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4. Shapiro M, Wasik MA, Junkins-Hopkins JM, Rook AH, Vittorio CC, Itakura H, Frankel MC, Georgala S, Schuster SJ: Complete remission in advanced blastic NK-cell lymphoma/leukemia in elderly patients using the hyper-CVAD regimen. Am J Hematol; 2003 Sep;74(1):46-51
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  • [Title] Complete remission in advanced blastic NK-cell lymphoma/leukemia in elderly patients using the hyper-CVAD regimen.
  • Although its cell of origin is still controversial, the blastic NK-cell leukemia/lymphoma clearly represents a distinct type of hematopoietic neoplasm that is particularly clinically aggressive when it occurs in elderly patients as a disseminated, multi-organ disease.
  • Consistently effective treatments have not been developed for this malignancy.
  • The present report describes two elderly patients with widespread blastic NK-cell leukemia/lymphoma involving the skin, bone marrow, peripheral blood, lymph nodes, and viscera.
  • In both cases the malignant cells were CD56+, CD2+, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT) positive with no detectable T-cell receptor (TCR) gamma chain gene rearrangement.
  • The above findings support the precursor NK-cell, rather than mature NK- or non-NK-cell, origin of the malignant cells.
  • It is noteworthy that the two patients achieved complete responses to treatment with hyper-CVAD (fractionated cyclophosphamide, vincristine, doxorubicin, and dexamethasone) alternating with high-dose methotrexate/cytarabine, a regimen currently utilized in acute lymphoblastic leukemia and high-grade lymphoma.
  • The complete remission (CR) was sustained for 24 months in one patient who received four cycles (eight courses) of the treatment.
  • If similar results are obtained with future patients, a randomized study comparing the hyper-CVAD regimen to other therapeutic strategies may be warranted.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cyclophosphamide / therapeutic use. Dexamethasone / therapeutic use. Doxorubicin / therapeutic use. Killer Cells, Natural / pathology. Leukemia / drug therapy. Lymphoma, T-Cell / drug therapy. Lymphoma, T-Cell / pathology. Vincristine / therapeutic use

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 12949889.001).
  • [ISSN] 0361-8609
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01-CA89194
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate; CVAD protocol
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5. Piloto O, Nguyen B, Huso D, Kim KT, Li Y, Witte L, Hicklin DJ, Brown P, Small D: IMC-EB10, an anti-FLT3 monoclonal antibody, prolongs survival and reduces nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient engraftment of some acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell lines and primary leukemic samples. Cancer Res; 2006 May 1;66(9):4843-51
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  • [Title] IMC-EB10, an anti-FLT3 monoclonal antibody, prolongs survival and reduces nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient engraftment of some acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell lines and primary leukemic samples.
  • The class III receptor tyrosine kinase FLT3 is expressed on the blasts of >90% of patients with B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemias (ALL).
  • In this report, we investigate the effects of treating ALL cell lines and primary samples with human anti-FLT3 monoclonal antibodies (mAb) capable of preventing binding of FLT3 ligand.
  • In vitro studies, examining the ability of two anti-FLT3 mAbs (IMC-EB10 and IMC-NC7) to affect FLT3 activation and downstream signaling in ALL cell lines and primary blasts, yielded variable results.
  • FLT3 phosphorylation was consistently inhibited by IMC-NC7 treatment, but in some cell lines, IMC-EB10 actually stimulated FLT3 activation, possibly as a result of antibody-mediated receptor dimerization.
  • Through antibody-dependent, cell-mediated cytotoxicity, such an antibody could still prove efficacious against leukemia cells in vivo.
  • In fact, IMC-EB10 treatment significantly prolonged survival and/or reduced engraftment of several ALL cell lines and primary ALL samples in nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient (NOD/SCID) mice.
  • This occurred even when IMC-EB10 treatment resulted in FLT3 activation in vitro.
  • Moreover, fluorescence-activated cell sorting and PCR analysis of IMC-EB10-treated NOD/SCID mice surviving 150 days post-leukemic cell injection revealed that FLT3 immunotherapy reduced leukemic engraftment below the level of detection in these assays (<0.001%).
  • Furthermore, in vivo IMC-EB10 treatment did not select for resistant cells, because cells surviving IMC-EB10 treatment remain sensitive to IMC-EB10 cytotoxicity upon retransplantation.
  • In vivo studies involving either partial depletion or activation of natural killer (NK) cells show that most of the cytotoxic effect of IMC-EB10 is mediated through NK cells.
  • Therefore, such an antibody, either naked or conjugated to radioactive isotopes or cytotoxic agents, may prove useful in the therapy of infant ALL as well as childhood and adult ALL patients whose blasts typically express FLT3.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / pharmacology. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / therapy. fms-Like Tyrosine Kinase 3 / immunology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Line, Tumor. Child. Cytotoxicity, Immunologic. Female. Humans. Immunization, Passive / methods. Killer Cells, Natural / immunology. Male. Mice. Mice, Inbred NOD. Mice, SCID. Neoplasm Transplantation. Signal Transduction / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 16651440.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-5472
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA100632; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA62924; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA70970; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA90668; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / RR00171
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; EC 2.7.10.1 / FLT3 protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / fms-Like Tyrosine Kinase 3
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6. Kimura S, Kakazu N, Kuroda J, Akaogi T, Hayashi H, Nishida K, Abe T: Agranular CD4+CD56+ blastic natural killer leukemia/lymphoma. Ann Hematol; 2001 Apr;80(4):228-31
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  • [Title] Agranular CD4+CD56+ blastic natural killer leukemia/lymphoma.
  • Blastic natural killer cell leukemia/lymphoma (blastic NKL/L) is characterized by blastic morphology and a distinctive immunophenotype combining blastic features and cytologically resembling acute myeloid or lymphoid leukemia.
  • We report herein a case of blastic NKL/L with skin lesion, adenopathy, and systemic lymphoadenopathy.
  • The identified tumor cells were positive for CD4 and CD56, and negative for T-cell, B-cell, and myeloid markers.
  • T-cell receptor beta, gamma, delta, and immunoglobulin heavy chain genes in the bone marrow cells showed germ-line configurations.
  • Southern blot analysis with a terminal probe did not reveal any Epstein-Barr virus infection.
  • Although patients diagnosed as blastic NKL/L have generally shown chemotherapy resistance and poor prognosis, our patient was treated with a combined chemotherapy, which is also used for acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and has maintained complete remission (CR) for more than 13 months.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD4 / analysis. Antigens, CD56 / analysis. Killer Cells, Natural. Lymphoma / diagnosis. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Chromosome Banding. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 13. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 14. Humans. Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains / analysis. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Karyotyping. Male. Nucleic Acid Hybridization. Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell / analysis. Remission Induction. Translocation, Genetic

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  • (PMID = 11401089.001).
  • [ISSN] 0939-5555
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD4; 0 / Antigens, CD56; 0 / Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains; 0 / Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell
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7. Ando M, Sugimoto K, Kitoh T, Sasaki M, Mukai K, Ando J, Egashira M, Schuster SM, Oshimi K: Selective apoptosis of natural killer-cell tumours by l-asparaginase. Br J Haematol; 2005 Sep;130(6):860-8
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  • [Title] Selective apoptosis of natural killer-cell tumours by l-asparaginase.
  • We examined the effectiveness of various anti-tumour agents to natural killer (NK)-cell tumour cell lines and samples, which are generally resistant to chemotherapy, using flow cytometric terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end-labelling (TUNEL) assay.
  • Although NK-YS and NK-92 were highly resistant to various anti-tumour agents, l-asparaginase induced apoptosis in these two NK-cell lines.
  • NK-cell leukaemia/lymphoma and acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) samples were selectively sensitive to l-asparaginase and to doxorubicin (DXR) respectively.
  • Samples of chronic NK lymphocytosis, an NK-cell disorder with an indolent clinical course, were resistant to both drugs.
  • Our study clearly separated two major categories of NK-cell disorders and ALL according to the sensitivity to DXR and l-asparaginase.
  • We examined asparagine synthetase levels by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RQ-PCR) and immunostaining in these samples.
  • At least in nasal-type NK-cell lymphoma, there was a good correlation among asparagine synthetase expression, in vitro sensitivity and clinical response to l-asparaginase.
  • In aggressive NK-cell leukaemia, although asparagine synthetase expression was high at both mRNA and protein levels, l-asparaginase induced considerable apoptosis.
  • We confirmed rather specific anti-tumour activity of l-asparaginase against NK-cell tumours in vitro, which provides an experimental background to the clinical use of l-asparaginase for NK-cell tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Apoptosis / drug effects. Asparaginase / pharmacology. Killer Cells, Natural. Leukemia, T-Cell / pathology. Lymphoma, T-Cell / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aspartate-Ammonia Ligase / biosynthesis. Aspartate-Ammonia Ligase / genetics. Cell Line, Tumor. Doxorubicin / pharmacology. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Humans. In Situ Nick-End Labeling. Lymphocytosis / pathology. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Neoplasm / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16156856.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-1048
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of haematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Haematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; EC 3.5.1.1 / Asparaginase; EC 6.3.1.1 / Aspartate-Ammonia Ligase
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8. Yamada O, Ichikawa M, Okamoto T, Park C, Motoji T, Mizoguchi H, Shibuya A: Killer T-cell induction in patients with blastic natural killer cell lymphoma/leukaemia: implications for successful treatment and possible therapeutic strategies. Br J Haematol; 2001 Apr;113(1):153-60
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  • [Title] Killer T-cell induction in patients with blastic natural killer cell lymphoma/leukaemia: implications for successful treatment and possible therapeutic strategies.
  • A rare form of putative natural killer (NK) cell lymphoma called blastic NK cell lymphoma appears to be clinicopathologically distinctive in showing a homogenous lymphoblast, variable expression of CD2, CD4, CD56 and TdT, negative for surface CD3, T-cell receptor antigen, CD16, CD34 and lack of association with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV).
  • We report two patients with blastic NK cell lymphoma and describe the interesting clinical studies.
  • Unlike in many NK and NK-like T-cell disorders, azurophilic cytoplasmic granules were absent.
  • In spite of the advanced clinical stage, complete remission was achieved by conventional chemotherapy.
  • After interleukin 2 expansion of tumour-infiltrating bone marrow and lymph node cells from the patients, cytotoxic T-cell lines with rearranged T-cell receptor genes were established.
  • They showed specific killing activity against autologous tumour cells in an MHC-restricted fashion, with possible implications for treatment.
  • In addition, upon cessation of maintenance chemotherapy, one patient developed overt leukaemia with blasts expressing CD33 antigens, suggesting a continuous spectrum of blastic NK cell lymphoma to myeloid/NK cell precursor acute leukaemia.
  • [MeSH-major] Killer Cells, Natural / immunology. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / immunology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antigens, CD. Antigens, CD2. Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Blotting, Southern. CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes / immunology. Cyclophosphamide / therapeutic use. Cytotoxicity Tests, Immunologic. Doxorubicin / therapeutic use. Female. Flow Cytometry. Gene Rearrangement, T-Lymphocyte. Humans. Immunophenotyping. Karyotyping. Male. Middle Aged. Prednisone / therapeutic use. Remission Induction. Sialic Acid Binding Ig-like Lectin 3. Vincristine / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 11328295.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-1048
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of haematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Haematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, CD2; 0 / Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic; 0 / CD33 protein, human; 0 / Sialic Acid Binding Ig-like Lectin 3; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone; CHOP protocol
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9. Kobayashi S, Teramura M, Arai M, Masuda A, Mizoguchi H, Motoji T: Successful salvage treatment of blastic natural killer cell lymphoma with methotrexate. Int J Hematol; 2010 Nov;92(4):634-7
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  • [Title] Successful salvage treatment of blastic natural killer cell lymphoma with methotrexate.
  • A 69-year-old man with blastic natural killer cell lymphoma (BNKL) was treated mainly with methotrexate (MTX).
  • Molecular studies showed germline configuration of both immunoglobulin H and T cell receptor genes, and negative results for Epstein-Barr virus-encoded small RNA (EBER).
  • He was treated with standard acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) induction therapy, followed by 1 cycle of high-dose MTX (HD-MTX) as consolidation therapy.
  • However, BNKL relapsed during standard ALL maintenance therapy.
  • Three cycles of HD-MTX were effective in achieving a second complete remission and then he received low dose MTX as maintenance therapy.
  • Since BNKL reportedly has a poor prognosis, this encouraging result warrants further investigation of MTX as either a single agent or in a combination regimen as a first-line treatment for patients with BNKL.
  • [MeSH-major] Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Killer Cells, Natural / pathology. Lymphoma / drug therapy. Methotrexate / therapeutic use. Salvage Therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Humans. Male. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20936384.001).
  • [ISSN] 1865-3774
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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10. Sokol L, Loughran TP Jr: Large granular lymphocyte leukemia and natural killer cell leukemia/lymphomas. Curr Treat Options Oncol; 2003 Aug;4(4):289-96
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  • [Title] Large granular lymphocyte leukemia and natural killer cell leukemia/lymphomas.
  • Natural killer (NK) cell leukemia and lymphoma represent rare conditions with heterogeneity of biologic behavior, prognosis, and responsiveness to therapy.
  • The initial diagnosis of NK-cell malignancies can be difficult because of the lack of immunophenotypic clonality markers, morphologic heterogeneity, and a poor correlation between cytomorphology and prognosis.
  • Therapeutic recommendations for NK-cell malignancies are derived from retrospective studies or case reports.
  • Immature NK-cell malignancies often have aggressive behavior with poor prognosis, despite administration of acute myeloid leukemia or acute lymphocytic leukemia induction chemotherapy.
  • The use of high-dose chemotherapy with stem cell rescue resulted in a prolonged survival in a small series of patients.
  • NK-cell malignancies originating from cells with mature phenotypes form a spectrum of diseases with distinct prognosis.
  • Patients with aggressive NK-cell leukemia invariably die within several months.
  • Nasal and nasal-like NK/T-cell lymphomas with limited stage disease often respond to radiation therapy alone or combination with chemotherapy and radiation therapy, with 5-year disease-free survival rates ranging from 30% to 75%.
  • Patients with T-cell large granular lymphocyte leukemia or chronic NK-cell lymphoproliferative disease of granular lymphocytes can have an indolent clinical course with long survival without therapy.
  • However, approximately 66% of patients with T-cell large granular lymphocyte leukemia require low-dose chemotherapy with methotrexate or cyclophosphamide or immunosuppressive therapy with glucocorticosteroids or cyclosporine A for symptomatic cytopenias during the course of their disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Killer Cells, Natural. Leukemia / therapy. Lymphoma / therapy. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / therapy

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  • (PMID = 12943609.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-2729
  • [Journal-full-title] Current treatment options in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Treat Options Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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11. Kuroda J, Kimura S, Kobayashi Y, Jyoko N, Kamitsuji Y, Murotani Y, Fukuda W, Akaogi T, Hayashi H, Yoshikawa T, Maekawa T: Variable manifestation in natural killer cell leukaemia. Clin Lab Haematol; 2003 Aug;25(4):239-45

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  • [Title] Variable manifestation in natural killer cell leukaemia.
  • Natural killer (NK) cell leukaemias are a relatively rare group of haematological disorders, now entitled in the T/NK lymphoproliferative disorders in the new WHO classification.
  • However, some cases with NK malignancies still remain difficult to diagnose and differentiate into their subtypes in the absence of a distinct diagnostic hallmark, especially at initial presentation.
  • We describe herein five patients with NK leukaemias with respect to the clinical, cytological, immunological and cytogenetic characteristics, varied among each case.
  • Cytologically, two aggressive NK cell leukaemia/lymphoma (ANKL/L) cases were a morphologically hypogranular variant form.
  • Systemic chemotherapy resulted in complete remission in one ANKL/L and two blastic NK cell leukaemia/lymphoma (BNKL/L) patients; however, a good long-term outcome was achieved in only one CD4-positive BNKL/L patient with allogenic bone marrow transplantation.
  • From these findings, we conclude that comprehensive individual studies should be carried out in these patients to obtain a correct diagnosis and to design an optimal therapeutic approach.
  • [MeSH-major] Killer Cells, Natural / pathology. Neoplastic Stem Cells / pathology. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 12890163.001).
  • [ISSN] 0141-9854
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical and laboratory haematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Lab Haematol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; EC 1.11.1.7 / Peroxidase
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12. Knudsen H, Grønbaek K, thor Straten P, Gisselø C, Johansen P, Timshel S, Bergmann OJ, Hansen NE, Ralfkiaer E: A case of lymphoblastoid natural killer (NK)-cell lymphoma: association with the NK-cell receptor complex CD94/NKG2 and TP53 intragenic deletion. Br J Dermatol; 2002 Jan;146(1):148-53
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  • [Title] A case of lymphoblastoid natural killer (NK)-cell lymphoma: association with the NK-cell receptor complex CD94/NKG2 and TP53 intragenic deletion.
  • The clinical, histological, phenotypic and genotypic features of a lymphoblastoid natural killer (NK)-cell lymphoma presenting in the skin in a young caucasian woman are described.
  • The disease behaved aggressively, but long-lasting remission was obtained by combination chemotherapy followed by autologous bone marrow transplantation.
  • Furthermore, the NK-cell receptor complex CD94/NKG2 was strongly expressed, as shown by examination with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction.
  • The T-cell receptor (TCR)-gamma genes were in germline, and with the exception of CD4 all T-cell antigens were negative, including CD3, TCR-beta, TCR-delta, TIA-1, granzyme B and perforin.
  • Epstein-Barr virus was negative, and no expression was seen of myeloid cell-associated markers.
  • It is suggested that lymphoblastoid NK-cell lymphoma, which is a rare but distinctive disease, originates from NK cell precursors and may be associated with and possibly caused by alterations in the TP53 gene.
  • Experience is too limited to warrant therapeutic suggestions.
  • However, stem cell transplantation may be a useful option in younger patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD / genetics. Gene Deletion. Killer Cells, Natural. Lectins, C-Type. Membrane Glycoproteins / genetics. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / genetics. Skin Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Asparaginase / administration & dosage. Bone Marrow Transplantation. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. NK Cell Lectin-Like Receptor Subfamily D. Treatment Outcome. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 11841384.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0963
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / KLRD1 protein, human; 0 / Lectins, C-Type; 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins; 0 / NK Cell Lectin-Like Receptor Subfamily D; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; EC 3.5.1.1 / Asparaginase
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13. Handa H, Motohashi S, Isozumi K, Komatsumoto S, Nara M: CD7+ and CD56+ myeloid/natural killer cell precursor acute leukemia treated with idarubicin and cytosine arabinoside. Acta Haematol; 2002;108(1):47-52
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  • [Title] CD7+ and CD56+ myeloid/natural killer cell precursor acute leukemia treated with idarubicin and cytosine arabinoside.
  • We describe a 69-year-old Japanese male with acute leukemia with a CD7+ and CD56+ immunophenotype presenting with multiple lymphadenopathy.
  • He died of sepsis due to severe neutropenia after the third course of chemotherapy.
  • Recently, CD7+ and CD56+ myeloid/natural killer precursor acute leukemia has been associated with a poor prognosis.
  • Our case illustrates that myeloid/natural killer cell precursor acute leukemia shows some response to intensive chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukemia, but such therapy is insufficient to effect a cure.
  • To overcome the resistance of this disease to chemotherapy, further studies should explore other treatment strategies.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD56 / analysis. Antigens, CD7 / analysis. Antigens, Neoplasm / analysis. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cytarabine / analogs & derivatives. Killer Cells, Natural / pathology. Leukemia, Myeloid / drug therapy. Myeloid Cells / pathology. Neoplastic Stem Cells / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] 6-Mercaptopurine / administration & dosage. Acute Disease. Aged. Antigens, CD / analysis. Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic / analysis. Daunorubicin / administration & dosage. Diagnosis, Differential. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Idarubicin / administration & dosage. Leukemic Infiltration. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / diagnosis. Male. Mitoxantrone / administration & dosage. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / diagnosis. Sarcoma, Myeloid / diagnosis. Sialic Acid Binding Ig-like Lectin 3

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel
  • (PMID = 12145468.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5792
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta haematologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Haematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, CD56; 0 / Antigens, CD7; 0 / Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic; 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / CD33 protein, human; 0 / Sialic Acid Binding Ig-like Lectin 3; 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 9YVR68W306 / enocitabine; BZ114NVM5P / Mitoxantrone; E7WED276I5 / 6-Mercaptopurine; ZRP63D75JW / Idarubicin; ZS7284E0ZP / Daunorubicin
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14. Eyrich M, Wiegering V, Lim A, Schrauder A, Winkler B, Schlegel PG: Immune function in children under chemotherapy for standard risk acute lymphoblastic leukaemia - a prospective study of 20 paediatric patients. Br J Haematol; 2009 Nov;147(3):360-70

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  • [Title] Immune function in children under chemotherapy for standard risk acute lymphoblastic leukaemia - a prospective study of 20 paediatric patients.
  • Multidrug chemotherapy is a highly effective treatment for paediatric acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL), but at the same time compromises immunity of patients.
  • Immune function in a homogenous cohort of 20 children with standard- and intermediate-risk ALL was analysed by immunophenotyping, intracellular cytokine staining, assessment of serum cytokine concentrations, T-cell receptor (TCR) repertoire diversity and thymic function.
  • B-cells were most severely affected by chemotherapy, rapidly declined under induction and did not recover until the cessation of maintenance therapy.
  • This recovery was paralleled by a relative increase in naive IgM(+)IgD(+)CD27(-) B-cells, indicating de novo B-cell generation as the major pathway for B-cell reconstitution.
  • T- and Natural Killer-cells were less severely affected.
  • Although numerically diminished by chemotherapy, they had partially recovered at the end of induction.
  • Interestingly, CD4:CD8 ratio, distribution of naive versus memory T-cells, cytokine production, TCR-repertoire complexity and thymic function were all only marginally affected by chemotherapy.
  • Our data show that during chemotherapy in standard- and intermediate-risk paediatric ALL patients the T-cell system remains relatively well preserved.
  • Future studies will show if this effect can be exploited for inclusion of immunotherapy in standard ALL treatment protocols.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / drug therapy. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / immunology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. B-Lymphocyte Subsets / drug effects. B-Lymphocyte Subsets / immunology. Child. Child, Preschool. Cytokines / biosynthesis. Cytokines / blood. Female. Genetic Variation. Humans. Immunity, Cellular / drug effects. Immunophenotyping. Killer Cells, Natural / drug effects. Killer Cells, Natural / immunology. Lymphocyte Count. Male. Prospective Studies. Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell / genetics. T-Lymphocyte Subsets / drug effects. T-Lymphocyte Subsets / immunology. Thymus Gland / immunology

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  • (PMID = 19694715.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2141
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of haematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Haematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cytokines; 0 / Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell
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15. Lowdell MW, Craston R, Samuel D, Wood ME, O'Neill E, Saha V, Prentice HG: Evidence that continued remission in patients treated for acute leukaemia is dependent upon autologous natural killer cells. Br J Haematol; 2002 Jun;117(4):821-7
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  • [Title] Evidence that continued remission in patients treated for acute leukaemia is dependent upon autologous natural killer cells.
  • Here we have tested 25 patients with de novo acute leukaemias, while in remission at completion of their anti-leukaemia therapy, for evidence of autologous cytolytic immunity to their leukaemic cells taken and cryopreserved at disease presentation.
  • We have measured this degree of cell-mediated cytotoxicity in vitro and termed it "leukaemia cytolytic activity" (LCA).
  • Patients whose disease ultimately relapsed had significantly lower LCA than those who remained in remission beyond 2 years (P < 0.001); the absence of LCA when in remission predicted subsequent relapse within 2 years with a sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 77%.
  • LCA was mediated in vitro by CD56+/CD8alpha+/CD3- natural killer cells.
  • We propose that it is this immune response, rather than the chemotherapy per se, which is responsible for continued remission and that measurement of LCA in patients at completion of therapy may be used as an indicator of risk of subsequent relapse.
  • Patients lacking this response will require further treatment, either with an allogeneic donor transplant or an alternative immunotherapeutic strategy.
  • [MeSH-major] Killer Cells, Natural / immunology. Leukemia / drug therapy. Leukemia / immunology
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Antigens, CD56 / immunology. Bone Marrow Transplantation. CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes / immunology. Child. Graft vs Leukemia Effect / immunology. Humans. Leukemia, Myeloid / drug therapy. Leukemia, Myeloid / immunology. Middle Aged. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / drug therapy. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / immunology. Prognosis. Recurrence. Remission Induction. Retrospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity. Transplantation, Autologous. Transplantation, Homologous

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  • (PMID = 12060116.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-1048
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of haematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Haematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD56
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16. Matano S, Terahata S, Nakamura S, Kobayashi K, Sugimoto T: CD56-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Acta Haematol; 2005;114(3):160-3
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  • [Title] CD56-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
  • We report a patient with lung cancer who developed CD56-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
  • There were no rearrangements of T-cell receptor (TCR)-beta, TCR-gamma, or immunoglobulin heavy chain.
  • Systemic examination did not detect any tumors other than pulmonary adenocarcinoma, and the patient was diagnosed as having acute natural killer (NK) cell leukemia.
  • Chemotherapy was effective, and he achieved complete remission.
  • We considered that the diagnosis was blastic NK cell lymphoma/leukemia subtype.
  • However, it actually was myeloid/NK cell precursor leukemia subtype that weakly expressed CD13.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD56 / metabolism. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / immunology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Humans. Immunophenotyping. Killer Cells, Natural / classification. Killer Cells, Natural / immunology. Killer Cells, Natural / pathology. Male

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel
  • (PMID = 16227680.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5792
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta haematologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Haematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD56
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17. Martens C, Hodgson DC, Wells WA, Sun A, Bezjak A, Pintilie M, Crump M, Gospodarowicz MK, Tsang R: Outcome of hyperfractionated radiotherapy in chemotherapy-resistant non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2006 Mar 15;64(4):1183-7
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  • [Title] Outcome of hyperfractionated radiotherapy in chemotherapy-resistant non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
  • PURPOSE: Patients with chemotherapy-resistant lymphoma have rapidly progressive disease and a poor prognosis.
  • The radiation dose was 39.9-40.5 Gy in 30 fractions.
  • The median treatment time was 22 days with twice-daily involved-field RT.
  • Local control was defined as maintenance of local complete response, complete response-unconfirmed, or lack of local progression with a partial response.
  • The histologic features at diagnosis were follicular in 11 (Grade 1 in 4, Grade 2 in 3, and Grade 3 in 4), diffuse large B-cell in 14, peripheral T-cell lymphoma in 2, Burkitt-like in 1, mantle cell in 2, natural killer cell in 2, plasmacytoma/lymphoma in 1, and T-cell lymphoblastic in 1.
  • The initial treatment was chemotherapy in 32 patients (94%); 71% were refractory to initial chemotherapy and 29% developed a relapse after an initial response.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Disease Progression. Dose Fractionation. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Remission Induction. Survivors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16376490.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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18. Linn YC, Lau LC, Hui KM: Generation of cytokine-induced killer cells from leukaemic samples with in vitro cytotoxicity against autologous and allogeneic leukaemic blasts. Br J Haematol; 2002 Jan;116(1):78-86
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  • [Title] Generation of cytokine-induced killer cells from leukaemic samples with in vitro cytotoxicity against autologous and allogeneic leukaemic blasts.
  • Cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells are CD3(+)CD56(+) non-major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-restricted immune effector cells.
  • The percentage of CD3(+)CD56(+) CIK cells generated following culture ranged between 7.6% and 65% (median of 35.3%) and these cells were able to kill the human natural killer target K562 cells.
  • Although the same effector cells were able to lyse autologous acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) target cells, they were not able to lyse autologous acute lymphoblastic leukaemia target cells.
  • The present study suggests the potential application of CIK cells in the immunotherapy of AML, either in minimal disease state, as donor lymphocyte infusion in relapse post allogeneic transplant, or in cases of chemotherapy refractory leukaemia.
  • [MeSH-major] Immunotherapy, Adoptive. Killer Cells, Lymphokine-Activated / immunology. Leukemia, Myeloid / immunology. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / immunology
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Antigens, CD3. Antigens, CD56. Cell Culture Techniques. Cytapheresis. Cytotoxicity Tests, Immunologic. Humans. Killer Cells, Natural / immunology. Transplantation, Autologous. Transplantation, Homologous

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  • (PMID = 11841399.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-1048
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of haematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Haematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD3; 0 / Antigens, CD56
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19. Matsubara K, Yura K, Hirata T, Nigami H, Harigaya H, Nozaki H, Fukaya T, Baba K: Acute lymphoblastic leukemia with coexpression of CD56 and CD57: case report. Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2004 Oct-Nov;21(7):677-82
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  • [Title] Acute lymphoblastic leukemia with coexpression of CD56 and CD57: case report.
  • The authors present the clinical profile of a 6-year-old girl with an unusual immunophenotype of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL).
  • At the initial presentation, massive hepatosplenomegaly developed.
  • The leukemic cells were myeloperoxidase-negative and morphologically lymphoblastic.
  • These cells were positive for B-precursor-cell (CD10, CD19) antigens and natural killer cells (CD56, CD57).
  • Rearrangements of both immunoglobulin heavy chain alleles and monoallelic rearrangement of T-cell receptors (TCRs)-beta and -delta genes, but not that of TCR-gamma gene, were detected, suggesting that these cells being of B-precursor origin.
  • The patient received chemotherapy for extremely high-risk ALL with a good response.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD56 / genetics. Antigens, CD57 / genetics. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / genetics

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  • (PMID = 15626024.001).
  • [ISSN] 0888-0018
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric hematology and oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Hematol Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, CD56; 0 / Antigens, CD57
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20. Hashii Y, Okuda T, Ohta H, Ozono K, Hara J: Pediatric myeloid/NK cell precursor lymphoma/leukemia expressing T/NK immunophenotype markers. Int J Hematol; 2010 Apr;91(3):525-9
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  • [Title] Pediatric myeloid/NK cell precursor lymphoma/leukemia expressing T/NK immunophenotype markers.
  • Myeloid/NK cell precursor lymphoma/leukemia has been suggested to be of precursor NK origin.
  • We report a 1-year-old boy with myeloid/NK cell precursor lymphoma/leukemia who presented with a skin nodule.
  • He received acute myeloid leukemia-oriented combination chemotherapy.
  • Being refractory to chemotherapy, he underwent stem cell transplantation from his father.
  • Although myeloid/NK cell precursor acute leukemia is characterized by CD7(+), CD56(+), CD3(-), CD34(+) and myeloid antigen(+) phenotype, the blast cells of our patients lacked CD34 and CD7 expression while expressing myeloid antigens.
  • Furthermore, CD94 1A transcripts were predominantly expressed rather than CD94 1B, implying their origin in immature NK cells.
  • After acute myeloid leukemia-oriented combination chemotherapy, his blasts acquired stable CD3 expression and TCRgammadelta rearrangement at recurrence.
  • The blast cells possessed features overlapping both myeloid/NK precursor acute leukemia and blastic NK/precursor acute lymphoma/leukemia.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor. Killer Cells, Natural / pathology. Leukemia, Myeloid / pathology. Precursor B-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Lineage. Humans. Immunophenotyping. Infant. Male

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  • [Cites] Br J Haematol. 2007 Nov;139(4):532-44 [17916099.001]
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  • (PMID = 20146030.001).
  • [ISSN] 1865-3774
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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21. El-Chennawi FA, Al-Tonbary YA, Mossad YM, Ahmed MA: Immune reconstitution during maintenance therapy in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, relation to co-existing infection. Hematology; 2008 Aug;13(4):203-9
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  • [Title] Immune reconstitution during maintenance therapy in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, relation to co-existing infection.
  • Immunosuppression is a major side effect of cancer chemotherapy.
  • The process of immune reconstitution can be dissimilar according to the nature of the disease, type and doses of drugs, and age of the patients.
  • Recently, several studies have examined immune reconstitution in children and young adults after intensive chemotherapy for solid tumours or stem cell transplantation.
  • The aim of the present study is to evaluate immune reconstitution (cellular and humoral) in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia during the maintenance phase of therapy and to correlate between the complicating infections and the abnormalities in immune system during reconstitution.
  • To achieve this goal, 36 children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (24 females and 12 males) in the maintenance phase of therapy with 12 healthy children of matched age and sex served as a control group were recruited in this study.
  • They were subjected to thorough history taking, clinical examination and laboratory investigations in the form of: complete blood count, serum creatinine, liver function tests and evaluation of the immune system by estimation of CD3, CD4, CD8, CD19 and CD56 (cellular immunity) by flow cytometry and immunoglobulins A, M and G (humoral immunity) at the first and the third month of maintenance therapy.
  • The results of the study documented presence and persistence of leucopenia and lymphopenia during maintenance therapy with decreased medians of CD3, CD4 and CD8 from the first to the third month of therapy and in comparison to the control group.
  • The other markers CD19, CD56, IgA, IgM, IgG and CD4/CD8 ratio showed increasing median from the first to the third month of therapy.
  • Also we detect a significant correlation between infection and CD19 and serum IgM at the first month and between infection and CD19, IgM and CD4/CD8 ratio at the third month of therapy.
  • In conclusion, persistent immunosuppression is documented in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia during maintenance therapy.
  • Reconstitution of B lymphocytes and Natural killer cells occurs early while T cell reconstitution shows delayed recovery of both T helper and T suppressor cells.
  • Immunosupression during maintenance therapy has no major clinical impact in terms of increased incidence or severity of systemic infections.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Biomarkers, Tumor / immunology. Infection / immunology. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / drug therapy. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / immunology

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  • (PMID = 18796245.001).
  • [ISSN] 1607-8454
  • [Journal-full-title] Hematology (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hematology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones; 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Immunoglobulins; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; E7WED276I5 / 6-Mercaptopurine; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate
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22. Aoyama Y, Yamane T, Hino M, Ohta K, Nakamae H, Yamamura R, Koh KR, Takubo T, Inoue T, Tatsumi Y, Tatsumi N: Blastic NK-cell lymphoma/leukemia with T-cell receptor gamma rearrangement. Ann Hematol; 2001 Dec;80(12):752-4
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  • [Title] Blastic NK-cell lymphoma/leukemia with T-cell receptor gamma rearrangement.
  • Increased numbers of abnormal cells were observed in peripheral blood; these cells were of lymphoblastic morphology with high nuclear/cytoplasm ratios and few azurophilic granules.
  • Immunophenotypic analysis revealed positivity for CD2, CD4, CD56, and HLA-DR, and negativity for CD3, CD13, CD16, CD33, CD34, and T cell receptor (TCR).
  • Despite an initial good response to chemotherapy the disease relapsed in the early stage, and the patient died 6 months after diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Gene Rearrangement, gamma-Chain T-Cell Antigen Receptor. Killer Cells, Natural. Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell / diagnosis. Leukemia, Lymphoid / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antigens, CD / analysis. Biopsy. Bone Marrow / pathology. C-Reactive Protein / analysis. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Cytoplasm / pathology. Erythema / pathology. Fatal Outcome. HLA-DR Antigens / analysis. Humans. Immunophenotyping. L-Lactate Dehydrogenase / blood. Male. Receptors, Interleukin-2 / analysis. Skin / pathology

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  • (PMID = 11797118.001).
  • [ISSN] 0939-5555
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / HLA-DR Antigens; 0 / Receptors, Interleukin-2; 9007-41-4 / C-Reactive Protein; EC 1.1.1.27 / L-Lactate Dehydrogenase
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23. Barrionuevo C, Anderson VM, Zevallos-Giampietri E, Zaharia M, Misad O, Bravo F, Cáceres H, Taxa L, Martínez MT, Wachtel A, Piris MA: Hydroa-like cutaneous T-cell lymphoma: a clinicopathologic and molecular genetic study of 16 pediatric cases from Peru. Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol; 2002 Mar;10(1):7-14
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  • [Title] Hydroa-like cutaneous T-cell lymphoma: a clinicopathologic and molecular genetic study of 16 pediatric cases from Peru.
  • Hydroa-like cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (hydroa-like CTCL) is an unusual pediatric malignancy with a poor prognosis.
  • The lesion consists of lymphomatous T-cell infiltration of the skin and subcutis with variable exocytosis and angiocentricity.
  • It has been also called edematous, scarring vasculitic panniculitis and hydroa-like lymphoma.
  • The differential diagnosis includes other cutaneous lymphomas, particularly the cutaneous nasal type T/natural killer-cell lymphoma, mycosis fungoides, precursor T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma, nonspecific peripheral T-cell lymphoma, cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma, and subcutaneous panniculitic T-cell lymphoma.
  • Chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy had little or no benefit.
  • The lymphoma extended from the epidermis to the subcutis, with frequent angiocentric and periadnexal array.
  • Lymphoma cells were mostly of intermediate size with dense hyperchromatic nuclei, inconspicuous nucleoli, and infrequent mitosis.
  • The lymphoma cells displayed T-cell cytotoxic phenotype.
  • In addition, they were negative for the natural killer cell antigens CD56 and CD57.
  • T-cell receptor gamma (TCRgamma) displayed monoclonal-type rearrangement in four cases studied.
  • Consequently, it should be considered an independent subset of CTCLs and be included as such in the classification of neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissues.

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  • (PMID = 11893040.001).
  • [ISSN] 1541-2016
  • [Journal-full-title] Applied immunohistochemistry & molecular morphology : AIMM
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Appl. Immunohistochem. Mol. Morphol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 34
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24. Gruber TA, Skelton DC, Kohn DB: Requirement for NK cells in CD40 ligand-mediated rejection of Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells. J Immunol; 2002 Jan 1;168(1):73-80
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  • [Title] Requirement for NK cells in CD40 ligand-mediated rejection of Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells.
  • We have previously developed a murine model of Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia by i.v. injection of a pre-B ALL cell line (BM185) derived from Bcr-Abl-transformed BALB/c bone marrow.
  • BM185 cells expressing CD40L or CD80 alone, when injected into BALB/c mice, were rejected in approximately 25% of mice, whereas cohorts receiving BM185 cells expressing two or more immunomodulator genes rejected challenge 50-76% of the time.
  • Addition of murine rIL-12 treatments in conjunction with BM185/CD80/CD40L/GM-CSF vaccination allowed rejection of preestablished leukemia.
  • BM185 cell lines expressing CD40L were rejected in BALB/c nu/nu (nude) mice, in contrast to cell lines expressing CD80 and/or GM-CSF.
  • Nude mice depleted of NK cells were no longer protected when challenged with BM185/CD40L, demonstrating a requirement for NK cells.
  • Similarly, NK cell depletion in immunocompetent BALB/c mice resulted in a loss of protection when challenged with BM185/CD40L, confirming the data seen in nude mice.
  • The ability of CD40L to act in a T cell-independent manner may be important for clinical applications in patients with depressed cellular immunity following chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] CD40 Ligand / physiology. Killer Cells, Natural / immunology. Philadelphia Chromosome. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / immunology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antigens, CD80 / genetics. Antigens, CD80 / physiology. Cancer Vaccines. Combined Modality Therapy. Cytotoxicity Tests, Immunologic. Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor / genetics. Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor / physiology. Immunologic Memory. Interleukin-12 / therapeutic use. Lymphocyte Depletion. Male. Mice. Mice, Inbred BALB C. Mice, Nude. Neoplasm Transplantation. Survival Analysis. T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic / immunology. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 11751948.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-1767
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Immunol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD80; 0 / Cancer Vaccines; 147205-72-9 / CD40 Ligand; 187348-17-0 / Interleukin-12; 83869-56-1 / Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor
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25. Hoshino T, Tahara K, Miyawaki K, Hatsumi N, Takada S, Miyawaki S, Sakura T: [Clinical profiles of 7 patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia or Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia treated with dasatinib]. Rinsho Ketsueki; 2010 Mar;51(3):181-8
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  • [Title] [Clinical profiles of 7 patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia or Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia treated with dasatinib].
  • We retrospectively analyzed the clinical outcome of dasatinib in 7 patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) or Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Ph+ALL) resistant or intolerant to imatinib.
  • No patients who had been intolerant to imatinib experienced the same nonhematologic toxicity following treatment with dasatinib.
  • We identified three patients who developed peripheral lymphocytosis, identified as natural killer cells or cytotoxic T-cells based on their large granular lymphocyte (LGL) morphologies and immunophenotypic profiles, out of six patients receiving dasatinib therapy.
  • All three cases that developed LGL lymphocytosis achieved optimal molecular response, two of the patients, however, had pleural effusion and CMV colitis, respectively.
  • Dasatinib inhibits off-target kinases, which may result in unexpected drug responses.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive / drug therapy. Philadelphia Chromosome. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / drug therapy. Pyrimidines / administration & dosage. Thiazoles / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Colitis / chemically induced. Colitis / virology. Cytomegalovirus Infections. Dasatinib. Humans. Middle Aged. Pleural Effusion / chemically induced. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20379112.001).
  • [ISSN] 0485-1439
  • [Journal-full-title] [Rinshō ketsueki] The Japanese journal of clinical hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rinsho Ketsueki
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Pyrimidines; 0 / Thiazoles; RBZ1571X5H / Dasatinib
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26. Hongeng S, Petvises S, Worapongpaiboon S, Rerkamnuaychoke B, Pakakasama S, Jootar S: Generation of CD3+ CD56+ cytokine-induced killer cells and their in vitro cytotoxicity against pediatric cancer cells. Int J Hematol; 2003 Feb;77(2):175-9
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  • [Title] Generation of CD3+ CD56+ cytokine-induced killer cells and their in vitro cytotoxicity against pediatric cancer cells.
  • A certain number of pediatric cancer patients still succumb to relapse following conventional treatment of their malignancies.
  • In adults, the CD3+ CD56+ cell, a cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cell, appears to be a promising effector cell type with the greatest cytotoxicity.
  • This effector cell type may work in children as well.
  • We speculated that expanded CD3+ CD56+ cells obtained from pediatric cancer patients during remission would act similarly against various pediatric tumor cell lines; therefore, we undertook the present study to find support for our speculation.
  • This study was undertaken to generate and expand CD3+ CD56+ CIK cells from normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBL) obtained from 6 children with cancer (2 with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, 2 with large cell lymphoma, and 2 with osteosarcoma) in remission after intensive chemotherapy and to study the cytotoxic activities of these cells against chronic myeloid leukemia cell line K562 t(9;22), 4 pediatric tumor cell lines [infant acute lymphoblastic leukemia RS4 t(4;11), TEL/AML acute lymphoblastic leukemia REH t(12;21), alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma Rh-Cr t(2;13), and Ewing sarcoma EW-Le t(11;22)], and 2 pediatric glioblastoma multiforme cultured cell lines (G74 and G77).
  • CIK cells were generated and expanded in culture medium to which interferon gamma, monoclonal antibody against CD3, and interleukin 2 were added at appropriate times.
  • Net lactate dehydrogenase release from target cells incubated with CIK cells was used as an index of CIK cell cytotoxicity against various pediatric tumor cell lines.
  • They provide information for developing adoptive immunotherapy for future clinical trials with pediatric cancer patients, particularly those patients with minimal residual disease after intensive chemotherapy or stem cell transplantation (especially nonmyeloablative transplantation procedures).
  • [MeSH-major] Cytotoxicity, Immunologic. Killer Cells, Natural / immunology. Neoplasms / immunology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Antigens, CD3. Antigens, CD56. Cell Culture Techniques. Child. Child, Preschool. Cytokines / pharmacology. Cytotoxicity Tests, Immunologic. Female. Humans. Male. Remission Induction. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 12627854.001).
  • [ISSN] 0925-5710
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD3; 0 / Antigens, CD56; 0 / Cytokines
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27. Ek T, Mellander L, Andersson B, Abrahamsson J: Immune reconstitution after childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia is most severely affected in the high risk group. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2005 May;44(5):461-8
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  • [Title] Immune reconstitution after childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia is most severely affected in the high risk group.
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim was to examine the immune reconstitution after current chemotherapy for childhood ALL, with a special focus on finding immunologic variables that predict a poor immune response to vaccinations.
  • PROCEDURE: In a cross-sectional study of 31 children after treatment with the NOPHO ALL-1992 protocol peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets, T- and B-cell function in vitro and serum immunoglobulins (Ig) were measured.
  • All patients were examined once, at 1 or at 6 months after cessation of chemotherapy, immediately before vaccination with DT and Hib.
  • RESULTS: Lymphocytes, T-cells, and CD4+ T-cells were low at 6 months after treatment.
  • Naive T-cell subsets were more reduced than memory subsets.
  • NK-cells were low at 1 month, but normal at 6 months; however, the CD3+CD56+ (NKT) subset was reduced at both time points.
  • Total B-cell number was low at 1 month, but normal at 6 months.
  • Antigen-independent T- and B-cell function in vitro were affected at 1 month, but virtually normalized at 6 months.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that immune reconstitution after childhood ALL is slower than previously reported and emphasizes the influence of treatment intensity.
  • The most intensively treated patients still have persistent abnormalities in T-, B-, and NK-cell subsets at 6 months post therapy and show a poor response to immunization with T-cell dependent antigens.
  • In the HR group, routine re-immunizations before this time point are of limited benefit, and the effect of repeated vaccinations should be evaluated.
  • [MeSH-major] Immune System / physiology. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / drug therapy. Regeneration. Vaccination
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Antigens, CD / analysis. Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. B-Lymphocytes / cytology. B-Lymphocytes / immunology. Case-Control Studies. Child. Child, Preschool. Cross-Sectional Studies. Humans. Immunoglobulins / blood. Immunosuppression / methods. Killer Cells, Natural / cytology. Killer Cells, Natural / immunology. Lymphocyte Subsets / cytology. T-Lymphocytes / cytology. T-Lymphocytes / immunology. Time Factors


28. Koehl U, Sörensen J, Esser R, Zimmermann S, Grüttner HP, Tonn T, Seidl C, Seifried E, Klingebiel T, Schwabe D: IL-2 activated NK cell immunotherapy of three children after haploidentical stem cell transplantation. Blood Cells Mol Dis; 2004 Nov-Dec;33(3):261-6
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  • [Title] IL-2 activated NK cell immunotherapy of three children after haploidentical stem cell transplantation.
  • Natural killer (NK) cells are thought to be of benefit in HLA-mismatched hematopoietic transplantation (H-SCT).
  • Therefore, we developed a protocol for clinical-use expansion of highly enriched and IL-2-stimulated NK cells.
  • Purification of unstimulated leukaphereses by a two-step T cell depletion with a final CD56 enrichment procedure leads to a mean purity of 95% CD56(+)CD3- NK cells with a four- to five-log depletion of T cells.
  • So far, three pediatric patients with multiply relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) or acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) were treated with repeated transfusions post-H-SCT.
  • Directed killer immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) mismatches were demonstrated in all three cases.
  • Although all patients showed blast persistence at the time of transplant, they reached complete remission and complete donor chimerism within 1 month post-H-SCT.
  • NK cell therapy was tolerated well without graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) induction or other adverse events.
  • This initial trial showed the feasibility of good manufacturing practice (GMP)-compliant NK cell isolation and expansion for clinical applications.
  • We now launch a clinical phase I trial with activated NK cells post-H-SCT.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Immunotherapy, Adoptive. Interleukin-2 / pharmacology. Killer Cells, Natural / transplantation. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / therapy. Lymphocyte Activation / drug effects. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Graft vs Leukemia Effect / drug effects. Haplotypes. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 15528141.001).
  • [ISSN] 1079-9796
  • [Journal-full-title] Blood cells, molecules & diseases
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Blood Cells Mol. Dis.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Interleukin-2
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29. Rossi JG, Felice MS, Bernasconi AR, Ribas AE, Gallego MS, Somardzic AE, Alfaro EM, Alonso CN: Acute leukemia of dendritic cell lineage in childhood: incidence, biological characteristics and outcome. Leuk Lymphoma; 2006 Apr;47(4):715-25

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  • [Title] Acute leukemia of dendritic cell lineage in childhood: incidence, biological characteristics and outcome.
  • CD4+ CD56+ malignancies have only recently been related to dendritic cell (DC) lineage.
  • The few cases described, mostly adults and elderly, typically present with cutaneous lesions, followed by disseminated tumor localizations within a few months, with a generally very aggressive course and fatal outcome, despite the different therapeutic approaches employing chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy.
  • Considering that leukemias in childhood and in adults are different diseases, we describe three pediatric cases to help compare the biological characteristics, immunophenotype, clinical features, treatment response and incidence of this disease in both age groups.
  • From a total 1363 new patients with acute leukemia (AL), we report three cases with blasts of French - American - British L2 morphology, an absence of the most specific markers for myeloid, T or B lineage and lacking CD34, which led us to evaluate the blasts with an extensive panel of antibodies, including those related to the other putative pathways of lymphoid differentation: natural killer and DC.
  • All three children showed good response to acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) protocols, achieving complete remission even when one of the patients relapsed and received an allogeneic transplant.
  • We emphasize the importance of including antibodies for DC lineage in cases of CD34(-) unclassifiable AL to further characterize these rare cases (0.22%), considering that the tumor cell affiliation to DC lineage relies exclusively on immunophenotypic criteria.
  • [MeSH-major] Dendritic Cells / cytology. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / diagnosis. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Antigens, CD34 / biosynthesis. Cell Lineage. Child. Female. Humans. Immunophenotyping. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Incidence. Leukocytes, Mononuclear / metabolism. Male. Remission Induction. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16690531.001).
  • [ISSN] 1042-8194
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia & lymphoma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Lymphoma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD34
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30. Lang P, Barbin K, Feuchtinger T, Greil J, Peipp M, Zunino SJ, Pfeiffer M, Handgretinger R, Niethammer D, Fey GH: Chimeric CD19 antibody mediates cytotoxic activity against leukemic blasts with effector cells from pediatric patients who received T-cell-depleted allografts. Blood; 2004 May 15;103(10):3982-5
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  • [Title] Chimeric CD19 antibody mediates cytotoxic activity against leukemic blasts with effector cells from pediatric patients who received T-cell-depleted allografts.
  • Relapse is a major problem after transplantation in children with acute B-lineage leukemias, and new therapies are needed to increase graft-versus-leukemia (GvL) effects without inducing graft-versus-host disease (GvHD).
  • This antibody efficiently mediated ADCC against primary acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) blasts by using purified natural killer (NK) cells from healthy donors or mononuclear cells from patients as effector cells.
  • We propose that treatment with chimeric CD19 antibodies leading to ADCC by donor-derived NK cells may become a therapeutic option for the post-transplantation treatment of minimal residual B-lineage ALLs.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies / pharmacology. Antibody-Dependent Cell Cytotoxicity / drug effects. Antigens, CD19 / immunology. Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation / methods. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / therapy. T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory / immunology
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Cytotoxicity Tests, Immunologic. Humans. Killer Cells, Natural / immunology. Killer Cells, Natural / transplantation. Lymphocyte Depletion. Recombinant Fusion Proteins / biosynthesis. Recombinant Fusion Proteins / pharmacology. Transplantation, Homologous

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  • (PMID = 14764538.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-4971
  • [Journal-full-title] Blood
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Blood
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies; 0 / Antigens, CD19; 0 / Recombinant Fusion Proteins
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31. Jung CK, Lee KY, Kim Y, Han K, Shim SI, Kim BK, Kang CS: Epstein-Barr virus infection, drug resistance and prognosis in Korean T- and NK-cell lymphomas. Pathol Int; 2001 May;51(5):355-63
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  • [Title] Epstein-Barr virus infection, drug resistance and prognosis in Korean T- and NK-cell lymphomas.
  • T-cell lymphomas are a biologically heterogeneous group of diseases with varying clinical presentations and outcomes.
  • We tried to understand the effect of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) on lymphogenesis, prognostic factors and drug resistance of T-cell lymphomas, and to establish their relationship with international prognostic factors.
  • Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue sections from 35 patients (12 women and 23 men) with T-cell lymphomas were examined to detect the presence of EBV using RNA in situ hybridization for EBV-encoded small nuclear RNA (EBER) 1/2 and immunohistochemical stain for latent membrane protein (LMP)-1.
  • The distribution according to the subgroup was: two T-lymphoblastic lymphomas, 13 NK/T-cell lymphomas, one angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma, 17 peripheral T-cell lymphomas, unspecified, and two anaplastic large cell lymphomas.
  • The EBER was detected in 15 of 35 T-cell lymphomas (42.9%) and among these it was detected in five of 17 nodal lymphomas (29.4%) and 10 of 18 extranodal lymphomas (55.6%).
  • There was close correlation between EBER positivity and NK/T-cell lymphoma (P = 0.032).
  • There was no correlation between EBER expression and complete response (CR rate), but coexpression of EBER and p53 was associated with treatment failure (P = 0.047).
  • P-gp expression was significantly associated with treatment failure (P = 0.001) and overall survival (P = 0.0089).
  • Seventeen of 35 patients (48.6%) treated with systemic chemotherapy or radiation therapy achieved a CR after initial treatment.
  • In conclusion, high incidence of EBV was detected among Korean patients with T-cell lymphomas.
  • Our study supports the prediction that patients who express p53 and P-gp have a poorer prognosis than those who do not and this should be considered when treatment strategies for individual patients are selected.
  • [MeSH-major] Epstein-Barr Virus Infections / complications. Killer Cells, Natural / virology. Lymphoma, T-Cell / virology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Child. Child, Preschool. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Female. Herpesvirus 4, Human / genetics. Herpesvirus 4, Human / isolation & purification. Humans. In Situ Hybridization. Infant. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. P-Glycoprotein / analysis. Prognosis. RNA, Viral / analysis. Survival Analysis. Survival Rate. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / analysis

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  • (PMID = 11422793.001).
  • [ISSN] 1320-5463
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Epstein-Barr virus encoded RNA 1; 0 / Epstein-Barr virus encoded RNA 2; 0 / P-Glycoprotein; 0 / RNA, Viral; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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34. Karube K, Ohshima K, Tsuchiya T, Yamaguchi T, Suefuji H, Suzumiya J, Harada M, Kikuchi M: Non-B, non-T neoplasms with lymphoblast morphology: further clarification and classification. Am J Surg Pathol; 2003 Oct;27(10):1366-74
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  • We studied the morphologic, immunohistochemical, and clinical characteristics of 158 cases of lymphoblastic lymphoma.
  • Based on immunophenotyping and cell lineage, cases were classified into B-cell type (CD20,CD19 or CD79a+, n = 53), T-cell type (surface CD3+, n = 84), and non-B, non-T type (B cell marker- and surface CD3-, n = 21).
  • 1) CD7+ stem cell lymphoma (CD7+SCL) [CD4-, CD7+, CD33+/-, CD56-], 2) blastic natural killer cell lymphoma (B-NKL) [CD4-, CD7+/-, CD33-, CD56+, CD123-], 3) myeloid/NK precursor cell leukemia (M/NKL) [CD4-, CD7+, CD33+, CD56+], and 4) CD4+CD56+ hematodermic malignancy (CD4+CD56+) type [CD4+, CD7+/-, CD33-, CD56+, CD123+].
  • The CD7+SCL and M/NKL types frequently exhibited bone marrow invasion and mediastinal masses.
  • All CD4+CD56+ types were associated with skin lesions.
  • B-NKL type is included into Blastic NK lymphoma in new World Health Organization classification with CD4+CD56+ type.
  • But the cases of B-NKL were more reminiscent of CD7+SCL or M/NKL type than the CD4+CD56+ type, both clinically and histologically.
  • We propose that blastic NK lymphoma, a disease entity in the new WHO classification, should be divided into two types based on phenotypes and clinical features.
  • The non-B, non-T lymphomas exhibited poorer prognoses, similar to that of B-cell lymphomas, than T-cell type tumors (P = 0.009).
  • Among the 21 tumors, the prognosis of the four subtypes did not differ significantly; however, cases receiving aggressive chemotherapy and stem cell transplantation had a more favorable prognosis than those receiving only traditional chemotherapy and radiation therapy (P = 0.0089).
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD / immunology. Lymphocytes / immunology. Myeloid Cells / immunology. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / classification. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / immunology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / classification. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / immunology. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / pathology. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / therapy. Male. Middle Aged. Stem Cell Transplantation. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • [CommentIn] Am J Surg Pathol. 2004 Jun;28(6):835-7; author reply 837 [15166681.001]
  • (PMID = 14508398.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD
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35. De Angulo G, Yuen C, Palla SL, Anderson PM, Zweidler-McKay PA: Absolute lymphocyte count is a novel prognostic indicator in ALL and AML: implications for risk stratification and future studies. Cancer; 2008 Jan 15;112(2):407-15
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  • The prognostic significance of absolute lymphocyte counts (ALC) was evaluated in young patients with acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML) and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL).
  • METHODS: In all, 171 consecutive de novo cases of AML and ALL, age <or=21 years, were analyzed.
  • Age, initial white blood cell count, cytogenetics, and bone marrow response were compared with lymphocyte, neutrophil, and platelet counts at weekly intervals during induction chemotherapy.
  • For example, in patients with AML an ALC on Day 28 of induction (ALC-28) <350 cells/microL predicts very poor survival, with a 5-year relapse-free survival (RFS) of only 10% (hazard ratio [HR] 3.7, P= .003).
  • In contrast, an ALC-15 >350 cells/microL carries an excellent prognosis, with a 5-year overall survival (OS) of 85% (HR 0.2, P= .012).
  • Similarly in ALL, an ALC-15 <350 cells/microL predicts poor survival, with a 6-year RFS of 43% (HR 4.5, P= .002), whereas an ALC-15 >350 cells/microL predicts excellent outcome, with a 6-year OS of 87% (HR 0.2, P= .018).
  • CONCLUSIONS: ALC is a simple, statistically powerful measurement for patients with de novo AML and ALL.
  • These findings suggest a need for further exploration of postchemotherapy immune status and immune-modulating cancer therapies.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / immunology. Lymphocyte Count. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / immunology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Humans. Infant. Killer Cells, Natural / immunology. Prognosis. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 18058809.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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36. Kovacs GT, Barany O, Schlick B, Csoka M, Gado J, Ponyi A, Müller J, Nemeth J, Hauser P, Erdelyi DJ: Late immune recovery in children treated for malignant diseases. Pathol Oncol Res; 2008 Dec;14(4):391-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • In this study we analyzed the recovery of the immune system in children after completion of the therapy.
  • We analysed 88 children (51 boys, 37 girls, mean age at diagnosis: 7.8 years) receiving chemotherapy for malignant diseases (43 acute lymphoblastic leukemia, 15 lymphoma, 20 bone tumor, ten other solid tumors).
  • Serum immunoglobulin levels (Ig), natural killer activity (NK), antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and T and B cell proliferation were determined 1 year after cessation of therapy.
  • The mean levels of Ig were in the normal range at a mean of 13 months after chemotherapy (IgG: 11.2 +/- 3.3, IgA: 1.6 +/- 0.9, IgM: 1.0 +/- 0.5 g/l), however in the leukemic patients serum IgG was below the lower limit of the normal range in 3/43 (7.0%) cases, serum IgA was low in 5/43 (11.6%) and serum IgM was decreased in 4/43 (9.3%) cases.
  • NK activity decreased in 7/43 (16.3%) leukemic patients, and in 3/45 (6.7%) solid tumor patients, ADCC decreased in 8/43 (18.6%) and 3/45 (6.7%), respectively (p < 0.001).
  • B-cell blastic transformation was decreased in 3/43 (7%) leukemic patients and in 4/45 (8.9%) solid tumor patients.
  • At the same time T-cell blastic transformation was altered in 5/43 (11.6%) and in 4/45 (8.9%) cases, respectively.
  • Leukemic patients had significantly more infections during the first year after chemotherapy than solid tumor patients (1.60 +/- 1.18 vs 0.96 +/- 1.14; p = 0.011).
  • It is concluded, that cytotoxic therapy can lead to long-term depression of the immune system, first of all in leukemic patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibody Formation / drug effects. Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects. Immunity, Cellular / drug effects. Neoplasms / immunology
  • [MeSH-minor] B-Lymphocytes / drug effects. B-Lymphocytes / immunology. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Child. Female. Humans. Immunoglobulins / blood. Immunoglobulins / drug effects. Killer Cells, Natural / drug effects. Killer Cells, Natural / immunology. Leukocyte Count. Male. T-Lymphocytes / drug effects. T-Lymphocytes / immunology

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  • (PMID = 18575827.001).
  • [ISSN] 1219-4956
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology oncology research : POR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Oncol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Immunoglobulins
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37. Mustjoki S, Ekblom M, Arstila TP, Dybedal I, Epling-Burnette PK, Guilhot F, Hjorth-Hansen H, Höglund M, Kovanen P, Laurinolli T, Liesveld J, Paquette R, Pinilla-Ibarz J, Rauhala A, Shah N, Simonsson B, Sinisalo M, Steegmann JL, Stenke L, Porkka K: Clonal expansion of T/NK-cells during tyrosine kinase inhibitor dasatinib therapy. Leukemia; 2009 Aug;23(8):1398-405
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  • [Title] Clonal expansion of T/NK-cells during tyrosine kinase inhibitor dasatinib therapy.
  • Dasatinib, a broad-spectrum tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), predominantly targets BCR-ABL and SRC oncoproteins and also inhibits off-target kinases, which may result in unexpected drug responses.
  • We identified 22 patients with marked lymphoproliferation in blood while on dasatinib therapy.
  • An abrupt lymphocytosis (peak count range 4-20 x 10(9)/l) with large granular lymphocyte (LGL) morphology was observed after a median of 3 months from the start of therapy and it persisted throughout the therapy.
  • Fifteen patients had a cytotoxic T-cell and seven patients had an NK-cell phenotype.
  • All T-cell expansions were clonal.
  • In a phase II clinical study on 46 Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia, patients with lymphocytosis had superior survival compared with patients without lymphocytosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Killer Cells, Natural / drug effects. Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive / drug therapy. Lymphocytosis / chemically induced. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / drug therapy. Protein Kinase Inhibitors / pharmacology. Pyrimidines / pharmacology. T-Lymphocyte Subsets / drug effects. T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic / drug effects. Thiazoles / pharmacology

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  • [CommentIn] Acta Haematol. 2016;136(4):219-228 [27656875.001]
  • (PMID = 19295545.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-5551
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leukemia
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors; 0 / Pyrimidines; 0 / Thiazoles; RBZ1571X5H / Dasatinib
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38. Das DK: Serous effusions in malignant lymphomas: a review. Diagn Cytopathol; 2006 May;34(5):335-47
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Although the frequency of pleural effusion is 20-30% in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and Hodgkin's disease (HD), the involvement of peritoneal and pericardial cavities is uncommon.
  • Among lymphoma subtypes, T-cell neoplasms, especially the lymphoblastic lymphomas, more frequently involve the serous fluids.
  • Cytologic features of specific lymphoma subtypes such as lymphoblastic lymphoma, follicular center cell lymphoma, including Burkitt-type lymphoma, marginal zone lymphoma, MALT lymphoma, and anaplastic large-cell lymphoma, etc., have been described in the literature.
  • The differential diagnostic problems of lymphomas in serous effusions include reactive lymphocytoses, early involvement by lymphomatous process, small round-cell tumors (SRCT), and presence of look-alike of Reed-Sternberg cells.
  • Morphometry also distinguishes reactive lymphocytoses from malignant lymphoma with a high degree of sensitivity (>85%) and specificity (>95%).
  • This body cavity based lymphoma (BCBL) is a distinct clinicopathologic entity and is found predominantly in AIDS patients with preexisting Kaposi sarcoma.
  • Cytomorphologically, PEL is usually a large-cell lymphoma, which appears to bridge features of large-cell immunoblastic and anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (ALCL).
  • Most of these cases comprise a unique subgroup of B-cell lymphoma, with features of both high-grade anaplastic and B-immunoblastic lymphoma, but T-cell and/or natural killer cell immunophenotypes are described.
  • The presence of pleural effusion at the time of presentation is not only associated with extremely poor outcome of lymphomas, it is also a predictor of disease relapse after chemotherapy and decreased survival.
  • When the patients of lymphomatous pleural effusions with and without mediastinal mass present in respiratory distress, thoracocentesis is the initial diagnostic and therapeutic choice in these patients.
  • In such situations, cytology along with ancillary studies not only gives a quick diagnosis of lymphoma, but also offers prognostically significant information such as classification of lymphomas, its grade and immunophenotype, and presence/absence of viral DNAs and tumor lysis syndrome.
  • [MeSH-major] Cytodiagnosis / methods. Lymphoma / complications. Pleural Effusion, Malignant / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Ascitic Fluid / pathology. Carcinoma, Small Cell / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Hodgkin Disease / pathology. Humans. Immunophenotyping. Lymphocytosis / pathology. Male. Pericardial Effusion / etiology. Pericardial Effusion / pathology. Reed-Sternberg Cells / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16604559.001).
  • [ISSN] 8755-1039
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 136
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39. Tunç B, Oner AF, Hiçsönmez G: The effect of short-course high-dose methylprednisolone on peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets in children with acute leukemia during remission induction treatment. Leuk Res; 2003 Jan;27(1):19-21
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  • [Title] The effect of short-course high-dose methylprednisolone on peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets in children with acute leukemia during remission induction treatment.
  • We have previously demonstrated a favorable effect of high-dose steroid in the treatment of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML).
  • This study was performed to determine the effect of short-course high-dose methylprednisolone (HDMP) treatment on the peripheral blood (PB) T lymphocyte subsets, and blast cells, during remission induction treatment in 23 children with newly diagnosed acute leukemia (16 with ALL, seven with AML).
  • All patients were administered HDMP as a single daily oral dose of 30mg/kg for the first 4 days of induction therapy.
  • The number of PB lymphocyte subsets (CD3, CD4, CD8, CD16+56, CD45RA, and CD45RO) were determined by flow cytometry before and after 4 days of HDMP treatment.
  • While the number of PB blast cells significantly decreased, the absolute number of T lymphocytes expressing CD3, CD4, CD8, CD45RA and the absolute number of CD16+56 (natural killer) cells increased in all patients.
  • We suggest that the beneficial effects of HDMP in the induction treatment of acute leukemia may occur partly due to an increase in the number of PB T lymphocyte subsets.
  • A study randomly assigning patients to treatment with either conventional therapy or HDMP may provide further information.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Leukemia, Myeloid / blood. Lymphocyte Count. Lymphocyte Subsets / drug effects. Methylprednisolone / pharmacology. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Adolescent. Antigens, CD / analysis. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Immunophenotyping. Male. Remission Induction. T-Lymphocyte Subsets / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 12479848.001).
  • [ISSN] 0145-2126
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; X4W7ZR7023 / Methylprednisolone
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40. Hacein-Bey-Abina S, Hauer J, Lim A, Picard C, Wang GP, Berry CC, Martinache C, Rieux-Laucat F, Latour S, Belohradsky BH, Leiva L, Sorensen R, Debré M, Casanova JL, Blanche S, Durandy A, Bushman FD, Fischer A, Cavazzana-Calvo M: Efficacy of gene therapy for X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency. N Engl J Med; 2010 Jul 22;363(4):355-64
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  • [Title] Efficacy of gene therapy for X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency.
  • BACKGROUND: The outcomes of gene therapy to correct congenital immunodeficiencies are unknown.
  • We reviewed long-term outcomes after gene therapy in nine patients with X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID-X1), which is characterized by the absence of the cytokine receptor common gamma chain.
  • We assessed clinical events and immune function on long-term follow-up.
  • Gene therapy was initially successful at correcting immune dysfunction in eight of the nine patients.
  • However, acute leukemia developed in four patients, and one died.
  • Transduced T cells were detected for up to 10.7 years after gene therapy.
  • Seven patients, including the three survivors of leukemia, had sustained immune reconstitution; three patients required immunoglobulin-replacement therapy.
  • Sustained thymopoiesis was established by the persistent presence of naive T cells, even after chemotherapy in three patients.
  • The T-cell-receptor repertoire was diverse in all patients.
  • CONCLUSIONS: After nearly 10 years of follow-up, gene therapy was shown to have corrected the immunodeficiency associated with SCID-X1.
  • Gene therapy may be an option for patients who do not have an HLA-identical donor for hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation and for whom the risks are deemed acceptable.
  • This treatment is associated with a risk of acute leukemia. (Funded by INSERM and others. )


41. Kawa K, Okamura T, Yagi K, Takeuchi M, Nakayama M, Inoue M: Mosquito allergy and Epstein-Barr virus-associated T/natural killer-cell lymphoproliferative disease. Blood; 2001 Nov 15;98(10):3173-4
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  • [Title] Mosquito allergy and Epstein-Barr virus-associated T/natural killer-cell lymphoproliferative disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Culicidae / immunology. Epstein-Barr Virus Infections / complications. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. Hypersensitivity / complications. Insect Bites and Stings / immunology. Killer Cells, Natural / pathology. Lymphoproliferative Disorders / complications. T-Lymphocyte Subsets / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Animals. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Child. Combined Modality Therapy. Cyclosporine / adverse effects. Cyclosporine / therapeutic use. Female. Herpesvirus 4, Human / physiology. Humans. Immunocompromised Host. Immunosuppressive Agents / adverse effects. Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use. Male. Precursor B-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / complications. Precursor B-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / drug therapy. Precursor B-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / therapy. Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, gamma-delta / analysis. Remission Induction. Skin / immunology. Skin / pathology. Skin / virology. Virus Activation

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  • (PMID = 11721684.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-4971
  • [Journal-full-title] Blood
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Blood
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 0 / Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, gamma-delta; 83HN0GTJ6D / Cyclosporine
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