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Items 1 to 27 of about 27
1. Ahn JS, Yang DH, Kim YK, Cho SH, Kim IY, Lee JJ, Chung IJ, Kim HJ: Multiple intracranial tuberculomas mimicking granulocytic sarcomas in acute myeloid leukemia. J Korean Med Sci; 2007 Sep;22 Suppl:S171-3
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  • [Title] Multiple intracranial tuberculomas mimicking granulocytic sarcomas in acute myeloid leukemia.
  • The diagnosis of incracranial tuberculoma in immune-compromised hosts is often difficult because conventional magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of tuberculoma reveals various findings and neurologic symptoms are not typical.
  • Here, we report a case of a 54-yr old man with multiple intracranial tuberculoma who was treated for acute myeloid leukemia.
  • He complained of right-side paresthesia after the third consolidation chemotherapy without leukemic relapse and fever.
  • To confirm diagnosis, an open brain biopsy was performed.
  • He was treated with anti-tuberculosis medication and a high dose of steroid.
  • Paresthesia improved, and follow-up brain MR imaging showed the decreased size and numbers of ring-enhanced lesions and improvement of perilesional edema 1 month after treatment.
  • Here, we report on an interesting case of intracranial tuberculoma in acute myeloid leukemia.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / complications. Sarcoma, Myeloid / diagnosis. Tuberculoma, Intracranial / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Antitubercular Agents / therapeutic use. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 17923749.001).
  • [ISSN] 1011-8934
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of Korean medical science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Korean Med. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antitubercular Agents
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2694373
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2. Papamanthos MK, Kolokotronis AE, Skulakis HE, Fericean AM, Zorba MT, Matiakis AT: Acute myeloid leukaemia diagnosed by intra-oral myeloid sarcoma. A case report. Head Neck Pathol; 2010 Jun;4(2):132-5
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  • [Title] Acute myeloid leukaemia diagnosed by intra-oral myeloid sarcoma. A case report.
  • Myeloid sarcoma (MS) is a rare extramedullary malignant tumor composed of immature myeloid cells.
  • It is strongly associated with a well known or covert acute myeloid leukaemia, chronic myeloproliferative diseases or myelodysplastic syndromes.
  • An unusual case of acute myeloid leukaemia, which was diagnosed by mandibular MS that was developed in the alveolar socket after a dental extraction, is reported.
  • This lesion was therefore classified as acute myeloid leukaemia.
  • The patient was referred to oncologists that confirmed the initial diagnosis.
  • The patient underwent chemotherapy and the mandibular tumor disappeared.
  • Forty days later, a relapse of the disease, which appeared as a great-ulcerated lesion, was developed in the hard palate.
  • Thirty days after the second chemotherapy had finished, a new intraoral tumor was developed in the vestibular maxillary gingiva.
  • Review of the literature shows no report of intraoral relapse and particularly multiple relapse of a MS that involves the oral cavity.
  • Even though MS is encountered infrequently in the oral cavity, it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of conditions (especially tumors) with a similar clinical appearance.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / diagnosis. Sarcoma, Myeloid / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Biopsy. Diagnosis, Differential. Etoposide / therapeutic use. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Mouth Mucosa / pathology. Mouth Neoplasms

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  • (PMID = 20512638.001).
  • [ISSN] 1936-0568
  • [Journal-full-title] Head and neck pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Head Neck Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2878628
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3. Takahashi T, Tsukuda H, Kimura H, Yoshimoto M, Tsujisaki M: Extramedullary relapse of AML with t(9;11)(p22;q23) associated with clonal evolution from trisomy 8 into tetrasomy 8. Intern Med; 2010;49(5):447-51
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  • [Title] Extramedullary relapse of AML with t(9;11)(p22;q23) associated with clonal evolution from trisomy 8 into tetrasomy 8.
  • This report describes a patient with extramedullary relapse of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) without involving bone marrow.
  • A 57-year-old man was diagnosed as having acute monoblastic leukemia with t(9;11)(p22;q23) and trisomy 8.
  • Ten months after achieving complete response (CR) with chemotherapy, masses developed in his left forearm and in the back of his thigh, preceded by enigmatic peripheral neurological symptoms.
  • Aspiration from the forearm showed leukemic relapse, and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) revealed that the majority of the cells had 11q23 anomaly and tetrasomy 8.
  • Bone marrow or meningeal relapse was not observed.
  • To our knowledge, this is the first case report of clonal evolution associated with the development of myeloid sarcoma as a relapse in AML.
  • [MeSH-major] Chromosomes, Human, Pair 11 / genetics. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 8 / genetics. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 9 / genetics. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / genetics. Sarcoma, Myeloid / diagnosis. Sarcoma, Myeloid / genetics. Trisomy / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Chromosome Aberrations. Drug Therapy. Forearm. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Recurrence. Thigh

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  • (PMID = 20190481.001).
  • [ISSN] 1349-7235
  • [Journal-full-title] Internal medicine (Tokyo, Japan)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Intern. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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4. Petrescu A, Dobrea C, Vasilică M, Andrei F, Niculescu L: Primary malignant lymphoma of the testis. Rom J Morphol Embryol; 2005;46(2):83-6
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  • Orchectomy was performed as first therapeutic and diagnostic purpose.
  • All patients were clinically staged according to the Ann Arbor criteria in IE and IIID stage and received a doxorubicin based chemotherapy regimen (CHOP, MTX, CVP, and Leukeran).
  • A standard chemotherapy protocol has not been used because of reduced number of patients.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The diagnosis was of NHML in 6 cases and for 2 secondary involvement of hematopoietic malignancy (myeloid sarcoma and leukemia).
  • Unfavorable evolution with 6 months relapse and one death prove a more aggressive evolution of primitive testicular lymphoma.

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  • (PMID = 16286990.001).
  • [ISSN] 1220-0522
  • [Journal-full-title] Romanian journal of morphology and embryology = Revue roumaine de morphologie et embryologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rom J Morphol Embryol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Romania
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins
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5. Basa J, Wolska-Smoleń T, Walter Z, Skotnicki AB: [Granulocytic sarcoma with late transformation into acute myeloblastic leukemia--case report]. Przegl Lek; 2006;63(8):706-10
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  • [Title] [Granulocytic sarcoma with late transformation into acute myeloblastic leukemia--case report].
  • [Transliterated title] Sarcoma granulocyticum z późna transformacja do pełnoobjawowej ostrej białaczki szpikowej--opis przypadku.
  • Case presentation of a 28-year-old patient with acute myeloblastic leukemia (FAB AML-M4), who underwent surgery of an inguinal tumor a year before the diagnosis of leukemia was made.
  • In retrospective assessment a diagnosis of granulocytic sarcoma was made.
  • After induction and consolidation chemotherapy he achieved complete hematological remission and underwent matched unrelated donor bone marrow transplantation.
  • A repeated induction chemotherapy resulted in hematological remission.
  • During maintenance therapy symptoms that appeared suggested an extramedullary relapse.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / diagnosis. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / etiology. Sarcoma, Myeloid / complications. Sarcoma, Myeloid / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bone Marrow Transplantation. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Disease-Free Survival. Fatal Outcome. Groin. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Remission Induction / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 17441389.001).
  • [ISSN] 0033-2240
  • [Journal-full-title] Przegla̧d lekarski
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prz. Lek.
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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6. Kara IO, Sahin B, Paydas S, Kara B: Granulocytic sarcoma of the heart: extramedullary relapse of acute myeloblastic leukemia after allogeneic stem cell transplantation successfully treated by chemotherapy alone. Leuk Lymphoma; 2005 Jul;46(7):1081-4
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  • [Title] Granulocytic sarcoma of the heart: extramedullary relapse of acute myeloblastic leukemia after allogeneic stem cell transplantation successfully treated by chemotherapy alone.
  • We present a case of granulocytic sarcoma (GS) of the heart.
  • Three years following transplantation, masses were evidenced in his heart by echocardiography but had completely disappeared following a common chemotherapy etoposide, mitoxantrone, ara-C (EMA) regimen for relapsed AML.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / therapy. Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation / adverse effects. Sarcoma, Myeloid / drug therapy. Sarcoma, Myeloid / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cytarabine / administration & dosage. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Heart Neoplasms / diagnosis. Heart Neoplasms / drug therapy. Heart Neoplasms / etiology. Humans. Male. Mitoxantrone / administration & dosage. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Remission Induction. Transplantation, Homologous

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  • (PMID = 16019562.001).
  • [ISSN] 1042-8194
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia & lymphoma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Lymphoma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; BZ114NVM5P / Mitoxantrone
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7. Verra WC, Snijders TJ, Seute T, Han KS, Nieuwenhuis HK, Rutten GJ: Myeloid sarcoma presenting as a recurrent, multifocal nerve root entrapment syndrome. J Neurooncol; 2009 Jan;91(1):59-62
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  • [Title] Myeloid sarcoma presenting as a recurrent, multifocal nerve root entrapment syndrome.
  • BACKGROUND: Myeloid sarcoma is an extramedullary manifestation of haematologic malignancy, most commonly acute myeloid leukemia (AML), which can cause neurological symptoms.
  • After surgically removing the tumour pathologic examination yielded a myeloid sarcoma.
  • Combined chemotherapy and radiation therapy followed.
  • Five months later the patient developed a thoracal (Th10-Th11) radiculopathy due to a relapse of the myeloid sarcoma, followed by C8-Th1-radiculopathy caused by leptomeningeal spread.
  • CONCLUSION: This case forms the first description of recurrent, multifocal and progressive radiculopathy due to myeloid sarcoma.
  • This diagnosis should be considered in patients with radiculopathy with previous haematological malignancy and/or signs or symptoms of such disease; the absence of systemic disease activity does not rule out myeloid sarcoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / complications. Nerve Compression Syndromes / etiology. Sarcoma, Myeloid / complications

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  • (PMID = 18712278.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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8. Charif Chefchaouni M, Belmekki M, Hajji Z, Tahiri H, Amrani R, El Bakkali M, Msefer Alaoui F, Berraho A: [Ophthalmic manifestations of acute leukemia]. J Fr Ophtalmol; 2002 Jan;25(1):62-6
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  • [Transliterated title] Manifestations ophtalmologiques des leucémies aiguës.
  • These lesions are treated as a central nervous system lesion; therefore diagnosis is essential to therapeutic adjustment.
  • Six had acute lymphoblastic leukemia, 6 had acute myeloid leukemia.
  • The hemogram and myelogram showed a granulocytic sarcoma.
  • Two children who had been previously treated for acute leukemia presented a bilateral anterior uveitis with hypopyon; anterior chamber paracentesis showed blast cells and confirmed the ocular relapse.
  • Prophylaxis consists of intrathecal injection of methotrexate and reinforcement of chemotherapy.
  • Two years after diagnosis of the ocular lesions, only 1 of the children studied remains alive.

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  • (PMID = 11965121.001).
  • [ISSN] 0181-5512
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal français d'ophtalmologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Fr Ophtalmol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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9. Cankaya H, Ugras S, Dilek I: Head and neck granulocytic sarcoma with acute myeloid leukemia: three rare cases. Ear Nose Throat J; 2001 Apr;80(4):224-6, 228-9
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  • [Title] Head and neck granulocytic sarcoma with acute myeloid leukemia: three rare cases.
  • We conducted a retrospective review of pathology files and hospital records and identified three unusual presentations of granulocytic sarcoma associated with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) of the head and neck.
  • He was administered chemotherapy and radiotherapy, but he died of infection secondary to a second relapse 29 months after the initial diagnosis.
  • She received chemotherapy, but she died of infection and bleeding 2 months after the initial diagnosis.
  • He received chemotherapy and was in remission 12 months after the initial diagnosis, but he eventually relapsed and died.
  • Granulocytic sarcoma can be localized in unexpected regions, including the head and neck.
  • This tumor is very often misdiagnosed as a malignant lymphoma, which leads to delayed treatment and a poor outcome.
  • Therefore, clinical and histopathologic findings should be evaluated before any diagnosis of malignant lymphoma is pronounced.
  • Immunohistochemical stains should also be performed on patients with suspected granulocytic sarcoma, and aggressive chemotherapy or immunotherapy should be administered.
  • We believe that high-dose chemotherapy can improve survival rates in granulocytic sarcoma associated with AML.
  • [MeSH-major] Facial Neoplasms / etiology. Leukemia, Monocytic, Acute / complications. Leukemia, Myeloid / etiology. Leukemia, Myelomonocytic, Acute / complications. Parotid Neoplasms / etiology. Skin Neoplasms / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Diagnostic Errors. Facial Paralysis / etiology. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 11338646.001).
  • [ISSN] 0145-5613
  • [Journal-full-title] Ear, nose, & throat journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ear Nose Throat J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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10. Seok JH, Park J, Kim SK, Choi JE, Kim CC: Granulocytic sarcoma of the spine: MRI and clinical review. AJR Am J Roentgenol; 2010 Feb;194(2):485-9
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  • [Title] Granulocytic sarcoma of the spine: MRI and clinical review.
  • OBJECTIVE: Granulocytic sarcoma is a tumor formed by myeloid precursors at an extramedullary site.
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the MRI findings and clinical manifestations in 32 cases of granulocytic sarcoma of the spine.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-two patients (21 males, 11 females; mean age, 32 years) with myeloid leukemia and spinal granulocytic sarcoma were included in this study.
  • All of the patients underwent radiotherapy with chemotherapy, and four patients underwent surgical decompression or excisional biopsy.
  • RESULTS: Nine patients had spinal granulocytic sarcoma in the initial manifestation of leukemia.
  • The other 23 diagnoses were made during a remission or relapse period.
  • According to location, spinal granulocytic sarcoma was classified as epidural in the central spinal canal, epidural along the nerve course, thickening of the nerve root itself, or prevertebral.
  • CONCLUSION: Knowledge of the imaging findings of spinal granulocytic sarcoma, which consists of multiple extramedullary masses with diffuse leukemic bone marrow infiltration, can lead to early diagnosis and appropriate treatment to reduce neurologic symptoms.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Myeloid / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Sarcoma, Myeloid / diagnosis. Spinal Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Combined Modality Therapy. Contrast Media. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate

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  • [ErratumIn] AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2010 Mar;194(3):554
  • (PMID = 20093613.001).
  • [ISSN] 1546-3141
  • [Journal-full-title] AJR. American journal of roentgenology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJR Am J Roentgenol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
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11. Schäfer HS, Becker H, Schmitt-Gräff A, Lübbert M: Granulocytic sarcoma of Core-binding Factor (CBF) acute myeloid leukemia mimicking pancreatic cancer. Leuk Res; 2008 Sep;32(9):1472-5
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  • [Title] Granulocytic sarcoma of Core-binding Factor (CBF) acute myeloid leukemia mimicking pancreatic cancer.
  • Granulocytic sarcoma mimicking a synchronous second primary neoplasm (SPN) constitutes a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge particularly in elderly patients.
  • However, a biopsy demonstrated granulocytic sarcoma.
  • Since the patient had no comorbidities and had been in excellent performance status until the diagnosis of AML, induction chemotherapy was initiated, with subsequent normalization of bilirubin, CA 19-9, lipase and AP.
  • Following one consolidation treatment, the patient remained in excellent health until relapse occurred 7 months later and she succumbed to AML.
  • The initially good response of this CBF leukemia highlights the principal usefulness of aggressive induction chemotherapy also in older AML patients, if they are carefully selected not only according to biological risk factors such as cytogenetics, but also to "host factors" (good performance status, lack of comorbidities, etc.).
  • [MeSH-major] Core Binding Factors / metabolism. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / diagnosis. Pancreatic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Sarcoma, Myeloid / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Alkaline Phosphatase / metabolism. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bilirubin / metabolism. CA-19-9 Antigen / metabolism. Carboplatin / therapeutic use. Diagnosis, Differential. Etoposide / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Ifosfamide / therapeutic use. Lipase / metabolism. Magnetic Resonance Imaging


12. Dimicoli S, Feugier P, Delaby P, Cannard L, Bland V, Witz F, Hulin C, Guerci A, Labouyrie E, Lederlin P: [Granulocyte sarcoma of the pancreas without extra-pancreatic location]. Presse Med; 2002 Jun 22;31(22):1024-6
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  • [Title] [Granulocyte sarcoma of the pancreas without extra-pancreatic location].
  • INTRODUCTION: Granulocyte sarcoma (GS), also known as chloroma, is a localized malignant tumor composed of myeloid cells, the diagnosis of which is difficult.
  • OBSERVATION: A 31-year-old woman developed an isolated and recurrent granulocyte sarcoma of the pancreas, without any context of a malignant hemopathy.
  • The diagnosis retained on extemporaneous examination was an adenocarcinoma of the pancreas, because of the non-specific necrotic nature of the tumor.
  • The immuno-histochemical exploration corrected the diagnosis.
  • This relapse was treated with radiotherapy followed by heavy chemotherapy, identical to that applied in acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML).
  • COMMENTS: Isolated granulocyte sarcomas located in the pancreas are exceptional and have often led to initial erroneous diagnosis.
  • Immuno-histochemical methods are essential in order to obtain correct diagnosis.
  • Despite the localized nature of the tumor, intensive AML-type chemotherapy is necessary.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Pancreatic Neoplasms / pathology. Sarcoma, Myeloid / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 12148256.001).
  • [ISSN] 0755-4982
  • [Journal-full-title] Presse medicale (Paris, France : 1983)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Presse Med
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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13. Skeete DH, Cesar-Rittenberg P, Jong R, Murray SK, Colgan TJ: Myeloid sarcoma of the vagina: a report of 2 cases. J Low Genit Tract Dis; 2010 Apr;14(2):136-41
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  • [Title] Myeloid sarcoma of the vagina: a report of 2 cases.
  • OBJECTIVE: To describe 2 cases of myeloid sarcoma of the vagina, in a patient without a history of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and in another whose condition was previously diagnosed with AML.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: The clinical histories of 2 patients whose conditions were diagnosed with myeloid sarcoma of the vagina were obtained from their medical records.
  • The histopathologic specimen was evaluated on routine and immunohistochemical stains, and myeloid sarcoma was diagnosed after extensive immunohistochemical analysis.
  • She developed extensive myeloid sarcoma of the skin and AML 4.5 months later; she died 2 weeks later, 5 months after the initial presentation.
  • Physical findings revealed large masses in the vagina and rectovaginal septum, which were confirmed as myeloid sarcoma after biopsy and histologic examination.
  • Five months later, she had another leukemic relapse and died within 1 day of palliative chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Myeloid sarcoma of the vagina is extremely rare.
  • [MeSH-major] Sarcoma, Myeloid / diagnosis. Vagina / pathology. Vaginal Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antigens, Neoplasm. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / complications. Skin Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 20354424.001).
  • [ISSN] 1526-0976
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of lower genital tract disease
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Low Genit Tract Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / SAGE protein, human
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14. Owonikoko T, Agha M, Balassanian R, Smith R, Raptis A: Gemtuzumab therapy for isolated extramedullary AML relapse following allogeneic stem-cell transplant. Nat Clin Pract Oncol; 2007 Aug;4(8):491-5
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  • [Title] Gemtuzumab therapy for isolated extramedullary AML relapse following allogeneic stem-cell transplant.
  • BACKGROUND: A 19-year-old male with primary refractory acute myeloid leukemia received salvage therapy with mitoxantrone and cytarabine combination.
  • He received consolidation therapy 3 months later with a matched-unrelated-donor stem-cell transplant.
  • Ten months following repeat transplant, the patient presented with an increasing number of extramedullary sites of biopsy-proven disease relapse (i.e. cranial and peripheral nerves, tongue, abdominal wall and chest wall).
  • DIAGNOSIS: Isolated extramedullary relapse of acute myeloid leukemia after stem-cell transplant.
  • MANAGEMENT: Primary leukemia treatment with idarubicin, cytarabine, etoposide, dexamethasone, tioguanine on protocol and salvage therapy with mitoxantrone and cytarabine combination for primary refractory disease.
  • A matched-unrelated-donor stem-cell transplant for consolidation and donor-lymphocyte infusions were performed, followed by repeat unrelated-donor transplant for leukemia relapse in the marrow, radiation therapy and gemtuzumab ozogamicin for multiple sites of extramedullary leukemia relapse.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminoglycosides / therapeutic use. Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation / adverse effects. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Sarcoma, Myeloid / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 17657254.001).
  • [ISSN] 1743-4262
  • [Journal-full-title] Nature clinical practice. Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nat Clin Pract Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aminoglycosides; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / gemtuzumab
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15. Slavcheva V, Lukanov T, Tzvetkov N: Two cases of extramedullary myeloid tumor in patients with continuous remission of acute myeloblastic leukemia. J BUON; 2008 Oct-Dec;13(4):589-92
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  • [Title] Two cases of extramedullary myeloid tumor in patients with continuous remission of acute myeloblastic leukemia.
  • Myeloid sarcoma is described as tumor mass consisting of myeloblasts or immature myeloid cells, involving extramedullary tissues.
  • It can be initial manifestation of myeloproliferative disorders or relapse of previously treated acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML).
  • After remission induced by conventional chemotherapy, which continued for 3 and 10 years respectively, a myeloid sarcoma was diagnosed.
  • Despite this, the patients received chemotherapy.
  • The APL-M3 patient was treated with radiotherapy to the involved supraclavicular lymph node which was followed by chemotherapy.
  • Two years after the diagnosis of myeloid sarcoma the patient died of haemorrhagic stroke.
  • The patient with AML-M2 continued treatment with polychemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / pathology. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / pathology. Sarcoma, Myeloid / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19145688.001).
  • [ISSN] 1107-0625
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of B.U.ON. : official journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J BUON
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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16. Nasilowska-Adamska B, Majewski M, Seferynska I, Szczepinski A, Tomaszewska A, Prochorec-Sobieszek M, Guz K, Torbicki A, Warzocha K, Marianska B: Predictive value of RT-PCR PML-RARA transcript monitoring for extramedullary relapse of acute promyelocytic leukemia in the pleura, heart and pericardium after allogeneic SCT. Ann Transplant; 2007;12(3):33-8
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  • [Title] Predictive value of RT-PCR PML-RARA transcript monitoring for extramedullary relapse of acute promyelocytic leukemia in the pleura, heart and pericardium after allogeneic SCT.
  • BACKGROUND: We report a patient with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) relapse in extremely rare sites--the pleura, heart and pericardium without evidence of bone marrow infiltration and with molecular evidence of disease after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT).
  • After transplant, this patient remained in complete hematological and cytogenetic remission but nested RT-PCR assays with detection thresholds of 10(-3)/10(-4) were positive for PML-RARA rearranged gene even chimerism tests showed 100% of donor profile.
  • Twenty one months after transplant, the leukemic relapse in the pleura, heart and pericardium was diagnosed.
  • At that time, PML-RARA transcript detected in RT-PCR assay (10(-2)) was positive for the first time after transplant.
  • During salvage chemotherapy he died because of cardiogenic shock.
  • CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that detection of PML-RARA after alloSCT should be indication insightful diagnosis of medullary or extramedullary (EM) relapse.
  • The imaging techniques of all possible sites of APL EM relapse have to be included.
  • [MeSH-major] Heart Neoplasms / diagnosis. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / genetics. Oncogene Proteins, Fusion / genetics. Pleural Neoplasms / diagnosis. Sarcoma, Myeloid / diagnosis. Stem Cell Transplantation

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  • (PMID = 18290568.001).
  • [ISSN] 1425-9524
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of transplantation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Transplant.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Fusion; 0 / promyelocytic leukemia-retinoic acid receptor alpha fusion oncoprotein
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17. Ozçelik T, Ali R, Ozkalemkaş F, Ozkocaman V, Coşkun H, Erişen L, Filiz G: A case of granulocytic sarcoma during complete remission of acute myeloid leukemia with multiple masses involving the larynx and nasopharynx. Kulak Burun Bogaz Ihtis Derg; 2003 Dec;11(6):183-8
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  • [Title] A case of granulocytic sarcoma during complete remission of acute myeloid leukemia with multiple masses involving the larynx and nasopharynx.
  • A thirty-seven-year-old male patient presented with dysphagia and hoarseness six months after complete remission of acute myeloid leukemia (AML-M0), which had been treated with chemotherapy.
  • Sagittal and axial magnetic resonance scans of the nasopharynx and neck showed a mass in the left retropharyngeal and perivertebral regions, 6x4 cm in size; another mass in the left vallecula, and infiltration of the right preepiglottic tissue by another mass of 2 cm.
  • A diagnosis of granulocytic sarcoma without leukemia relapse was made and the FLAG-Ida regimen was administered, after which partial regression of the masses was observed.
  • However, the patient died due to a pulmonary infection on the 17th day of chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Laryngeal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute. Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Sarcoma, Myeloid / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Deglutition Disorders / etiology. Diagnosis, Differential. Fatal Outcome. Hoarseness / etiology. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 15567934.001).
  • [ISSN] 1300-7475
  • [Journal-full-title] Kulak burun boğaz ihtisas dergisi : KBB = Journal of ear, nose, and throat
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Kulak Burun Bogaz Ihtis Derg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Turkey
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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18. Nishida H, Kinoshita T, Yashiro N, Ikeda Y, O'Uchi T: MR findings of granulocytic sarcoma of the breasts. Br J Radiol; 2006 Sep;79(945):e112-5
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  • [Title] MR findings of granulocytic sarcoma of the breasts.
  • We report a case of isolated extramedullary relapse of acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) that presented as granulocytic sarcoma of both breasts, with no other signs of relapse even in the bone marrow.
  • After chemotherapy and radiotherapy, both breast masses disappeared on MR images.
  • Although the MR findings of granulocytic sarcoma were indistinguishable from those of multicentric carcinoma and malignant lymphoma, the MR images were useful for evaluating and monitoring responses to the treatments, as well as for detecting non-palpable relapsed tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Sarcoma, Myeloid / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16940364.001).
  • [ISSN] 1748-880X
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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19. Sugimoto Y, Nishii K, Sakakura M, Araki H, Usui E, Lorenzo V F, Hoshino N, Miyashita H, Ohishi K, Katayama N, Shiku H: Acute myeloid leukemia with t(8;21)(q22;q22) manifesting as granulocytic sarcomas in the rhinopharynx and external acoustic meatus at relapse after high-dose cytarabine: case report and review of the literature. Hematol J; 2004;5(1):84-9
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  • [Title] Acute myeloid leukemia with t(8;21)(q22;q22) manifesting as granulocytic sarcomas in the rhinopharynx and external acoustic meatus at relapse after high-dose cytarabine: case report and review of the literature.
  • We report a 31-year-old female with t(8;21)(q22;q22) acute myeloid leukemia (AML), M2 in the FAB classification.
  • Complete remission was achieved with daunorubicin and cytarabine induction therapy followed by three courses of high-dose cytarabine consolidation.
  • She received focal radiation for the GSs and successfully underwent reinduction chemotherapy.
  • Subsequently, she received a matched related donor peripheral blood stem cell transplantation followed by high-dose chemotherapy and is now in a second remission.
  • To our knowledge, this is the first report of pharyngeal GS in t(8;21) AML, and focal irradiation plus more intensive postinduction therapy during first remission, such as allogeneic-SCT, may be effective in adult t(8;21) AML patients with GS.

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  • (PMID = 14745436.001).
  • [ISSN] 1466-4860
  • [Journal-full-title] The hematology journal : the official journal of the European Haematology Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hematol. J.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine
  • [Number-of-references] 44
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20. Kinoshita T, Yokokawa M, Yashiro N: Multicentric granulocytic sarcoma of the breast: mammographic, sonographic, and MR findings. Clin Imaging; 2006 Jul-Aug;30(4):271-4
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  • [Title] Multicentric granulocytic sarcoma of the breast: mammographic, sonographic, and MR findings.
  • A rare case of granulocytic sarcoma (GS) of the bilateral breasts after complete remission of acute myelogenous leukemia is reported.
  • However, MR image was useful to evaluate the response of the chemotherapy and detect the nonpalpable relapse tumor and determine the introduction of the radiation therapy early.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Mammography. Sarcoma, Myeloid / diagnosis. Ultrasonography
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Rare Diseases / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16814144.001).
  • [ISSN] 0899-7071
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical imaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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21. El Khorassani M, Benbrahim F, Hessissen L, Khattab M, Msefer F: [Intracerebral granulocytic sarcoma. A case report]. Neurochirurgie; 2003 May;49(2-3 Pt 1):119-23
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  • [Title] [Intracerebral granulocytic sarcoma. A case report].
  • Granulocytic sarcoma is a tumor composed of proliferating myeloblastic cells, generally found in the orbit.
  • After 21 months of complete remission, he developed headache and facial palsy.
  • The study of the bone morrow showed medullar relapse.
  • A new medullar and cerebro-meningeal remission was obtained with chemotherapy and radiotherapy.
  • CSF and the bone marrow studies can help avoid stereotaxic biopsy can be avoided in this type of tumor
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Stem Neoplasms / radiography. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / complications. Sarcoma, Myeloid / radiography
  • [MeSH-minor] Bone Marrow / pathology. Child. Combined Modality Therapy. Contrast Media. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 12746729.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-3770
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro-Chirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurochirurgie
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
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22. Kebudi R, Görgün O, Ayan I: Oral etoposide for recurrent/progressive sarcomas of childhood. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2004 Apr;42(4):320-4
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  • PROCEDURE: Twenty-one children (10 girls and 11 boys) with R/P sarcomas and a median age of 11 years (range 3-16 years) were enrolled in this study.
  • The diagnosis was Ewing sarcoma family tumor (ESFT) in seven, osteosarcoma in eight, rhabdomyosarcoma in four, clear cell sarcoma of soft tissue in one, fibrosarcoma in one patient.
  • They are alive with no evidence of disease (NED) 79 and 94 months from time of relapse/progressive disease (PD).
  • A patient developed acute myeloid leukemia and died.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Oral VP-16 therapy is simple, relatively nontoxic, and does not necessitate hospitalization.
  • Given the risk of second malignancy, especially in children with previous exposure to topoisomerase II inhibitors and alkylating agents, this regimen may be used as a palliative treatment or in patients with poor prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / administration & dosage. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Sarcoma / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Male. Neoplasms, Second Primary / chemically induced. Palliative Care. Recurrence. Remission Induction. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 14966827.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5009
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide
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23. Ohno R, Asou N, Ohnishi K: Treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia: strategy toward further increase of cure rate. Leukemia; 2003 Aug;17(8):1454-63
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  • [Title] Treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia: strategy toward further increase of cure rate.
  • Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) has become a curable disease by all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA)-based induction therapy followed by two or three courses of consolidation chemotherapy.
  • To further increase the CR and cure rates, detection and diagnosis of this disease at its early stage is very important, hopefully before the appearance of APL-associated coagulopathy.
  • In induction therapy, concomitant chemotherapy is indispensable, except for patients with low initial leukocyte counts.
  • If patients relapse hematologically or even molecularly, arsenic trioxide will be the treatment of choice under careful electrocardiogram monitoring.
  • Am80, liposomal ATRA, gemtuzumab ozogamicin or ATRA in combination with cytotoxic drugs may be used at this stage or later.
  • Allogeneic SCT will be the treatment of choice after patients of age <50 years have relapsed, provided that they have HLA-identical family donors or DNA-identical unrelated donors.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Remission Induction / methods. Sarcoma, Myeloid / epidemiology. Sarcoma, Myeloid / etiology. Treatment Outcome. Tretinoin / adverse effects. Tretinoin / therapeutic use


24. Kobayashi R, Tawa A, Hanada R, Horibe K, Tsuchida M, Tsukimoto I, Japanese childhood AML cooperative study group: Extramedullary infiltration at diagnosis and prognosis in children with acute myelogenous leukemia. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2007 Apr;48(4):393-8
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  • [Title] Extramedullary infiltration at diagnosis and prognosis in children with acute myelogenous leukemia.
  • PROCEDURE: We evaluated the frequency and prognostic significance of EMI at diagnosis of AML in children.
  • RESULTS: Of 240 cases of de novo AML excluding children with Down syndrome and acute promyelocytic leukemia, 56 (23.3%) showed EMI at diagnosis.
  • The complete remission rate following induction chemotherapy was lower in patients with EMI.
  • A detailed analysis showed that patients with EMI with a WBC count at diagnosis of over 100 x 10(9)/L or infiltration into the central nervous system are likely to have a poor prognosis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: CNS leukemia and EMI together with a WBC count of >100 x 10(9)/L at diagnosis of AML are high risk factors for relapse, and alternative treatment approaches for patients with these characteristics should be explored.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Myeloid / pathology. Leukemic Infiltration / epidemiology. Sarcoma, Myeloid / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Adolescent. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bone and Bones / pathology. Central Nervous System / pathology. Child. Child, Preschool. Cytarabine / administration & dosage. Disease-Free Survival. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Gingiva / pathology. Humans. Hydrocortisone / administration & dosage. Idarubicin / administration & dosage. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Japan / epidemiology. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Male. Methotrexate / administration & dosage. Orbit / pathology. Prognosis. Remission Induction. Skin / pathology. Testis / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16550530.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5009
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate; ZRP63D75JW / Idarubicin
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25. Beswick SJ, Jones EL, Mahendra P, Marsden JR: Chloroma (aleukaemic leukaemia cutis) initially diagnosed as cutaneous lymphoma. Clin Exp Dermatol; 2002 Jun;27(4):272-4
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  • He relapsed with lesions on the thigh and buttock in 1998 and was treated with CHOP chemotherapy with a complete response.
  • Further relapse occurred in 1999 with a nodule on his thigh again; he received CNOP (doxorubicin substituted with mitozantrone).
  • The correct diagnosis was made after extensive immunohistological studies (including myeloid markers) of repeat biopsies.
  • There is a high incidence of progression to acute myeloid leukaemia.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma, T-Cell, Cutaneous / diagnosis. Sarcoma, Myeloid / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Diagnosis, Differential. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Male

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  • (PMID = 12139667.001).
  • [ISSN] 0307-6938
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical and experimental dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Exp. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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26. Reinhardt D, Creutzig U: Isolated myelosarcoma in children--update and review. Leuk Lymphoma; 2002 Mar;43(3):565-74

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Primary myelosarcomas, also called leukemia cutis, granulocytic sarcomas or chloromas, are rare extramedullary manifestations of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) which precede bone marrow involvement.
  • Although first remission was achieved by most children, risk of relapse seemed to be increased.
  • This might be caused by the specific biology of myelosarcomas, but also may be the result of delayed or reduced treatment.
  • However, reduced or delayed treatment in 17 children led to an increased relapse rate of 71% compared to 35% in children treated soon after diagnosis.
  • Intensive AML-specific chemotherapy is generally recommended soon after diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Sarcoma, Myeloid / diagnosis. Sarcoma, Myeloid / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Adolescent. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Infant. Leukemia, Myeloid / diagnosis. Leukemia, Myeloid / mortality. Leukemia, Myeloid / therapy. Male. Stem Cell Transplantation. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 12002760.001).
  • [ISSN] 1042-8194
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia & lymphoma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Lymphoma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Number-of-references] 82
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27. Karlin L, Itti E, Pautas C, Rachid M, Bories D, Cordonnier C, Maury S: PET-imaging as a useful tool for early detection of the relapse site in the management of primary myeloid sarcoma. Haematologica; 2006 Dec;91(12 Suppl):ECR54
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  • [Title] PET-imaging as a useful tool for early detection of the relapse site in the management of primary myeloid sarcoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Duodenal Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / radionuclide imaging. Positron-Emission Tomography. Sarcoma, Myeloid / radionuclide imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Bone Marrow Transplantation. Combined Modality Therapy. Cytarabine / administration & dosage. Early Diagnosis. Humans. Leukemic Infiltration / drug therapy. Male. Meninges / pathology. Oncogene Proteins, Fusion / analysis. Oncogene Proteins, Fusion / genetics. Remission Induction. Transplantation, Homologous

  • Genetic Alliance. consumer health - Myeloid sarcoma.
  • MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Intestinal Cancer.
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  • (PMID = 17194660.001).
  • [ISSN] 1592-8721
  • [Journal-full-title] Haematologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Haematologica
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CBFbeta-MYH11 fusion protein; 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Fusion; 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine
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