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1. Kato H, Miyazaki T, Nakajima M, Takita J, Kimura H, Faried A, Sohda M, Fukai Y, Masuda N, Fukuchi M, Manda R, Ojima H, Tsukada K, Kuwano H, Oriuchi N, Endo K: The incremental effect of positron emission tomography on diagnostic accuracy in the initial staging of esophageal carcinoma. Cancer; 2005 Jan 1;103(1):148-56
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The incremental effect of positron emission tomography on diagnostic accuracy in the initial staging of esophageal carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: The purpose of the current study was to assess whether [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) provides incremental value (e.g., additional information on lymph node involvement or the presence of distant metastases) compared with computed tomography (CT) in patients with esophageal carcinoma.
  • METHODS: The authors examined 149 consecutive patients with thoracic esophageal carcinoma.
  • Eighty-one patients underwent radical esophagectomy without pretreatment, 17 received chemoradiotherapy followed by surgery, 3 underwent endoscopic mucosal resection, and the remaining 48 patients received definitive radiotherapy and chemotherapy.
  • The diagnostic accuracy of FDG-PET and CT was evaluated at the time of diagnosis.
  • Regarding lymph node metastases, FDG-PET had 32% sensitivity, 99% specificity, and 93% accuracy for individual lymph node group evaluation and 55% sensitivity, 90% specificity, and 72% accuracy for lymph node staging evaluation.
  • PET exhibited incremental value over CT with regard to lymph node status in 14 of 98 patients who received surgery: 6 patients with negative CT findings were eventually shown to have lymph node metastases (i.e., they had positive PET findings and a positive reference standard [RS]); 6 patients with positive CT findings were shown not to have lymph node metastases (i.e., they had negative PET findings and a negative RS); and 2 patients were shown to have cervical lymph node metastases in addition to mediastinal or abdominal lymph node metastases.
  • CONCLUSIONS: FDG-PET provided incremental value over CT in the initial staging of esophageal carcinoma.
  • At present, combined PET-CT may be the most effective method available for the preoperative staging of esophageal tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma / radionuclide imaging. Esophageal Neoplasms / pathology. Esophageal Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Neoplasm Staging / methods. Positron-Emission Tomography
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Combined Modality Therapy. Decision Making. Female. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis / radionuclide imaging. Prognosis. Radiopharmaceuticals. Retrospective Studies. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 15558794.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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2. Gore RM: Upper gastrointestinal tract tumours: diagnosis and staging strategies. Cancer Imaging; 2005;5:95-8
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  • [Title] Upper gastrointestinal tract tumours: diagnosis and staging strategies.
  • In patients with oesophageal and gastric cancer, accurate assessment of tumour extent within and beyond the gut wall and detection of lymph node and distant metastases are of paramount importance in planning the surgical approach, in deciding whether neo-adjuvant chemotherapy or radiation therapy is necessary, and in determining the risk of tumour recurrence and overall prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Diagnostic Imaging. Esophageal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Stomach Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Neoplasm Staging

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  • [Copyright] Copyright International Cancer Imaging Society.
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  • [Cites] Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2005 Mar;17(3):293-301 [15716652.001]
  • [Cites] Cancer. 2005 Jan 1;103(1):148-56 [15558794.001]
  • [Cites] Semin Oncol. 2004 Aug;31(4):530-41 [15297944.001]
  • (PMID = 16154827.001).
  • [ISSN] 1470-7330
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer imaging : the official publication of the International Cancer Imaging Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1665231
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3. Shibata Y, Baba E, Ariyama H, Miki R, Ogami N, Arita S, Qin B, Kusaba H, Mitsugi K, Noshiro H, Yao T, Nakano S: Metastatic basaloid-squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus treated by 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin. World J Gastroenterol; 2007 Jul 14;13(26):3634-7
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  • We report here a patient with recurrent esophageal BSC, who was successfully treated by systemic chemotherapy containing 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and cisplatin (CDDP).
  • Curative esophagectomy with lymph node dissection was performed under the thoracoscope.
  • The pathological diagnosis of the surgical specimen was BSC.
  • Five months after operation, the patient was diagnosed as having a recurrence of the BSC with metastases to the liver and spleen, and a right paraclavicular lymph node.
  • She was given systemic chemotherapy consisting of continuous infusion of 800 mg/d of 5-FU and 3 h infusion of 20 mg/d of CDDP for 5 consecutive days every 4 wk.
  • The metastatic lesions in the spleen and right paraclavicular lymph node disappeared, and the liver metastasis was apparently reduced in size after 2 courses of chemotherapy.
  • Although subsequent treatment with CPT-11 and CDDP was not effective, docetaxel and vinorelbine temporarily controlled the tumor growth for 2 mo.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Esophageal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Splenic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Splenic Neoplasms / secondary. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17659717.001).
  • [ISSN] 1007-9327
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4146806
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4. Wu Z, Ma JY, Yang JJ, Zhao YF, Zhang SF: Primary small cell carcinoma of esophagus: report of 9 cases and review of literature. World J Gastroenterol; 2004 Dec 15;10(24):3680-2
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • AIM: To analyze the clinical manifestations, pathological features and treatment of primary small cell carcinoma (SCC) of the esophagus and to review the literature on this entity.
  • METHODS: The records of 9 patients with primary esophageal small cell carcinoma were examined and the demographic data, presenting symptoms, methods of tumor diagnosis, and types of treatment given, response to treatment, pathologic findings, and clinical outcome were reviewed.
  • Features of mixed patterns of histological differentiation and lymph node metastases were specifically sought.
  • The average length of esophageal involvement was 5 cm.
  • They underwent radical resection, regional lymph node clearance and esophageal-stomach anastomosis in thorax or at neck.
  • Metastasis was present in 7 of 9 adjacent lymph nodes.
  • They received adjuvant systemic chemotherapy and local radiation therapy after discharge.
  • During follow-up, three patients developed multiple liver, brain, lung and bone metastases and died between 5 and 18 mo after the diagnosis.
  • Three patients developed widespread metastasis disease and died between 18 and 37 mo after the diagnosis.
  • Radical resection combined with chemotherapy and radiotherapy is helpful in limited stage cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Small Cell / pathology. Esophageal Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 15534932.001).
  • [ISSN] 1007-9327
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Number-of-references] 18
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4612018
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5. Markogiannakis H, Theodorou D, Toutouzas KG, Larentzakis A, Pattas M, Bousiotou A, Papacostas P, Filis K, Katsaragakis S: Small cell carcinoma arising in Barrett's esophagus: a case report and review of the literature. J Med Case Rep; 2008;2:15

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • INTRODUCTION: Gastrointestinal tract small cell carcinoma is an infrequent and aggressive neoplasm that represents 0.1-1% of gastrointestinal malignancies.
  • Very few cases of small cell esophageal carcinoma arising in Barrett's esophagus have been reported in the literature.
  • An extremely rare case of primary small cell carcinoma of the distal third of the esophagus arising from dysplastic Barrett's esophagus is herein presented.
  • Esophagogastroscopy revealed an ulceroproliferative, intraluminar mass in the distal esophagus obstructing the esophageal lumen.
  • Biopsy showed small cell esophageal carcinoma.
  • Contrast-enhanced chest and abdominal computed tomography demonstrated a large tumor of the distal third of the esophagus without any lymphadenopathy or distant metastasis.
  • Preoperative chemotherapy with cisplatine and etoposide for 3 months resulted in a significant reduction of the tumor.
  • After en block esophagectomy with two field lymph node dissection, proximal gastrectomy, and cervical esophagogastric anastomosis, the patient was discharged on the 14th postoperative day.
  • Histopathology revealed a primary small cell carcinoma of the distal third of the esophagus arising from dysplastic Barrett's esophagus.
  • The patient received another 3 month course of postoperative chemotherapy with the same agents and remained free of disease at 12 month review.
  • CONCLUSION: Although small cell esophageal carcinoma is rare and its association with dysplastic Barrett's esophagus is extremely infrequent, the high carcinogenic risk of Barrett's epithelium should be kept in mind.
  • Prognosis is quite unfavorable; a better prognosis might be possible with early diagnosis and treatment strategies incorporating chemotherapy along with oncological radical surgery and/or radiotherapy as part of a multimodality approach.
  • Since treatment protocols are not well established due to the rarity of the neoplasm, multi-institutional studies are needed to obtain sufficiently large populations for investigation and optimization of therapy of the disease.

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  • (PMID = 18211708.001).
  • [ISSN] 1752-1947
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medical case reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Case Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2263060
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6. Matsuyama J, Doki Y, Yasuda T, Miyata H, Fujiwara Y, Takiguchi S, Yamasaki M, Makari Y, Matsuura N, Mano M, Monden M: The effect of neoadjuvant chemotherapy on lymph node micrometastases in squamous cell carcinomas of the thoracic esophagus. Surgery; 2007 May;141(5):570-80
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  • [Title] The effect of neoadjuvant chemotherapy on lymph node micrometastases in squamous cell carcinomas of the thoracic esophagus.
  • BACKGROUND: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) has been postulated but not yet proven to eradicate micrometastases and improve the prognosis of patients with advanced esophageal squamous cell carcinomas (ESCC).
  • Cytokeratin immunohistochemistry of the lymph nodes of ESCC revealed immunohistochemical micrometastases (IHM) and cytokeratin deposits (CD), which are hyalinized denucleated particles considered to be cadavers of carcinoma cells.
  • Successful chemotherapy should convert cancer cells from IHM to CD and improve the status of ESCC patients from systemic disease to regional disease.
  • METHODS: Cytokeratin immunostaining of surgically removed lymph nodes was performed for 107 patients with node-positive ESCC, including 32 patients without preoperative treatment (Surgery group) and 75 patients undergoing NACT using CDDP, doxorubicin hydrochroride, and 5-fluorouracil (NACT group).
  • The effect of chemotherapy on IHM was classified as eradicated, IHM(-)/CD(+); persistent, IHM(+)/CD(+); no effect, IHM(+)/CD(-); or not informative, IHM(-)/CD(-).
  • This classification correlated well with the clinical response of the primary neoplasm, number of pathologic metastases, and postoperative survival (3-year survival rates: 78%, 18%, 0%, and 38%).
  • The clinical benefit of NACT was apparent for IHM(-)/CD(+) patients with node-positive ESCC.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Doxorubicin / therapeutic use. Esophageal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Fluorouracil / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Keratins / metabolism. Lymph Nodes / metabolism. Lymphatic Metastasis / diagnosis. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 17462456.001).
  • [ISSN] 0039-6060
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 68238-35-7 / Keratins; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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7. Matsutani T, Sasajima K, Kobayashi Y, Suzuki S, Maruyama H, Miyamoto M, Yokoyama T, Sugiura A, Matsushita A, Yanagi K, Matsuda A, Arai H, Nishi Y, Wakabayashi H, Tajiri T: [A case of double advanced cancer with esophageal and hypopharyngeal carcinoma responding completely to combination chemotherapy of docetaxel/5-fluorouracil and nedaplatin with radiation]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2009 May;36(5):835-8
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  • [Title] [A case of double advanced cancer with esophageal and hypopharyngeal carcinoma responding completely to combination chemotherapy of docetaxel/5-fluorouracil and nedaplatin with radiation].
  • The diagnosis was double cancer with hypopharyngeal and esophageal carcinoma from upper gastrointestinal endoscopic examination.
  • Computed tomography(CT)of the neck and abdomen showed metastases of the right neck and cardiac lymph nodes.
  • Clinical stagings of the double cancer were Stage III (T1, N1, M0)in hypopharyngeal carcinoma and Stage III (T3, N1, M0)in esophageal carcinoma, respectively.
  • He received radiation therapy in combination with chemotherapy using docetaxel(DOC), 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)and nedaplatin(CDGP).
  • After this combination chemoradiation therapy(CRT), the adverse event was grade 2 in leucopenia and grade 2 in gastrointestinal toxicity.
  • Repeated macroscopic and histological examinations after CRT revealed disappearance of the hypopharyngeal and advanced esophageal carcinoma with lymph node metastasis, leading to a complete response(CR).
  • This combination chemotherapy of DOC, 5-FU and CDGP with radiation may well be effective and tolerable for patients with double cancer of hypopharyngeal and esophageal carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Esophageal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Hypopharyngeal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Hypopharyngeal Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / drug therapy. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Combined Modality Therapy. Esophagoscopy. Fluorouracil / therapeutic use. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Organoplatinum Compounds / therapeutic use. Remission Induction. Taxoids / therapeutic use. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 19461189.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Organoplatinum Compounds; 0 / Taxoids; 15H5577CQD / docetaxel; 8UQ3W6JXAN / nedaplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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8. Stiles BM, Mirza F, Port JL, Lee PC, Paul S, Christos P, Altorki NK: Predictors of cervical and recurrent laryngeal lymph node metastases from esophageal cancer. Ann Thorac Surg; 2010 Dec;90(6):1805-11; discussion 1811
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  • [Title] Predictors of cervical and recurrent laryngeal lymph node metastases from esophageal cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Although patients with esophageal cancer (EC) often develop lymph node metastases in the cervical and recurrent laryngeal (CRL) distribution, lymphadenectomy in this field is rarely performed.
  • The purpose of this study was to determine factors associated with CRL node positivity and to determine the appropriate indications to perform a "three field" lymphadenectomy.
  • Eight patients had a major pathologic response after induction therapy.
  • There was no reduction in the rate of positive CRL nodes after induction chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Complete lymphadenectomy is necessary in esophageal cancer to appropriately stage patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Esophageal Neoplasms / secondary. Lymph Node Excision / methods. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis / diagnosis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Incidence. Larynx. Male. Neck. Neoplasm Staging. New York / epidemiology. Odds Ratio. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 21095315.001).
  • [ISSN] 1552-6259
  • [Journal-full-title] The Annals of thoracic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Thorac. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / UL1-RR024996
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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9. Saze Z, Terashima M, Otani S, Soeta N, Kashimura S, Osuka F, Odashima Y, Saito T, Hoshino Y, Kogure M, Hashimoto Y, Watanabe K, Gotoh M: [A case of advanced gastric cancer responding remarkably to neo-adjuvant combination chemotherapy using CPT-11 plus S-1]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2007 Sep;34(9):1473-6
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  • [Title] [A case of advanced gastric cancer responding remarkably to neo-adjuvant combination chemotherapy using CPT-11 plus S-1].
  • Adjuvant chemotherapy for advanced gastric cancer has not yet been established.
  • We report a patient with advanced gastric cancer responding remarkably to neo-adjuvant combination chemotherapy consisting of CPT-11 and S-1.
  • The patient was a 69-year-old woman diagnosed with large type 3 advanced gastric cancer with esophageal invasion and having No.3 lymph node metastasis (cT3, cN1, cM0, cStage IIIA), treated with 2 courses of CPT-11 plus S-1 as neo-adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • Computed tomography after neo-adjuvant chemotherapy showed improvement of gastric wall thickness and reduction of lymph node metastasis.
  • There was no lymph node swelling,so we performed curative surgery consisting of total gastrectomy, splenectomy, cholecystectomy, and D 2 lymph node dissection.
  • Histological diagnosis was pT2 (MP), pN1, pStage II, and estimation of the histological change by chemotherapy was Grade 2.
  • Combination chemotherapy consisting of CPT-11 plus S-1 can be performed safely as a neo-adjuvant treatment, and may be an effective treatment modality for advanced gastric cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Stomach Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / administration & dosage. Camptothecin / administration & dosage. Camptothecin / analogs & derivatives. Drug Combinations. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Oxonic Acid / administration & dosage. Tegafur / administration & dosage. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 17876149.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 0 / Drug Combinations; 150863-82-4 / S 1 (combination); 1548R74NSZ / Tegafur; 5VT6420TIG / Oxonic Acid; 7673326042 / irinotecan; XT3Z54Z28A / Camptothecin
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10. Tsujie M, Shibata N, Nomura T, Tanaka T, Morimoto T, Fujita S, Kitani K, Nakahira S, Okuda H, Takeda M: [A patient with stage IVb small cell carcinoma of the esophagus who survived 23 months after systemic cancer chemotherapy]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2003 Feb;30(2):271-5
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  • [Title] [A patient with stage IVb small cell carcinoma of the esophagus who survived 23 months after systemic cancer chemotherapy].
  • A computed tomography scan showed para-aortic lymph node swelling and multiple liver metastases.
  • Treatment with chemotherapy of CDDP and 5-FU showed clinical complete remission.
  • However, the patient died of paraaortic lymph node metastasis, recurrence of the original lesion, multiple liver metastasis and brain metastasis 23 months after diagnosis.
  • However, if remission is achieved by chemotherapy as in this case, a better prognosis is possible.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Small Cell / drug therapy. Esophageal Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Drug Administration Schedule. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Survivors

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  • (PMID = 12610878.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil; CF regimen; VP-P protocol
  • [Number-of-references] 14
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11. Iijimal S, Makari Y, Handa R, Kato T, Ooshima S, Miyake Y, Hoshi M, Doi T, Kurokawa E, Kikkawa N: [A 14-month surviving patient on advanced esophageal cancer with big lymph node metastasis to cardia responding to S-1 plus cisplatin (CDDP) therapy at home]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2008 Dec;35 Suppl 1:7-9
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  • [Title] [A 14-month surviving patient on advanced esophageal cancer with big lymph node metastasis to cardia responding to S-1 plus cisplatin (CDDP) therapy at home].
  • The diagnosis was the esophageal cancer (type 2, 11 cm) with big lymph node metastasis on cardia (8 cm), and also pathologically poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma from two legions.
  • He wanted a home chemotherapy for it.
  • We administered a combination chemotherapy of S-1 plus cisplatin (CDDP) therapy.
  • An eight-day admission within an each course to CDDP treatment and nutritional support were required for adverse events of anorexia (grade 3), but for other days home chemotherapy was done with good compliance of S-1 up to 6 courses.
  • After 2 courses, endoscopic findings showed a pathological complete response of esophageal mass, and CT findings also showed a partial response of the lymph node.
  • After 6 courses of S-1 + plus cisplatin in May 2005, a home S-1 single therapy which was not needed the admission started at will.
  • But the lymph node mass of cardia progressed again in September 2005, and his therapy moved to the terminal care at home.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Cardia / pathology. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Esophageal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Home Care Services. Oxonic Acid / therapeutic use. Stomach Neoplasms / drug therapy. Tegafur / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Drug Combinations. Esophagoscopy. Fatal Outcome. Gastroscopy. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Terminal Care. Time Factors. Tomography, X-Ray Computed


12. Seya T, Tanaka N, Yokoi K, Ishikawa N, Horiba K, Kanazawa Y, Yamada T, Koizumi M, Shinji S, Okazaki H, Ohaki Y, Ishiwata T, Naito Z, Tajiri T: Complete response of a patient with advanced gastric cancer, showing Epstein-Barr virus infection, to preoperative chemotherapy with S-1 and cisplatin. Int J Clin Oncol; 2007 Dec;12(6):472-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Complete response of a patient with advanced gastric cancer, showing Epstein-Barr virus infection, to preoperative chemotherapy with S-1 and cisplatin.
  • Here we report the case of a patient with advanced gastric cancer with esophageal invasion who was treated with chemotherapy using S-1 and cisplatin (CDDP) preoperatively.
  • The patient was a 72-year-old woman who was diagnosed with advanced gastric cancer (T3N2M0) with esophageal invasion.
  • Marked reductions in the sizes of the primary tumor and metastatic lymph nodes around the stomach were observed after two cycles of the therapy.
  • Adverse reactions occurring during the therapy were only grade 2 gastrointestinal disorder and grade 1 leukocytopenia.
  • The patient underwent curative surgery consisting of total gastrectomy, D2 lymph node dissection, and splenectomy.
  • No gastric cancer cells were detected in the primary lesion or lymph nodes by immunohistochemical staining with cytokeratin, confirming a histological complete response (CR).
  • As Epstein-Barr virus-encoded small RNA (EBER) had been detected by in-situ hybridization in the gastric cancer cells of a biopsy specimen, this tumor was diagnosed as an Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated gastric carcinoma (EBVaGC), which was effectively treated with S-1 and cisplatin chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Epstein-Barr Virus Infections / complications. Epstein-Barr Virus Infections / diagnosis. Herpesviridae / isolation & purification. Stomach Neoplasms / drug therapy. Stomach Neoplasms / virology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Drug Combinations. Female. Gastrectomy. Humans. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Neoplasm Staging. Oxonic Acid / administration & dosage. RNA, Viral. Remission Induction. Tegafur / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 18071868.001).
  • [ISSN] 1341-9625
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Drug Combinations; 0 / RNA, Viral; 150863-82-4 / S 1 (combination); 1548R74NSZ / Tegafur; 5VT6420TIG / Oxonic Acid; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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13. Krasna MJ, Jiao X: Thoracoscopic and laparoscopic staging for esophageal cancer. Semin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg; 2000 Jul;12(3):186-94
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Thoracoscopic and laparoscopic staging for esophageal cancer.
  • Accurate pretreatment staging for patients with esophageal cancer (EC) is becoming increasingly important in the evaluation and comparison of different treatment modalities.
  • Noninvasive staging methods are imperfect in detecting lymph node metastasis in patients with EC.
  • Surgical staging with the thoracoscopic/laparoscopic (Ts/Ls) technique may provide accurate staging information that is useful for evaluating and comparing the results of clinical trials of preoperative chemotherapy and radiotherapy.
  • Pretreatment (lymph node) biopsies obtained by Ts/Ls staging allow further molecular biologic analysis to detect occult lymph node metastasis for more accurate lymph node staging.
  • We found that Ts/Ls is a promising method for staging lymph nodes in EC patients.
  • A recent study showed that pretreatment surgical lymph node staging can predict response and survival for EC patients receiving trimodality treatment (ie, radiation, chemotherapy, and surgery).
  • The information obtained with surgical staging now offers us the opportunity to optimize therapy to specific patient groups based on the extent of disease at the time of initial presentation.
  • [MeSH-major] Esophageal Neoplasms / pathology. Laparoscopy. Lymph Node Excision / methods. Thoracoscopy
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy. Clinical Trials as Topic. Humans. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis / diagnosis. Maryland. Neoplasm Staging / methods

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  • (PMID = 11052185.001).
  • [ISSN] 1043-0679
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in thoracic and cardiovascular surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
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14. Ott K, Weber W, Siewert JR: The importance of PET in the diagnosis and response evaluation of esophageal cancer. Dis Esophagus; 2006;19(6):433-42
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The importance of PET in the diagnosis and response evaluation of esophageal cancer.
  • The major aims of imaging in esophageal cancer are to distinguish between locoregional and systemic disease (M-stage), to determine local tumor extension (T- and N-stage), to assess response to chemo- or chemoradiotherapy and to identify recurrence of cancer.
  • The sensitivity of computed tomography (CT) for detection of distant metastases ranges between < 50% and > 90%.
  • In esophageal cancer, F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) has been shown to detect metastatic disease in approximately 20% of patients who are considered as having only locoregional disease on CT.
  • However, the initial staging of regional lymph nodes is less important because at the moment there is no pretherapeutic therapy stratification based on lymph node category.
  • The accuracy for correct identification of recurrence in esophageal cancer is higher for FDG-PET than for CT scan.
  • Unfortunately until today no reliable essays for prediction of response or prognosis exist for esophageal cancer in clinical practice for patients with neoadjuvant treatment.
  • Post-therapeutic assessment of tumor response by FDG-PET has been shown to correlate with histopathologic tumor regression and patient survival.
  • Furthermore, quantitative measurements of tumor FDG-uptake may allow an early metabolic response evaluation after only 2 weeks of therapy.
  • An association of metabolic response with histopathologic tumor regression and patient outcome 2 weeks after initiation of preoperative chemotherapy may be shown for esophageal cancer.

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  • (PMID = 17069585.001).
  • [ISSN] 1120-8694
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the esophagus : official journal of the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Esophagus
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 40871-47-4 / 2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose-6-phosphate; 56-73-5 / Glucose-6-Phosphate
  • [Number-of-references] 74
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15. Ito T, Kaneko K, Makino R, Ito H, Konishi K, Kurahashi T, Kitahara T, Mitamura K: Prognostic value of p53 mutations in patients with locally advanced esophageal carcinoma treated with definitive chemoradiotherapy. J Gastroenterol; 2001 May;36(5):303-11
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  • [Title] Prognostic value of p53 mutations in patients with locally advanced esophageal carcinoma treated with definitive chemoradiotherapy.
  • PURPOSE: A significant correlation has been found between p53 mutation and response to chemotherapy or radiotherapy.
  • To determine the prognostic value of p53 mutation in patients with locally advanced esophageal carcinoma treated with definitive chemoradiotherapy, p53 mutation was analyzed using the biopsied specimens taken for diagnosis.
  • METHODS: Concurrent chemoradiotherapy was performed for 40 patients with severe dysphagia caused by esophageal squamous cell carcinoma associated with T3 or T4 disease.
  • Chemotherapy consisted of protracted infusion of 5-fluorouracil, combined with an infusion of cisplatinum.
  • Radiation treatment of the mediastinum was administered concomitantly with chemotherapy.
  • RESULTS: Of the 40 patients, 15 had T3 disease and 25 had T4 disease; 11 patients had M1 lymph node (LYM) disease.
  • The median survival time was 14 months, and the 2-year survival rate was 20%.
  • CONCLUSION: Concurrent chemoradiotherapy is potentially curative for locally advanced esophageal carcinoma, but p53 genetic abnormality has no impact on prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / genetics. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. Esophageal Neoplasms / genetics. Esophageal Neoplasms / therapy. Genes, p53 / genetics. Mutation
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Remission Induction. Statistics as Topic. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 11388392.001).
  • [ISSN] 0944-1174
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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16. Noguchi H, Naomoto Y, Kondo H, Haisa M, Yamatsuji T, Shigemitsu K, Aoki H, Isozaki H, Tanaka N: Evaluation of endoscopic mucosal resection for superficial esophageal carcinoma. Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech; 2000 Dec;10(6):343-50
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  • [Title] Evaluation of endoscopic mucosal resection for superficial esophageal carcinoma.
  • Esophageal superficial carcinoma safely can be resected surgically or endoscopically.
  • We evaluated indications for endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) and optimal treatment modality for superficial carcinoma of the esophagus based on clinical and pathologic analyses.
  • The two-channel method, esophageal EMR-tube method or EMR cap-fitted panendoscope was used.
  • Mucosal and submucosal cancers were classified to be epithelial layer (m1), proper mucosal layer (m2), muscularis mucosae (m3), upper third of the submucosal level (sm1), middle third of the submucosal layer (sm2), or the lower third of the submucosal level (sm3) cancers, according to criteria of the Japanese Society for Esophageal Disease.
  • Lymph vessel invasion and lymph node metastasis markedly increased in lesions that infiltrated the lamina muscularis mucosa (m3).
  • Preoperative diagnosis accurately was established preoperatively in 61% of patients.
  • Ten patients also received radiotherapy, chemotherapy, or esophagectomy with lymph node dissection after use of EMR.
  • No such combination therapy was administered in six patients with m3 lesions, but without lymph vessel invasion.
  • All patients treated with use of EMR, including patients with m3 cancer who did not receive additional treatment, are living without recurrence.
  • Local resection with use of EMR could be regarded to be the preferred treatment of superficial esophageal cancers limited to the lamina propria mucosae.
  • Endoscopic mucosal resection also could be regarded to be the preferred treatment of m3 cancer without lymph vessel invasion.
  • Use of additional therapy, such as radiotherapy, allows the use of EMR for m3 cancer with lymph vessel invasion or sm1 cancers.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Esophageal Neoplasms / surgery. Esophagectomy / standards. Esophagoscopy / standards. Mucous Membrane / surgery. Patient Selection
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11147906.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-4515
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical laparoscopy, endoscopy & percutaneous techniques
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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17. Flamen P: Positron emission tomography in gastric and esophageal cancer. Curr Opin Oncol; 2004 Jul;16(4):359-63
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Positron emission tomography in gastric and esophageal cancer.
  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Positron emission tomography using the positron emitting glucose analogue 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose has recently emerged as a promising metabolism-based whole-body imaging tool for cancer diagnosis and follow-up.
  • The review limits its scope to the recent advances of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in the clinical management of gastric and esophageal cancer.
  • RECENT FINDINGS: New studies have been reported on the use of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography to assess the early and late metabolic response of a gastroesophageal tumor to chemo(radiation) therapy.
  • The metabolic response as measured by serial 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography, performed before and during treatment or some weeks thereafter, can be used to predict the clinical and histopathologic response.
  • Moreover, the metabolic positron emission tomography response seems to be related to overall and disease-free survival.
  • SUMMARY: Gastroesophageal 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography could add significant diagnostic information to the different phases of patient management.
  • At initial diagnosis of esophageal cancer, positron emission tomography detects more distant lymph node and organ metastases compared with conventional diagnostics, allowing a more accurate selection of the most appropriate treatment.
  • Serial 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography performed before and during chemotherapy allows early identification of nonresponding tumors.
  • 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography performed after a treatment allows accurate assessment of the residual tumor load.
  • 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography allows accurate detection and restaging of recurrent disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / radionuclide imaging. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radionuclide imaging. Esophageal Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Stomach Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Tomography, Emission-Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Humans. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / radionuclide imaging. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / therapy. Neoplasm Staging. Remission Induction

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  • (PMID = 15187891.001).
  • [ISSN] 1040-8746
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Opin Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
  • [Number-of-references] 22
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18. Kantarci M, Polat P, Alper F, Eroglu A, Eren S, Okur A, Onbaş O: Comparison of CT and MRI for the diagnosis recurrent esophageal carcinoma after operation. Dis Esophagus; 2004;17(1):32-7
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  • [Title] Comparison of CT and MRI for the diagnosis recurrent esophageal carcinoma after operation.
  • Despite an increase in radical surgery for esophageal carcinoma, many patients continue to develop recurrent disease.
  • Some reports have suggested that recurrent tumors should be treated aggressively with a combination of chemotherapy and radiotherapy.
  • The aim of this study was to assess the comparative utility of computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the evaluation of recurrence after curative resection of cancer of the esophagus and gastroesophageal junction.
  • To maximize survival benefit, detection of tumor recurrence as early and accurately as possible is important.
  • Twenty-three patients who developed recurrent tumors after curative transthoracic esophagogastrectomy for esophageal carcinoma were analyzed retrospectively.
  • Distant recurrence was seen in the liver (n = 5), lung (n = 4), bone (n = 3), abdominal lymph node (n = 4), pleural effusion (n = 2) and pericardial effusion (n = 1).
  • Thickening of esophageal wall was demonstrated in nine patients using CT, but only seven of these tumor recurrences were confirmed by MRI, the remaining two were related to secondary fibrosis.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2004 ISDE
  • (PMID = 15209738.001).
  • [ISSN] 1120-8694
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the esophagus : official journal of the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Esophagus
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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19. Sugawara H, Ichiki M, Sai K, Kamata K, Ansai M, Nakano Y, Kawamura M, Ichinose A, Miyazaki S: [Noticeable clinical response to S-1/CDDP combination therapy for Virchow node recurrence after surgery for advanced gastric carcinoma with marked involvement of the esophagus - report of a case]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2009 May;36(5):855-8
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  • [Title] [Noticeable clinical response to S-1/CDDP combination therapy for Virchow node recurrence after surgery for advanced gastric carcinoma with marked involvement of the esophagus - report of a case].
  • We have recently experienced a case in which S-1/CDDP combination therapy proved remarkably efficacious for a rapid, extensive lymph node recurrence with metastasis into a Virchow node that had developed after resection of advanced gastric carcinoma accompanied with a marked invasion of the esophagus.
  • On day 65 post-operation, a diagnosis of Virchow node and para-aortic lymph node recurrence was made on the basis of CT scan findings.
  • The patient received three courses of S-1/CDDP combination therapy, with a consequent noticeable contraction of the Virchow node and enlarged para-aortic lymph node.
  • Further, she was given two courses of S-1 therapy, which resulted in normalization of tumor markers.
  • The patient has since been on continued chemotherapy without any sign of recurrence.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Esophageal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Esophageal Neoplasms / secondary. Oxonic Acid / therapeutic use. Stomach Neoplasms / drug therapy. Stomach Neoplasms / pathology. Tegafur / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Drug Combinations. Female. Gastroscopy. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. Recurrence. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 19461194.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Drug Combinations; 150863-82-4 / S 1 (combination); 1548R74NSZ / Tegafur; 5VT6420TIG / Oxonic Acid; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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20. Ehara K, Tsutsumi K, Kinoshita Y, Ueno M, Mine S, Udagawa H: [A case of advanced esophageal cancer with liver metastases: efficacy of combination therapy of docetaxel/cisplatin/5-FU]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2008 Aug;35(8):1375-8
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  • [Title] [A case of advanced esophageal cancer with liver metastases: efficacy of combination therapy of docetaxel/cisplatin/5-FU].
  • The combination chemotherapy with docetaxel/CDDP/5-FU(DCF)for head and neck squamous carcinoma(SCC) has been widely accepted.
  • It seems quite natural that DCF therapy is expected to be equally effective against esophageal SCC because of their histological similarity.
  • In this report, we present a case of unresectable advanced esophageal SCC with multiple liver metastases which showed remarkable regression by DCF therapy, with relatively slight adverse effects.
  • The patient was a 46-year-old female, who underwent upper gastrointestinal fiber-optic endoscopy for dysphasia and was diagnosed to have upper middle thoracic esophageal SCC.
  • Abdominal CT scan showed multiple liver metastases with para-aortic lymph node involvement.
  • The clinical stage diagnosis was T3N4M1, Stage IVB, obviously non-resectable far-advanced esophageal SCC.
  • Systemic chemotherapy with DCF was started as the initial treatment.
  • The chemotherapy regimen was as follows.
  • Each course was followed by a 23-day drug-free period, and the entire course was repeated every 28 days.
  • Ten cycles of this DCF chemotherapy were carried out.
  • After 8 cycles, the liver metastases were judged as CR and para-aortic lymph nodes showed a partial response(PR)by CT scan.
  • Until this writing, we added 2 more cycles of DCF therapy for the recurrent para-aortic and inguinal lymph node metastasis.
  • We conclude that DCF therapy is potentially very effective for advanced esophageal SCC.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Esophageal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Esophageal Neoplasms / pathology. Fluorouracil / therapeutic use. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Taxoids / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Esophagoscopes. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Tomography, X-Ray Computed


21. Ota Y, Minamide J, Takata K, Aoyama N: [A case of advanced esophageal cancer that has come back eight years after combined modality therapy]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2009 Nov;36(12):2442-4
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  • [Title] [A case of advanced esophageal cancer that has come back eight years after combined modality therapy].
  • In February 1992, right thoracotomy subtotal thoracic esophagectomy was performed after performing preoperative chemotherapy (FP therapy) for advanced esophageal cancer for two courses.
  • The pathological diagnosis was Mt, mod. diff. sqcc, mp, n4 (#2: 1/13, #9: 3/4), ly2, v0, stage IVa.
  • As a postoperative adjuvant therapy, FP therapy was performed for two courses and we took a wait-and-see approach as an outpatient since then.
  • As we found lymph node metastasis surrounding the root of celiac artery and right renal vein by an abdominal CT in October 1999, nedaplatin+5-FU therapy was performed for 5 courses/24 weeks as second-line chemotherapy, and furthermore, a radiation therapy, linac 50 Gy was performed.
  • The involved lymph node was reduced and the therapy evaluation was CR.
  • We have experienced a case of advanced esophageal cancer that has come back eight years after combined modality therapy, and after that, the patient could obtain a long-term survival with a marked effect of chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Esophageal Neoplasms / pathology. Esophageal Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Fluorouracil. Humans. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Organoplatinum Compounds / administration & dosage. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 20037450.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Organoplatinum Compounds; 8UQ3W6JXAN / nedaplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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22. Brega-Massone PP, Conti B, Lequaglie C, Ferro F, Cataldo I: [The role of surgical therapy for esophageal microcytoma. Experience of there clinical cases and results analysis]. Minerva Chir; 2003 Aug;58(4):629-32
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  • [Title] [The role of surgical therapy for esophageal microcytoma. Experience of there clinical cases and results analysis].
  • [Transliterated title] Il ruolo della terapia chirurgica nel microcitoma dell'esofago. Esperienza di tre casi clinici ed analisi dei risultati.
  • It was described for the first time in 1952 by McKeown and 200 cases have been reported till now.
  • Because of its similarity with small cell carcinoma of the lung, the treatment of this tumor is controversial.
  • The stage I and II patients received operation as single treatment.
  • The third patient, classified at stage III, underwent postoperative chemotherapy but local and distant recurrence was observed 11 months after surgical resection.
  • He was submitted to a second choice chemotherapy, but he died 24 months after the operation.
  • Our experience seems to demonstrate that an early diagnosis and oncological radical resection, may be helpful in the long-term prognosis even in presence of a very aggressive neoplasm.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Small Cell / surgery. Esophageal Neoplasms / surgery. Esophagoplasty / methods. Vinblastine / analogs & derivatives
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Anastomosis, Surgical / methods. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Esophagectomy / methods. Esophagoscopy / methods. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Laparotomy / methods. Lymph Node Excision. Male. Middle Aged. Mitomycin / administration & dosage. Remission Induction. Stomach / surgery. Thoracotomy / methods

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  • (PMID = 14603180.001).
  • [ISSN] 0026-4733
  • [Journal-full-title] Minerva chirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minerva Chir
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; 5V9KLZ54CY / Vinblastine; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; Q6C979R91Y / vinorelbine
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23. Zhao KL, Shi XH, Jiang GL, Wang Y: Late-course accelerated hyperfractionated radiotherapy for localized esophageal carcinoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2004 Sep 1;60(1):123-9
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  • [Title] Late-course accelerated hyperfractionated radiotherapy for localized esophageal carcinoma.
  • The design of the radiation fields was based on the diagnosis by computed tomography and barium examination.
  • All patients received conventionally fractionated RT at 1.8 Gy/d, five fractions weekly for the first two-thirds of treatment to a dose of about 41.4 Gy in 23 fractions within 4-5 weeks.
  • This was followed by LCAF RT using reduced fields, 1.5 Gy/fraction twice daily with a 6-h interval between fractions, to a dose of about 27 Gy within 9 days.
  • Thus, the total dose was 68.4 Gy in 41 fractions within 44 days.
  • The main site of first failure was locoregional failure and distant metastasis (including lymph node metastasis from regional recurrence).
  • Of 201 patients, 77 (38.4%) had local disease alone or with distant metastasis as the first failure, and 70 patients (34.9%) had distant metastasis and/or lymph node metastasis alone or with local failure as the first failure.
  • CONCLUSION: The LCAF regimen offers similar local control and survival to standard chemotherapy plus RT, such as was delivered in the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group studies 85-01 and 94-05.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Esophageal Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Analysis of Variance. Dose Fractionation. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Proportional Hazards Models. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Treatment Failure

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  • (PMID = 15337547.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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24. Jiao X, Sonett J, Gamliel Z, Doyle A, Schuetz J, Greenwald B, Suntharalingam M, Krasna MJ: Trimodality treatment versus surgery alone for esophageal cancer. A stratified analysis with minimally invasive pretreatment staging. J Cardiovasc Surg (Torino); 2002 Aug;43(4):531-7
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  • [Title] Trimodality treatment versus surgery alone for esophageal cancer. A stratified analysis with minimally invasive pretreatment staging.
  • BACKGROUND: Accurate pretreatment staging of esophageal cancer (EC) is important in the evaluation and comparison of results of different treatment modalities.
  • This study was conducted to evaluate the impact of trimodality based on pretreatment Ts/Ls staging diagnosis on EC.
  • Group A (44 patients) underwent pretreatment Ts/Ls staging and had trimodality treatment.
  • Preoperative therapy consisted of concurrent chemotherapy (5-FU + cisplatinum) and radiotherapy.
  • Trimodality treatment was successful in local control for patients with squamous cell carcinoma.
  • Pretreatment lymph node status was the most important prognosticator regardless of treatment modality.
  • Pretreatment pathological staging should be included in the future clinical trials on multimodality treatments in EC patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. Esophageal Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Case-Control Studies. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Esophagus / pathology. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 12124569.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9509
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of cardiovascular surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Cardiovasc Surg (Torino)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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25. Li B, Lei W, Shao K, Zhang C, Chen Z, Shi S, He J: Characteristics and prognosis of primary malignant melanoma of the esophagus. Melanoma Res; 2007 Aug;17(4):239-42
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  • The preoperative diagnosis is complicated for the lack of specificity.
  • Similar to esophageal carcinoma, dysphagia was the most common symptom.
  • Four of the six patients had metastasis to the liver, adrenal gland, heart and lymph nodes, respectively.
  • Surgery remains the first selected therapy.
  • The role of radiotherapy and chemotherapy in the treatment of primary malignant melanoma of the esophagus is still uncertain.
  • [MeSH-major] Esophageal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Melanoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Esophagectomy. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 17625454.001).
  • [ISSN] 0960-8931
  • [Journal-full-title] Melanoma research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Melanoma Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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26. Stein HJ, Feith M, Siewert JR: Cancer of the esophagogastric junction. Surg Oncol; 2000 Jul;9(1):35-41
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  • Epidemiological, clinical and pathological data support a sub-classification of adenocarcinomas arising in the vicinity of the esophagogastric junction (AEG) into adenocarcinoma of the distal esophagus (Type I), true carcinoma of the cardia (Type II) and subcardial carcinoma (Type III).
  • While most, if not all, adenocarcinomas of the distal esophagus arise from areas with specialized intestinal metaplasia, which develop as a consequence of chronic gastroesophageal reflux, the etiology and pathogenesis of true carcinoma of the gastric cardia and subcardial gastric cancer is not clear at present.
  • Our experience in the management of more than 1000 such patients during the past 18 years suggests that an individualized therapeutic strategy oriented by tumor type and stage results in survival rates superior to those reported with a more indiscriminate approach.
  • This individualized strategy prescribes a transmediastinal esophagectomy with lymphadenectomy in the lower posterior mediastinum and along the celiac axis for Type I tumors, extended total gastrectomy with transhiatal resection of the distal esophagus and D2 lymphadenectomy for Type II and Type III tumors, a limited resection of the esophagogastric junction and distal esophagus with interposition of a pedicled jejunal segment for uT1N0 tumors, and neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by resection for uT3/T4 tumors.
  • Extensive preoperative staging is essential to allow correct selection of the appropriate therapeutic strategy using this tailored approach.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma / therapy. Esophageal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Esophageal Neoplasms / therapy. Esophagogastric Junction. Stomach Neoplasms / diagnosis. Stomach Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Algorithms. Combined Modality Therapy. Decision Trees. Esophagectomy. Gastrectomy. Gastroesophageal Reflux / complications. Humans. Incidence. Lymph Node Excision. Neoplasm Staging. Preoperative Care. Prevalence. Splenectomy. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11525305.001).
  • [ISSN] 0960-7404
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Number-of-references] 36
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27. Benhidjeb T, Moesta KT, Schlag PM: [Staging and neoadjuvant therapy of squamous cell carcinoma of esophagus]. Ther Umsch; 2001 Mar;58(3):165-73
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  • [Title] [Staging and neoadjuvant therapy of squamous cell carcinoma of esophagus].
  • [Transliterated title] Staging und neoadjuvante Therapie des Plattenepithelkarzinoms des Osophagus.
  • Once the diagnosis of esophageal cancer is established, the decision on treatment will depend on the stage of the disease.
  • Since improvement of prognosis can only be expected in patients with complete removal of their tumor, preoperative staging plays a pivotal role in the decision-making process.
  • Preoperative diagnostic procedures should define the tumor in its relation to the tracheal bifurcation (site), determine the depth of tumor invasion (T status), evaluate regional lymph node metastases (N1 disease) and exclude distant metastases (M1 disease).
  • A higher accuracy rate may be achieved by combining endosonography with other staging modalities such as computed tomography.
  • Computed tomography (neck, chest and abdomen) is currently the best method to detect metastases in the liver and in celiac nodes.
  • Staging laparoscopy when combined with laparoscopic ultrasonography shows a higher sensitivity than ultrasonography and computed tomography in the diagnosis of smaller metastases and peritoneal seedings.
  • En bloc esophagectomy together with the regional lymph nodes remains the treatment of choice in medically fit patients with localized esophageal carcinoma (Stage I-IIB, T1-T2/N0-N1/M0).
  • Due to early involvement of mediastinal structures, curative resection is unlikely to be achieved in patients with locally advanced esophageal carcinoma (Stage III, T3-T4/N0-N1/M0).
  • At present, neoadjuvant therapy is still experimental and there is no consensus for an optimal treatment regimen.
  • Future research must focus on more effective and less toxic neoadjuvant modalities (e.g. new chemotherapy agents, hyperthermia).
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. Esophageal Neoplasms / therapy. Neoadjuvant Therapy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Neoplasm Seeding. Neoplasm Staging. Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic

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  • (PMID = 11305155.001).
  • [ISSN] 0040-5930
  • [Journal-full-title] Therapeutische Umschau. Revue thérapeutique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ther Umsch
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Number-of-references] 30
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28. Mizuuchi Y, Anbe K, Yamagata N, Ohji Y, Kanamoto K, Yao T: [A case of stage IVb small cell carcinoma of the esophagus obtained prolonged survival after combined modality therapy]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2010 Apr;37(4):715-8
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  • [Title] [A case of stage IVb small cell carcinoma of the esophagus obtained prolonged survival after combined modality therapy].
  • A computer tomography scan revealed solitary liver metastasis, and lymph node swelling on the left side of the superior mesenteric artery.
  • So, we started chemotherapy with VP-16 and CDDP, according to a regimen for small cell carcinoma of the lung.
  • After 4 courses of chemotherapy, the primary lesion, liver metastasis, and lymph node swelling had disappeared, so we decided it was a complete response.
  • The patient received 60 Gy radiotherapy in total, and is still alive 6 years after diagnosis without any evidence of recurrence.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Small Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Small Cell / radiotherapy. Esophageal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Esophageal Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biopsy. Combined Modality Therapy. Esophagoscopy. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Remission Induction. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 20414033.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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29. Maeda M, Goto T, Harigai M, Itoh T, Moriki T, Miyashita T: Myocardial metastasis from squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus. Gen Thorac Cardiovasc Surg; 2009 Aug;57(8):440-5
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  • Histopathological findings resulted in a diagnosis of well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma staged as pT3N0M0, pStage IIA, with clear surgical margins.
  • Although she had no clinical symptoms, solitary cardiac metastasis located in the ventricular septum close to the apex was detected on the follow-up computed tomography scans during postoperative month 6.
  • Regardless of chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy, she died of the cancer 17 months after the initial operation.
  • In cases of esophageal cancer, tumor spread to the heart is usually caused by direct invasion; thus, solitary hematopoietic cardiac metastasis is quite rare.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / secondary. Esophageal Neoplasms / pathology. Heart Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Autopsy. Cell Differentiation. Echocardiography. Esophagectomy. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Kidney Neoplasms / secondary. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Lymph Node Excision. Male. Middle Aged. Myocardium / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19779796.001).
  • [ISSN] 1863-6713
  • [Journal-full-title] General thoracic and cardiovascular surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gen Thorac Cardiovasc Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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30. Khoury-Helou A, Lozac'h C, Vandenbrouke F, Lozac'h P: [Primary malignant melanoma of the esophagus]. Ann Chir; 2001 Jul;126(6):557-60
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  • The study aim was to report two cases, one treated by esophagectomy without thoracotomy and the other one by Lewis-Santy type esophagectomy.
  • The other one who had a cervical invaded lymph node, treated by radio-chemotherapy, is actually in complete remission 9 years after the diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Esophageal Neoplasms / surgery. Esophagectomy / methods. Melanoma / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Combined Modality Therapy. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Thoracotomy

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  • (PMID = 11486540.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-3944
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales de chirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Chir
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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31. Pritchard SA: Best practice in macroscopic examination of gastric resections. J Clin Pathol; 2008 Feb;61(2):172-8
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  • There has been a steady improvement in prognosis in countries such as Japan, predominantly due to screening programmes and early detection, but this has not been seen in Europe and North America.
  • At present the only curative treatment for gastric cancer is complete surgical resection of the primary tumour, with appropriate lymphadenectomy.
  • High quality histology reports are necessary to provide information on diagnosis, prognosis and future management.
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Esophageal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Esophageal Neoplasms / pathology. Esophageal Neoplasms / surgery. Esophagogastric Junction. Evidence-Based Medicine. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 17675536.001).
  • [ISSN] 1472-4146
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 60
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32. Fink W, Zimpfer A, Ugurel S: Mucosal metastases in malignant melanoma. Onkologie; 2003 Jun;26(3):249-51
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  • CASE REPORT: A 38-year-old male patient with metastatic malignant melanoma of stage III (AJCC) was admitted for initiation of adjuvant therapy.
  • 4 months earlier a primary melanoma of the left upper leg had been excised and 2 months later the patient had undergone a left inguinal lymph node dissection revealing 2 metastatic lymph nodes.
  • Two cycles of dacarbazine (DTIC) chemotherapy were performed during which the patient developed cutaneous metastases, dyspepsia, and mild hematemesis.
  • A few weeks later the patient developed macroscopic hematuria.
  • [MeSH-major] Esophageal Neoplasms / secondary. Melanoma / secondary. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Stomach Neoplasms / secondary. Tonsillar Neoplasms / secondary. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Gastric Mucosa / pathology. Humans. Male. Mucous Membrane / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. Tomography, Emission-Computed






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