde. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Drug Therapy, Combination. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Hepatic Artery. Humans. Injections, Intra-Arterial. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Organoplatinum Compounds / administration & dosage. Retrospective Studies. Ribonucleotide Reductases / antagonists & inhibitors. Survival Rate. Time Factors. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17851723.001).
  • [ISSN] 1091-255X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of gastrointestinal surgery : official journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Gastrointest. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / K12 HD049109
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Organoplatinum Compounds; 04ZR38536J / oxaliplatin; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; B76N6SBZ8R / gemcitabine; EC 1.17.4.- / Ribonucleotide Reductases; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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19. Nanashima A, Yamaguchi H, Shibasaki S, Ide N, Sawai T, Tsuji T, Hidaka S, Sumida Y, Nakagoe T, Nagayasu T: Adjuvant photodynamic therapy for bile duct carcinoma after surgery: a preliminary study. J Gastroenterol; 2004 Nov;39(11):1095-101
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Bile Duct Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adjuvant photodynamic therapy for bile duct carcinoma after surgery: a preliminary study.
  • BACKGROUND: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a new palliative option in patients with non-resectable bile duct carcinoma (BDC).
  • Here, we assessed the efficacy of adjuvant photodynamic therapy in eight patients with BDC who underwent surgical resection.
  • METHODS: Five patients had extrahepatic BDC, two had intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, and one had ampullary carcinoma.
  • Cancer cells were microscopically detected in the stump of the hepatic duct in six patients, and biliary stenosis caused by remnant tumor was observed in one patient.
  • One patient had tumor recurrence with occlusion of the bile duct.
  • A pulse laser by an eximer dye laser (50-100 J/cm2) with a wavelength of 630 microm was applied through an endoscope to the hepatic stump or tumor lesion.
  • RESULTS: Marked destruction of the tumor and ductal epithelium was observed on day 1 after PDT.
  • After PDT, four patients developed mild dermatitis, but no severe morbidity or mortality was noted.
  • In patients who underwent PDT for the stump, one patient showed distant metastasis at 31 months, and four patients did not show tumor recurrence at 17, 12, 12, and 6 months, respectively.
  • In two patients with occlusion caused by tumor growth, resolution of bile duct stenosis was noted on day 7.
  • These patients showed re-occlusion by tumor at 20 and 8 months.
  • [MeSH-major] Bile Duct Neoplasms / drug therapy. Bile Duct Neoplasms / surgery. Bile Ducts, Extrahepatic. Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic. Cholangiocarcinoma / drug therapy. Cholangiocarcinoma / surgery. Dihematoporphyrin Ether / therapeutic use. Photochemotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Neoplasm, Residual. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 15580404.001).
  • [ISSN] 0944-1174
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 97067-70-4 / Dihematoporphyrin Ether
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20. Harder J, Blum HE: [Cholangiocarcinoma]. Praxis (Bern 1994); 2002 Aug 21;91(34):1352-6
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Bile Duct Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • They are a heterogeneous group of neoplasias that include the most common perihilar or Klatskin tumor (60%), the intrahepatic (peripheral) CCC, the extrahepatic bile duct cancer, the gallbladder cancer and the cancer of the ampulla of Vater.
  • At the time of diagnosis only 20% of patients can be treated by surgery, that offers the only chance for cure.
  • Neither chemotherapy nor radiation therapy improves survival.
  • In patients not eligible for curative surgery prevention or treatment of cholestatis is the main objective.
  • Palliative chemotherapy results in response rates up to 20%.
  • By combining different treatment modalities significant survival can be achieved in some patients.
  • Evidence Based Medicine studies are needed before treatment strategies can be recommended for clinical practice.
  • [MeSH-major] Bile Duct Neoplasms / diagnosis. Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic. Cholangiocarcinoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Gallbladder Neoplasms / diagnosis. Gallbladder Neoplasms / pathology. Hepatic Duct, Common / pathology. Humans. Klatskin Tumor / diagnosis. Klatskin Tumor / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 12233266.001).
  • [ISSN] 1661-8157
  • [Journal-full-title] Praxis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Praxis (Bern 1994)
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Number-of-references] 24
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21. Wiedmann M, Schoppmeyer K, Witzigmann H, Hauss J, Mössner J, Caca K: [Current diagnostics and therapy for carcinomas of the biliary tree and gallbladder]. Z Gastroenterol; 2005 Mar;43(3):305-15
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Gallbladder Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Current diagnostics and therapy for carcinomas of the biliary tree and gallbladder].
  • [Transliterated title] Aktuelle Diagnostik und Therapie von Gallengangs- und Gallenblasenkarzinomen.
  • Biliary neoplasms are classified into intra- and extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (Klatskin tumour, middle and distal extrahepatic tumours), gallbladder cancer, and ampullary carcinoma.
  • Transformation of normal into malignant bile duct tissue requires a chain of consecutive gene mutations, similar to the adenoma-dysplasia-carcinoma-sequence in colon cancer.
  • Abdominal ultrasound, combined non-invasive magnetic resonance cholangiography/tomography (MRC/MRT), and facultatively endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC) for unclear diagnosis, represent the gold standard for primary diagnosis.
  • In contrast, there has been no clinical benefit for adjuvant and neoadjuvant therapies.
  • For palliation, bile duct stenting and photodynamic therapy are established methods.
  • Radio- and chemotherapy should be reserved for clinical studies.
  • New therapeutic approaches include brachytherapy, the use of modern chemotherapeutics, COX-2- and tyrosine kinase-receptor-inhibitors.
  • [MeSH-major] Bile Duct Neoplasms. Gallbladder Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Algorithms. Ampulla of Vater. Bile Ducts / pathology. Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic. Biopsy. Brachytherapy. Cholangiocarcinoma / diagnosis. Cholangiocarcinoma / therapy. Cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopic Retrograde. Cholangiopancreatography, Magnetic Resonance. Common Bile Duct Neoplasms / diagnosis. Common Bile Duct Neoplasms / therapy. Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Gallbladder / pathology. Hepatectomy. Hepatic Duct, Common. Humans. Klatskin Tumor / diagnosis. Klatskin Tumor / therapy. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neoplasm Staging. Palliative Care. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Stents. Time Factors

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  • [CommentIn] Z Gastroenterol. 2005 May;43(5):473-5 [15871071.001]
  • (PMID = 15765304.001).
  • [ISSN] 0044-2771
  • [Journal-full-title] Zeitschrift für Gastroenterologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Z Gastroenterol
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors
  • [Number-of-references] 153
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22. Asakura H, Ohtsuka M, Ito H, Kimura F, Ambiru S, Shimizu H, Togawa A, Yoshidome H, Kato A, Miyazaki M: Long-term survival after extended surgical resection of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma with extensive lymph node metastasis. Hepatogastroenterology; 2005 May-Jun;52(63):722-4
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Bile Duct Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • A 62-year-old man underwent extended left hepatic lobectomy with caudate lobe resection, extrahepatic bile duct resection, portal vein resection and reconstruction, and middle hepatic vein resection and reconstruction with lymph node dissection for a liver tumor that was located in the caudate lobe.
  • These recurrent tumors were completely eliminated by systemic chemotherapy with cisplatin or mitomycin C.
  • The patient is now doing well 6 years and 5 months after surgical treatment.
  • In this case, there was only one tumor, and the preoperative serum carbohydrate antigen 19-9 level was normal.
  • These findings suggested that tumor in the present case was less aggressive, despite the nodal spread.
  • The extensive surgical approach may have contributed to the long-term survival of this patient, while the recurrent tumor was sensitive to antitumoral agents.
  • [MeSH-major] Bile Duct Neoplasms / surgery. Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic / surgery. Cholangiocarcinoma / surgery. Hepatectomy. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Disease-Free Survival. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Retreatment

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  • (PMID = 15966191.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-6390
  • [Journal-full-title] Hepato-gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hepatogastroenterology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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23. Gómez-Roel X, Arrieta O, León-Rodríguez E: Prognostic factors in gallbladder and biliary tract cancer. Med Oncol; 2007;24(1):77-83
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Gallbladder Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: Cancers of the gallbladder and bile ducts are uncommon neoplasms with poor survival.
  • METHODS: We reviewed the medical records of patients with cancer of the bile ducts and gallbladder between the years 1979 and 1998, and analyzed their characteristics according to location (gallbladder, extrahepatic biliary tract, intrahepatic biliary tract, and Klatskin tumors).
  • RESULTS: One hundred and sixty-eight patients were included; the mean follow-up time was 238 +/- 54 d.
  • The tumor found at more advanced stages was the biliary tract tumor.
  • Overall survival time was 254 +/- 40 d.
  • The factors significantly associated to increased survival were age at diagnosis less than 50 yr (p = 0.0065), surgical treatment (p < 0.001), adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy (p < 0.001 and p = 0.0072, respectively), surgical treatment with curative purpose (p < 0.001), stage of the disease (p < 0.0001), absence of jaundice (p = 0.0425), and absence of weight loss (p = 0.0446).
  • In the multivariate analysis the significant variables were age, surgical treatment, adjuvant chemotherapy, surgery with curative purpose, stage of the disease, and absence of jaundice.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Cancers of the bile ducts are neoplasms known to have a poor prognosis.
  • Chemotherapy was an independent survival factor despite the context, there is need of future studies to define its role on this disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Biliary Tract Neoplasms / diagnosis. Gallbladder Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Female. Humans. Jaundice / etiology. Male. Medical Records. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Palliative Care. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 17673815.001).
  • [ISSN] 1357-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Medical oncology (Northwood, London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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24. Akcali Z, Ozyilkan O, Sakalli H, Bal N, Noyan T: Gallbladder adenosquamous cell carcinoma: report of two cases. Acta Gastroenterol Belg; 2005 Oct-Dec;68(4):440-2
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. FLUOROURACIL .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The first patient presented to our institution with increased bilirubin levels and dilated intra- and extrahepatic bile ducts.
  • After surgery, bilirubin levels decreased, but hepatic metastases occurred that did not respond to conventional chemotherapy.
  • Abdominal computed tomography (CT) imaging showed marked thickening of the gallbladder with direct extension of a mass into the left liver lobe.
  • Cytology specimens obtained with an endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) procedure revealed a malignant epithelial tumour.
  • The patient underwent surgery but the tumour was incompletely resected.
  • A regimen of oral UFT (Tegafur + uracil) chemotherapy was begun.
  • Serum bilirubin levels increased due to occlusion in the surgical area 15 weeks after the start of chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Needle. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopic Retrograde / methods. Fluorouracil / therapeutic use. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Risk Assessment. Tegafur / therapeutic use. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16432998.001).
  • [ISSN] 1784-3227
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta gastro-enterologica Belgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Gastroenterol. Belg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Belgium
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 1548R74NSZ / Tegafur; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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