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1. Benasso M, Sanguineti G, D'Amico M, Corvò R, Ricci I, Numico G, Guarneri D, Vitale V, Pallestrini E, Santelli A, Rosso R: Induction chemotherapy followed by alternating chemo-radiotherapy in stage IV undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Br J Cancer; 2000 Dec;83(11):1437-42
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  • [Title] Induction chemotherapy followed by alternating chemo-radiotherapy in stage IV undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
  • In locally advanced undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma (UNPC), concomitant chemo-radiotherapy is the only strategy that gave better results over radiation alone in a phase III trial.
  • Adding effective chemotherapy to a concomitant chemo-radiotherapy programme may be a way to improve the results further.
  • 30 patients with previously untreated T4 and/or N2-3 undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma were consecutively enrolled and initially treated with 3 courses of epidoxorubicin, 90 mg/m2, day 1 and cisplatin, 40 mg/m2, days 1 and 2, every 3 weeks.
  • After a radiological and clinical response assessment patients underwent 3 courses of cisplatin, 20 mg/m2/day, days 1-4 and fluorouracil, 200 mg/m2/day, days 1-4, i.v. bolus, (weeks 1, 4, 7) alternated to 3 courses of radiation (week 2-3, 5-6, 8-9-10), with a single daily fractionation, up to 70 Gy.
  • WHO histology was type 2 in 30% and type 3 in 70% of the patients.
  • All but one received 3 courses of induction chemotherapy.
  • All the patients but one had the planned number of chemotherapy courses in the alternating phase and all received the planned radiation dose.
  • One patient out of 3 developed grade III-IV mucositis.
  • At a median follow-up of 31 months, 13.3% of patients had a loco-regional progression and 20% developed distant metastases.
  • Induction chemotherapy followed by alternating chemo-radiotherapy is feasible and patients' compliance optimal.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma / drug therapy. Carcinoma / radiotherapy. Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Cisplatin / adverse effects. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Drug Administration Schedule. Epirubicin / administration & dosage. Epirubicin / adverse effects. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Fluorouracil / adverse effects. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies. Remission Induction. Survival Rate

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2000 Cancer Research CampaignCopyright 2000 Cancer Research Campaign.
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  • (PMID = 11076650.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0920
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] SCOTLAND
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 3Z8479ZZ5X / Epirubicin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2363421
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2. Kong L, Zhang YW, Hu CS, Guo Y: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by concurrent chemoradiation for locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Chin J Cancer; 2010 May;29(5):551-5
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  • [Title] Neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by concurrent chemoradiation for locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Concurrent chemoradiation therapy (CCRT) is the standard treatment for patients with locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC).
  • The effect of neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by CCRT has not been determined.
  • Therefore, we conducted 2 phase II studies to evaluate the efficacy and safety of neoadjuvant chemotherapy with a regimen of docetaxel, cisplatin, and 5 fluorouracil (5-Fu) (TPF) followed by radiotherapy and concurrent cisplatin in patients with stage III and IV(A - B) NPC.
  • This article is the preliminary report on treatment related toxicities and response.
  • METHODS: Graded according to the 2002 American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging criteria, only patients with stage III or IV(A-B) poorly differentiated or undifferentiated NPC (World Health Organization type II/III) were included.
  • We planned to recruit 52 patients with stage III disease and 64 patients with stage IV(A - B) disease.
  • All patients received neoadjuvant chemotherapy with TPF (docetaxel 75 mg/m(2), day 1; cisplatin 75 mg/m(2), day 1; 5 Fu 500 mg/(m2 x day), continuous intravenous infusion for 120 h), every 3 weeks for 3 cycles, followed by weekly cisplatin (40 mg/m(2)) concurrent with radiotherapy.
  • Gross disease planning target volume (PTV), high risk and low risk subclinical PTV doses were prescribed at 70-76 Gy, 66-70 Gy, and 60-61.25 Gy at 1.75-2.0 Gy per fraction.
  • The lower neck or supraclavicular fields may be treated with conventional AP/PA fields for a total of 54 Gy at 1.8 Gy per fraction.
  • Patients were evaluated for tumor response after the completion of neoadjuvant chemotherapy, and at 3 months after radiation according to the Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors (RECIST).
  • RESULTS: Fifty nine patients were evaluable for treatment response.
  • Thirty patients had stage III disease and 29 patients had stage IV(A-B).
  • All patients completed RT to the prescribed dose and 2 cycles of neoadjuvant chemotherapy, with 51 patients (86.4%) completing 3 cycles.
  • The overall response rate in the primary site and the neck region were 94.9% [complete response (CR) in 25.4%] and 100% (CR in 19.6%) after completing neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
  • After a median follow up of 14.3 months, we observed 5 treatment failures and 2 deaths.
  • The 1 year overall survival, distant metastasis free survival, and locoregional relapse free survival rates were 100%, 95.7%, and 97.7%, respectively.
  • The rates of grade 3/4 myelosuppression and anorexia/nausea/vomiting during neoadjuvant chemotherapy were 55.9% and 16.9%, respectively.
  • There were no treatment related deaths.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy with TPF followed by CCRT was well tolerated with a manageable toxicity profile.
  • [MeSH-major] Chemoradiotherapy. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms / therapy. Neoadjuvant Therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Anemia / chemically induced. Anemia / etiology. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cisplatin / adverse effects. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Female. Fluorouracil / adverse effects. Fluorouracil / therapeutic use. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Leukopenia / chemically induced. Leukopenia / etiology. Male. Middle Aged. Nausea / chemically induced. Nausea / etiology. Neoplasm Staging. Neutropenia / chemically induced. Neutropenia / etiology. Radiotherapy, Conformal. Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated. Remission Induction. Survival Rate. Taxoids / adverse effects. Taxoids / therapeutic use. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20426907.001).
  • [ISSN] 1000-467X
  • [Journal-full-title] Chinese journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chin J Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Taxoids; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil; TPF protocol
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3. Leung SF, Chan AT, Zee B, Ma B, Chan LY, Johnson PJ, Lo YM: Pretherapy quantitative measurement of circulating Epstein-Barr virus DNA is predictive of posttherapy distant failure in patients with early-stage nasopharyngeal carcinoma of undifferentiated type. Cancer; 2003 Jul 15;98(2):288-91
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  • [Title] Pretherapy quantitative measurement of circulating Epstein-Barr virus DNA is predictive of posttherapy distant failure in patients with early-stage nasopharyngeal carcinoma of undifferentiated type.
  • BACKGROUND: Patients with International Union Against Cancer (UICC) Stage I-II nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) appear to have a relatively favorable prognosis and generally are excluded from trials of combined modality treatment.
  • More recently, plasma/serum cell-free Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA has been shown to be measurable in the majority of NPC patients at the time of diagnosis, and appears to have prognostic significance.
  • However, within Stage I-II disease, in which failure events are infrequent, the prognostic impact of the pretreatment EBV DNA level has not been addressed to our knowledge.
  • This issue has management implications because different therapeutic strategies currently are employed for patients with good-risk and those with poor-risk NPC.
  • METHODS: A cohort of 90 patients with UICC Stage I-II NPC (World Health Organization Grade 2/3 histology) had their pretherapy plasma/serum EBV DNA levels determined by a quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay and correlated with the probability of posttherapy failure.
  • All patients received radiation therapy only, except for three patients who also received concurrent chemotherapy.
  • Kaplan-Meier plots of the probability of locoregional failure, distant failure, and cancer-specific survival were compared with reference to clinical stage and EBV DNA levels.
  • RESULTS: With a median follow-up time of 45 months, 12 patients and 7 patients, respectively, had developed locoregional and distant failures, including 2 patients with both local and distant failures.
  • The probability of distant failure was significantly higher in patients with high (>4000 copies/mL plasma) compared with low EBV DNA levels (P=0.0001, log-rank test) and for Stage IIB disease compared with Stage I and Stage IIA disease combined (P=0.0149, log-rank test), but was not significantly different between patients with Stage II and those with Stage I disease.
  • Approximately 35% of patients with Stage IIB disease were in the at-risk group for distant failure, as identified by high EBV DNA levels.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Within a group of patients with UICC Stage I-II NPC, the pretherapy plasma EBV DNA level was found to identify a poor-risk group with a probability of distant failure similar to that of patients with advanced stage disease.
  • This group of patients may warrant management considerations currently applicable only to cases of Stage III-IV disease.
  • The prognostic significance of designating Stage IIB disease as per the 1997 UICC staging was confirmed, although the pretherapy EBV DNA level appears to be a more powerful prognostic discriminator in patients with early-stage NPC.
  • [MeSH-major] DNA, Viral / blood. Epstein-Barr Virus Infections / complications. Herpesvirus 4, Human / isolation & purification. Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms / blood. Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms / virology
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Prognosis. Treatment Failure

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2003 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 12872347.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Viral
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4. Gabriele AM, Airoldi M, Beatrice F, Trotti AB: Combined chemo-radiotherapy for stage IV undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Tumori; 2000 Sep-Oct;86(5):399-402
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  • [Title] Combined chemo-radiotherapy for stage IV undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
  • Undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma is a chemosensitive lesion, but its role in the management of local advanced disease is under investigation.
  • Twenty-seven untreated stage IV undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients were treated with radiotherapy (median dose, 66.6 Gy, 1.8 Gy/day) and concomitant cisplatin (100 mg/m2 days 1, 22 and 43).
  • After radiotherapy, we observed 74% complete responses and 26% partial responses; after adjuvant chemotherapy 96% had a complete and 4% a partial response.
  • Concomitant chemotherapy plus radiotherapy was well tolerated, whereas adjuvant chemotherapy was more toxic.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Carcinoma / drug therapy. Carcinoma / radiotherapy. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant / adverse effects. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Radiotherapy Dosage. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant / adverse effects. Survival Analysis. Treatment Failure. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11130569.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-8916
  • [Journal-full-title] Tumori
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tumori
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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5. Fandi A, Bachouchi M, Azli N, Taamma A, Boussen H, Wibault P, Eschwege F, Armand JP, Simon J, Cvitkovic E: Long-term disease-free survivors in metastatic undifferentiated carcinoma of nasopharyngeal type. J Clin Oncol; 2000 Mar;18(6):1324-30
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  • [Title] Long-term disease-free survivors in metastatic undifferentiated carcinoma of nasopharyngeal type.
  • PURPOSE: To review incidence and analyze profile of long-term complete responders among patients with undifferentiated carcinoma of nasopharyngeal type (UCNT) treated at a single institution.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: We present a cohort of 20 long-term unmaintained complete responders to chemotherapy for metastatic UCNT treated at the Institut Gustave Roussy between April 1978 and November 1996.
  • A patient was considered a long-term survivor if he or she was disease-free for more than 36 months without treatment after obtaining a complete response by chemotherapy.
  • Patient characteristics were as follows: sex, 17 men and three women; median age, 28 years (range, 9 to 62 years); median World Health Organization performance status, 1; and initial tumor-node-metastasis stage (International Union Against Cancer-American Joint Committee on Cancer, 1987) of T3 to T4, 60%, and of N2b to N3, 75%.
  • Of 16 pretreated patients, 11 were pretreated by radiotherapy alone and five by chemotherapy and radiotherapy.
  • Chemotherapy included the following: cisplatin, bleomycin, and fluorouracil in five patients; bleomycin, epirubicin, and cisplatin in seven patients; fluorouracil, mitomycin, epirubicin, and cisplatin in four patients; and fluorouracil, bleomycin, epirubicin, and cisplatin in one patient.
  • RESULTS: As of June 1999, 14 of 20 patients were still alive with no evidence of disease after treatment (disease-free survival time, 82+ to 190+ months), three patients died of other causes while in complete response at 61, 109, and 208 months after treatment, and three patients died of disease at 42, 89, and 115 months after treatment.
  • CONCLUSION: Our data support a curative role for chemotherapy in metastatic UCNT and are a major incentive to continue research for better combinations to increase the percentage of patients with metastatic UCNT who attain complete responses and long-term survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma / drug therapy. Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Survivors

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  • (PMID = 10715304.001).
  • [ISSN] 0732-183X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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6. Ponzanelli A, Vigo V, Marcenaro M, Bacigalupo A, Gatteschi B, Ravetti JL, Corvò R, Benasso M: Induction chemotherapy followed by alternating chemo-radiotherapy in non-endemic undifferentiated carcinoma of the nasopharynx: optimal compliance and promising 4-year results. Oral Oncol; 2008 Aug;44(8):767-74
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  • [Title] Induction chemotherapy followed by alternating chemo-radiotherapy in non-endemic undifferentiated carcinoma of the nasopharynx: optimal compliance and promising 4-year results.
  • Concomitant chemo-radiotherapy is the standard treatment for advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC).
  • Induction chemotherapy may improve the results further by enhancing both loco-regional and distant control.
  • Fifty patients with untreated, stage IV (UICC 1992) undifferentiated NPC were initially treated with three courses of epidoxorubicin, 90 mg/m(2), day 1 and cisplatin, 40 mg/m(2), days 1 and 2, every three weeks and then underwent three courses of cisplatin, 20 mg/m(2)/day, days 1-4 and fluorouracil, 200mg/m(2)/day, days 1-4 (weeks 1, 4, 7), alternated to three splits of radiation (week 2-3, 5-6, 8-9-10) up to 70 Gy.
  • All patients but one received 3 cycles of induction chemotherapy.
  • Toxicities from induction chemotherapy were grade III or IV mucositis (2%), grade III or IV nausea/vomiting (22%), grade III or IV hematological toxicity (6%).
  • In locally advanced UNPC our combined program including induction chemotherapy followed by alternating chemo-radiotherapy is active and gives promising long-term outcomes with acceptable toxicity and optimal patients' compliance.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Epidemiologic Methods. Epirubicin / administration & dosage. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / metabolism. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 18061519.001).
  • [ISSN] 1368-8375
  • [Journal-full-title] Oral oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oral Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 3Z8479ZZ5X / Epirubicin; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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7. Pérez Plasencia D, Gómez González JL, Santa Cruz Ruiz S, Muñoz Herrera A, Mateos Pérez MM, Flores T, Pardal JL: [Clinical descriptive study of 40 patients with carcinoma of the nasopharynx in advanced stage in an area of low epidemiological risk]. Acta Otorrinolaringol Esp; 2002 Aug-Sep;53(7):473-80

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  • [Title] [Clinical descriptive study of 40 patients with carcinoma of the nasopharynx in advanced stage in an area of low epidemiological risk].
  • [Transliterated title] Estudio clínico descriptivo de 40 pacientes con carcinoma de nasofaringe en estadio avanzado en un área de bajo riesgo epidemiológico.
  • The nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Spain, low risk geographical area, is a rare tumor.
  • We have selected among all the patients diagnosed of nasopharyngeal carcinoma a big group who, have been treated with induction chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy with or without surgery, they presented very complete clinical histories in the Departments of E.N.T., Oncology and Radiotherapy that allowed us to compare all the picked up data and this increased, without doubt, the reliability of them.
  • The nasopharyngeal carcinoma is a tumor that usually affects young patients, of both sexes, without previous consumption of alcohol and tobacco and they are diagnosed in advanced stages.
  • There is a prevalence in the undifferentiated tumors showed by histology.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma. Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Factors. Aged. Alcohol Drinking / adverse effects. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / mortality. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. Combined Modality Therapy. Data Interpretation, Statistical. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Nasopharynx / pathology. Risk Factors. Sex Factors. Smoking / adverse effects. Spain / epidemiology. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 12487069.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-6519
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta otorrinolaringológica española
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Otorrinolaringol Esp
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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8. Kong L, Lu JJ, Hu C, Guo X, Wu Y, Zhang Y: The risk of second primary tumors in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma after definitive radiotherapy. Cancer; 2006 Sep 15;107(6):1287-93
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  • [Title] The risk of second primary tumors in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma after definitive radiotherapy.
  • However, risk factors for SPTs have not been documented well, especially in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC).
  • The objective of this retrospective analysis was to evaluate such risks in patients with NPC after they received definitive radiation treatment.
  • METHODS: Three hundred twenty-six consecutive patients with pathologically confirmed, nonmetastatic, undifferentiated NPC who received treatment between January 1, 1994 and December 30, 1995 were analyzed.
  • There were 18 patients (5.5%) with Stage I NPC, 152 patients (46.6%) with Stage II NPC, 101 patients (31.0%) with Stage III NPC, and 55 patients (16.9%) with Stage IVA or IVB NPC at initial diagnosis.
  • All patients received definitive radiotherapy with either Cobalt-60 or megavoltage therapy.
  • High-dose-rate brachytherapy was given to 23 patients either as part of their primary treatment or as adjuvant treatment for residual lesions.
  • Seventeen patients (5.2%) developed SPTs, for an average annual rate of 1.0%, and the 5-year cumulative incidence was 5.8%.
  • Other factors, including gender, tumor or lymph node classification, chemotherapy, total radiation dose to the nasopharynx, reirradiation, and adjuvant brachytherapy did not influence the risk of SPTs.
  • [MeSH-major] Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Neoplasms, Second Primary / etiology. Radiotherapy / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Radiotherapy Dosage. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Time Factors

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2006 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 16909425.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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9. Chen M, Lin S, Zheng W: [Therapeutic effect of medical therapy upon undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma: analysis of 149 cases]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi; 2001 Dec 25;81(24):1488-9
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  • [Title] [Therapeutic effect of medical therapy upon undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma: analysis of 149 cases].
  • OBJECTIVE: To study the therapeutic effect and prognosis of undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
  • METHODS: 149 patients with undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma, 4 at stage I, 33 at stage II, 73 at stage III, and 39 at stage IV according to the Fuzhou Staging Criteria of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma 1992, were treated mainly by radiotherapy from 1999 to 2000: 78 of them underwent radiotherapy alone, 32 underwent radiotherapy combined with induced chemotherapy, and 39 underwent radiotherapy combined with synchronized chemotherapy.
  • Relevant clinical data, especially the therapeutic effect upon and prognosis of the type, were analyzed.
  • RESULTS: Undifferentaited nasopharyngeal carcinoma accounts for 3.58% of nasopharyngeal carcinoma and was with a 5-year overall survival rate (OS) of 64.48%, a disease-free survival rate (DFS) of 60.35%, a distance-metastasis-free (DMF) survival rate of 77.05%, and a local recurrence free (LRF) survival rate of 80.13%.
  • The key factors influencing prognosis were the stage of N and stage of international classification of cancer based on TNM.
  • CONCLUSION: Undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma is a rare type.
  • Its prognosis is influenced mainly by the stage of N and TNM.
  • Treatment maninly on radiotherapy is effective.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma / radiotherapy. Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Humans. Male. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 16200771.001).
  • [ISSN] 0376-2491
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua yi xue za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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10. Plaza G, Fogué L, Martínez San Millán J, Martínez Vidal A, Bellas C: [Diagnostic evaluation of nasopharyngeal carcinoma: role of Epstein-Barr virus]. An Otorrinolaringol Ibero Am; 2002;29(1):71-91
Genetic Alliance. consumer health - Nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Diagnostic evaluation of nasopharyngeal carcinoma: role of Epstein-Barr virus].
  • [Transliterated title] Evaluación diagnóstica del carcinoma nasofaríngeo: papel del virus de Epstein-Barr.
  • We present a retrospective series of 27 nasopharyngeal carcinomas, selected from those attended at Ramón y Cajal Hospital between 1977 and 1996, with the aim of review the role of the study of Epstein-Barr virus in the diagnostic process of nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
  • CT and MRI were essential to establish staging: 5 stage I, 7 stage II and 15 stage IV, due to regional extension and/or bone erosion.
  • Radiotherapy was employed in all cases, helped by chemotherapy in 20% of them.
  • Of 27 cases of nasopharyngeal carcinoma 4 were differentiated (type I), 2 moderately differentiated (type II) and 22 undifferentiated (type III).
  • Thus, all nasopharyngeal carcinomas were related to Epstein-Barr virus.
  • Expression of LMP-1 seemed to worse the prognosis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma. Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms

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  • (PMID = 11962004.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-8874
  • [Journal-full-title] Anales otorrinolaringológicos ibero-americanos
  • [ISO-abbreviation] An Otorrinolaringol Ibero Am
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Number-of-references] 60
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11. d'Espiney Amaro C, Montalvão P, Henriques P, Magalhães M, Olias J: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma: our experience. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol; 2009 Jun;266(6):833-8
Genetic Alliance. consumer health - Nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Nasopharyngeal carcinoma: our experience.
  • The objectives of our study were to characterize nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients in the Portuguese Institute of Oncology Hospital in Lisbon (IPOLFG) and identify the main factors that interfere with patients survival rate.
  • With an average age of 53 years, most of the carcinomas were type III (58%), followed by type II (30%) and at last type I (8%).
  • Fifty-one of carcinomas were in stage IV at time of diagnosis.
  • There was a significant difference (P = 0.033) in the actuarial survival rate of staged IV patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • Undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma is the most frequent type in our geographic area.
  • Chemotherapy improves survival rate, mainly in late stages.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma / therapy. Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms / pathology. Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Portugal / epidemiology. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18830701.001).
  • [ISSN] 1434-4726
  • [Journal-full-title] European archives of oto-rhino-laryngology : official journal of the European Federation of Oto-Rhino-Laryngological Societies (EUFOS) : affiliated with the German Society for Oto-Rhino-Laryngology - Head and Neck Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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12. Ong YK, Tan HK: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma in children. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol; 2000 Sep 29;55(2):149-54
Genetic Alliance. consumer health - Nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Nasopharyngeal carcinoma in children.
  • Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is rare in children.
  • Undifferentiated NPC or lymphoepithelioma is the commonest variety.
  • The disease stage at presentation is often more advanced compared with adults.
  • Radiotherapy with neo-adjuvant chemotherapy is currently the treatment of choice.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / diagnosis. Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Otitis Media with Effusion / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Anti-Bacterial Agents. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Biopsy, Needle. Child. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Radiotherapy / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11006455.001).
  • [ISSN] 0165-5876
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of pediatric otorhinolaryngology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Pediatr. Otorhinolaryngol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] IRELAND
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents
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13. Adane S, Sadouki M, Mekki F, Bouzid K: Gemcitabine (G) plus cisplatin (C) plus radiotherapy in first-line treatment of locally advanced and metastatic undifferentiated carcinoma of the nasopharyngeal type (UCNT): Preliminary results of a phase II study. J Clin Oncol; 2004 Jul 15;22(14_suppl):5618

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Gemcitabine (G) plus cisplatin (C) plus radiotherapy in first-line treatment of locally advanced and metastatic undifferentiated carcinoma of the nasopharyngeal type (UCNT): Preliminary results of a phase II study.
  • : 5618 Background: In our experience, G is efficient (44%) in third-line monotherapy of recurrent metastatic nasopharynx carcinoma after first-line 5-fluorouracil + C and second-line anthracyclines + taxanes (ASCO 2002 abstract #3034).
  • In this prospective, phase II study, we used G + C in neoadjuvant setting before radiotherapy in first-line treatment of patients (pts) with locally advanced and metastatic UCNT.
  • METHODS: Chemonaive pts with histologically (WHO type 3) proven stage III and IV TNM/UICC 1997, and an ECOG performance status (PS) 0-2 received G 1250 mg/m<sup>2</sup> over a 30-minute infusion on days (D) 1 and 8 and C 70 mg/m<sup>2</sup> on D1, every 3 weeks.
  • Four to 6 weeks after the third cycle of induction chemotherapy, curative intent radiotherapy was given on nasopharynx (70-72 Gys) and on cervical nodes (50 Gys).
  • Follow-up was performed 4 weeks after the third cycle by clinical evaluation, CT scan of nasopharynx, and nasofibroscopy with biopsy.
  • Seven pts had stage IVA, 3 pts had stage IVC, and 2 pts had stage III.

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  • (PMID = 28015275.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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14. Yamouni M, Benhadji KA, Beldjilali Y, Lahfa I, Khellafi H, Abdelaoui A, Djellali L, Bouzid K: Phase II trial of combination docetaxel and cisplatin in patients with locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):6044

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Phase II trial of combination docetaxel and cisplatin in patients with locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
  • : 6044 Background: The standard treatment of locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma is cisplatin-based chemotherapy followed by locoregional radiotherapy.
  • The purpose of this study is to assess the antitumor activity and toxicity of a new neoadjuvant chemotherapy regimen combining docetaxel (D) and cisplatin (C).
  • METHODS: Previously untreated patients (pts) with histologically diagnosed locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (stages IVA and IVB, TNM/UICC 1997) received D 75 mg/m<sup>2</sup> and C 75 mg/m<sup>2</sup> both on day 1, with cycles repeated every 21 days.
  • All pts received three cycles in a neoadjuvant setting before radiotherapy (4 to 6 weeks after the third cycle of DC, 65-70 Gy 5 fractions/week).
  • Pts were evaluated by clinical examination, CT scan of the nasopharynx, and nasofibroscopy with biopsy.
  • 75 pts (81%) had an undifferentiated carcinoma of nasopharyngeal type (UCNT) and 18 pts (19%) a differenciated carcinoma of the nasopharynx.
  • 31 pts had stage IVA disease and 62 pts had stage IVB.
  • CONCLUSIONS: DC chemotherapy followed by radiation therapy is an effective regimen for the treatment of advanced UCNT and has an acceptable safety profile.

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  • (PMID = 27961920.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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15. Beldjilali Y, Benhadji KA, Boukerche A, Khellafi H, Abdelaoui A, Betkaoui F, Tourabi ZK, Kaïd MY, Djellali L, Yamouni M: First results of induction chemotherapy with cisplatin, docetaxel, and capecitabine for the treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):6045

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] First results of induction chemotherapy with cisplatin, docetaxel, and capecitabine for the treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
  • : 6045 Background: The purpose of this phase II study is to assess a new induction chemotherapy regimen combining cisplatin (P), docetaxel (T), and capecitabine (X) in advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
  • METHODS: Previously untreated patients (pts) with histological diagnosed locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (stages III, IVA, and IVB UICC 2002) received induction chemotherapy associating P 75 mg/m<sup>2</sup>, T 75 mg/m<sup>2</sup>, both on day 1 and X 1,000 mg/m<sup>2</sup>/d days 1-14.
  • Induction chemotherapy was followed by concurrent chemo-radiotherapy: P 75 mg/m<sup>2</sup> days 1, 22, 42 and radiotherapy (65-70 Gy) 4 to 6 weeks after the fourth cycle of induction treatment.
  • Pts were evaluated according to RECIST criteria by clinical examination and CT scan of the nasopharynx.
  • 30 pts (75%) had an undifferentiated carcinoma of nasopharyngeal type (UCNT) and 10 pts (25%) a poorly differentiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
  • 5 pts had stage III disease, 20 pts stage IVA disease and 15 pts stage IVB.
  • CONCLUSIONS: PTX induction chemotherapy resulted on a high response rate with manageable toxicity.
  • Outcome of patients after chemoradiotherapy is awaited to evaluate the effectiveness of this new treatment modality.

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  • (PMID = 27961921.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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16. Majem M, Martinez M, Galiana R, Montes A, Cardenal F, Rodon J, Nogues J, Perez FJ, Gomez J, Mesia R: Analysis of 46 patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma treated with hyperfractionated radiotherapy in a single institution. J Clin Oncol; 2004 Jul 15;22(14_suppl):5616

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Analysis of 46 patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma treated with hyperfractionated radiotherapy in a single institution.
  • Addition of chemotherapy (CT) in advanced nasopharyngeal tumors tries to decrease local and distant recurrence.
  • We report our results in non-Asiatic patients (pts) with advanced nasophayngeal carcinoma treated with induction CT and hyperfractionated RT (hfRT).
  • METHODS: Forty-six pts with nasopharyngeal carcinoma have been treated from 10/94 to 05/02: 79% male and 21% female, median age: 51 years (18-76).
  • Hystologic subtypes: 33% keratonizing squamous cell carcinoma (KSCC), 8% nonKSCC, 59% undifferentiated carcinoma.
  • Stage (2002 UICC Classification): 4 IIa, 11 IIb, 14 III, 10 IVa and 7 IVb.
  • The median HfRT dose was 80.4 Gy administered at 1.2 Gy/ fraction twice day.
  • Two of these pts (1 local, 1 nodal) are free of disease with salvage therapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: hfRT might be an effective treatment for nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

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  • (PMID = 28015277.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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17. Lau JS, Yeo W, Chan YL, Chan W, Hui P, Leung SF, Kwan WK, Chan AT: Intracranial metastasis from nasopharyngeal carcinoma: Report of three cases and review of literature. J Clin Oncol; 2004 Jul 15;22(14_suppl):5608

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Intracranial metastasis from nasopharyngeal carcinoma: Report of three cases and review of literature.
  • : 5608 Background: Brain metastasis (mets) from nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a controversial entity.
  • All 3 patients received whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT) for the brain mets.
  • RESULTS: Case #1: A 45-year-old man presented with Stage T1N2M0 disease in 1996.
  • Static disease was achieved with chemotherapy.
  • Histology of the lesion revealed metastatic undifferentiated carcinoma, staining positive for Epstein-Barr virus-encoded RNA (EBER).
  • Partial response was achieved with chemotherapy.
  • Case#3: A 68-year-old man presented with Stage T1N3bM0 disease in 1994.
  • Biopsy confirmed undifferentiated carcinoma consistent with mets of NPC.

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  • (PMID = 28015287.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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18. Djedi H, Bouzid K: Capecitabine-based chemotherapy versus primary treatment for patients with advanced stages of undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma (UCNT): Preliminary results of a phase II study. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):e17049

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Capecitabine-based chemotherapy versus primary treatment for patients with advanced stages of undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma (UCNT): Preliminary results of a phase II study.
  • : e17049 Background: The combination of cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) is considered to be the standard treatment in induction chemotherapy for patients with undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma (UCNT).
  • The aim of our study is to evaluate overall response and toxicity of this drug as a primary chemotherapy based-regimen for patients with advanced stages of UCNT.
  • One patient was stage IIB, nine patients stage III, 17 patients stage IVA, five patients stage IVB, and two patients stage IVC.
  • All patients received at least 3 to 4 courses of neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
  • The treatment plan included cisplatin at dose of 75 mg/m2 on D1 every 21 days, followed by capecitabine at a dose of 1,000 mg/m2 twice daily from D2 to D 15, with a 1-week rest period.
  • A CT scan was done at the end of treatment before radiotherapy.
  • RESULTS: After a total of 114 courses, all patients (34 pts) were evaluable for toxicity and 26 patients were evaluable for response (8 pts have not yet achieved their treatment).
  • A clinical benefit was obtained for all patients since the first cure of chemotherapy.
  • One of the two patients with stage IVC had a complete response on hepatic metastasis after 3 cures.
  • Chemotherapy was interrupted for one patient after only one cure because of the cardiac toxicity.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Capecitabine based chemotherapy is a safety and an effective regimen in patients with UCNT.

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  • (PMID = 27961741.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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19. Kerboua E: Capecitabine and cisplatyl as neoadjuvant treatment of locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):e17036

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Capecitabine and cisplatyl as neoadjuvant treatment of locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
  • : e17036 Background: The main objective of this study is to evaluate the activity and safety of capecitabine (X) and cisplatyl (C) in patients (pts) with locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma(NPC).
  • METHODS: Pts with undifferentiated NPC type were enrolled from July 2007 to September 2008.
  • RESULTS: Forty-one (41) pts have been enrolled 28 male/13 female with locally advanced NPC: 15 pts (36,6% ) were stage III (UICC 1997) 26 pts (63,3%) stage IV (n = 6 IVA and n = 20 IVB).
  • Two pts died from sepsis that was probably treatment-related.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Preliminary results show that X plus C provide an active regimen with an acceptable tolerability profile as neoadjuvant chemotherapy for locally advanced NPC.

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  • (PMID = 27961801.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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20. Sze WM, Lee AW, Tong M, Ng C, Soong I, Chan K, Yeung R, Yau TK: Preliminary experience on treating advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) affecting/abutting neurological structures with induction chemotherapy followed by concurrent chemo-radiation with accelerated fractionation. J Clin Oncol; 2004 Jul 15;22(14_suppl):5525

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Preliminary experience on treating advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) affecting/abutting neurological structures with induction chemotherapy followed by concurrent chemo-radiation with accelerated fractionation.
  • : 5525 Background: To study the possibility of improving treatment tolerance and outcome for NPC with extensive infiltration affecting/ abutting neurological structures by induction chemotherapy followed by concurrent chemo-radiation with accelerated fractionation.
  • Ninty-four percent of patients had UICC (5<sup>th</sup> edition) Stage IVA-B and 6% had Stage III disease.
  • Thirty-two patients (97%) had undifferentiated carcinoma and only 1 patient had well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma.
  • The chemotherapy plan included 3 cycles of Cisplatin (80 mg/m<sup>2</sup> ) and Gemcitabine (1250 mg/m<sup>2</sup> D1,8) for induction phase, and 2 cycles of Cisplatin (100 mg/m<sup>2</sup> D1) for the concurrent phase.
  • All patients were irradiated to a total dose of 70 Gy using 3-D conformal techniques and accelerated fractionation at 2 Gy per fraction, 6 daily fractions per week, throughout the whole course.
  • RESULTS: All patients completed the intended radiotherapy dose and the median overall treatment time was 41 days (range: 39-53).
  • The mean weight loss during the whole course of treatment was 11% of the initial body weight.
  • The chemotherapy toxicities and compliance are shown in table 1.
  • With a median follow-up of 1.5 years (range: 0.6-2.3), the 2-year local failure-free, distant failure-free, progression-free and overall survival rates were 97%,76%, 73% and 76% respectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The early treatment results achieved for this very poor prognostic group was very encouraging, but late toxicity has yet to be fully assessed and confirmation of therapeutic gain by prospective randomized trial is warranted.

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  • (PMID = 28013949.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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21. Poon D, Chowbay B, Leong SS, Cheung YB, Toh CK, Tay MH, Lim WT, Tan EH: Phase II study of irinotecan (CPT-11) as salvage therapy for advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). J Clin Oncol; 2004 Jul 15;22(14_suppl):5576

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Phase II study of irinotecan (CPT-11) as salvage therapy for advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC).
  • METHODS: Eligibility criteria included AJCC stage IVC nasopharyngeal undifferentiated carcinoma, ECOG performance status (PS) 0-2, progressive disease during or less than 3 months after platinum-based and/or taxane-based regimen, and bidimensionally measurable disease.
  • Patient characteristics included mean age 50.9 (standard deviation - SD 7.5), 21 males; 4 females, 23 (92%) are Chinese, 22 (88%) had ECOG PS 0-1, and a mean 2.0 (SD 1.8) prior lines of chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Preliminary results from this trial suggest that irinotecan is an active agent as salvage treatment with modest toxicity in patients with advanced NPC refractory to platinum/taxane-based chemotherapy.

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  • (PMID = 28014014.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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22. Bagatzounis A, Erakleous E, Michaelides I: Epidural metastasis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Strahlenther Onkol; 2003 Feb;179(2):123-8
NCI CPTAC Assay Portal. NCI CPTAC Assay Portal .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Epidural metastasis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: In nasopharyngeal carcinoma, both, a short metastasis-free interval after primary treatment and the occurrence of epidural metastasis have been associated with poor prognosis.
  • PATIENT: A 26-year-old male with stage T2N3M0 non-keratinizing carcinoma (WHO type 2) of the nasopharynx was treated with induction chemotherapy and radical radiotherapy, 6 months after documentation of a clinical complete remission, the patient experienced metastatic disease to the C7-D1 vertebral bodies associated with an epidural soft tissue mass.
  • RESULTS: Treatment resulted in compete resolution of neurological and radiological signs of the disease and the patient continues to be disease-free, 32 months after salvage treatment.
  • In a literature search, we identified 54 reported cases with long-term survival after treatment for metastatic nasopharyngeal cancer.
  • The vast majority of them had primary tumors with undifferentiated histology and was treated with combination chemotherapy.
  • In 25 of them, radiotherapy was given as consolidation therapy (in 19 cases for bone and in six cases for mediastinal lymph node metastases).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Epidural metastatic disease from a nasopharyngeal carcinoma is highly sensitive to moderate doses of fractionated radiotherapy.
  • MR imaging is essential for the detection of relevant soft tissue disease extensions within the epidural space and proper selection of the radiation target volume in vertebral metastases.
  • In patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma, the occurrence of a solitary epidural metastasis after a short metastasis-free interval is not incompatible with long-term survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / secondary. Epidural Neoplasms / secondary. Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Cervical Vertebrae. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Dose Fractionation. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Fluorouracil / therapeutic use. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Leucovorin / administration & dosage. Leucovorin / therapeutic use. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Prognosis. Radiotherapy Dosage. Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted. Thoracic Vertebrae. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 12590324.001).
  • [ISSN] 0179-7158
  • [Journal-full-title] Strahlentherapie und Onkologie : Organ der Deutschen Röntgengesellschaft ... [et al]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Strahlenther Onkol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; Q573I9DVLP / Leucovorin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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23. Sumitsawan Y, Chaiyasate S, Chitapanarux I, Anansuthiwara M, Roongrotwattanasiri K, Vaseenon V, Tooncam H: Late complications of radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Auris Nasus Larynx; 2009 Apr;36(2):205-9
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  • [Title] Late complications of radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate and assemble late complications of radiotherapy in cases of nasopharyngeal cancer.
  • The mean pre- and post-treatment body mass indexes (BMI) were 22.5+/-4 (15-35.6), and 19.8+/-3.2 (12.9-34.5; P<0.05).
  • Most of the patients (92%) had undifferentiated (50.5%) and poorly differentiated (41.5%) squamous cell carcinoma.
  • Eighty-eight percent of the patients were in Stage III and IV.
  • Chemotherapy was given to 145 patients (72.5%).
  • The mean post-radiation period in the added chemotherapy group was lower than the group treated with radiation alone (2.9+/-2.7 years vs. 5.4+/-4.4 years, P<.05).
  • Added chemotherapy increased the complication severity significantly for the skin (P<0.05).
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Radiation Injuries / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Brachytherapy. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Cohort Studies. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prospective Studies. Quality of Life. Radiotherapy Dosage. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 18635325.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-1476
  • [Journal-full-title] Auris, nasus, larynx
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Auris Nasus Larynx
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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24. Palazzi M, Guzzo M, Tomatis S, Cerrotta A, Potepan P, Quattrone P, Cantù G: Improved outcome of nasopharyngeal carcinoma treated with conventional radiotherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2004 Dec 1;60(5):1451-8
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  • [Title] Improved outcome of nasopharyngeal carcinoma treated with conventional radiotherapy.
  • PURPOSE: To describe the outcome of patients with nonmetastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) treated with conventional radiotherapy at a single institution.
  • Tumor histology was undifferentiated in 82% of cases.
  • Tumor-node-metastasis Stage (American Joint Committee on Cancer/International Union Against Cancer 1997 system) was I in 6%, II in 36%, III in 22%, and IV in 36% of patients.
  • Mean total radiation dose was 68.4 Gy.
  • Chemotherapy was given to 62% of the patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Analysis of Variance. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Radiotherapy Dosage. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15590176.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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25. Ayan I, Kaytan E, Ayan N: Childhood nasopharyngeal carcinoma: from biology to treatment. Lancet Oncol; 2003 Jan;4(1):13-21
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  • [Title] Childhood nasopharyngeal carcinoma: from biology to treatment.
  • Nasopharyngeal carcinoma is a rare disease in children with distinct epidemiological, histopathological, and clinical characteristics.
  • Children with nasopharyngeal carcinoma almost always have the undifferentiated variant of the disease, which is associated with advanced locoregional spread and distant metastases.
  • Both genetic and environmental factors contribute to the development of nasopharyngeal carcinoma, as evidenced by its risk factors which include: specific HLA subtypes; deletions of chromosomes 3p, 9p, 11q, 13q, and 14q; mutations of p53 and RB2/p130; polymorphism of the CYP2E1; and infection with Epstein-Barr virus.
  • Traditional treatment consists of high-dose radiotherapy and cure rates range between 30% and 60%.
  • The high incidence of failure due to systemic disease in children means that chemotherapy is preferable for first-line treatment in advanced-stage disease.
  • Currently, cisplatin-based induction or adjuvant chemotherapy combinations are used along with high-dose radiotherapy.
  • Although combined modality treatment has increased 5-year survival to 70-90%, late morbidity is a major concern.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma. Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms

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  • (PMID = 12517535.001).
  • [ISSN] 1470-2045
  • [Journal-full-title] The Lancet. Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lancet Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 65
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26. Poon D, Yap SP, Wong ZW, Cheung YB, Leong SS, Wee J, Tan T, Fong KW, Chua ET, Tan EH: Concurrent chemoradiotherapy in locoregionally recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2004 Aug 1;59(5):1312-8
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  • [Title] Concurrent chemoradiotherapy in locoregionally recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
  • PURPOSE: To analyze the results of concurrent chemoradiotherapy in patients with locoregional recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: We performed a retrospective analysis of 35 patients with locoregional recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma referred to our department between March 1994 and November 2002.
  • Most patients were male (77%), Chinese (97%), and had undifferentiated carcinoma (89%).
  • Most had extensive locally recurrent Stage rT3-T4 disease (66%) with a median age at recurrence of 49 years (range, 35-69 years).
  • A repeat course of radiotherapy was given concurrently with cisplatin, with cisplatin/5-fluorouracil as consolidation treatment.
  • Significant morbidities were present, including cranial nerve palsies due to extensive recurrent local disease before treatment of the recurrence.
  • Only 3 patients developed systemic metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / drug therapy. Carcinoma / radiotherapy. Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Proportional Hazards Models. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 15275714.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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27. Haimi M, Arush MW, Bar-Sela G, Gez E, Bernstein Z, Postovsky S, Barak AB, Kuten A: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma in the pediatric age group: the northern Israel (Rambam) medical center experience, 1989-2004. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2005 Oct;27(10):510-6
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  • [Title] Nasopharyngeal carcinoma in the pediatric age group: the northern Israel (Rambam) medical center experience, 1989-2004.
  • Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is rare in children, accounting for less than 1% of all malignancies.
  • Radiation therapy has been the mainstay of treatment of many years, but to improve survival, the use of chemotherapy has been advocated.
  • Of the 13 patients, one patient had stage I, 6 had stage III, 5 had stage IV-A, and 1 had stage IV-B disease.
  • Ten patients (77%) had undifferentiated carcinoma (WHO type III) and three patients (23%) had nonkeratinizing carcinoma (WHO type II).
  • Most of the children received two or three courses of neoadjuvant multiagent chemotherapy consisting of cisplatin and 5-FU, followed by radiotherapy with doses in excess of 60 Gy.
  • One patient developed local and distant metastases 1 year after diagnosis and is currently receiving combined radiochemotherapy.
  • Nine patients (69%) developed moderate to severe long-term complications.
  • Pediatric NPC is curable by combined radiation and chemotherapy, with doses of radiation in excess of 60 Gy.
  • Long-term follow-up is important for early detection of second malignancies as well as for radiation-induced endocrinologic deficiencies and other normal tissue complications.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms / therapy. Neoadjuvant Therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Age Distribution. Carcinoma / epidemiology. Carcinoma / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Humans. Infant. Israel / epidemiology. Male. Prognosis. Radiotherapy Dosage. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Vinblastine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 16217252.001).
  • [ISSN] 1077-4114
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5V9KLZ54CY / Vinblastine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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28. Laskar S, Bahl G, Muckaden M, Pai SK, Gupta T, Banavali S, Arora B, Sharma D, Kurkure PA, Ramadwar M, Viswanathan S, Rangarajan V, Qureshi S, Deshpande DD, Shrivastava SK, Dinshaw KA: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma in children: comparison of conventional and intensity-modulated radiotherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2008 Nov 1;72(3):728-36
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  • [Title] Nasopharyngeal carcinoma in children: comparison of conventional and intensity-modulated radiotherapy.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in reducing the acute toxicities associated with conventional RT (CRT) in children with nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 36 children with nonmetastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma, treated at the Tata Memorial Hospital between June 2003 and December 2006, were included in this study.
  • Of the 36 patients, 28 were boys and 8 were girls, with a median age of 14 years; 4 (11%) had Stage II and 10 (28%) Stage III disease at presentation.
  • All patients had undifferentiated carcinoma and were treated with a combination of chemotherapy and RT.
  • The median time to the development of Grade 2 toxicity was delayed with IMRT (skin, 35 vs. 25 days, p = 0.016; mucous-membrane, 39 vs. 27 days, p = 0.002; and larynx, 50 vs. 28 days, p = 0.009).
  • The average mean dose to the first and second planning target volume was 71.8 Gy and 62.5 Gy with IMRT compared with 66.3 Gy (p = 0.001) and 64.4 Gy (p = 0.046) with CRT, respectively.
  • CONCLUSION: The results of our study have shown that IMRT significantly reduces and delays the onset of acute toxicity, resulting in improved tolerance and treatment compliance for children with nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
  • Also, IMRT provided superior target coverage and normal tissue sparing compared with CRT.
  • [MeSH-major] Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Radiotherapy Dosage. Radiotherapy, Conformal. Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated / methods

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  • (PMID = 18374512.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-355X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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29. Polychronopoulou S, Kostaridou S, Panagiotou JP, Stefanaki K, Papadakis V, Florentin L, Houlakis M, Christopoulos G, Haidas S: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma in childhood and adolescence: a single institution's experience with treatment modalities during the last 15 years. Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2004 Jul-Aug;21(5):393-402
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  • [Title] Nasopharyngeal carcinoma in childhood and adolescence: a single institution's experience with treatment modalities during the last 15 years.
  • Pediatric nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) represents a locally advanced undifferentiated tumor with widely varying epidemiological features and with a high cure rate when combined modality treatment is provided.
  • Both local and systemic treatment is necessary, and additional treatment with biologic modifiers seems promising.
  • In this study, clinical experience and therapeutic results of 10 children with newly diagnosed NPC, treated in a single pediatric hematology/oncology institution in Athens over a period of 15 years, are analyzed.
  • Results from Greece on NPC in young patients are reported for the first time.
  • Ten patients (6 male, 4 female) 7-14 years old (median = 12.5) with a nasopharyngeal tumor were retrospectively evaluated.
  • EBV-DNA, EBERs, and LMP-1 from paraffin-embedded tissues were studied in 8 patients.
  • All patients received both local and systemic treatment.
  • All cases were classified as type WHO-3.
  • Disease stage was III in 4 and IV in 6 patients.
  • Time from the onset of symptoms to diagnosis ranged from 4 to 24 weeks (mean 8 weeks).
  • All patients received preradiation chemotherapy and radiotherapy, and 5/10 received postradiation chemotherapy due to either resistant or advanced disease.
  • In addition to chemotherapy and radiotherapy the latest patient of this series was treated with recombinant IFN-beta (10(5) IU/Kg i.v.
  • 3 times a week) for 6 months and at 18 months remains in continuous complete remission.
  • One patient was lost to follow-up 3 years after cessation of treatment while remaining in complete remission.
  • The median time for first relapse was 17 months.
  • The data confirm the good results of combined chemo-radiotherapy treatment for high-risk NPC in young patients.
  • The documented EBV latency underlying this tumor, which possibly critically mediates its pathogenesis, justifies the use of biological modifiers with antiviral and immunoregulatory activity, like the IFNs, which may offer better therapeutic results in the future.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma / drug therapy. Carcinoma / radiotherapy. Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Outcome Assessment (Health Care)
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Greece. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Prospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15205082.001).
  • [ISSN] 0888-0018
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric hematology and oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Hematol Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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30. Zubizarreta PA, D'Antonio G, Raslawski E, Gallo G, Preciado MV, Casak SJ, Scopinaro M, Morales G, Sackmann-Muriel F: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma in childhood and adolescence: a single-institution experience with combined therapy. Cancer; 2000 Aug 1;89(3):690-5
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  • [Title] Nasopharyngeal carcinoma in childhood and adolescence: a single-institution experience with combined therapy.
  • BACKGROUND: A high cure rate may be attained for locally advanced, undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) in children, provided that a combined modality of treatment is employed.
  • Both local and systemic therapies are necessary.
  • Chemotherapy consisted of 3 courses, every 3 weeks, of 5-fluorouracil (500 mg/m(2)) plus bleomycin (15 mg/m(2)) daily for 4 days, with cisplatin (100 mg/m(2)) added the last day.
  • External beam radiotherapy was delivered over a median of 52 (range, 45-63) days, to a median cumulative dose to the primary site of 55 (range, 50-61.2) grays (Gy).
  • The median dose for the lower neck area was 45 (range, 45-55.8) Gy.
  • All patients received radiotherapy to the primary site and to the initially involved lymphoid areas, with daily single doses of 1.8 Gy (5 of 7 days per week).
  • All cases were Stage IV (American Joint Committee on Cancer and International Union Against Cancer TNM system).
  • Complete response was achieved in 45% of patients after initial chemotherapy.
  • With a median follow-up of 63 (range, 23-119) months, disease free survival (with standard error [SE]) and overall survival estimates were 61% (16%) and 91% (9%), respectively, at 75 months.
  • Acute toxicity due to therapy was tolerable.
  • Chemotherapy might be useful in preventing the development of systemic metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma / therapy. Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms / therapy. Radiotherapy, High-Energy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Bleomycin / administration & dosage. Child. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Herpesvirus 4, Human / isolation & purification. Humans. Male. Remission Induction. Survival Analysis

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2000 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 10931470.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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31. Rahimi S, Lena A, Vittori G: Endometrial lymphoepitheliomalike carcinoma: absence of Epstein-Barr virus genomes. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2007 Mar-Apr;17(2):532-5
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  • [Title] Endometrial lymphoepitheliomalike carcinoma: absence of Epstein-Barr virus genomes.
  • The aim of this study was to report a case of primary lymphoepitheliomalike endometrial carcinoma (FIGO stage IB).
  • A 57-year-old woman presented with an endometrial tumor showing the classic clinical and hysteroscopic aspects of endometrial carcinoma.
  • Morphologically, the neoplasm was similar to undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma (lymphoepithelioma).
  • We report the third case of an endometrial lymphoepitheliomalike carcinoma (LELC).
  • The patient did not receive chemotherapy and is alive and free of disease 24 month after diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma / virology. Endometrial Neoplasms / diagnosis. Endometrial Neoplasms / virology. Herpesvirus 4, Human / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17362326.001).
  • [ISSN] 1048-891X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Viral
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32. Airoldi M, Cortesina G, Giordano C, Pedani F, Bumma C: Ifosfamide in the treatment of head and neck cancer. Oncology; 2003;65 Suppl 2:37-43
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  • [Title] Ifosfamide in the treatment of head and neck cancer.
  • Ifosfamide (IFO) has demonstrated activity in recurrent/metastatic squamous cell head and neck carcinoma with an overall response rate of 24-26%.
  • Better results are reported for chemotherapy-naive patients; in heavily pretreated cases results are poor and toxicity unacceptable.
  • Cisplatin-IFO combination in stage III-IV is probably more active than IFO alone (ORR = 60-72 vs. 50%) but is indicated in patients who desire aggressive treatment and are physically able to tolerate the drugs.
  • Its role in the multidisciplinary treatment of advanced head and neck cancer is under investigation.
  • In recurrent/metastatic undifferentiated nasopharygeal carcinoma, IFO combinations have proven to be effective as first- and second-line treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Head and Neck Neoplasms / drug therapy. Ifosfamide / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Clinical Trials as Topic. Humans. Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Paclitaxel / administration & dosage. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel
  • (PMID = 14586145.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-2414
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; UM20QQM95Y / Ifosfamide
  • [Number-of-references] 40
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33. Ho JC, Wong MP, Lam WK: Lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma of the lung. Respirology; 2006 Sep;11(5):539-45
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  • [Title] Lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma of the lung.
  • Lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma (LELC) of the lung was first reported in 1987.
  • This uncommon but distinct form of non-small cell lung carcinoma has a predilection for young non-smoking Asians, without gender distinction.
  • Histologically, it is indistinguishable from undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
  • In order to establish the diagnosis of LELC of the lung, both nasopharyngeal carcinoma and lymphoma have to be excluded by endoscopic biopsy (with or without magnetic resonance imaging of the nasopharynx) and immunohistochemical staining of the biopsy samples.
  • The mainstay of treatment for early-stage disease is curative surgical resection, whereas multimodality treatment (surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy) has been adopted in advanced or metastatic diseases.
  • The overall survival is more favourable in LELC of the lung compared with non-LELC type of non-small cell lung carcinoma.
  • Future collaborative studies especially on optimizing treatment for this uncommon malignancy are clearly warranted.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / diagnosis. Lung / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16916325.001).
  • [ISSN] 1323-7799
  • [Journal-full-title] Respirology (Carlton, Vic.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Respirology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Number-of-references] 40
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34. Franchin G, Vaccher E, Talamini R, Gobitti C, Minatel E, Politi D, Sartor G, Trovò MG, Barzan L: Nasopharyngeal cancer WHO type II-III: monoinstitutional retrospective analysis with standard and accelerated hyperfractionated radiation therapy. Oral Oncol; 2002 Feb;38(2):137-44

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Nasopharyngeal cancer WHO type II-III: monoinstitutional retrospective analysis with standard and accelerated hyperfractionated radiation therapy.
  • The aim of this study is to assess the impact of prognostic factors in patients with locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC), WHO type II-III, treated with two different radiation therapy (RT) schedules: standard radiation therapy (SRT), and accelerated hyperfractionated radiation therapy (HART), with or without sequential chemotherapy.
  • Nine patients had a non-keratinizing carcinoma (WHO type II) and 69 an undifferentiated carcinoma (WHO type III).
  • A multivariate analysis, age (hazard ratio, HR=4.17 for > or = 60 vs. <50 years) and N-stage (HR=3.56 for N3a-N3b vs. N0-N1) were significant for survival, whereas N-stage (HR=8.23 for N3a-N3b vs. N0-N1) and RT schedule (HR=0.30 for HART vs. SRT) were significant for DFS.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / radiotherapy. Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Factors. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Analysis of Variance. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Disease-Free Survival. Dose Fractionation. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11854060.001).
  • [ISSN] 1368-8375
  • [Journal-full-title] Oral oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oral Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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