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1. Sauer T: Fine-needle aspiration cytology of extra mammary metastatic lesions in the breast: A retrospective study of 36 cases diagnosed during 18 years. Cytojournal; 2010;7:10

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  • BACKGROUND: Metastatic tumors in the breast require treatment according to origin and type of tumor.
  • It is important to recognize these lesions in fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in order to avoid unnecessary mastectomy or non-relevant chemotherapy.
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytological features of metastatic tumors and possible criteria that could alert us as to the possibility of a metastasis from an extra mammary malignancy.
  • Smears were evaluated for the amount of material, presence or absence of myoepithelial cells, microcalcifications, mitoses and necrotic material.
  • The primary tumor was known in 22 cases (22/36 = 61.1%).
  • No other primary tumor was known and metastatic lesion was not initially suspected in 14 cases (14/36 = 38.9%).

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  • (PMID = 20806071.001).
  • [ISSN] 1742-6413
  • [Journal-full-title] CytoJournal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cytojournal
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2924528
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Breast / FNAC / cytological features / extra mammary / grade / metastases
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2. Jakacki RI, Hamilton M, Gilbertson RJ, Blaney SM, Tersak J, Krailo MD, Ingle AM, Voss SD, Dancey JE, Adamson PC: Pediatric phase I and pharmacokinetic study of erlotinib followed by the combination of erlotinib and temozolomide: a Children's Oncology Group Phase I Consortium Study. J Clin Oncol; 2008 Oct 20;26(30):4921-7
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  • PURPOSE: We conducted a phase I and pharmacokinetic study of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor erlotinib as a single agent and in combination with temozolomide in children with refractory solid tumors.
  • An oral erlotinib solution was administered during the dose-finding phase and a tablet formulation was subsequently studied at the maximum-tolerated dose (MTD).
  • At 110 mg/m(2)/d, two of four patients had dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) consisting of rash and hyperbilirubinemia, whereas one of six patients developed dose-limiting rash at 85 mg/m(2)/d.
  • One patient with a neurocytoma had stable disease for 19 months, two patients with neuroblastoma remained on study for 23 and 24 months, and one patient with myoepithelioma had a mixed response.
  • CONCLUSION: The recommended phase II dose of erlotinib in recurrent pediatric solid tumors is 85 mg/m(2)/d, either alone or in combination with temozolomide.

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  • (PMID = 18794549.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCATS NIH HHS / TR / UL1 TR000005; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA97452; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA021765
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase I; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Quinazolines; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 85622-93-1 / temozolomide; DA87705X9K / Erlotinib Hydrochloride; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2652086
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3. Lee JR, Georgi DE, Wang BY: Malignant myoepithelial tumor of soft tissue: a report of two cases of the lower extremity and a review of the literature. Ann Diagn Pathol; 2007 Jun;11(3):190-8
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  • [Title] Malignant myoepithelial tumor of soft tissue: a report of two cases of the lower extremity and a review of the literature.
  • Myoepithelial tumors of the soft tissues have only recently been described.
  • Two cases of lower extremity malignant myoepithelial tumors are reported.
  • One case of malignant mixed tumor overlying the gastrocnemius muscle was treated with wide local excision, but metastasized to regional lymph nodes 14 months after surgical excision.
  • One patient with malignant myoepithelioma of the right lower leg was treated with limb amputation and is alive without disease at 46 months.
  • A review of the literature discloses 120 additional cases of soft tissue myoepithelial tumors, 102 of which are myoepitheliomas and 18 are mixed tumors.
  • Thirty-seven percent of the myoepitheliomas met the criteria for malignancy, and 33% of the mixed tumors were malignant.
  • Of these, 30% had locally recurrent disease and 32% developed metastatic disease.
  • Treatment benefit from chemotherapy and radiation therapy is unclear.
  • [MeSH-major] Myoepithelioma / diagnosis. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Calcium-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Cell Proliferation. Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein / metabolism. Humans. Leg / pathology. Male. Microfilament Proteins / metabolism. Middle Aged. Mixed Tumor, Malignant / diagnosis. Mixed Tumor, Malignant / pathology. Necrosis / pathology. Phosphopyruvate Hydratase / metabolism. Vimentin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17498593.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-9134
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Calcium-Binding Proteins; 0 / Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein; 0 / Microfilament Proteins; 0 / Vimentin; 0 / calponin; EC 4.2.1.11 / Phosphopyruvate Hydratase
  • [Number-of-references] 35
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4. Kyriazi MA, Carvounis EE, Kitsou M, Arkadopoulos N, Nicolaidou E, Fotiou S, Smyrniotis V: Myoepithelial carcinoma of the vulva mimicking bartholin gland abscess in a pregnant woman: case report and review of literature. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2010 Sep;29(5):501-4
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  • [Title] Myoepithelial carcinoma of the vulva mimicking bartholin gland abscess in a pregnant woman: case report and review of literature.
  • Myoepithelial tumors of the vulva are extremely rare, with only 8 cases reported in the literature to date.
  • We report the first case of a high-grade myoepithelial vulvar carcinoma diagnosed in a 35-year-old woman during the 27th week of her pregnancy.
  • However, the patient rapidly developed both locoregional and distant mestatatic disease, despite aggressive chemoradiotherapy, and she eventually succumbed to disseminated disease almost 20 months after her initial diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Abscess / pathology. Bartholin's Glands / pathology. Myoepithelioma / pathology. Pregnancy Complications / pathology. Vulvar Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Fatal Outcome. Female. Gynecologic Surgical Procedures. Humans. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Pregnancy. Radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 20736781.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7151
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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5. Nieder C, Schneller F, Grosu AL, Peschel C, Molls M: Radiotherapy and chemotherapy for myoepithelioma of the sellar region. Strahlenther Onkol; 2005 Apr;181(4):260-3
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  • [Title] Radiotherapy and chemotherapy for myoepithelioma of the sellar region.
  • BACKGROUND: Myoepithelioma might arise in the head and neck area, especially within the salivary glands.
  • It is very uncommon as a primary intracranial tumor.
  • CASE REPORT: A 34-year-old African patient with proliferating myoepithelioma originating in the sellar region is described.
  • After subtotal resection, the tumor recurred locally despite postoperative radiotherapy to a total dose of 54 Gy (Figures 1 and 2).
  • When intracranial metastases developed, chemotherapy with ifosfamide and, later, BCNU was administered.
  • Uncontrolled intracranial tumor growth led to the patient's death 20 months after the initial diagnosis.
  • CONCLUSION: Most tumors of the sellar region have a favorable prognosis.
  • However, this case of incompletely resected proliferating myoepithelioma showed both local and distant recurrences, which did not respond to further treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / drug therapy. Bone Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Myoepithelioma / drug therapy. Myoepithelioma / radiotherapy. Sella Turcica / radiography
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Combined Modality Therapy. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Palliative Care. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 15827697.001).
  • [ISSN] 0179-7158
  • [Journal-full-title] Strahlentherapie und Onkologie : Organ der Deutschen Röntgengesellschaft ... [et al]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Strahlenther Onkol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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6. Meslin F, Conforti R, Mazouni C, Morel N, Tomasic G, Drusch F, Yacoub M, Sabourin JC, Grassi J, Delaloge S, Mathieu MC, Chouaib S, Andre F, Mehrpour M: Efficacy of adjuvant chemotherapy according to Prion protein expression in patients with estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer. Ann Oncol; 2007 Nov;18(11):1793-8
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  • [Title] Efficacy of adjuvant chemotherapy according to Prion protein expression in patients with estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer.
  • We evaluated whether the expression of PrPc was associated with the resistance to adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with estrogen receptor (ER) -negative breast cancer.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: The expression of PrPc by primary tumors was assessed by immunohistochemistry in a series of 756 patients included in two randomized trials that compared anthracycline-based chemotherapy to no chemotherapy.
  • The PrPc expression was correlated with ER expression and the benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy was assessed according to PrPc expression in patients with ER-negative tumors.
  • RESULTS: Immunostaining analysis showed that PrPc was mainly expressed by myoepithelial cells in normal breast tissue.
  • Tissue microarray analysis from 756 breast tumors showed that PrPc was associated with ER-negative breast cancer subsets (P < 0.001).
  • Adjuvant chemotherapy was not associated with a significant risk reduction for death in patients with ER-negative/PrPc-positive disease [adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for death = 0.98, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.45-2.1, P = 0.95], while it decreased the risk for death (HR = 0.39, 95% CI 0.2-0.74, P = 0.004) in patients with ER-negative/PrPc-negative tumors.
  • CONCLUSION: These data indicate that ER-negative/PrPc-negative phenotype is associated with a high sensitivity to adjuvant chemotherapy.

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  • (PMID = 17872899.001).
  • [ISSN] 1569-8041
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / PrPC Proteins; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen
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7. Takayama O, Yokoyama J, Ito S: Therapeutic experience of recurrent myoepithelial carcinoma by superselective intra-arterial chemotherapy infused high-dose CDDP. Auris Nasus Larynx; 2006 Jun;33(2):235-8
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  • [Title] Therapeutic experience of recurrent myoepithelial carcinoma by superselective intra-arterial chemotherapy infused high-dose CDDP.
  • Myoepithelial carcinoma is one of several new entities added to the updated classification of salivary gland tumors by the WHO in 1991.
  • This tumor most frequently occurs in parotid gland.
  • This is the first report presenting the tumor in floor of the mouth.
  • Especially, there was not good therapy for recurrent cases.
  • We treated the patient with repeated recurrences three times and presented in bilateral parapharyngeal space to skullbase in this time.
  • In order to accomplish the both objections he received the superselective intra-arterial chemotherapy infused high-dose CDDP with radiation.
  • We confirmed tumor free in FDG-PET in 2 months after the treatment.
  • Now, we cannot detect any recurrence in 7 months after the treatment and he can eat anything and communicate anybody as before treated.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma / therapy. Mouth Floor / pathology. Myoepithelioma / pathology. Myoepithelioma / therapy. Salivary Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Salivary Gland Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Injections, Intra-Arterial. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Radiotherapy Dosage

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  • (PMID = 16446069.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-8146
  • [Journal-full-title] Auris, nasus, larynx
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Auris Nasus Larynx
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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8. Trepp R, Padberg BC, Varga Z, Cathomas R, Inauen R, Reinhart WH: Extensive extranodal metastases of basal-like breast cancer with predominant myoepithelial spindle cell differentiation. Pathol Res Pract; 2010 May 15;206(5):334-7
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  • [Title] Extensive extranodal metastases of basal-like breast cancer with predominant myoepithelial spindle cell differentiation.
  • A differentiation towards myoepithelial cells has been demonstrated in several types of lesions in the breast.
  • These include multifocal myoepitheliomatosis, the rare mixed tumor or pleomorphic adenoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma, adenomyoepithelioma and myoepithelial carcinoma (malignant myoepithelioma).
  • Myoepithelial carcinoma is the only lesion purely composed of myoepithelial cells.
  • All these tumors are benign and/or of low-grade malignancy, with the exception of malignant myoepithelioma.
  • In contrast to the statement of the current World Health Organization (WHO), recent studies have reported that regional and distant metastases may occur in about 50% of pure myoepithelial carcinomas.
  • The presented case of a breast carcinoma with dominant myoepithelial/spindle cell differentiation in a 58-year-old woman is an excellent example to document the highly aggressive biological behavior of this tumor phenotype.
  • Despite an extensive chemotherapy and radiotherapy, the tumor was rapidly progressive, forming a finally exulcerating local tumor relapse and widespread metastases to the myocardium, lungs, liver, kidneys and skin.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma / secondary. Kidney Neoplasms / secondary. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Skin Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Middle Aged


9. Shet T, Ramadwar M, Sharma S, Laskar S, Arora B, Kurkure P: An eyelid sialoblastoma-like tumor with a sarcomatoid myoepithelial component. Pediatr Dev Pathol; 2007 Jul-Aug;10(4):309-14
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  • [Title] An eyelid sialoblastoma-like tumor with a sarcomatoid myoepithelial component.
  • Nonround cell tumors are rare in children and often difficult to diagnose.
  • This article describes an 18-month-old child who presented with a mass on the outer aspect of the left eyelid.
  • Histologically, the tumor had nests of basaloid and relatively round cells with immature acinar or ductular structures similar to those seen in a conventional sialoblastoma, but these nests were embedded in a malignant spindle cell stroma.
  • This stroma on immunohistochemistry was marked with S-100 and cytokeratin, which, in combination with the pertinent ultrastructural evidence, indicated a myoepithelial differentiation.
  • Overall histologic features suggested a tumor similar to a sialoblastoma with sarcomatoid transformation of the myoepithelial component, hitherto not described in literature.
  • This tumor probably arose from the palpebral lobe of the lacrimal gland.
  • Postsurgery, the patient received chemotherapy (6 cycles of ifosfamide, vincristine, and doxorubicin hydrochloride [Adriamycin]) and local radiotherapy in view of residual disease.
  • Three months after completion of the treatment (1 year after surgery), the patient is well, without any local disease.
  • Awareness of this unusual histology of sialoblastoma will help in avoiding misdiagnosis and also refine treatment-related issues on this rare tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Eyelid Neoplasms / pathology. Myoepithelioma / pathology. Sarcoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Combined Modality Therapy. Desmosomes / ultrastructure. Disease-Free Survival. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Infant. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17638426.001).
  • [ISSN] 1093-5266
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric and developmental pathology : the official journal of the Society for Pediatric Pathology and the Paediatric Pathology Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr. Dev. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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10. Zhou SH, Ruan LX, Gong L, Wang SQ: Primary malignant myoepithelioma of the left maxillary sinus: a case report. J Int Med Res; 2008 Mar-Apr;36(2):362-5

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  • [Title] Primary malignant myoepithelioma of the left maxillary sinus: a case report.
  • We describe the case of a 41-year-old woman who presented with a malignant myoepithelioma (MME) in her left maxillary sinus.
  • Exploratory biopsy of the left maxillary sinus was performed and pathological examination demonstrated that the tumour was positive for calponin and cytokeratin 14, which are indicative of MME.
  • Lateral rhinotomy and left total maxillectomy were undertaken and the patient received radiotherapy and chemotherapy post-surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Maxillary Sinus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Myoepithelioma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Calcium-Binding Proteins / analysis. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Keratin-14 / analysis. Microfilament Proteins / analysis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18380949.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-0605
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of international medical research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Int. Med. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Calcium-Binding Proteins; 0 / Keratin-14; 0 / Microfilament Proteins; 0 / calponin
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11. Yu T, Gao QH, Wang XY, Wen YM, Li LJ: Malignant sublingual gland tumors: a retrospective clinicopathologic study of 28 cases. Oncology; 2007;72(1-2):39-44

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  • [Title] Malignant sublingual gland tumors: a retrospective clinicopathologic study of 28 cases.
  • OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the clinicopathologic features and therapeutic efficacy of malignant sublingual gland tumors.
  • RESULTS: There were 16 males and 12 females, with a mean age of 50.3 years.
  • Eighteen cases (64.3%) were adenoid cystic carcinoma; 16 (57.1%) cases were clinically staged as III-IV.
  • Adenoid cystic carcinoma was mainly of the histologic type, and the other histologic classifications included mucoepidermoid carcinoma, myoepithelial carcinoma, polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma, adenocarcinoma and malignant pleomorphic adenoma.
  • Pulmonary metastasis and tumor recurrence were the main death reasons.
  • Eleven patients remain alive and well 34-312 months (median 108) after treatment.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Malignant sublingual gland tumors are extremely rare and most are adenoid cystic carcinoma.
  • Surgery is the main treatment option.
  • For adenoid cystic carcinoma, hematogenous spread is common, and pulmonary metastasis is a common pathway of the distant metastasis.
  • Postoperative radiation therapy may be adjuvant for selected patients with high-stage and high-grade tumors, or when there is concern about the inadequacy of the resection.
  • The effect of chemotherapy remains elusive.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / pathology. Sublingual Gland Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Cause of Death. Female. Humans. Lung Neoplasms / mortality. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / mortality. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 17998789.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0232
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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12. Fadare O, Tavassoli FA: Clinical and pathologic aspects of basal-like breast cancers. Nat Clin Pract Oncol; 2008 Mar;5(3):149-59
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  • Gene-expression profiling of breast cancers has shown that distinct molecular subclasses are present within tumors that are apparently morphologically similar.
  • The molecular subclasses of cohorts classified by the 'intrinsic' gene set include the luminal A and B, erbB-2+, normal-breast-like, and basal-like tumors.
  • Basal-like breast cancers have been reported to be associated with worse overall and disease-free survival compared with the luminal A subtype.
  • Basal-like breast carcinomas have markedly reduced expression of genes related to estrogen receptors and erbB-2, and express proteins that are characteristic of the normal myoepithelial cell.
  • These tumors seem to be relatively heterogeneous according to a multitude of clinicopathologic parameters, which indicates that their most prognostically relevant subsets have yet to be defined.
  • Similarly to tumors of luminal epithelial differentiation, carcinomas of the 'basal' type have a spectrum of morphologic and clinical characteristics.
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / genetics. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Female. Gene Expression Profiling. Genes, BRCA1. Germ-Line Mutation. Humans. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasms, Basal Cell / drug therapy. Neoplasms, Basal Cell / genetics. Neoplasms, Basal Cell / pathology. Phenotype. Prognosis. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 18212769.001).
  • [ISSN] 1743-4262
  • [Journal-full-title] Nature clinical practice. Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nat Clin Pract Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 100
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13. Rakha E, Reis-Filho JS: Basal-like breast carcinoma: from expression profiling to routine practice. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2009 Jun;133(6):860-8
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  • [Title] Basal-like breast carcinoma: from expression profiling to routine practice.
  • CONTEXT: Advances in the understanding of the molecular and genetic mechanisms of breast cancer have led to realization of the heterogeneity of the disease and the promise of a new era of individualized management for patients with breast cancer.
  • OBJECTIVE: To critically assess the clinicopathologic features of basal-like breast cancer, discuss the morphologic and immunophenotypic features of basal-like cancer, and explore the criteria that can be used to identify these tumors in routine practice.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Basal-like breast cancers constitute a distinct, yet heterogeneous, class of neoplasms associated with specific histologic features and poor prognosis despite high response rates to neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
  • Basal-like breast cancers have features that recapitulate those of tumors arising in BRCA1 mutation carriers, and the majority of patients with BRCA1 germline mutations develop basal-like breast cancers.
  • At the molecular level, basal-like cancers harbor a transcriptome that is distinct from that of hormone-receptor-positive or HER2-amplified tumors, being characterized by the expression of genes usually found in basal/myoepithelial cells of the breast.
  • However, translating the new concepts about basal-like cancer into clinical practice has proven a Herculean task, given the lack of an internationally accepted definition for these tumors and for the method of identification in routine practice.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Breast Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19492878.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 137
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14. Nascimento AF, Bertoni F, Fletcher CD: Epithelioid variant of myxofibrosarcoma: expanding the clinicomorphologic spectrum of myxofibrosarcoma in a series of 17 cases. Am J Surg Pathol; 2007 Jan;31(1):99-105
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  • Myxofibrosarcoma (MFS) is one of the most common soft tissue sarcomas of elderly patients and has a predilection for the limbs.
  • Fifteen patients presented with a mass, and in 2 of these there was also pain.
  • Tumor size ranged from 2 to 15 cm (median 6.75).
  • In 10 cases, the tumor was located in subcutaneous tissue and in 6 cases it was subfascial.
  • The majority of the tumors were located on the limbs (8 lower extremities and 6 upper extremities) followed by neck (1), scalp (1), and trunk (1).
  • Twelve patients were treated by surgery followed by chemotherapy and/or radiation (8 cases).
  • One patient received chemotherapy after an incisional biopsy and 1 patient was treated by surgery alone.
  • Ten patients (71.4%) developed local recurrences.
  • Seven patients (50%) developed metastases to lungs or retroperitoneum.
  • Five patients (35.7%) have died of disease so far.
  • Tumors were characterized by a multinodular, infiltrating growth pattern with alternation of hypercellular and hypocellular myxoid areas; the latter showed prominent curvilinear vessels.
  • Differential diagnosis included carcinoma, melanoma, myoepithelial carcinoma, pleomorphic liposarcoma, and pleomorphic rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Epithelioid Cells / pathology. Fibrosarcoma / secondary. Sarcoma / secondary. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Extremities. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Liposarcoma / diagnosis. Male. Melanoma / diagnosis. Middle Aged. Myoepithelioma / diagnosis. Rhabdomyosarcoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17197925.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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15. Miura K, Harada H, Aiba S, Tsutsui Y: Myoepithelial carcinoma of the lung arising from bronchial submucosa. Am J Surg Pathol; 2000 Sep;24(9):1300-4
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  • [Title] Myoepithelial carcinoma of the lung arising from bronchial submucosa.
  • Myoepithelial neoplasm mainly occurs in the salivary glands and breasts and is extremely rare in the lung.
  • To our knowledge, this report describes the first documented case of a myoepithelial carcinoma present in the lung.
  • The tumor derived from the right main bronchial submucosa and exhibited a dual epithelial and smooth muscular phenotype by immunohistochemical and ultrastructural studies.
  • It invaded the neighboring pulmonary tissue and the hilar lymph nodes.
  • Despite a right pneumonectomy and chemotherapy, metastasis was found in the left lung 7 months later.
  • [MeSH-major] Bronchial Neoplasms / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Myoepithelioma / pathology. Salivary Gland Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness

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  • (PMID = 10976707.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
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16. Rodríguez-Pinilla SM, Rodríguez-Gil Y, Moreno-Bueno G, Sarrió D, Martín-Guijarro Mdel C, Hernandez L, Palacios J: Sporadic invasive breast carcinomas with medullary features display a basal-like phenotype: an immunohistochemical and gene amplification study. Am J Surg Pathol; 2007 Apr;31(4):501-8
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  • Because medullary features are common in BRCA1-associated carcinomas and these tumors frequently show a basal-like phenotype, we examined whether IBCMFs expressed basal/myoepithelial markers and had a basal-like phenotype.
  • We studied the immunohistochemical expression of 15 markers in tissue microarrays containing samples from 35 IBCMFs and 39 grade 3 invasive ductal carcinomas (IDCG3s) of no special type.
  • We defined the basal-like phenotype according to the criteria of Nielsen et al as being those tumors that were ER/HER2-negative and cytokeratin (CK) 5/6- and/or epidermal growth factor receptor-positive.
  • In addition, IBCMFs more frequently expressed basal/myoepithelial markers, such as CK5/6 and P-cadherin.
  • No differences in gene amplification were found between IBCMFs and IDCG3s, although C-MYC amplification was more common in tumors without a basal-like phenotype.
  • The identification of IBCMF as an independent group of tumors could be of clinical significance, given the high incidence of cases with a basal-like phenotype, which is a group of tumors with different prognosis and chemotherapy response from those of IDCG3s of no special type.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Carcinoma, Medullary / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Cyclin E / genetics. Female. Gene Amplification. Genes, erbB-1. Genes, myc. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Tissue Array Analysis


17. Agelopoulos K, Buerger H, Brandt B: Allelic imbalances of the egfr gene as key events in breast cancer progression--the concept of committed progenitor cells. Curr Cancer Drug Targets; 2008 Aug;8(5):431-45
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  • Therefore, origin of breast carcinoma types may be based on the formation of a cancer prone field in which the committed progenitor cells pass mutations to their progenies, glandular as well as myoepithelial cells.
  • Here, normal breast tissue shows egfr AI adjacent to breast cancer tissue also harboring egfr gene AI.
  • The therapeutic implications of such a model are fundamental, as tumors may display different phenotypes which arise from transformation of different progenitor cells as well as from transformation of more differentiated progenies within a cancer prone field.
  • Thereby they may show up with different clinical courses of the disease, higher rates of metastases and responses to therapy.
  • In this review, we discuss this mechanism focusing on the EGF receptor as an example for regulators of progenitor cell growth in many tissues.
  • Phylloides tumors serve as a putative model for embryonic differentiation stage ruled by EGFR signaling and give insights into the tumor-host-interaction.
  • Moreover, we discuss the EGF receptor as a target for the treatment of pre-malignant lesions with a high risk for malignant growth, e.g.
  • [MeSH-minor] Disease Progression. Female. Humans

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  • [ErratumIn] Curr Cancer Drug Targets. 2008 Dec;8(8):765
  • (PMID = 18690849.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-5576
  • [Journal-full-title] Current cancer drug targets
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Cancer Drug Targets
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor
  • [Number-of-references] 192
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18. Carter MR, Hornick JL, Lester S, Fletcher CD: Spindle cell (sarcomatoid) carcinoma of the breast: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical analysis of 29 cases. Am J Surg Pathol; 2006 Mar;30(3):300-9
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  • [Title] Spindle cell (sarcomatoid) carcinoma of the breast: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical analysis of 29 cases.
  • Spindle cell (sarcomatoid) carcinoma of the breast is a rare variant of breast cancer that has been classified under the broad rubric of metaplastic carcinoma.
  • Because the term "metaplastic carcinoma" comprises a heterogeneous group of tumors, it has been difficult to reliably predict biologic potential or to determine optimal therapy.
  • Tumor size ranged from 1.5 to 15 cm (median, 4 cm).
  • Treatment was by excision and/or mastectomy with axillary node evaluation in most cases, often combined with postoperative radiation and/or chemotherapy.
  • All cases were clinically of breast origin, showed >or=80% spindled/sarcomatoid morphology, and demonstrated keratin positivity and/or close association with ductal carcinoma in situ.
  • Immunohistochemical studies showed evidence suggesting myoepithelial differentiation as exhibited by immunoreactivity for smooth muscle actin, cytokeratin 14, and p63 in a subset of cases (39%).
  • Twenty-seven cases exhibited pure spindled or sarcomatoid morphology of variable appearance and nuclear grade, whereas 2 contained high-grade invasive ductal carcinoma comprising <or=20% of the tumor mass.
  • Two cases exhibited heterologous elements (1 rhabdomyosarcoma and 1 with both chondrosarcoma and osteosarcoma) and 4 were associated with ductal carcinoma in situ.
  • Of 20 cases in which axillary nodes were biopsied, definitive nodal metastases were identified in only 1 (5%), and this was in a case with a significant component of invasive ductal carcinoma.
  • Three patients developed local recurrences.
  • Ten of 24 patients (42%) died of disease at a median interval of 11.5 months (range, 1-46 months) and 3 patients were alive with metastatic disease.
  • Eight patients were alive with no evidence of recurrent or metastatic disease (median, 29.5 months).
  • Based on this series, spindle cell/sarcomatoid carcinoma of the breast is a highly aggressive neoplasm with a high rate of extranodal metastases.
  • Purely spindled/sarcomatoid tumors have a significantly lower rate of nodal metastases than conventional ductal and lobular breast carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis / pathology. Treatment Outcome

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  • [CommentIn] Am J Surg Pathol. 2007 Feb;31(2):326-7; author reply 327 [17255781.001]
  • (PMID = 16538049.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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19. Shi Q, Zhang T, Xue Q, Fan K, Sun G, Yan X, Shou B, Yu B: Clinicopathologic study of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma of the salivary gland. Chin Med J (Engl); 2001 Jan;114(1):44-7
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  • [Title] Clinicopathologic study of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma of the salivary gland.
  • OBJECTIVE: To study the histopathologic features and pathogenesis of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma (MALT-oma) of salivary glands.
  • RESULTS: The patients were 27 males and 5 females, with a mean age of 54.76 years.
  • CONCLUSION: Most of the MALT-omas are low grade malignant tumors and have a "homing back" phenomenon.
  • The cases were managed by surgery and chemotherapy.
  • In a few MALT-omas which turned into high grade malignant tumors, the prognosis was poor.
  • Acquired MALT may develop as a reaction to autoimmune disease and infection.
  • Hyper-immune reaction and MALT hyperplasia under stimulation may result in myoepithelial sialadenitis and lead to MALT-oma of the salivary gland.

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  • (PMID = 11779434.001).
  • [ISSN] 0366-6999
  • [Journal-full-title] Chinese medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chin. Med. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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