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1. Hu Y, Lu T, Mai W, Han F, Huang Y, Liu H, Zhang E: [Important prognostic factors in patients with skull base erosion from nasopharyngeal carcinoma after radiotherapy]. Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Ke Za Zhi; 2001 Dec;36(6):463-7
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  • [Title] [Important prognostic factors in patients with skull base erosion from nasopharyngeal carcinoma after radiotherapy].
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the long-term outcome and prognostic factors in patients with skull base erosion from nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) after initial radiation therapy.
  • METHODS: From January 1985 to December 1986, 100 patients (71 male, 29 female) with the diagnosis of NPC were found to have skull base erosion from computed tomography (CT).
  • Ninety-six patients had World Health Organization (WHO) type III undifferentiated carcinoma while four had type I carcinomas.
  • Metastatic workup including chest radiography, liver ultrasound and liver function test were negative.
  • All patients underwent external beam radiotherapy alone to 66-80 Gy over 6-8 weeks.
  • Daily fraction size of 2 Gy was delivered utilizing cobalt-60 or linear accelerator.
  • No patient received chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSION: This report presents one of the longest follow-ups of patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma invading skill base.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Skull Base Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 12761966.001).
  • [ISSN] 0412-3948
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua er bi yan hou ke za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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2. Fountzilas G, Papakostas P, Dafni U, Makatsoris T, Karina M, Kalogera-Fountzila A, Maniadakis N, Aravantinos G, Syrigos K, Bamias A, Christodoulou C, Economopoulos T, Kalofonos H, Nikolaou A, Angouridakis N, Stathopoulos G, Bafaloukos D, Pavlidis N, Daniilidis J: Paclitaxel and gemcitabine vs. paclitaxel and pegylated liposomal doxorubicin in advanced non-nasopharyngeal head and neck cancer. An efficacy and cost analysis randomized study conducted by the Hellenic Cooperative Oncology Group. Ann Oncol; 2006 Oct;17(10):1560-7
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  • [Title] Paclitaxel and gemcitabine vs. paclitaxel and pegylated liposomal doxorubicin in advanced non-nasopharyngeal head and neck cancer. An efficacy and cost analysis randomized study conducted by the Hellenic Cooperative Oncology Group.
  • BACKGROUND: The prognosis of patients with recurrent and/or metastatic head and neck cancer (HNC) is poor.
  • Median survival of these patients following chemotherapy is in the range of 6 to 9 months.
  • In the present randomized phase III trial we compared two new combinations containing new drugs with proven activity in phase II studies with patients with HNC.
  • RESULTS: There was no significant difference in response rate (20% versus 29%, P = 0.21), time to disease progression (median; 4.4 months versus 6.0 months, P = 0.09) and survival (median; 8.6 months versus 11.05 months, P = 0.25).
  • Overall, there was no significant difference in severe toxicity between the two treatment arms.
  • Both treatments were well tolerated.
  • Randomized studies comparing each of the two regimens with standard chemotherapy are warranted.

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  • (PMID = 16790517.001).
  • [ISSN] 0923-7534
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase III; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / liposomal doxorubicin; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; 30IQX730WE / Polyethylene Glycols; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; B76N6SBZ8R / gemcitabine; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
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3. Hsu CH, Chen CL, Hong RL, Chen KL, Lin JF, Cheng AL: Prognostic value of multidrug resistance 1, glutathione-S-transferase-pi and p53 in advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma treated with systemic chemotherapy. Oncology; 2002;62(4):305-12
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  • [Title] Prognostic value of multidrug resistance 1, glutathione-S-transferase-pi and p53 in advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma treated with systemic chemotherapy.
  • OBJECTIVE: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is one of the dominant cancers in South China and Taiwan.
  • Although NPC is highly chemosensitive, the use of chemotherapy for treating patients with recurrent or metastatic NPC has not been very successful.
  • The emergence of drug resistance may be one of the major reasons.
  • However, the mechanisms of drug resistance of NPC have never been addressed before.
  • In this study, we sought to clarify the role of classical drug resistance markers in predicting the chemosensitivity and the prognosis of patients with advanced NPC.
  • METHODS: In a cohort of 202 consecutive patients diagnosed at the Department of Pathology of the National Taiwan University Hospital, 44 patients with adequately preserved pretreatment tumor tissues and complete clinical information regarding the details of chemotherapy and tumor response were identified.
  • Tumor response to chemotherapy and survival of the patients were the endpoints of this analysis.
  • Expression of MDR1 was seen in only 5 cases (11%) and was associated with a significantly worse overall survival, yet did not appear to predict chemoresistance to the doxorubicin-containing regimen.
  • CONCLUSION: In this relatively small cohort, positive MDR1 immunostaining predicted a poor overall survival for recurrent or metastatic NPC patients receiving chemotherapy.
  • Overexpression of p53 by immunohistochemical staining, however, was associated with a better response rate to systemic chemotherapy and a trend towards better survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Glutathione Transferase / metabolism. Isoenzymes / metabolism. Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms / drug therapy. P-Glycoprotein / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel
  • (PMID = 12138237.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-2414
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Isoenzymes; 0 / P-Glycoprotein; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; EC 2.5.1.18 / GSTP1 protein, human; EC 2.5.1.18 / Glutathione S-Transferase pi; EC 2.5.1.18 / Glutathione Transferase; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; Q573I9DVLP / Leucovorin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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4. Airoldi M, Cortesina G, Giordano C, Pedani F, Bumma C: Ifosfamide in the treatment of head and neck cancer. Oncology; 2003;65 Suppl 2:37-43
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  • [Title] Ifosfamide in the treatment of head and neck cancer.
  • Ifosfamide (IFO) has demonstrated activity in recurrent/metastatic squamous cell head and neck carcinoma with an overall response rate of 24-26%.
  • Better results are reported for chemotherapy-naive patients; in heavily pretreated cases results are poor and toxicity unacceptable.
  • Cisplatin-IFO combination in stage III-IV is probably more active than IFO alone (ORR = 60-72 vs. 50%) but is indicated in patients who desire aggressive treatment and are physically able to tolerate the drugs.
  • Its role in the multidisciplinary treatment of advanced head and neck cancer is under investigation.
  • In recurrent/metastatic undifferentiated nasopharygeal carcinoma, IFO combinations have proven to be effective as first- and second-line treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Head and Neck Neoplasms / drug therapy. Ifosfamide / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Clinical Trials as Topic. Humans. Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Paclitaxel / administration & dosage. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel
  • (PMID = 14586145.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-2414
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; UM20QQM95Y / Ifosfamide
  • [Number-of-references] 40
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5. Elser C, Siu LL, Winquist E, Agulnik M, Pond GR, Chin SF, Francis P, Cheiken R, Elting J, McNabola A, Wilkie D, Petrenciuc O, Chen EX: Phase II trial of sorafenib in patients with recurrent or metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck or nasopharyngeal carcinoma. J Clin Oncol; 2007 Aug 20;25(24):3766-73
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  • [Title] Phase II trial of sorafenib in patients with recurrent or metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck or nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
  • PURPOSE: To determine the efficacy and safety of single-agent sorafenib in patients with recurrent and/or metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) and nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC).
  • Patients had <or= one line of chemotherapy for recurrent and/or metastatic disease, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of <or= 2, and adequate organ function.
  • At the end of stage 1, efficacy criteria for further accrual were not met, but the study was amended to enroll an additional five patients for paired tumor biopsies.
  • The median time to progression was 1.8 months (95% CI, 1.6 to 3.4 months), and median overall survival time was 4.2 months (95% CI, 3.6 to 8.7 months).
  • Biomarker analysis of paired tumor samples before and after treatment with sorafenib revealed a decrease of pERK in all five patients, with a decrease in Ki67 in four patients, consistent with a disruption of ERK signaling.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Benzenesulfonates / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Head and Neck Neoplasms / drug therapy. Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Pyridines / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Disease Progression. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Niacinamide / analogs & derivatives. Phenylurea Compounds. Protein Kinase Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Survival Rate. raf Kinases / antagonists & inhibitors


6. Suzuki S, Ishikawa K: Safety and efficacy of S-1 chemotherapy in recurrent/metastatic head and neck cancer. J Infect Chemother; 2009 Oct;15(5):335-9
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  • [Title] Safety and efficacy of S-1 chemotherapy in recurrent/metastatic head and neck cancer.
  • S-1 is an oral 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) anticancer agent and has shown promising effects in the treatment of a wide range of carcinomas, including head and neck cancer.
  • In addition to being used as adjuvant chemotherapy, S-1 is a promising agent for palliative treatment.
  • Its ease of administration makes it an ideal drug to treat patients in the outpatient setting while maintaining adequate quality of life.
  • However, the clinical role of S-1 in patients with recurrent/metastatic head and neck cancer is still uncertain.
  • We retrospectively reviewed 16 patients with recurrent/metastatic head and neck cancer who received S-1 monotherapy.
  • Thirteen patients with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and 3 patients with non-SCC who had recurrent/metastatic disease received S-1 monotherapy as outpatients.
  • One patient with nasopharyngeal undifferentiated carcinoma and 1 patient with maxillary adenosquamous carcinoma showed complete response (CR), while all SCC patients showed stable disease (SD) or progressive disease (PD).
  • Median time to progression (TTP) was 12 weeks.
  • Except for one episode of grade 4 leucopenia which required hospitalization and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (GCSF) treatment, all adverse events resolved with dose reduction or dose omission.
  • S-1 was safely administered in outpatients and showed some efficacy in the treatment of recurrent/metastatic head and neck cancer in patients who had received previous chemotherapy.
  • S-1 could be used as palliative treatment in patients with recurrent/metastatic head and neck cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Head and Neck Neoplasms / drug therapy. Oxonic Acid / therapeutic use. Palliative Care. Tegafur / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Aged. Drug Combinations. Female. Hematologic Diseases / chemically induced. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19856075.001).
  • [ISSN] 1437-7780
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of infection and chemotherapy : official journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Infect. Chemother.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Drug Combinations; 150863-82-4 / S 1 (combination); 1548R74NSZ / Tegafur; 5VT6420TIG / Oxonic Acid
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7. Le Tourneau C: [Molecularly targeted therapy in head and neck cancer]. Bull Cancer; 2010 Dec;97(12):1453-66
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  • [Title] [Molecularly targeted therapy in head and neck cancer].
  • The emergence of molecularly targeted therapy did not spare head and neck cancers.
  • Head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) were indeed one of the first tumor types to get a molecularly targeted agent approved (cetuximab, a monoclonal antibody targeting EGFR), not only in the recurrent or metastatic setting but also in the locally advanced setting.
  • This article summarizes recent data on molecularly targeted agents in most frequent head and neck cancers including HNSCC, nasopharyngeal carcinoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma of salivary glands.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Head and Neck Neoplasms / drug therapy. Molecular Targeted Therapy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Angiogenesis Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / drug therapy. Cetuximab. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy / methods. Humans. Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Protein Kinase Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic. Salivary Gland Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 21134823.001).
  • [ISSN] 1769-6917
  • [Journal-full-title] Bulletin du cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bull Cancer
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors; PQX0D8J21J / Cetuximab; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; Nasopharyngeal carcinoma
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8. Ishikawa M, Kitayama J, Kaizaki S, Sako A, Nakao K, Sugawara M, Nagawa H: Diagnosis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma metastatic to mediastinal lymph nodes by endoscopic ultrasonography-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy. Acta Otolaryngol; 2005 Sep;125(9):1014-7
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  • [Title] Diagnosis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma metastatic to mediastinal lymph nodes by endoscopic ultrasonography-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy.
  • We report the case of a patient with nasopharyngeal carcinoma who was diagnosed as having metastasis in mediastinal lymph nodes and successfully underwent systemic chemotherapy without surgery.
  • A 61-year-old male with a history of nasopharyngeal carcinoma presented with odynophagia.
  • Chest CT confirmed the presence of a non-enhancing 20-mm soft tissue mass in the paraesophageal area, with increased attenuation compared with the adjacent esophagus.
  • Two passes were made with a 21-gauge fine needle and the patient tolerated the procedure well, without complications.
  • Cytological findings were compatible with metastatic squamous cell carcinoma from a nasopharyngeal tumor, and the clinical stage was determined as T3N2bM1 (stage IVC) because of mediastinal lymph node metastasis.
  • We thus determined the nodal status of a head and neck tumor by means of EUS-FNA.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Needle. Carcinoma / secondary. Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16193595.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-6489
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta oto-laryngologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Otolaryngol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Norway
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9. Lamont EB, Vokes EE: Chemotherapy in the management of squamous-cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Lancet Oncol; 2001 May;2(5):261-9
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  • [Title] Chemotherapy in the management of squamous-cell carcinoma of the head and neck.
  • Previously reserved for palliation, chemotherapy is now also a central component of several curative approaches to the management of patients with advanced-stage head and neck cancer.
  • Here we review the results of both induction chemotherapy and chemoradiotherapy trials in patients with curable disease, and chemotherapy trials in patients with recurrent and metastatic disease, and we highlight current areas of investigation.
  • Compared with traditional treatment modalities, chemotherapy given on induction schedules to patients with advanced laryngeal cancer allows greater organ preservation without compromise to survival; when given concomitantly with radiotherapy to patients with resectable or unresectable advanced disease, chemotherapy again improves survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Head and Neck Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy. Drug Therapy, Combination. Humans. Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms / therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic. Research. Survival Rate


10. Wang JL, Hong XN, Tang WY, Guo Y, Li J: [Experience of gemcitabine plus cisplatin chemotherapy in 52 patients with head and neck cancer]. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi; 2005 Sep;27(9):567-9
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  • [Title] [Experience of gemcitabine plus cisplatin chemotherapy in 52 patients with head and neck cancer].
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of combination chemotherapy using gemcitabine plus cisplatin for recurrent and/or metastastic head and neck cancer patients.
  • METHODS: Fifty-two patients with recurrent or metastatic head and neck cancer were treated by gemcitabine 1000 mg/m(2) on D1, 8 and cisplatin 25 mg/m(2) on D1 approximately 3 every 21 days as one cycle.
  • Median time to progression was 5.0 months, and 1-year survival was 43.4% with a median survival time of 9.9 months.
  • Median time to progression was 3.4 months, and 1-year survival was 29.2% with a median survival time of 8.3 months.
  • CONCLUSION: Gemcitabine plus cisplatin chemotherapy is safe and effective for patients with recurrent and/or metastastic head and neck cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Head and Neck Neoplasms / drug therapy. Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Cisplatin / adverse effects. Deoxycytidine / administration & dosage. Deoxycytidine / adverse effects. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis

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  • (PMID = 16438860.001).
  • [ISSN] 0253-3766
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua zhong liu za zhi [Chinese journal of oncology]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; B76N6SBZ8R / gemcitabine; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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11. Ngan RK, Yiu HH, Lau WH, Yau S, Cheung FY, Chan TM, Kwok CH, Chiu CY, Au SK, Foo W, Law CK, Tse KC: Combination gemcitabine and cisplatin chemotherapy for metastatic or recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma: report of a phase II study. Ann Oncol; 2002 Aug;13(8):1252-8
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  • [Title] Combination gemcitabine and cisplatin chemotherapy for metastatic or recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma: report of a phase II study.
  • BACKGROUND: To evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of combination gemcitabine plus cisplatin (GC) chemotherapy in metastatic or recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC).
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Forty-four patients of Chinese ethnicity with metastatic or recurrent NPC received ambulatory GC chemotherapy every 28 days (gemcitabine 1000 mg/m(2) days 1, 8 and 15; cisplatin 50 mg/m(2) days 1 and 8).
  • There were 40 male and four female patients with a mean age of 47.4 years.
  • More than half (54.5%) of the patients had received either prior platinum-based chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy to target lesions.
  • Toxicity was mainly hematological: grade III/IV anemia, granulocytopenia and thrombocytopenia were found in 11, 37 and 16% of cycles, respectively.
  • With a median follow-up of 17.2 months, 62% survived 1 year while 36% were alive and progression free.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Gemcitabine plus cisplatin chemotherapy offers a satisfactory overall response rate, subjective patient improvement and safety profile for metastatic and recurrent NPC.

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  • (PMID = 12181249.001).
  • [ISSN] 0923-7534
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; B76N6SBZ8R / gemcitabine; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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12. González García R, Sastre Pérez J, Naval Gías L, Rodríguez Campo FJ, Díaz González FJ: Cavernous sinus metastasis from oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal; 2007 Mar;12(2):E166-70
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  • [Title] Cavernous sinus metastasis from oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma.
  • It is usually a late manifestation of the primary tumor and may be the first evidence of a widespread dissemination of the disease.
  • Although diagnosis may be difficult, the appearance of clinical and radiological findings of cavernous sinus involvement in a context of head and neck cancer must alert us about an intracranial metastatic infiltration.
  • In most cases treatment is palliative with radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy.
  • The prognosis of this entity is poor, with survival of a few months.
  • We present the case of cavernous sinus metastasis from oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma and review the literature about the clinical presentation and management of this rare entity.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / secondary. Cavernous Sinus. Oropharyngeal Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms / secondary. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Radiotherapy Dosage

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  • (PMID = 17322808.001).
  • [ISSN] 1698-6946
  • [Journal-full-title] Medicina oral, patología oral y cirugía bucal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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13. Huang HQ, Cai QQ, Lin XB, Wang AL, Bu Q, Hu XH, Pan ZH, Li YH, Shuang YR, Guan ZZ: [Preliminary result of multi-center clinical trial on the docetaxel, 5-Fu and DDP in the treatment of advanced, recurrent or metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma]. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi; 2008 Apr;30(4):314-6
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  • [Title] [Preliminary result of multi-center clinical trial on the docetaxel, 5-Fu and DDP in the treatment of advanced, recurrent or metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma].
  • OBJECTIVE: This clinical study was designed to evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of the combined regimen of docetaxel, 5-Fu and DDP (TPF) in the treatment of advanced or relapsed nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC).
  • METHODS: Fifty-six patients with newly diagnosed or recurrent/metastatic NPC following chemotherapy or radiotherapy were enrolled.
  • The response rate for whole group was 72.5% (37/51) with a CR rate of 9.8% (5/51).
  • There were 17(30.4%) chemotherapy-naïve patients.
  • The overall response rate in those was 82.4% with a CR rate of 29.4%.
  • Twelve patients had progressed disease, including 5 (8.9%) died of disease progression with a median follow-up of 11 month (ranged from 1 to 19 months).
  • Totally, 196 courses of chemotherapy were administered.
  • The incidence of leucopenia was 48% with 22.2% of these in NCI grade II or IV.
  • But only 2 patients (3.6%) experienced leucopenia with a fever.
  • CONCLUSION: Our preliminary outcome shows docetaxel, 5-Fu and DDP combination is effective and safe for the patients with advanced or relapsed nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. DOCETAXEL .
  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. CIS-DIAMINEDICHLOROPLATINUM .
  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. FLUOROURACIL .
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  • (PMID = 18788641.001).
  • [ISSN] 0253-3766
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua zhong liu za zhi [Chinese journal of oncology]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; English Abstract; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Taxoids; 15H5577CQD / docetaxel; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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14. Ma BB, Tannock IF, Pond GR, Edmonds MR, Siu LL: Chemotherapy with gemcitabine-containing regimens for locally recurrent or metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Cancer; 2002 Dec 15;95(12):2516-23
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  • [Title] Chemotherapy with gemcitabine-containing regimens for locally recurrent or metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Results from Phase II trials conducted in Asia have shown that gemcitabine alone (GEM) or with cisplatin (GC) is active among patients with metastatic or locally recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC).
  • RESULTS: Most patients (91%) were of Southeast Asian ancestry and 29 (91%) had Type 2 (World Health Organization 1991 classification) nonkeratinizing histology.
  • Sixteen of the GEM (89%) and five (36%) of the GC patients had received chemotherapy before entering the study.
  • Nonhematologic toxicity included one patient with reversible reactivation of hepatitis, one with Grade 3 cisplatin-related sensory neuropathy, and three with cardiovascular events that were possibly related to chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our study confirms that GEM is an active and tolerable drug for patients with NPC.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Female. Hematologic Diseases / chemically induced. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome


15. Agulnik M, Epstein JB: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma: current management, future directions and dental implications. Oral Oncol; 2008 Jul;44(7):617-27
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  • [Title] Nasopharyngeal carcinoma: current management, future directions and dental implications.
  • Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a distinct cancer of the head and neck.
  • Phase III clinical trials support combined chemotherapy and radiotherapy for the initial treatment of these patients.
  • Current treatment approaches for metastatic disease are variable.
  • Oral complications of therapy for NPC are very common.
  • In order to support cancer therapy the dental provider must be aware of the diagnosis, prognosis and approach to treatment.
  • Dental care requires that radiation fields be understood as well as the permanent changes that occur with high dose radiation therapy.
  • Radiation causes changes in bone and soft tissue that may result in acute and chronic oral complications.
  • Mucositis is of increased severity and duration when chemotherapy is combined with radiation therapy.
  • Chronic complications are due to late effects of radiation therapy including hyposalivation, infection, taste change, dysphagia and trismus.
  • Treatment innovations with molecularly targeted therapies and immunotherapy are being assessed to improve treatment outcomes in NPC and will impact oral complications and oral care.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Dental Care / organization & administration. Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Radiation Injuries / prevention & control
  • [MeSH-minor] Clinical Trials, Phase III as Topic. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Immunotherapy / methods. Male. Mucositis / chemically induced. Radiotherapy Dosage / standards. Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic. Taste Perception / radiation effects. Xerostomia / chemically induced

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  • [ErratumIn] Oral Oncol. 2008 Jul;44(7):718
  • (PMID = 18061518.001).
  • [ISSN] 1368-8375
  • [Journal-full-title] Oral oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oral Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 65
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16. Chua DT, Wei WI, Wong MP, Sham JS, Nicholls J, Au GK: Phase II study of gefitinib for the treatment of recurrent and metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Head Neck; 2008 Jul;30(7):863-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Phase II study of gefitinib for the treatment of recurrent and metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: This single-center, phase II study assessed the safety/tolerability and initial efficacy of gefitinib in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) pretreated with platinum-based chemotherapy.
  • METHODS: Patients with recurrent and metastatic NPC who had treatment failure with at least 2 lines of chemotherapy including platinum were given gefitinib at a fixed dose of 250 mg daily.
  • Treatment was continued until the patient experienced unacceptable side effects or disease progression.
  • RESULTS: Nineteen patients were enrolled, having had treatment failure with a median of 2 chemotherapy regimens.
  • Treatment was well tolerated, and only grades 1 to 2 adverse events were observed.
  • Median time-to-progression was 4 months, and median overall survival was 16 months.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / secondary. Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Quinazolines / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Maximum Tolerated Dose. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging. Risk Assessment. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18213730.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0347
  • [Journal-full-title] Head & neck
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Head Neck
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Quinazolines; S65743JHBS / gefitinib
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17. Ma J, Wen ZS, Lin P, Wang X, Xie FY: The results and prognosis of different treatment modalities for solitary metastatic lung tumor from nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a retrospective study of 105 cases. Chin J Cancer; 2010 Sep;29(9):787-95
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  • [Title] The results and prognosis of different treatment modalities for solitary metastatic lung tumor from nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a retrospective study of 105 cases.
  • BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is known for its propensity for distant metastases.
  • Solitary metastatic lung tumor from NPC is a distinctive group associated with a better survival.
  • This study was to find a more effective treatment modality and prognostic factors for the group.
  • METHODS: Clinical data of 105 cases of solitary metastatic lung tumor from NPC were retrospectively analyzed.
  • The Cox univariate and multivariate analyses of gender, age, pathologic type, stage, adjuvant chemotherapy, evaluation of treatment for NPC, disease-free interval, size of metastatic tumor, pulmonary hilar and/or mediastinal lymph node metastasis, treatment modalities, recurrent distant metastases and/or relapse of NPC were conducted.
  • RESULTS: The local control rate was 53.8% in chemotherapy group, 88.0% in radiotherapy ± chemotherapy group, and 96.4% in operation ± chemotherapy group (P < 0.01).
  • The most promising progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were obtained with operation ± chemotherapy and followed by radiotherapy ± chemotherapy.
  • Both of them showed much better efficacy than chemotherapy (P < 0.001).
  • The T stage of NPC, size of metastatic tumor, hilar and/or mediastinal lymph node metastasis, and the treatment modality were independent prognostic factors.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Operation ± chemotherapy and radiotherapy ± chemotherapy are better treatment of solitary metastatic lung tumor from NPC, which could improve the local control and prolong the PFS and OS.
  • Chemotherapy is recommended for patients with higher T stage of NPC, size of metastatic tumor ≥ 3 cm, pulmonary hilar and/or mediastinal lymph node metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / secondary. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / therapy. Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Staging. Pneumonectomy / methods. Radiotherapy, High-Energy. Remission Induction. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20800020.001).
  • [ISSN] 1000-467X
  • [Journal-full-title] Chinese journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chin J Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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18. Chen CL, Sheen TS, Lou IU, Huang AC: Expression of multidrug resistance 1 and glutathione-S-transferase-Pi protein in nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Hum Pathol; 2001 Nov;32(11):1240-4
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  • [Title] Expression of multidrug resistance 1 and glutathione-S-transferase-Pi protein in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
  • Radiotherapy is the modality of choice for the treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC).
  • However, systemic chemotherapy has recently been found to play an increasing role in the treatment of advanced or metastatic disease.
  • The status of drug resistance gene expression that has crucial impact on chemotherapy has not been fully addressed for patients with NPC.
  • In this study, we examined the expression of multidrug resistance 1 (MDR-1) and glutathione-S-transferase-Pi (GST-Pi) in primary, recurrent, and metastatic NPC using results of immunohistochemical examinations.
  • The results were correlated with the expression of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) latent protein, latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1), and clinicopathologic features, including stage, histopathologic types, and survival rates.
  • MDR-1 protein expression was detected in 18 (12.6%) of 143 patients with primary NPC, 14 (32.6%) of 43 with recurrent NPC, and O (0%) of 20 with metastatic NPC, whereas 83 (58%) of 143 patients with primary NPC, 30 (69.8%) of 43 with recurrent NPC, and 13 (65%) of 20 with metastatic NPC expressed GST-Pi.
  • EBV-LMP1 was expressed in 59 (41.3%) of 143 patients with primary NPC, 23 (53.5%) of 43 with recurrent NPC, and 9 (45%) of 20 with metastatic NPC.
  • We concluded that the expression of GST-Pi was more frequent in NPC tumor tissues than the expression of MDR-1.
  • The expression of MDR-1 correlated with clinicopathologic features of primary NPC, including the histopathologic types and survival rates, but not with disease stage.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / metabolism. Glutathione Transferase / metabolism. Isoenzymes / metabolism. Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms / metabolism. P-Glycoprotein / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Glutathione S-Transferase pi. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / metabolism. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Prognosis. Survival Analysis. Viral Matrix Proteins / immunology. Viral Matrix Proteins / metabolism






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