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1. Nørgaard JM, Olesen LH, Olesen G, Meyer K, Kristensen JS, Bendix K, Pedersen B, Kjeldsen E, Hokland P: FAB M4 and high CD14 surface expression is associated with high cellular resistance to Ara-C and daunorubicin: implications for clinical outcome in acute myeloid leukaemia. Eur J Haematol; 2001 Oct;67(4):221-9
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  • [Title] FAB M4 and high CD14 surface expression is associated with high cellular resistance to Ara-C and daunorubicin: implications for clinical outcome in acute myeloid leukaemia.
  • In 145 adult patients diagnosed with non-M3 acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) the relevance of FAB-subtype and immunophenotype to in vitro cellular drug resistance towards the anthracyclines aclarubicin (Acla) and daunorubicin (Dau), and the nucleoside analogue cytarabine (Ara-C), as well as other antileukaemic drugs, was investigated using a 4-d MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) assay.
  • FAB subtypes with highest and lowest cellular Ara-C resistance were M4 and M5, respectively (P < 0.01, one-way anova), whereas FAB subtypes with highest and lowest cellular Dau resistance were M4 and M1, respectively (P < 0.01, one-way anova).
  • By contrast, no significant differences in cellular drug resistance towards Acla could be demonstrated among FAB subtypes.
  • Furthermore, in two cohorts of AML patients treated by two different regimens for remission induction over a period of 15 yr (1985-94, n = 159 and 1995-99, n = 76, respectively) we demonstrate in univariate analyses a significance of CD14 expression with respect to clinical outcome.
  • It was demonstrated that FAB-M4 patients were older than M5 patients and that high CD14 expression was associated with the presence of secondary AML and older age.
  • We conclude that although cases with high blast cell CD14 expression (and FAB-M4 cases) were more resistant to Ara-C as well as Dau in vitro, the clinical and biological significance of this may be debatable because of interactions with major prognostic factors in AML.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD14 / analysis. Antigens, Neoplasm / analysis. Cytarabine / pharmacology. Daunorubicin / pharmacology. Drug Resistance, Multiple. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Leukemia, Myelomonocytic, Acute / drug therapy. Neoplastic Stem Cells / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Aclarubicin / administration & dosage. Aclarubicin / pharmacology. Acute Disease. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Amsacrine / administration & dosage. Amsacrine / pharmacology. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Chromosome Aberrations. Cohort Studies. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / pharmacology. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Etoposide / pharmacology. Female. Humans. Idarubicin / administration & dosage. Idarubicin / pharmacology. Leukemia, Myeloid / classification. Leukemia, Myeloid / drug therapy. Leukemia, Myeloid / genetics. Leukemia, Myeloid / mortality. Leukemia, Myeloid / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Mitoxantrone / administration & dosage. Mitoxantrone / pharmacology. Multivariate Analysis. Thioguanine / administration & dosage. Thioguanine / pharmacology. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11860442.001).
  • [ISSN] 0902-4441
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of haematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Haematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD14; 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 00DPD30SOY / Amsacrine; 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 74KXF8I502 / Aclarubicin; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; BZ114NVM5P / Mitoxantrone; FTK8U1GZNX / Thioguanine; ZRP63D75JW / Idarubicin; ZS7284E0ZP / Daunorubicin
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2. Terui K, Kitazawa J, Takahashi Y, Tohno C, Hayashi Y, Taketani T, Taki T, Ito E: Successful treatment of acute myelomonocytic leukaemia with NUP98-HOXD11 fusion transcripts and monitoring of minimal residual disease. Br J Haematol; 2003 Jan;120(2):274-6
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  • [Title] Successful treatment of acute myelomonocytic leukaemia with NUP98-HOXD11 fusion transcripts and monitoring of minimal residual disease.
  • Patients with haematological malignancies involving the NUP98 gene have been reported to have an aggressive clinical course and a poor outcome.
  • We report successful treatment of a 15-year-old Japanese boy with acute myelomonocytic leukaemia having t(2;11)(q31;p15) and a novel fusion transcript, NUP98-HOXD11.
  • He achieved complete remission by combined chemotherapy, and underwent unrelated cord blood transplantation 4 months after diagnosis.
  • He is in complete remission 24 months after diagnosis.
  • Monitoring of minimal residual disease (MRD) showed the absence of fusion transcript 12 months after transplantation.
  • [MeSH-major] Gene Rearrangement. Leukemia, Myelomonocytic, Acute / genetics. Oncogene Proteins, Fusion / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 11. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 2. Combined Modality Therapy. Cord Blood Stem Cell Transplantation. Humans. Karyotyping. Male. Neoplasm, Residual. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 12542486.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-1048
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of haematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Haematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / NUP98-HOXD11 fusion oncogene protein, human; 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Fusion
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3. Elgendi HM, Mekawy MA, Abdel Wahab SE, Tawfik LM, Ismail EA, Adly AA: AC133 expression in egyptian children with acute leukemia: impact on treatment response and disease outcome. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2010 May;32(4):286-93
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  • [Title] AC133 expression in egyptian children with acute leukemia: impact on treatment response and disease outcome.
  • Hence, it is expected to be a valuable prognostic marker in acute leukemia.
  • Sixty Egyptian children with acute leukemia were enrolled into this prospective study divided into 2 groups: 30 acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML) and 30 acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patients.
  • AC133 was expressed in 66.7% and 40% of AML and ALL patients, respectively.
  • In AML, 80% of patients with poor clinical outcome (relapse or death) were positive for AC133 expression, whereas, all ALL patients who developed resistance as well as those who displayed poor clinical outcome had AC133-positive expression (P<0.05).
  • Patients with positive AC133 expression had significantly shorter overall and disease-free survival times compared with AC133-negative patients in both ALL (P<0.001) and AML (P<0.05) groups.
  • AC133-positive expression is an independent poor prognostic factor in childhood acute leukemia and could characterize a group of patients with resistance to standard chemotherapy, as well as high incidence of relapse and death.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD / metabolism. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Glycoproteins / metabolism. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / drug therapy. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / metabolism. Peptides / metabolism. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / drug therapy. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunophenotyping. Infant. Karyotyping. Male. Prospective Studies. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20224439.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-3678
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / AC133 antigen; 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Glycoproteins; 0 / Peptides
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4. Lester WA, Hull DR, Fegan CD, Morris TC: Respiratory failure during induction chemotherapy for acute myelomonocytic leukaemia (FAB M4Eo) with ara-C and all-trans retinoic acid. Br J Haematol; 2000 Jun;109(4):847-50
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  • [Title] Respiratory failure during induction chemotherapy for acute myelomonocytic leukaemia (FAB M4Eo) with ara-C and all-trans retinoic acid.
  • We report two cases of acute myeloid leukaemia FAB classification M4Eo with high white cell counts at presentation, who developed acute respiratory failure with pulmonary infiltrates on chest radiograph soon after commencing conventional cytotoxic chemotherapy plus all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA).
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Leukemia, Myelomonocytic, Acute / complications. Leukemia, Myelomonocytic, Acute / drug therapy. Respiratory Insufficiency / etiology. Tretinoin / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cytarabine / administration & dosage. Daunorubicin / administration & dosage. Dexamethasone / therapeutic use. Female. Glucocorticoids / therapeutic use. Humans. Remission Induction. Thioguanine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 10929040.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-1048
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of haematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Haematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] ENGLAND
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glucocorticoids; 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine; 5688UTC01R / Tretinoin; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; FTK8U1GZNX / Thioguanine; ZS7284E0ZP / Daunorubicin
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5. Edlin R, Connock M, Tubeuf S, Round J, Fry-Smith A, Hyde C, Greenheld W: Azacitidine for the treatment of myelodysplastic syndrome, chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia and acute myeloid leukaemia. Health Technol Assess; 2010 May;14 Suppl 1:69-74
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  • [Title] Azacitidine for the treatment of myelodysplastic syndrome, chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia and acute myeloid leukaemia.
  • This paper presents a summary of the evidence review group (ERG) report into the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of azacitidine (aza) compared with conventional care regimes (CCR) for higher risk patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia (CMML) and acute myeloid leukaemia (AML), based on the evidence submission from the manufacturer to the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) as part of the single technology appraisal process.
  • The patient outcomes governing relative effectiveness and cost-effectiveness were defined as overall survival, time to progression (TTP) to AML, adverse events and health-related quality of life (HRQoL).
  • The clinical evidence was derived from an open-label randomised controlled trial referred to as study AZA-001.
  • It compared aza with CCR in 358 patients with higher risk MDS, CMML and AML 20-30% blasts.
  • The outcomes reported in AZA-001 included overall survival, TTP to AML and adverse events.
  • The results showed that: the median overall survival was 24.5 months on aza, compared with 15.0 months in the CCR group (p = 0.0001); the response rates were low (complete remission 17% aza versus 8% CCR); the median time to transformation to AML was greater in the aza group (17.8 versus 11.5 months; p < 0.0001); and of patients who were red blood cell (RBC) transfusion-dependent at baseline, 45% of those on aza became RBC transfusion-independent during the treatment period, compared with 11.8% in the CCR group (p < 0.0001).
  • Using the issues identified in the earlier analysis, the ERG conducted those repairs to the revised model that were feasible within time constraints.
  • The results of these exploratory analyses indicated that: for standard-dose chemotherapy (SDC)-treated patients, of six treatment options available, best supportive care (BSC) was likely the most cost-effective option up to a threshold of 51,000 pounds/quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) [beyond 51,000 pounds/QALY, aza + low-dose chemotherapy (LDC) became cost-effective]; for LDC-treated patients, of four options available, BSC was again the most cost-effective option up to a willingness-to-pay threshold of 51,000 pounds/QALY (aza + LDC became cost-effective after 51,000 pounds/QALY); for BSC-treated patients, aza + BSC became cost-effective relative to BSC at a threshold of about 52,000 pounds/QALY.
  • The AZA-001 study showed that, compared with CCR, those MDS patients receiving aza had prolonged median survival, had delayed progression to AML, had reduced dependence on transfusions and had a small improvement in response rate.
  • At the time of writing, the guidance appraisal consultation document issued by NICE on 4 March 2010 states that azacitidine is not recommended as a treatment option for people not eligible for haemopoietic stem cell transplantation with the the following conditions: intermediate-2 and high-risk MDS according to the International Prognostic Scoring System, CMML with 10-29% marrow blasts without myeloproliferative disorder, or with AML with 20-30% blasts and multilineage dysplasia, according to World Health Organization classification.
  • [MeSH-major] Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Azacitidine / therapeutic use. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / drug therapy. Leukemia, Myelomonocytic, Chronic / drug therapy. Myelodysplastic Syndromes / drug therapy


6. Bonci D, Musumeci M, Coppola V, Addario A, Conticello C, Hahne M, Gulisano M, Grignani F, De Maria R: Blocking the APRIL circuit enhances acute myeloid leukemia cell chemosensitivity. Haematologica; 2008 Dec;93(12):1899-902
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  • [Title] Blocking the APRIL circuit enhances acute myeloid leukemia cell chemosensitivity.
  • Resistance to chemotherapy-induced cell death represents a major obstacle in the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia.
  • We investigated APRIL expression and activity in acute myeloid leukemia.
  • We found that APRIL mRNA and protein, including the secreted form, are expressed in leukemic cells of patients with M0, M2 and M4 acute myeloid leukemia subtypes but not in normal hematopoietic progenitors.
  • Retrovirus-mediated APRIL expression in normal hematopoietic progenitors confers resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs-induced apoptosis.
  • Conversely, blocking APRIL function by recombinant soluble APRIL receptors increased chemotherapeutic drugs-induced cell adeath in acute myeloid leukemia cells.
  • These results indicate that APRIL acts in an autocrine fashion to protect acute myeloid leukemia cells from drug-induced death and foresee a therapeutic potential of APRIL antagonists in the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacokinetics. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / pathology. Tumor Necrosis Factor Ligand Superfamily Member 13 / antagonists & inhibitors

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  • (PMID = 18838478.001).
  • [ISSN] 1592-8721
  • [Journal-full-title] Haematologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Haematologica
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor Ligand Superfamily Member 13
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7. Kiratli H, Demiroğlu H, Emeç S: Ocular relapse in acute myeloid leukemia (M4) with normal bone marrow. Int Ophthalmol; 2009 Aug;29(4):243-5
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  • [Title] Ocular relapse in acute myeloid leukemia (M4) with normal bone marrow.
  • A patient with the rare occurrence of ocular relapse of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) M4 while the bone marrow was normal is reported in this paper.
  • A 47-year-old woman with AML was treated with chemotherapy and went successfully into remission.
  • Although exceedingly rare, ocular extramedullary relapse in AML M4 heralds bone marrow recurrence and, despite intensive chemotherapy, the prognosis is dismal.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Marrow / pathology. Eye / pathology. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / complications. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / pathology. Sarcoma, Myeloid / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Leukapheresis. Leukemic Infiltration / etiology. Middle Aged. Recurrence. Remission Induction. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Cites] Cancer. 1999 Feb 1;85(3):608-15 [10091734.001]
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  • (PMID = 18338107.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-2630
  • [Journal-full-title] International ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int Ophthalmol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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8. Liu CZ, Persad R, Inghirami G, Sen F, Amorosi E, Goldenberg A, Ibrahim S: Transient atypical monocytosis mimic acute myelomonocytic leukemia in post-chemotherapy patients receiving G-CSF: report of two cases. Clin Lab Haematol; 2004 Oct;26(5):359-62
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  • [Title] Transient atypical monocytosis mimic acute myelomonocytic leukemia in post-chemotherapy patients receiving G-CSF: report of two cases.
  • Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) is now widely used in patients with malignant disorders receiving intensive chemotherapy to increase leukocyte count and to upregulate phagocyte function during neutropenia.
  • Both patients initially presented with myelodysplastic syndrome with chromosome 7 abnormalities that evolved into acute myeloid leukemia.
  • Case one had deletion 7q while case two initially had monosomy 7 and subsequently developed a balanced translocation between the short (p) arm of chromosome 1 and long (q) arm of chromosome 15.
  • Following the induction chemotherapy and G-CSF administration, both of these patients developed pseudoleukemia.
  • Patient 1 had white blood cell (WBC) count of 26 x 10(9)/l with 72% monocytes, while patient two had WBC of 14.1 x 10(9)/l with 30% monocytes.
  • In both patients the monocytosis resolved after the discontinuation of G-CSF therapy.
  • In those cases with pseudoleukemia discontinuation of the drug with no supplemental chemotherapy is probably enough to control the atypical monocytosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor / therapeutic use. Leukemia, Myelomonocytic, Acute / diagnosis. Leukocytosis / chemically induced. Monocytes / drug effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Chromosome Aberrations. Cytogenetics. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Leukemia, Myeloid / drug therapy. Leukemia, Myeloid / etiology. Leukemia, Myeloid / genetics. Leukocyte Count. Male. Myelodysplastic Syndromes / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15485468.001).
  • [ISSN] 0141-9854
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical and laboratory haematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Lab Haematol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 143011-72-7 / Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor
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9. Wang Q, Harrison JS, Uskokovic M, Kutner A, Studzinski GP: Translational study of vitamin D differentiation therapy of myeloid leukemia: effects of the combination with a p38 MAPK inhibitor and an antioxidant. Leukemia; 2005 Oct;19(10):1812-7
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  • [Title] Translational study of vitamin D differentiation therapy of myeloid leukemia: effects of the combination with a p38 MAPK inhibitor and an antioxidant.
  • Human myeloid leukemia cell lines are induced to terminal differentiation into monocyte lineage by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D3) or its analogs (deltanoids).
  • Our studies suggest that patients with CML or AML subtypes M2 and M4, but not M1, M3 or M4eo, are particularly suitable for this combination therapy.
  • We conclude that the established cell line HL60 presents a good model for some, but not all, subtypes of myeloid leukemia, and that the JNK pathway plays an important role in monocytic differentiation of human leukemic cells ex vivo, as well as in vitro.
  • [MeSH-major] Antioxidants / therapeutic use. Cell Differentiation / drug effects. Enzyme Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Leukemia, Myeloid / drug therapy. Vitamin D / analogs & derivatives. p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases / antagonists & inhibitors
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Calcium / metabolism. Cell Lineage. Drug Therapy, Combination. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Monocytes / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16107889.001).
  • [ISSN] 0887-6924
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leukemia
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antioxidants; 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 1406-16-2 / Vitamin D; EC 2.7.11.24 / p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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10. Fujisawa S, Naito K, Matsuoka T, Kobayashi M: Complete remission induced by gemtuzumab ozogamicin in a Jehovah's Witness patient with acute myelogenous leukemia. Int J Hematol; 2007 Jun;85(5):418-20
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  • [Title] Complete remission induced by gemtuzumab ozogamicin in a Jehovah's Witness patient with acute myelogenous leukemia.
  • We report an interesting case of acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) in a Jehovah's Witness patient.
  • The patient's diagnosis was AML (M4).
  • Because complete remission (CR) was not obtained with 2 courses of chemotherapy consisting of acrarubicin and cytarabine, we tried gemtuzumab ozogamicin (GO) with informed consent.
  • This case suggests that GO can be one of the treatment options in similar situations, although it should be used with considerable care.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminoglycosides / administration & dosage. Antibodies, Monoclonal / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Jehovah's Witnesses. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Cytarabine / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Leukocyte Count. Middle Aged. Organic Chemicals / administration & dosage. Remission Induction. Severity of Illness Index

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  • (PMID = 17562618.001).
  • [ISSN] 0925-5710
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aminoglycosides; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Organic Chemicals; 0 / acrarubicin; 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine; 93NS566KF7 / gemtuzumab
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11. Abdelkefi A, Torjman L, Ladeb S, Sghaïer Z, Jeddi R, Lakhal A, Ramzu A, Gamoudi A, Othman TB: Isolated extramedullary relapse in the breast of a patient with acute myeloid leukemia following allogeneic stem cell transplantation: case report and review of the literature. Int J Hematol; 2007 Feb;85(2):149-53
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  • [Title] Isolated extramedullary relapse in the breast of a patient with acute myeloid leukemia following allogeneic stem cell transplantation: case report and review of the literature.
  • We report an unsual case of a woman with acute myeloid leukemia who showed an isolated extramedullary relapse (IEMR) in the breast following allogeneic stem cell transplantation and review the related literature.
  • The review suggests that an M2 or M4 phenotype in the French-American-British classification and a favorable cytogenetic risk group are more frequently associated with the occurrence of IEMR.
  • Combined treatment with radiation and high-dose chemotherapy may be effective.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute. Stem Cell Transplantation
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Male. Recurrence. Transplantation, Homologous

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  • (PMID = 17321994.001).
  • [ISSN] 0925-5710
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Number-of-references] 32
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12. Zhu DM, Uckun FM: Calpain inhibitor II induces caspase-dependent apoptosis in human acute lymphoblastic leukemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma cells as well as some solid tumor cells. Clin Cancer Res; 2000 Jun;6(6):2456-63
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  • [Title] Calpain inhibitor II induces caspase-dependent apoptosis in human acute lymphoblastic leukemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma cells as well as some solid tumor cells.
  • To the contrary, in the present study, we found that calpain inhibitor II (CPI-2) triggers rapid apoptosis in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) cells.
  • All target cell lines were killed by CPI-2, including: ALL-1, a multidrug-resistant BCR-ABL fusion transcript-positive t(9;22) pro-B ALL cell line; RS4;11, a highly radiation-resistant MLL-AF4 fusion transcript-positive t(4;11) pre-pre B ALL cell line; RAMOS, a highly radiation-resistant and p53-deficient Burkitt's lymphoma cell line; DAUDI, a Burkitt's leukemia/lymphoma cell line; NALM-6, a pre-B ALL cell line; and JURKAT and MOLT-3, two T-lineage ALL/NHL cell lines.
  • CPI-2-induced apoptosis in LYN-deficient and BTK-deficient subclones of the DT-40 lymphoma B cell line as effectively as it did in wild-type DT-40 cells.
  • Unlike the high calpain-expressing ALL/NHL cell lines, myeloid leukemia cell lines HL-60/AML, K562/CML, and U937/AMML, or solid tumor cell lines BT-20/breast cancer, PC-3/prostate cancer, U373/glioblastoma, and HeLa/epitheloid cancer, were not susceptible to the cytotoxicity of CPI-2.
  • Taken together, our results identify calpain as a new molecular target for the treatment of ALL and NHL.
  • [MeSH-major] Apoptosis. Caspases / metabolism. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / metabolism. Oligopeptides / biosynthesis. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Separation. DNA / metabolism. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Flow Cytometry. Fluorescein-5-isothiocyanate / metabolism. HL-60 Cells. HeLa Cells. Humans. Immunoglobulin G / metabolism. In Situ Nick-End Labeling. Jurkat Cells. K562 Cells. Microscopy, Confocal. Protein-Tyrosine Kinases / metabolism. Time Factors. Tumor Cells, Cultured. U937 Cells. src-Family Kinases / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 10873099.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunoglobulin G; 0 / Oligopeptides; 110115-07-6 / N-acetylleucyl-leucyl-methioninal; 9007-49-2 / DNA; EC 2.7.10.1 / Agammaglobulinaemia tyrosine kinase; EC 2.7.10.1 / Protein-Tyrosine Kinases; EC 2.7.10.2 / lyn protein-tyrosine kinase; EC 2.7.10.2 / src-Family Kinases; EC 3.4.22.- / Caspases; I223NX31W9 / Fluorescein-5-isothiocyanate
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13. Kim M, Lee JW, Lee JK, Hong YJ, Hong SI, Kang HJ, Cho EH, Chang YH: [A case of del(16)(q22) in a patient with acute myeloid leukemia with complex karyotype]. Korean J Lab Med; 2010 Aug;30(4):329-33
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  • [Title] [A case of del(16)(q22) in a patient with acute myeloid leukemia with complex karyotype].
  • Inversion of chromosome 16 [inv(16)(p13.1q22)] and t(16;16)(p13.1;q22) are associated with acute myelomonocytic leukemia (AMML) with eosinophilia and a favorable prognosis.
  • On the other hand, patients with del(16)(q22) usually present with MDS or chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML), which can evolve to AMML without eosinophilia, and this chromosomal aberration is associated with older age, a complex karyotype, and a poor prognosis.
  • We report a case of AML with del(16)(q22) which showed a complex karyotype, absence of eosinophilia in bone marrow study and a poor response to chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Chromosome Deletion. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 16. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Cytarabine / therapeutic use. Daunorubicin / therapeutic use. Drug Therapy, Combination. Humans. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Karyotyping. Male. Middle Aged. Monocyte-Macrophage Precursor Cells / cytology. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 20805702.001).
  • [ISSN] 1598-6535
  • [Journal-full-title] The Korean journal of laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Korean J Lab Med
  • [Language] kor
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine; ZS7284E0ZP / Daunorubicin
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14. Romano MF, Lamberti A, Bisogni R, Tassone P, Pagnini D, Storti G, Del Vecchio L, Turco MC, Venuta S: Enhancement of cytosine arabinoside-induced apoptosis in human myeloblastic leukemia cells by NF-kappa B/Rel- specific decoy oligodeoxynucleotides. Gene Ther; 2000 Jul;7(14):1234-7
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  • [Title] Enhancement of cytosine arabinoside-induced apoptosis in human myeloblastic leukemia cells by NF-kappa B/Rel- specific decoy oligodeoxynucleotides.
  • The activity of NF-kappa B/Rel nuclear factors is known to inhibit apoptosis in various cell types.
  • We investigated whether the subtraction of NF-kappa B/Rel activity influenced the response of 11 AML (M1, M2 and M4) patients' cells to AraC.
  • On the other hand, in 10 of the 11 samples tested, the decoy kappa B, but not the scrambled ODN significantly (P < 0.01 in a Student's t test) enhanced cell apoptotic response to AraC.
  • These findings indicate that NF-kappa B/Rel activity influences response to AraC in human primary myeloblastic cells, and suggests that the inhibition of NF-kappa B/Rel factors can improve the effect of chemotherapy in AML.
  • Gene Therapy (2000) 7, 1234-1237.
  • [MeSH-major] Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Cytarabine / therapeutic use. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / pathology. Oligodeoxyribonucleotides / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Apoptosis / drug effects. Genes, rel / physiology. Humans. NF-kappa B / physiology. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 10918492.001).
  • [ISSN] 0969-7128
  • [Journal-full-title] Gene therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gene Ther.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] ENGLAND
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / NF-kappa B; 0 / Oligodeoxyribonucleotides; 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine
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15. Sperr WR, Jordan JH, Baghestanian M, Kiener HP, Samorapoompichit P, Semper H, Hauswirth A, Schernthaner GH, Chott A, Natter S, Kraft D, Valenta R, Schwartz LB, Geissler K, Lechner K, Valent P: Expression of mast cell tryptase by myeloblasts in a group of patients with acute myeloid leukemia. Blood; 2001 Oct 1;98(7):2200-9
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  • [Title] Expression of mast cell tryptase by myeloblasts in a group of patients with acute myeloid leukemia.
  • Under physiologic conditions other myeloid cells are virtually tryptase negative.
  • However, tryptases are also expressed in several myeloid leukemia cell lines.
  • In this study, serum total tryptase levels were determined in 150 patients with acute leukemias (de novo acute myeloid leukemia [AML], n = 108; secondary AML, n = 25; acute lymphoid leukemia [ALL], n = 17) by fluoroenzyme immunoassay.
  • Elevated tryptase levels (> 15) were detected in 42 (39%) of 108 patients with de novo AML and in 11 (44%) of 25 patients with secondary AML.
  • In de novo AML, elevated tryptase levels were frequently detected in patients with French-American-British classification M0 (6 of 9), M2 (9 of 14), M3 (4 of 6), and M4eo (7 of 7), and less frequently in M1 (7 of 20), M4 (6 of 26), M5 (2 of 18), M6 (0 of 5), or M7 (1 of 3).
  • As assessed by Northern blotting and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, AML cells expressed alpha-tryptase messenger RNA (mRNA) but little or no beta-tryptase mRNA.
  • In AML patients with elevated serum tryptase before chemotherapy, who entered complete remission, tryptase levels returned to normal or near normal values.
  • Blast cell persistence or regrowth was associated with a persistently elevated level or recurrent increase of tryptase.
  • Together, tryptase is expressed in myeloblasts in a group of AML and may serve as a useful disease-related marker.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Myeloid / enzymology. Myeloid Cells / enzymology. Serine Endopeptidases / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Biomarkers. Bone Marrow Cells / enzymology. Bone Marrow Cells / pathology. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Mast Cells / enzymology. Mast Cells / metabolism. Microscopy, Immunoelectron. Middle Aged. Monocytes / enzymology. Monocytes / metabolism. Monocytes / pathology. RNA, Messenger / analysis. Remission Induction. Tryptases

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  • (PMID = 11568008.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-4971
  • [Journal-full-title] Blood
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Blood
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / AI20487; United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / AR45441
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / RNA, Messenger; EC 3.4.21.- / Serine Endopeptidases; EC 3.4.21.59 / Tryptases
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16. Pereira FG, Metze K, Costa FP, Lima CS, Lorand-Metze I: Phenotypic quantitative features of patients with acute myeloid leukemia. Neoplasma; 2006;53(2):155-60
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  • [Title] Phenotypic quantitative features of patients with acute myeloid leukemia.
  • The recent WHO classification for acute myeloid leukemias (AML) separates entities by recurrent cytogenetic abnormalities and immunophenotypic features presenting prognostic impact.
  • We have examined the expression of several lineage and maturation linked antigens used in routine immunophenotyping of patients with de novo AML, using a 3-color two-step panel.
  • Predominant FAB types were M2 and M4.
  • In Cox univariate analysis, age, peripheral leukocytes (WBC) at diagnosis, MFI of CD45, and MPO were significant for worse a survival.
  • This may represent a pitfall in studies of minimal residual disease by flow cytometry, as chemotherapy may select one of these subsets.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Immunophenotyping / methods. Leukemia, Myeloid / diagnosis. Leukemia, Myeloid / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Antibodies, Monoclonal. Antigens, CD / metabolism. Female. Flow Cytometry. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm, Residual. Phenotype. Prognosis. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 16575472.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-2685
  • [Journal-full-title] Neoplasma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neoplasma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Slovakia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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17. Ghosh K, Mitra S, Hiwase D: Choroidal infiltrates simulating fundal changes of acute leukemia during hematological recovery following high-dose chemotherapy in acute myelomonocytic leukemia in remission. Am J Hematol; 2000 Jan;63(1):42-5
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  • [Title] Choroidal infiltrates simulating fundal changes of acute leukemia during hematological recovery following high-dose chemotherapy in acute myelomonocytic leukemia in remission.
  • A young female patient of 18 who was diagnosed to have acute myelomonocytic leukemia (AML M4) developed choroidal infiltrate and fundal changes suggestive of acute leukemia deposits while she was in remission and was recovering from chemotherapy induced myelosuppression.
  • The choroidal lesion resolved on its own in 2 week's time, when the peripheral and CSF monocytosis subsided.
  • [MeSH-major] Choroid / pathology. Leukemia, Myelomonocytic, Acute / drug therapy. Leukemia, Myelomonocytic, Acute / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Cerebrospinal Fluid / cytology. Cytarabine / administration & dosage. Cytoplasmic Granules / pathology. Daunorubicin / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Leukocyte Count. Mitoxantrone / administration & dosage. Monocytes / pathology. Remission Induction

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  • (PMID = 10602168.001).
  • [ISSN] 0361-8609
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine; BZ114NVM5P / Mitoxantrone; ZS7284E0ZP / Daunorubicin
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18. Lee KW, Choi IS, Roh EY, Kim DY, Yun T, Lee DS, Yoon SS, Park S, Kim BK, Kim NK: Adult patients with t(8;21) acute myeloid leukemia had no superior treatment outcome to those without t(8;21): a single institution's experience. Ann Hematol; 2004 Apr;83(4):218-24
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  • [Title] Adult patients with t(8;21) acute myeloid leukemia had no superior treatment outcome to those without t(8;21): a single institution's experience.
  • Clinical features and treatment outcome of 31 patients over 16 years of age with t(8;21) acute myeloid leukemia (AML) were compared with 60 patients without t(8;21).
  • Among 31 patients with t(8;21), 15 patients were classified as AML-M2 and 11 and 5 patients as AML-M4 and M1, respectively.
  • Of these patients, 28 patients (90.3%) achieved complete remission and 22 patients received consolidative treatment: intermediate-dose cytarabine (IDAC) 11, high-dose cytarabine (HDAC) 6, and allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) 5.
  • When compared with patients without t(8;21), we could not demonstrate better treatment outcome for t(8;21) AML [median event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) 10.3 and 12.5 months in AML with t(8;21) vs 11.5 and 15.6 months in AML without t(8;21)].
  • In the t(8;21) AML group, patients who received HDAC consolidation did not show superior treatment outcome to those who received other consolidative treatment [median EFS: IDAC 11.9 months vs HDAC 9.2 months vs allogeneic BMT 38.1 months (P=NS) and median OS: IDAC 17.8 months vs HDAC 12.0 months vs allogeneic BMT 47.3 months (P=NS)].
  • Similar treatment outcome between patients with and without t(8;21) and non-superior treatment outcome of HDAC consolidative chemotherapy in the t(8;21) AML group in our study is contradictory to previous reports.
  • [MeSH-major] Chromosomes, Human, Pair 21 / genetics. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 8 / genetics. Leukemia, Myeloid / genetics. Leukemia, Myeloid / therapy. Translocation, Genetic
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Adolescent. Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bone Marrow Transplantation. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Longitudinal Studies. Male. Middle Aged. Remission Induction. Treatment Outcome


19. Arruda WO, Montú MB, de Oliveira Mde S, Ramina R: Acute myeloid leukaemia induced by mitoxantrone: case report. Arq Neuropsiquiatr; 2005 Jun;63(2A):327-9
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  • [Title] Acute myeloid leukaemia induced by mitoxantrone: case report.
  • Mitoxantrone (MX) is an immunosupressant drug used in secondarily progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS) and in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS).
  • It has a leukemogenesis potential induced by cytogenetic abnormalities, though with a low incidence.
  • Promyelocitic leukaemia (type M3) and other forms of acute myeloblastic leukaemias (M4 and M5) have been described in a few MS patients who received MX during their treatment.
  • We describe a white female patient, 47 year-old, with SPMS (EDSS = 4) with 14 years of disease.
  • She received MX during her disease and developed acute promyelocytic leukaemia (M3), with severe thrombocytopenia 30 months later.
  • Other cases of treatment related to AML are reviewed and discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Immunosuppressive Agents / adverse effects. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / chemically induced. Mitoxantrone / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Multiple Sclerosis / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 16100984.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-282X
  • [Journal-full-title] Arquivos de neuro-psiquiatria
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arq Neuropsiquiatr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; BZ114NVM5P / Mitoxantrone
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20. Lemez P, Vítek A, Michalová K, Zemanová Z, Lukásová M: [Long-term results of the UHKT-911 study of adult patients under 65 years of age with de novo acute myeloid leukemias without favorable karyotypes]. Vnitr Lek; 2003 Mar;49(3):174-80
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  • [Title] [Long-term results of the UHKT-911 study of adult patients under 65 years of age with de novo acute myeloid leukemias without favorable karyotypes].
  • [Transliterated title] Dlouhodobé výsledky lécby dospĕlých nemocných do 65 let s de novo akutními myeloidními leukémiemi bez príznivých karyotypů ve studii UHKT-911.
  • Between February 1991 and April 1994 induction chemotherapy of 32 adult consecutive patients under 65 years with de novo acute myeloid leukemias (AML) was started in the study UHKT-911.
  • Their AML were classified according to the FAB classification: 3 M0, 3 M1, 9 M2, 14 M4, 3 M5.
  • Induction chemotherapy consisted of 1-2 cycles with 3-4 doses of daunorubicin (DNR) 45 mg/m2/d i.v. and 14 doses of cytosine arabinoside (Ara-C) 200 mg/m2 per 3-h infusion every 12 hours.
  • After the treatment patients, not being in complete remission, got the HD cycle with 10 high-doses of Ara-C 2000 mg/m2 per 3-h infusion every 12 hours i.v. and DNR 45 mg/m2/d i.v. on days 4 and 5, then the EMi cycle composed of etoposide 100 mg/m2/d i.v. for 5 days and mitozantrone 10-12 mg/m2/d i.v. on days 1, 3 and 5.
  • Five patients died between days 5 and 24 of treatment of infections, two patients were resistant to 4 cycles of induction therapy and survived 8.4 and 13.5 months.
  • Two of them have been living in CR for 115 a 110 months since diagnosis, the third died of sepsis on the day 52 after transplantation.
  • After 62 months in CR a pancytopenia with dysplastic bone marrow changes developed in one of them, probably a secondary myelodysplastic syndrome, lasting for further 33 months.
  • [MeSH-major] Chromosome Aberrations. Leukemia, Myeloid / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Adolescent. Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Remission Induction. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 12728590.001).
  • [ISSN] 0042-773X
  • [Journal-full-title] Vnitr̆ní lékar̆ství
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vnitr Lek
  • [Language] cze
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
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21. Miyawaki S, Tanimoto M, Kobayashi T, Minami S, Tamura J, Omoto E, Kuriyama K, Hatake K, Saito K, Ohno R: [Effect of etoposide added to individualized induction therapy of adult acute myeloid leukemia--the JALSG-AML-92 Study. Japan Adult Leukemia Study Group]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2000 Jul;27(8):1160-7
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  • [Title] [Effect of etoposide added to individualized induction therapy of adult acute myeloid leukemia--the JALSG-AML-92 Study. Japan Adult Leukemia Study Group].
  • A multicenter prospective randomized study was undertaken to assess the efficacy of etoposide added to the standard remission induction therapy for acute myeloid leukemia (AML).
  • Consecutively registered newly diagnosed adult AML patients were randomized to receive either daunorubicin (40 mg/m2/day x 4 or more), behenoyl cytarabine (200 mg/m2/day x 10 or more) and 6-mercaptopurine (70 mg/m2/day x 10 or more) (BH-AC-DM), or the same three drugs plus etoposide (100 mg/m2/day x 5) (BH-AC-EDM) for response-oriented individualized induction therapy.
  • The patients achieving complete remission (CR) received the same 3 courses of consolidation therapy followed by 6 courses of maintenance/intensification therapy.
  • In M4 patients, CR rates were 86% and 69% (p = 0.009), and, in M5, 80% and 77% (p = 0.810) in the BH-AC-DM and BH-AC-EDM groups, respectively.
  • The predicted 6-year overall survival rates were 30% and 38% for BH-AC-DM and BH-AC-EDM groups, and the disease-free survival (DFS) rates of CR patients were 25% and 35% (p = 0.925), respectively.
  • In conclusion, the present study failed to show any advantage of the addition of etoposide to the standard individualized induction therapy in adult AML, even among M4 and M5.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] 6-Mercaptopurine / administration & dosage. Adolescent. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cytarabine / administration & dosage. Daunorubicin / administration & dosage. Disease-Free Survival. Drug Administration Schedule. Humans. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies


22. Inaba H, Fan Y, Pounds S, Geiger TL, Rubnitz JE, Ribeiro RC, Pui CH, Razzouk BI: Clinical and biologic features and treatment outcome of children with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia and hyperleukocytosis. Cancer; 2008 Aug 1;113(3):522-9
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  • [Title] Clinical and biologic features and treatment outcome of children with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia and hyperleukocytosis.
  • BACKGROUND: Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with hyperleukocytosis often is associated with early complications.
  • To the authors' knowledge, no recently published study has evaluated the management and clinical course in this regard, especially in relation to pediatric patients.
  • METHODS: The authors reviewed 579 patients with newly diagnosed pediatric AML who were treated at St. Jude Children's Research Hospital from 1968 to 2002 and carefully examined 106 patients with initial leukocyte counts > or = 100 x 10(9)/L and French-American-British (FAB) AML subtypes other than M3.
  • These patients with hyperleukocytosis were divided into 2 groups-'before' (early period; 70 patients) and 'after' (late period; 36 patients) the initiation of the AML-83 protocol-to address potential differences in supportive measures (including leukoreduction).
  • RESULTS: Forty-five patients (42.5%) had early complications that were associated strongly with M4 and M5 FAB subtypes and had higher initial leukocyte counts than the patients without complications.
  • The late period was associated with a shorter time for referral (P = .0018), a longer time from admission to chemotherapy initiation (P < .0001), and lower white blood cell counts at chemotherapy initiation (P < .0001).
  • CONCLUSIONS: With improved management, including supportive care, early mortality in patients with AML and hyperleukocytosis decreased remarkably in the more recent period.
  • However, better postremission treatment is required to improve long-term survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / diagnosis. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / therapy. Leukocytosis / diagnosis. Leukocytosis / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 American Cancer Society
  • (PMID = 18484648.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA21765
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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23. Gähler A, Hitz F, Hess U, Cerny T: Acute pericarditis and pleural effusion complicating cytarabine chemotherapy. Onkologie; 2003 Aug;26(4):348-50
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  • [Title] Acute pericarditis and pleural effusion complicating cytarabine chemotherapy.
  • BACKGROUND: Pericarditis is a rare but possibly severe complication of treatment of acute leukemia with cytarabine.
  • CASE REPORT: We report a possibly cytarabine-induced acute pericarditis and pleuritis with a rapid onset.
  • A patient with acute myelomonocytic leukemia developed an isolated pericarditis 3 weeks after the first course of chemotherapy with cytarabine and idarubicin.
  • The second course of chemotherapy with cytarabine and amsacrine was started after clinical improvement; 3 days later an acute pericarditis with a large pericardial effusion accompanied by a left pleural effusion developed.
  • The third course of chemotherapy with mitoxantrone and etoposide was completed without further cardiopulmonary complications.
  • CONCLUSION: The differential diagnosis of pericarditis in the setting of chemotherapy with cytarabine should include cytarabine- induced pericarditis.
  • Severe progression with massive pericardial effusion necessitating risky pericardiocentesis can occur and therefore a therapy with high-dose corticosteroids should be considered early.
  • [MeSH-major] Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / adverse effects. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Cytarabine / adverse effects. Leukemia, Myelomonocytic, Acute / drug therapy. Pericarditis / chemically induced. Pleural Effusion / chemically induced
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Recurrence

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2003 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg
  • (PMID = 12972701.001).
  • [ISSN] 0378-584X
  • [Journal-full-title] Onkologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Onkologie
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine
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24. Kobayashi R, Tawa A, Hanada R, Horibe K, Tsuchida M, Tsukimoto I, Japanese childhood AML cooperative study group: Extramedullary infiltration at diagnosis and prognosis in children with acute myelogenous leukemia. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2007 Apr;48(4):393-8
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  • [Title] Extramedullary infiltration at diagnosis and prognosis in children with acute myelogenous leukemia.
  • BACKGROUND: Extramedullary infiltration (EMI) is an occasional clinical symptom in childhood acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), but there is considerable controversy regarding the prognostic significance of EMI in AML.
  • PROCEDURE: We evaluated the frequency and prognostic significance of EMI at diagnosis of AML in children.
  • RESULTS: Of 240 cases of de novo AML excluding children with Down syndrome and acute promyelocytic leukemia, 56 (23.3%) showed EMI at diagnosis.
  • Patients with EMI had a higher initial WBC count and a higher proportion of M4/M5 morphological variants.
  • The complete remission rate following induction chemotherapy was lower in patients with EMI.
  • A detailed analysis showed that patients with EMI with a WBC count at diagnosis of over 100 x 10(9)/L or infiltration into the central nervous system are likely to have a poor prognosis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: CNS leukemia and EMI together with a WBC count of >100 x 10(9)/L at diagnosis of AML are high risk factors for relapse, and alternative treatment approaches for patients with these characteristics should be explored.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Myeloid / pathology. Leukemic Infiltration / epidemiology. Sarcoma, Myeloid / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Adolescent. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bone and Bones / pathology. Central Nervous System / pathology. Child. Child, Preschool. Cytarabine / administration & dosage. Disease-Free Survival. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Gingiva / pathology. Humans. Hydrocortisone / administration & dosage. Idarubicin / administration & dosage. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Japan / epidemiology. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Male. Methotrexate / administration & dosage. Orbit / pathology. Prognosis. Remission Induction. Skin / pathology. Testis / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16550530.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5009
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate; ZRP63D75JW / Idarubicin
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25. Wang J, Yen A: A novel retinoic acid-responsive element regulates retinoic acid-induced BLR1 expression. Mol Cell Biol; 2004 Mar;24(6):2423-43
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  • The mechanism of action of retinoic acid (RA) is of broad relevance to cell and developmental biology, nutrition, and cancer chemotherapy.
  • RA is known to induce expression of the Burkitt's lymphoma receptor 1 (BLR1) gene which propels RA-induced cell cycle arrest and differentiation of HL-60 human myeloblastic leukemia cells, motivating the present analysis of transcriptional regulation of blr1 expression by RA.
  • Treatment with RAR- and RXR-selective ligands showed that RARalpha synergized with RXRalpha to transcriptionally activate blr1 expression.
  • A 5'-flanking region capable of supporting RA-induced blr1 activation in HL-60 cells was found to contain a 205-bp sequence in the distal portion that was necessary for transcriptional activation by RA.
  • [MeSH-minor] Base Sequence. Binding Sites / genetics. Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein / metabolism. DNA, Neoplasm / genetics. DNA, Neoplasm / metabolism. DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Dactinomycin / pharmacology. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / drug effects. HL-60 Cells. Humans. In Vitro Techniques. Models, Biological. Mutagenesis. NFATC Transcription Factors. Organic Cation Transporter 1 / metabolism. Promoter Regions, Genetic / drug effects. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. RNA, Neoplasm / genetics. RNA, Neoplasm / metabolism. Receptors, CXCR5. Receptors, Chemokine. Receptors, Retinoic Acid / drug effects. Receptors, Retinoic Acid / genetics. Receptors, Retinoic Acid / metabolism. Recombinant Proteins / genetics. Recombinant Proteins / metabolism. Retinoid X Receptors. Transcription Factors / drug effects. Transcription Factors / genetics. Transcription Factors / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 14993281.001).
  • [ISSN] 0270-7306
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular and cellular biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cell. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CXCR5 protein, human; 0 / Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein; 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / NFATC Transcription Factors; 0 / NFATC3 protein, human; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Organic Cation Transporter 1; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Receptors, CXCR5; 0 / Receptors, Chemokine; 0 / Receptors, Cytokine; 0 / Receptors, Retinoic Acid; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 0 / Retinoid X Receptors; 0 / Transcription Factors; 1CC1JFE158 / Dactinomycin; 5688UTC01R / Tretinoin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC355834
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26. Pillay M, Sturm AW: Evolution of the extensively drug-resistant F15/LAM4/KZN strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Clin Infect Dis; 2007 Dec 1;45(11):1409-14
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  • [Title] Evolution of the extensively drug-resistant F15/LAM4/KZN strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.
  • BACKGROUND: Although several hot spots of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis have been identified on the African continent, extensive drug resistance (XDR) has not been reported until recently, when a large number of XDR cases were identified in KwaZulu-Natal.
  • The majority of the patients involved were infected with the same strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (F15/LAM4/KZN).
  • METHODS: We searched databases for studies performed during the period 1994-2005 that involved the resistance patterns of isolates of M. tuberculosis with the F15/LAM4/KZN strain fingerprint.
  • RESULTS: As early as 1994, the F15/LAM4/KZN strain was responsible for a number of cases of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, indicating the ability of the strain to cause cases of primary resistant tuberculosis.
  • From 1994 onwards, multidrug-resistant isolates with resistance to additional drugs were found, and the first XDR isolate was discovered in 2001.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Drug resistance to as many as 7 drugs developed in a local strain of M. tuberculosis in slightly more than a decade.
  • This coincided with the introduction of the directly observed therapy-based and directly observed therapy-plus-based tuberculosis-control programs.
  • It is postulated that the introduction of these programs in the absence of susceptibility testing or drug resistance surveillance has been instrumental in the development of XDR in this highly transmissible F15/LAM4/KZN strain.
  • [MeSH-major] Antitubercular Agents / pharmacology. Evolution, Molecular. Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis / microbiology. Mycobacterium tuberculosis / drug effects. Mycobacterium tuberculosis / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] DNA Fingerprinting. Genotype. Humans. South Africa / epidemiology. Time Factors. Tuberculosis, Pulmonary / epidemiology. Tuberculosis, Pulmonary / microbiology

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  • [CommentIn] Clin Infect Dis. 2007 Dec 1;45(11):1415-6 [17990221.001]
  • (PMID = 17990220.001).
  • [ISSN] 1537-6591
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Infect. Dis.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antitubercular Agents
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27. Dimicoli S, Fohlen-Walter A, Mansuy L, Buisine J, Grégoire MJ, Lecompte T, Bordigoni P, Jonveaux P, Lesesve JF: [Acute myeloblastic leukemia without maturation (AML-M1) with basophilic elements and associated with translocation t(6;9)]. Ann Biol Clin (Paris); 2003 May-Jun;61(3):352-7
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  • [Title] [Acute myeloblastic leukemia without maturation (AML-M1) with basophilic elements and associated with translocation t(6;9)].
  • [Transliterated title] Leucémie aiguë myéloblastique sans maturation (LAM1) avec éléments basophiles associée à la translocation t(6;9).
  • The clinical, hematological, and cytogenetic data from a 4 year-old child with acute myeloid (AML-M1) and basophilia is reported.
  • This abnormality is rare and associated with myelodysplastic syndromes or with subtypes of acute myeloid leukemia (M1, M2, M4, M7), usually with preceding or underlying myelodysplasia.
  • The prognosis is poor, without response to chemotherapy regimen alone.
  • Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation appears likely to be a more appropriate treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Basophils. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 6 / genetics. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 9 / genetics. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / diagnosis. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / genetics. Translocation, Genetic / genetics

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  • (PMID = 12805015.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-3898
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales de biologie clinique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Biol. Clin. (Paris)
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hemoglobins
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28. Nawata R, Shinohara K, Yamada T, Takahashi T, Katsuki K, Takeda K, Kameda N, Ariyoshi K, Ota I, Muraki K: Morphological and cytogenetic changes in therapy-related leukemia developed in a t(8;21)-acute myeloid leukemia (M2) patient: sequential cytogenetic and molecular analyses. Int J Hematol; 2000 Jun;71(4):353-8
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  • [Title] Morphological and cytogenetic changes in therapy-related leukemia developed in a t(8;21)-acute myeloid leukemia (M2) patient: sequential cytogenetic and molecular analyses.
  • A patient with acute myeloid leukemia (AML)-M2 with t(8;21)(q22;q22) achieved complete remission with remission-induction chemotherapy followed by consolidation and intensification chemotherapies.
  • Following the development of therapy-related leukemia after 1 year, evolution of therapy-related AML-M4 with t(11;17)(q23;q25) and the rearrangement of the MLL gene were observed, while AML/MTG8 disappeared.
  • After reinduction and following intermittent chemotherapies, a subsequent alternative transformation to AML-M2 occurred after detection of t(3;21)(q21;q22), with a break in the AML1 gene shown by interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis.
  • This leukemia transformed to AML-M4 after t(9;22)(q34;q11), with a minor BCR/ABL rearrangement, and then finally to AML-M2.
  • This therapy-related leukemia was resistant to chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Chromosomes, Human, Pair 21. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 8. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / genetics. Neoplasms, Second Primary / genetics. Translocation, Genetic
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Clone Cells / pathology. Cytogenetics. Evolution, Molecular. Fusion Proteins, bcr-abl / genetics. Humans. Leukemia, Myelomonocytic, Acute / genetics. Male

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  • (PMID = 10905055.001).
  • [ISSN] 0925-5710
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] IRELAND
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.10.2 / Fusion Proteins, bcr-abl
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29. Struhal W, Oberndorfer S, Lahrmann H, Lindeck-Pozza E, Hess B, Nussgruber V, Pöhnl R, Dobner T, Grisold W: Myeloid sarcoma in the central nervous system: case report and review of the literature. Acta Clin Croat; 2008 Mar;47(1):19-24
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  • [Title] Myeloid sarcoma in the central nervous system: case report and review of the literature.
  • Myeloid sarcomas are rare manifestations of mainly myeloblastic leukemia.
  • A case is added herewith and a review was performed to investigate clinical characteristics and treatment options of central nervous system myeloid sarcoma.
  • A 61-year-old female with acute myeloblastic leukemia (FAB M5) and progressive left sided hemiparesis showed a right parieto-occipital epidural lesion mimicking meningioma.
  • Partial resection was performed to reveal a myeloid sarcoma.
  • Reviewing the literature we identified 44 cases with sufficient description of the diagnosis, treatment and follow up to one year.
  • In these patients different treatment regimens were applied.
  • However, when systemic chemotherapy or irradiation was included in the treatment regimen, patients showed the best 1-year survival proportion.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary. Occipital Lobe. Parietal Lobe. Sarcoma, Myeloid / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18714643.001).
  • [ISSN] 0353-9466
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta clinica Croatica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Clin Croat
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Croatia
  • [Number-of-references] 20
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30. Radosevic N, Delmer A, Tang R, Marie JP, Ajchenbaum-Cymbalista F: Cell cycle regulatory protein expression in fresh acute myeloid leukemia cells and after drug exposure. Leukemia; 2001 Apr;15(4):559-66
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  • [Title] Cell cycle regulatory protein expression in fresh acute myeloid leukemia cells and after drug exposure.
  • Characteristics of treatment-induced cell cycle arrest are important for in vitro and in vivo sensitivity of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells to cytotoxic drugs.
  • We analyzed the expression of the major G1 cell cycle regulators (p21Cip1, p27Kip1, cyclins D, cyclin E and pRb) in 41 fresh AML cell samples.
  • The level of p27 expression was the only factor correlated with the response to chemotherapy, a high level of p27 expression being predictive of complete remission.
  • There was a close relation between expression of pRb, cyclin D2 and FAB subtype, illustrated by the absence of both proteins in most samples having a monocytic component (M4, M5).
  • We also assessed the expressions of pRb, cyclin E, p21 and p27 and the activity of cdk2, the major regulator of S-phase entry, after exposure to cytosine-arabinoside (AraC) and daunorubicin (DNR), and found these proteins could characterize time- and dose-dependent cellular response to each drug.
  • We observed hyperphosphorylated pRb, increased levels of cyclin E and a high cdk2 activity, but no p21 induction, in AML cells exposed to 10(-6) M AraC.
  • These data suggest that cdk2 activity is likely to play a role in AraC-induced apoptosis in AML cells.
  • [MeSH-major] CDC2-CDC28 Kinases. Cell Cycle Proteins. Cyclin E / analysis. Cyclins / analysis. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / metabolism. Microtubule-Associated Proteins / analysis. Retinoblastoma Protein / analysis. Tumor Suppressor Proteins

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  • (PMID = 11368357.001).
  • [ISSN] 0887-6924
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leukemia
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CDKN1A protein, human; 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / Cyclin D; 0 / Cyclin E; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21; 0 / Cyclins; 0 / Interleukin-3; 0 / Microtubule-Associated Proteins; 0 / Retinoblastoma Protein; 0 / Stem Cell Factor; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine; 147604-94-2 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27; EC 2.7.11.1 / Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases; EC 2.7.11.22 / CDC2-CDC28 Kinases; EC 2.7.11.22 / CDK2 protein, human; EC 2.7.11.22 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 2; EC 2.7.11.22 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinases; ZS7284E0ZP / Daunorubicin
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31. Lemez P, Gáliková J, Michalová K, Dvoráková D, MacWhannell A, Zemanová Z, Stejskal J: [Patients older than 80 years with de novo acute myeloid leukemias without erythroblastic and/or megakaryocytic dysplasia achieve complete remission and longer survival after classical chemotherapy 3 + 7]. Vnitr Lek; 2010 Jan;56(1):37-43
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  • [Title] [Patients older than 80 years with de novo acute myeloid leukemias without erythroblastic and/or megakaryocytic dysplasia achieve complete remission and longer survival after classical chemotherapy 3 + 7].
  • [Transliterated title] Nemocní starsí 80 let s de novo akutními myeloidními leukemiemi bez dysplazie v erytroblastické 8/nebo megakaryocytární radĕ dosahují kompletní remise a delsího prezlití po klasické chemoterapii 3+7.
  • Chemotherapy in most patients with AML over 80 years of age is not recommended because their median survival is about 1 month.
  • The aim of our study was to identify patients in this age group who might achieve complete remission with standard dose chemotherapy.
  • We report 9 consecutive patients with de novo AML diagnosed and treated in 1992-2008.
  • All bone marrow samples were hypercellular, classified as FAB types M2 in 2 cases, M4 in 6, and M5 in one case.
  • Three patients opted for supportive or palliative therapy and survived 1-4 months.
  • Six patients received standard dose chemotherapy.
  • Two patients with a normal karyotype had resistant AML and survived 1.0 and 2.7 months; one patient with a complex karyotype died of septic shock on the 10th day of therapy.
  • Three remaining patients with AML M4, a normal karyotype but without EMD, achieved complete remission in spite of co-morbidities and a poor performance status.
  • Two of them survived 18.6 and 28 months on maintenance therapy, the third 16.5 months without it.
  • Very elderly AML patients without EMD appear to represent a favorable prognostic biological category (single-lineage AML) that show a good response to standard dose chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 20184110.001).
  • [ISSN] 0042-773X
  • [Journal-full-title] Vnitr̆ní lékar̆ství
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vnitr Lek
  • [Language] cze
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine; BZ114NVM5P / Mitoxantrone; ZS7284E0ZP / Daunorubicin
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32. Tarkun P, Hacıhanefioğlu A, Demirbağ E, Turgut T: Development of autoimmune hemolytic anemia during the treatment of a patient with acute myelomonocytic leukemia. Turk J Haematol; 2005 Jun 5;22(2):95-9
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  • [Title] Development of autoimmune hemolytic anemia during the treatment of a patient with acute myelomonocytic leukemia.
  • [Transliterated title] Akut miyelomonositik lösemili bir hastanın tedavisi srasında ortaya çıkan otoimmün hemolitik anemi.
  • Drug induced autoimmune hemolytic anemia is a well-known complication of drug therapy but it is often misdiagnosed.
  • Drug induced autoimmune hemolytic anemia is difficult to differantiate from classical autoimmune hemolytic anemia.
  • Here, we have reported a case with autoimmune hemolytic anemia might be caused by drugs such as teicoplanin, imipenem and amphotericin B.
  • At this while, chemotherapy of patient had been completed and the patient have been taking antibiotherapy which include teicoplanin, imipenem and amphotericin B.
  • Symptoms and sings of anemia improved with prednisolon therapy.
  • Suspicious drug must be stopped in drug induced autoimmune hemolytic anemia but in the conditions that drug could not be stopped, steroid treatment can be used in the treatment of hemolytic anemia.

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  • (PMID = 27264668.001).
  • [ISSN] 1300-7777
  • [Journal-full-title] Turkish journal of haematology : official journal of Turkish Society of Haematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Turk J Haematol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Turkey
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33. Suzuki K, Ohishi K, Sekine T, Masuya M, Katayama N: Selective blast cell reduction in elderly patients with acute myeloid leukemia secondary to myelodysplastic syndrome treated with methylprednisolone. Int J Hematol; 2007 May;85(4):344-9
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  • [Title] Selective blast cell reduction in elderly patients with acute myeloid leukemia secondary to myelodysplastic syndrome treated with methylprednisolone.
  • The management of elderly patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and a poor performance status is challenging.
  • An 89-year-old man with AML secondary to myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and a poor performance status (4) underwent treatment with methylprednisolone (mPSL) (125 mg/body), which resulted in a remarkable reduction of blast cells in the peripheral blood.
  • Although the suppression was of short duration, mPSL was useful for disease control because it selectively reduced blast counts while maintaining the patient's performance status.
  • On the basis of this experience, we gave the same mPSL dose to other elderly patients with MDS/AML (n=5) or AML-M4 (n=1) who had a poor performance status (3 or higher) and appeared unable to tolerate standard cytotoxic chemotherapies.
  • Selective and significant blast cell reduction was observed in 4 of the 5 patients with MDS/AML, whereas no effects were seen in the AML patient.
  • Although our experience is limited, these findings may provide a clue to understanding the mechanisms regulating the survival of blast cells of MDS/AML and indicate that mPSL may provide a benefit to a subset of these patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Blast Crisis / drug therapy. Blast Crisis / etiology. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / drug therapy. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / etiology. Methylprednisolone / administration & dosage. Myelodysplastic Syndromes / complications. Myelodysplastic Syndromes / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Leukocyte Count. Male. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome


34. Kröger N, Zander AR, Martinelli G, Ferrante P, Moraleda JM, Da Prada GA, Demirer T, Socie G, Rosti G, European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation: Low incidence of secondary myelodysplasia and acute myeloid leukemia after high-dose chemotherapy as adjuvant therapy for breast cancer patients: a study by the Solid Tumors Working Party of the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Ann Oncol; 2003 Apr;14(4):554-8
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  • [Title] Low incidence of secondary myelodysplasia and acute myeloid leukemia after high-dose chemotherapy as adjuvant therapy for breast cancer patients: a study by the Solid Tumors Working Party of the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation.
  • BACKGROUND: To determine the incidence of secondary myelodysplasia (sMDS) or acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in node-positive breast cancer patients who received high-dose chemotherapy (HDCT) followed by autologous stem-cell support as adjuvant therapy.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: The incidence of sMDS/AML was retrospectively assessed in 364 node-positive breast cancer patients who received HDCT followed by autologous stem-cell support as adjuvant therapy between November 1989 and December 1997 and were reported to the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation registry.
  • After a median follow-up of 48 months (range 1-108 months) only one case of AML was observed, resulting in a crude incidence of 0.27%.
  • This case of AML was observed 18 months after HDCT consisting of three cycles of epirubicin and cyclophosphamide with a cumulative dose of epirubicin 960 mg and cyclophosphamide 19 g.
  • The French-American-British type of AML was M4, and the cytogenetic analysis showed a translocation t(9;11)(p22;q23).
  • CONCLUSIONS: In contrast to patients with malignant lymphoma there seems to be no increased risk of sMDS/AML after HDCT in breast cancer.


35. Xavier L, Cunha M, Gonçalves C, Teixeira Mdos A, Coutinho J, Ribeiro AC, Lima M: Hematological remission and long term hematological control of acute myeloblastic leukemia induced and maintained by granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) therapy. Leuk Lymphoma; 2003 Dec;44(12):2137-42
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  • [Title] Hematological remission and long term hematological control of acute myeloblastic leukemia induced and maintained by granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) therapy.
  • We describe a case of a patient with CD34+, TdT+, CD13-, CD33-, MPO- undifferentiated acute leukemia who refused chemotherapy and who achieved complete hematological remission 14 months after the diagnosis, during a short course of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) for neutropenia and life threatening infection.
  • Five months after withdrawing the G-CSF therapy a second relapse was observed; G-CSF was tried again with success, resulting in a very good hematological response that was sustained by G-CSF maintenance therapy.
  • One year latter there was the need of increasing the doses of G-CSF in order to obtain the same hematological effect, at same time blast cells acquired a more mature CD34+, TdT-, CD13+, CD33-, MPO+ myeloid phenotype.
  • Finally, the patient developed progressive neutropenia, anemia, thrombocytopenia and acute leukemia in spite of G-CSF therapy, dying 64 months after initial diagnosis (50 months after starting G-CSF therapy) with overt G-CSF resistant acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML), after failure of conventional induction chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor / therapeutic use. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antigens, CD / biosynthesis. Antigens, CD13 / biosynthesis. Antigens, CD34 / biosynthesis. Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic / biosynthesis. DNA Nucleotidylexotransferase / biosynthesis. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Peroxidase / metabolism. Phenotype. Remission Induction. Sialic Acid Binding Ig-like Lectin 3. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 14959860.001).
  • [ISSN] 1042-8194
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia & lymphoma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Lymphoma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, CD34; 0 / Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic; 0 / CD33 protein, human; 0 / Sialic Acid Binding Ig-like Lectin 3; 143011-72-7 / Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor; EC 1.11.1.7 / Peroxidase; EC 2.7.7.31 / DNA Nucleotidylexotransferase; EC 3.4.11.2 / Antigens, CD13
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36. Vitale C, Romagnani C, Puccetti A, Olive D, Costello R, Chiossone L, Pitto A, Bacigalupo A, Moretta L, Mingari MC: Surface expression and function of p75/AIRM-1 or CD33 in acute myeloid leukemias: engagement of CD33 induces apoptosis of leukemic cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A; 2001 May 8;98(10):5764-9
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  • [Title] Surface expression and function of p75/AIRM-1 or CD33 in acute myeloid leukemias: engagement of CD33 induces apoptosis of leukemic cells.
  • p75/AIRM-1 is a recently identified inhibitory receptor expressed by natural killer and myeloid cells displaying high homology with CD33.
  • Crosslinking of p75/AIRM-1 or CD33 has been shown to sharply inhibit the in vitro proliferation of both normal myeloid cells and chronic myeloid leukemias.
  • In this study, we analyzed acute myeloid leukemic cells for the expression of p75/AIRM-1. p75/AIRM-1 marked the M5 (11/12) and M4 (2/2) but not the M1, M2, and M3 subtypes according to the French-American-British classification.
  • Cell samples from 12 acute myeloid leukemias were cultured in the presence of granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor.
  • These studies provide the rationale for new therapeutic approaches in myeloid leukemias by using both chemotherapy and apoptosis-inducing mAbs.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD / immunology. Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic / immunology. Apoptosis / immunology. Leukemia, Myeloid / immunology. Receptors, Immunologic / immunology
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Animals. Antibodies, Monoclonal / immunology. Mice. Mice, Inbred BALB C. Sialic Acid Binding Ig-like Lectin 3. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 11320212.001).
  • [ISSN] 0027-8424
  • [Journal-full-title] Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic; 0 / Cd33 protein, mouse; 0 / Receptors, Immunologic; 0 / Sialic Acid Binding Ig-like Lectin 3
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC33287
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37. Numakura K, Tsuchiya N, Habuchi T, Takahashi N: [Therapy related leukemia with 11q23 abnormality induced by chemotherapy consisted of docetaxel for advanced prostatic carcinoma: case report]. Nihon Hinyokika Gakkai Zasshi; 2009 Jul;100(5):580-5
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  • [Title] [Therapy related leukemia with 11q23 abnormality induced by chemotherapy consisted of docetaxel for advanced prostatic carcinoma: case report].
  • A balanced translocation involving 11q23 (MLL gene) could be observed in therapy related leukemia (TRL) patients generally treated with topoisomerase II inhibitors.
  • Herein, we report a patient who developed acute myelomonocytic leukemia (AMMoL) with t (9;. 11) (p22;.
  • q23) following chemotherapy mainly consisted of docetaxel for advanced prostatic carcinoma.
  • A 69-year-old man was treated with a systemic chemotherapy containing docetaxel (total dose = 585 mg) for hormone-refractory metastatic poorly differentiated prostate carcinoma.
  • Although, no disease progression of the prostatic carcinoma was observed, AMMoL with t (9;. 11) (p22;.
  • q23) developed only ten months later from the administration of docetaxel.
  • q23) translocation and clinical course.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects. Carcinoma / therapy. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 11 / genetics. Leukemia, Myelomonocytic, Acute / chemically induced. Leukemia, Myelomonocytic, Acute / genetics. Neoplasms, Second Primary. Prostatic Neoplasms / therapy. Taxoids / adverse effects. Translocation, Genetic
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Prostatectomy

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  • (PMID = 19663246.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-5287
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Hinyōkika Gakkai zasshi. The japanese journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Hinyokika Gakkai Zasshi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Taxoids; 15H5577CQD / docetaxel
  • [Number-of-references] 23
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38. Ruiz-Argüelles GJ, Morales-Toquero A, Manzano C, Ruiz-Delgado GJ, Jaramillo P, Gonzalez-Carrillo ML, Reyes-Núñez V: t(8;21) (q22;q22) acute myelogenous leukemia in Mexico: a single institution experience. Hematology; 2006 Aug;11(4):235-8
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  • [Title] t(8;21) (q22;q22) acute myelogenous leukemia in Mexico: a single institution experience.
  • We analyze the prevalence and clinical features of a group of patients with t(8;21) (q22;q22) acute myeloblastic leukemia, identified in a single institution in México over a 10-year period.
  • Fifteen patients presented at the Centro de Hematología y Medicina Interna de Puebla from February 1995 to August 2005; only nine were treated and followed in the institution.
  • According to the French-American-British (FAB) morphological classification of leukemia, the morphology was M2 in four cases, M4 in three cases, M3 in one case and M0 in one.
  • In addition to the myeloid markers, lymphoid markers were identified in 6 patients.
  • Patients were induced to remission with combined chemotherapy and three subsequently underwent bone marrow transplantation (BMT).
  • The median overall and disease-free survival has not been reached, being above 3390 days, the probability of survival at this time was 73%.
  • In this single-center experience in México, we found that the t(8;21) (q22;q22) variant of leukemia was more frequent than in Caucasian populations, that the co-expression of lymphoid markers in the blast cells is very frequent and that this malignancy is associated with a relatively good prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Chromosomes, Human, Pair 21 / genetics. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 8 / genetics. Core Binding Factor Alpha 2 Subunit / genetics. Leukemia, Myeloid / genetics. Oncogene Proteins, Fusion / genetics. Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation / statistics & numerical data. Translocation, Genetic
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Cytarabine / administration & dosage. Disease-Free Survival. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Infant. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Male. Mexico / epidemiology. Middle Aged. Prevalence. Prospective Studies. Remission Induction. Salvage Therapy. Transplantation, Autologous / statistics & numerical data. Transplantation, Homologous / statistics & numerical data. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17178661.001).
  • [ISSN] 1607-8454
  • [Journal-full-title] Hematology (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hematology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / AML1-ETO fusion protein, human; 0 / Core Binding Factor Alpha 2 Subunit; 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Fusion; 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin
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39. Tunç B, Oner AF, Hiçsönmez G: The effect of short-course high-dose methylprednisolone on peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets in children with acute leukemia during remission induction treatment. Leuk Res; 2003 Jan;27(1):19-21
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  • [Title] The effect of short-course high-dose methylprednisolone on peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets in children with acute leukemia during remission induction treatment.
  • We have previously demonstrated a favorable effect of high-dose steroid in the treatment of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML).
  • This study was performed to determine the effect of short-course high-dose methylprednisolone (HDMP) treatment on the peripheral blood (PB) T lymphocyte subsets, and blast cells, during remission induction treatment in 23 children with newly diagnosed acute leukemia (16 with ALL, seven with AML).
  • All patients were administered HDMP as a single daily oral dose of 30mg/kg for the first 4 days of induction therapy.
  • The number of PB lymphocyte subsets (CD3, CD4, CD8, CD16+56, CD45RA, and CD45RO) were determined by flow cytometry before and after 4 days of HDMP treatment.
  • We suggest that the beneficial effects of HDMP in the induction treatment of acute leukemia may occur partly due to an increase in the number of PB T lymphocyte subsets.
  • A study randomly assigning patients to treatment with either conventional therapy or HDMP may provide further information.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Leukemia, Myeloid / blood. Lymphocyte Count. Lymphocyte Subsets / drug effects. Methylprednisolone / pharmacology. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Adolescent. Antigens, CD / analysis. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Immunophenotyping. Male. Remission Induction. T-Lymphocyte Subsets / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 12479848.001).
  • [ISSN] 0145-2126
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; X4W7ZR7023 / Methylprednisolone
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40. Landers MC, Malempati S, Tilford D, Gatter K, White C, Schroeder TL: Spontaneous regression of aleukemia congenital leukemia cutis. Pediatr Dermatol; 2005 Jan-Feb;22(1):26-30
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  • [Title] Spontaneous regression of aleukemia congenital leukemia cutis.
  • A skin biopsy specimen showed an atypical cellular infiltrate suspicious for leukemia or lymphoma.
  • A bone marrow biopsy specimen demonstrated acute myelogenous leukemia (M4 subtype).
  • Following consultation with pediatric oncology and the recognition of the potential for spontaneous regression, chemotherapy for the infant's condition was not recommended.
  • We report this instance of aleukemic congenital leukemia with spontaneous regression of leukemia cutis without therapeutic intervention.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia / pathology. Leukemia, Myeloid / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Humans. Infant, Newborn. Male. Remission, Spontaneous

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  • (PMID = 15660893.001).
  • [ISSN] 0736-8046
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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41. Tsuda T, Okamoto Y, Sakaguchi R, Katayama N, Ota K: The CAG regimen (low-dose cytarabine, aclarubicin hydrochloride and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor) for the treatment of elderly acute myelomonocytic leukaemia: a case study. J Int Med Res; 2001 Jan-Feb;29(1):41-7
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  • [Title] The CAG regimen (low-dose cytarabine, aclarubicin hydrochloride and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor) for the treatment of elderly acute myelomonocytic leukaemia: a case study.
  • Elderly patients with acute myelomonocytic leukaemia (AMMoL) frequently have a poor quality of life after induction of remission using high-intensity treatment; we seek a more appropriate regimen for such patients.
  • An 86-year-old man was hospitalized with a diagnosis of AMMoL (FAB classification M4), of abnormal karyotype, and complications of diabetes mellitus and complete right bundle branch block.
  • He was treated with CAG therapy (cytarabine 10 mg/m2 subcutaneously every 12 h for 14 consecutive days; aclarubicin hydrochloride 10 mg/m2 per day, bolus intravenously for 4 consecutive days; granulocyte colony-stimulating factor 100 microg/day, subcutaneous injection for 14 consecutive days) every 3 months.
  • White blood cell counts were at their lowest (around 600 - 800/microl) 12 days after the end of therapy, but returned to about 2000 - 2300/microl 30 days after stopping therapy.
  • No symptoms of drug-related toxicity, except slight nausea, were found.
  • Complete remission with a good quality of life was induced and lasted over 2 years suggesting that CAG therapy might prove effective in elderly patients with AMMoL.
  • [MeSH-major] Aclarubicin / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cytarabine / therapeutic use. Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor / therapeutic use. Leukemia, Myelomonocytic, Acute / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 11277347.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-0605
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of international medical research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Int. Med. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine; 143011-72-7 / Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor; 74KXF8I502 / Aclarubicin; CAG protocol
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42. Olaniyi JA: An Acute Leukaemia Masquerading as Immune Thrombocytopaenic Purpura (ITP)? A Case Report. Clin Med Case Rep; 2009;2:31-4
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  • [Title] An Acute Leukaemia Masquerading as Immune Thrombocytopaenic Purpura (ITP)? A Case Report.
  • This is a case report of a 35 year old female with diagnosed Immune Thrombocytopaenic Purpura (ITP) that was strangely followed by acute myeloid leukaemia at 10 months post diagnosis of ITP.
  • Shortly after delivery, she represented with gingival bleeding and peripheral film review and subsequent bone marrow cytology was in keeping with AML-M4 subtype.
  • She died shortly after diagnosis without being able to receive chemotherapy.

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  • (PMID = 24179370.001).
  • [ISSN] 1178-6450
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical medicine. Case reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Med Case Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3785378
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; M4 subtype / acute myeloid leukaemia / bleeding / immune thrombocytopaenic purpura / pregnancy
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43. Bishara J, Weinberger M, Lin AY, Pitlik S: Amphotericin B--not so terrible. Ann Pharmacother; 2001 Mar;35(3):308-10
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  • OBJECTIVE: To describe a patient who developed adverse reactions to two different lipid formulations of amphotericin B: liposomal amphotericin B (AmBisome) and amphotericin B colloidal dispersion (ABCD, Amphocil), yet tolerated amphotericin B deoxycholate (Fungizone) despite renal toxicity.
  • CASE SUMMARY: A 72-year-old woman with acute myelomonocytic leukemia was treated with amphotericin B deoxycholate for suspected pulmonary aspergillosis; the drug was well tolerated but resulted in renal failure.
  • Antifungal therapy was then changed to liposomal amphotericin B.
  • Within 10 minutes of liposomal amphotericin B infusion, the patient developed severe dyspnea, chest pain, and a feeling of imminent death.
  • Again, within 10 minutes of this infusion, the patient developed fever, chills, hypotension, severe chest pain, dsypnea, and a feeling of imminent death.
  • The patient refused any further treatment with these drugs and insisted on switching back to amphotericin B deoxycholate, which was then administered for 10 days and was well tolerated.
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Kidney Injury / chemically induced. Aged. Aspergillosis / complications. Aspergillosis / drug therapy. Colloids. Female. Humans. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / complications. Liposomes

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  • (PMID = 11261528.001).
  • [ISSN] 1060-0280
  • [Journal-full-title] The Annals of pharmacotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Pharmacother
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antifungal Agents; 0 / Colloids; 0 / Liposomes; 7XU7A7DROE / Amphotericin B
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44. Arai Y, Handa T, Nakamura F, Takahashi W, Maki K, Mitani K: [Double t (3; 21) in acute myelomonocytic leukemia transformed from chronic myelomonocytic leukemia]. Rinsho Ketsueki; 2002 Sep;43(9):865-7
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  • [Title] [Double t (3; 21) in acute myelomonocytic leukemia transformed from chronic myelomonocytic leukemia].
  • A 63-year-old male was diagnosed as chronic myelomonocytic leukemia with normal karyotype in September 1998.
  • He developed acute myelogenous leukemia (AML-M4Eo) in September 2001.
  • He could not achieve complete remission after two courses of induction chemotherapy, and his leukemia cells carrying double t(3;21) were relatively increased.
  • This is the first leukemia case with double t(3;21) and this chromosomal abnormality might play a role in leukemia cell proliferation by generating two AML1/EVI-1 genes.
  • [MeSH-major] Chromosomes, Human, Pair 21 / genetics. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 3 / genetics. Leukemia, Myelomonocytic, Acute / genetics. Leukemia, Myelomonocytic, Chronic / pathology. Translocation, Genetic

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  • (PMID = 12412294.001).
  • [ISSN] 0485-1439
  • [Journal-full-title] [Rinshō ketsueki] The Japanese journal of clinical hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rinsho Ketsueki
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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45. Shimizu T, Takeda K: Induction of retinoic acid receptor-alpha by granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor in human myeloid leukemia cell lines. Cancer Res; 2000 Aug 15;60(16):4544-9
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  • [Title] Induction of retinoic acid receptor-alpha by granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor in human myeloid leukemia cell lines.
  • We reported previously that treatment with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) induces differentiation of human myeloblastic leukemia ML-1 cells to granulocytes, whereas treatment with ATRA alone induces practically no differentiation of these cells.
  • Furthermore, expression of CD38 mRNA mediated through RAR alpha is induced synergistically by treatment with ATRA + GM-CSF.
  • The induction of RAR alpha by GM-CSF was also detected in other myeloid leukemia cell lines (THP-1 and KG-1) that showed a synergistic effect similar to that seen in ML-1 cells in response to ATRA + GM-CSF.
  • We also found that GM-CSF induced the expression of RAR alpha in blood cells obtained from patients with acute myeloid leukemia.
  • This activity of GM-CSF may serve as a useful adjunct to differentiation therapy for retinoic acid-nonresponsive leukemias.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD. Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor / pharmacology. Leukemia, Myeloid / metabolism. Receptors, Retinoic Acid / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] ADP-ribosyl Cyclase. Antigens, CD38. Antigens, Differentiation / biosynthesis. Antigens, Differentiation / genetics. Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Cell Differentiation / drug effects. Drug Synergism. Gene Expression / drug effects. Gene Expression Regulation, Leukemic / drug effects. Granulocytes / cytology. Granulocytes / drug effects. Humans. Membrane Glycoproteins. NAD+ Nucleosidase / biosynthesis. NAD+ Nucleosidase / genetics. Nuclear Proteins / metabolism. Protein Binding / drug effects. RNA, Messenger / biosynthesis. Response Elements / drug effects. Response Elements / physiology. Retinoid X Receptors. Stimulation, Chemical. Transcription Factors / biosynthesis. Transcription Factors / genetics. Tretinoin / pharmacology. Tumor Cells, Cultured / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 10969805.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-5472
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, Differentiation; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Retinoic Acid; 0 / Retinoid X Receptors; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / retinoic acid receptor alpha; 5688UTC01R / Tretinoin; 83869-56-1 / Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor; EC 3.2.2.5 / ADP-ribosyl Cyclase; EC 3.2.2.5 / Antigens, CD38; EC 3.2.2.5 / CD38 protein, human; EC 3.2.2.5 / NAD+ Nucleosidase
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46. Pânzaru C, Dan M, Burcoveanu C, Mereuţă A, Buiuc D: Disseminated infection due to Candida guilliermondii in a patient with AML(M4). Case study. Rev Med Chir Soc Med Nat Iasi; 2006 Jul-Sep;110(3):727-30
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  • [Title] Disseminated infection due to Candida guilliermondii in a patient with AML(M4). Case study.
  • A 43-year-old patient admitted with acute myelogenous leukemia, developed bronchopneumonia and sepsis during profound neutropenia.
  • Fever and pulmonary infiltrates did not improve by using empiric antibacterial therapy (Cefoperazona-Sulbactam, Trimethoprim-Sulphametoxazol).
  • After a few days of therapy with Voriconazol, fever disappeared and the clinical state of patient was improved.
  • [MeSH-major] Candida / isolation & purification. Candidiasis / complications. Fungemia / microbiology. Immunocompromised Host. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Amphotericin B / therapeutic use. Antifungal Agents / therapeutic use. Bronchopneumonia / microbiology. Drug Therapy, Combination. Fluconazole / therapeutic use. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neutropenia / etiology. Pyrimidines / therapeutic use. Treatment Outcome. Triazoles / therapeutic use. Voriconazole

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  • (PMID = 17571574.001).
  • [ISSN] 0048-7848
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista medico-chirurgicală̆ a Societă̆ţ̜ii de Medici ş̧i Naturaliş̧ti din Iaş̧i
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Med Chir Soc Med Nat Iasi
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Romania
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antifungal Agents; 0 / Pyrimidines; 0 / Triazoles; 7XU7A7DROE / Amphotericin B; 8VZV102JFY / Fluconazole; JFU09I87TR / Voriconazole
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47. Thiébaut A, Thomas X, Belhabri A, Anglaret B, Archimbaud E: Impact of pre-induction therapy leukapheresis on treatment outcome in adult acute myelogenous leukemia presenting with hyperleukocytosis. Ann Hematol; 2000 Sep;79(9):501-6
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  • [Title] Impact of pre-induction therapy leukapheresis on treatment outcome in adult acute myelogenous leukemia presenting with hyperleukocytosis.
  • Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) presenting with hyperleukocytosis is generally of poor prognosis due to an increased early death rate and a lower response to initial chemotherapy.
  • Between April 1985 and December 1995, all patients with newly diagnosed AML admitted to our institution with an initial white blood cell (WBC) count greater than 100 x 10(9)/l were scheduled to undergo leukapheresis.
  • Morphologic subtypes, according to the French-American-British classification, showed 3 M0, 16 M1, 6 M2, 10 M4, 16 M5, and 2 unclassified cases of AML.
  • The median WBC count at the time of starting chemotherapy was 85 x 10(9)/l (range 23-264 x 10(9)/l).
  • Median disease-free survival was 10 months, while median overall survival was 8 months.
  • In this study, early death rate is lower than data previously published in the literature and almost all patients could receive chemotherapy.
  • This might suggest a benefit of initial leukapheresis in the treatment of AML presenting with hyperleukocytosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukapheresis. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / therapy. Leukocytosis / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome


48. Pogoda JM, Katz J, McKean-Cowdin R, Nichols PW, Ross RK, Preston-Martin S: Prescription drug use and risk of acute myeloid leukemia by French-American-British subtype: results from a Los Angeles County case-control study. Int J Cancer; 2005 Apr 20;114(4):634-8
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  • [Title] Prescription drug use and risk of acute myeloid leukemia by French-American-British subtype: results from a Los Angeles County case-control study.
  • Chemotherapy is a well-established risk factor for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) but little is known about other prescription drugs and AML risk.
  • We report data from a population-based Los Angeles County study in which 299 matched case-control pairs had complete data on prescription drug use and 88% of cases were subtyped according to the French-American-British (FAB) criteria.
  • Prescription nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use for at least 4 weeks in the 2 to 10 years before diagnosis was associated with decreased risk (odds ratio = 0.5, 95% confidence interval=0.3, 1.0; p=0.04) with dose-response most evident for FAB subtype M2 (OR = 0.6, CI: 0.1, 2.9 for duration < or =6 months; OR = 0.2, CI: 0.0, 1.6 for >6 months).
  • For subtype M4, ORs increased with increasing duration of benzodiazepine use in the 2 to 10 years before diagnosis (OR = 1.5, CI: 0.3, 9.0 for < or =6 months vs. OR = 5.0, CI: 0.6, 42.8 for >6 months).
  • These results suggest that prescription drugs other than chemotherapy may have FAB subtype-specific effects on AML risk.
  • [MeSH-major] Drug Prescriptions. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / chemically induced. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / classification. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal / pharmacology. Benzodiazepines / adverse effects. Case-Control Studies. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Therapy. Female. Humans. Los Angeles. Male. Middle Aged. Odds Ratio. Risk. Risk Factors. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 15609330.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-7136
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / 5 P30 ES07048-06; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA17054; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CN / N01-CN-25403
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal; 12794-10-4 / Benzodiazepines
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49. Potenza L, Luppi M, Riva G, Morselli M, Ferrari A, Imovilli A, Giacobbi F, Temperani P, Donelli A, Narni F, Torelli G: Isolated extramedullary relapse after autologous bone marrow transplantation for acute myeloid leukemia: case report and review of the literature. Am J Hematol; 2006 Jan;81(1):45-50
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  • [Title] Isolated extramedullary relapse after autologous bone marrow transplantation for acute myeloid leukemia: case report and review of the literature.
  • Isolated extramedullary relapse (IEMR) is a pattern of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) relapse post-allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (alloBMT).
  • We report a case of a woman with M4 AML who experienced IEMR post-autoBMT and review the related literature.
  • The review suggests that an M2 or M4 French-American-British (FAB) phenotype, intermediate cytogenetic risk group, and chromosome 8 abnormalities are more frequently associated with the occurrence of IEMR.
  • Combined treatment with radiation and high-dose chemotherapy may be effective.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Marrow Transplantation. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Central Nervous System / radiography. Chromosome Aberrations. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 8. Combined Modality Therapy. Cytarabine / administration & dosage. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Recurrence. Registries. Transplantation, Autologous. Transplantation, Homologous


50. Chung HJ, Park CJ, Jang S, Chi HS, Seo EJ, Seo JJ: A case of lineage switch from acute lymphoblastic leukemia to acute myeloid leukemia. Korean J Lab Med; 2007 Apr;27(2):102-5
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  • [Title] A case of lineage switch from acute lymphoblastic leukemia to acute myeloid leukemia.
  • Lineage switch from acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) to acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is very rare.
  • We report a case of a 9 yr-old ALL patient relapsed as acute myelomonocytic leukemia.
  • At the initial diagnosis, the blast cell morphology and immunophenotype were consistent with the diagnosis of typical ALL (L1 subtype according to FAB classification).
  • Complete remission (CR) was achieved after induction and consolidation chemotherapy (Children's Cancer Study Group 1891 protocol, CCG1891).
  • Nine months, which is a very short time compared with other cases in the literatures, after the diagnosis of ALL, she relapsed with completely different blasts (typical AML, M4 according to FAB classification) in morphology, cytochemistry, and immunophenotyping.
  • The karyotype has changed from 56,XY,+X,+Y,+Y,+4,+8,+10, +14,+17,-20,+21,+21,+21[6]/57,idem,+Y[19] to 46,XY,t(8;16)(p11.2;p13.1)[19]/46,XY[1], showing unrelated chromosomal abnormality to the karyotype at the initial diagnosis.
  • Moreover, both findings were quite specific for each common cell ALL and acute myelomonocytic leukemia.
  • The treatment with AML 2000 protocol chemotherapy failed, and he underwent the chemotherapy with the combination of high dose cytarabine and mitoxantrone and has been in CR state for 21 months, until now.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Lineage. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / diagnosis. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / diagnosis


51. Wang TY, Huang XO, Xu CG, Chen XC, Wang H: [Acute myelomonocytic leukemia occurred after multiple myeloma treated: a case report]. Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban; 2007 Mar;38(2):347-9
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  • [Title] [Acute myelomonocytic leukemia occurred after multiple myeloma treated: a case report].
  • We reported a case of multiple myeloma, who suffered from the acute myelomonocytic leukemia (AML-M4) after the chemotherapy of alkylating agent.
  • The multiple myeloma of this patient was proved to have got the remission through bone marrow aspiration, immunofixation electrophoresis of serum, serum protein electrophoresis and detection of urine light chain.
  • During the course of supportive treatment only with blood cell and platelet transfusion, WBC count of this patient showed a rising trend and the blast cells (8%-15%) started to occur in the peripheral blood.
  • Thus, the diagnosis of multiple myeloma in remission and secondary AML-M4 was established.
  • When the chemotherapy regimen to AML was being planned for this patient, she died of massive hemorrhage of gastrointestinal tract due to thrombocytopenia and ineffectiveness.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Myelomonocytic, Acute / diagnosis. Multiple Myeloma / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Alkylating Agents / therapeutic use. Bone Marrow Cells / pathology. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis


52. Hiçsönmez G, Cetin M, Tuncer AM, Yenicesu I, Aslan D, Ozyürek E, Unal S: Children with acute myeloblastic leukemia presenting with extramedullary infiltration: the effects of high-dose steroid treatment. Leuk Res; 2004 Jan;28(1):25-34
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  • [Title] Children with acute myeloblastic leukemia presenting with extramedullary infiltration: the effects of high-dose steroid treatment.
  • To evaluate whether children with acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML) presenting with extramedullary infiltration (EMI) have different clinical, morphologic features and prognosis from children without EMI, a 127 consecutive previously untreated children with AML were entered in this study.
  • Fifty-one children (40%) had EMI at diagnosis and 27% of these showed multiple site involvement.
  • Twenty-seven of 127 children (21%) presented myeloid tumors.
  • However, analysis of clinical and biological features at diagnosis showed that WBC count > or =50 x 10(9) l(-1), hepatosplenomegaly >5 cm, FAB AML-M4 and AML-M5 subtypes and CD13, CD14 expression of bone marrow (BM) leukemic cells (>20%) were more frequent in children with EMI.
  • Two consecutive treatment protocols were used.
  • In both protocols remission was achieved with combined high-dose methylprednisolone (HDMP) as a differentiating and apoptosis inducing agent with mild cytotoxic chemotherapy (low-dose cytosine arabinoside (LD Ara-C), weekly mitoxantrone and Ara-C or 6-thioguanine).
  • However, in patients who presented with myeloblastoma and treated with a more intensive post-remission therapy (AML-94), the 4-year disease-free survival (DFS) and event-free survival (EFS) rates were not found to be significantly different from children who had no EMI (P>0.05).
  • In further studies, the prognostic significance of different localisation of EMI and the effect of addition of HDMP to cytotoxic chemotherapy should be explored in larger series.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Leukemia, Myeloid / diagnosis. Leukemic Infiltration / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Antigens, CD13 / metabolism. Antigens, CD14 / metabolism. Blast Crisis. Bone Marrow Cells / metabolism. Bone Marrow Cells / pathology. Child. Child, Preschool. Cytarabine / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Male. Methylprednisolone / administration & dosage. Mitoxantrone / administration & dosage. Prognosis. Remission Induction. Survival Rate. Thioguanine / administration & dosage. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 14630077.001).
  • [ISSN] 0145-2126
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD14; 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine; BZ114NVM5P / Mitoxantrone; EC 3.4.11.2 / Antigens, CD13; FTK8U1GZNX / Thioguanine; X4W7ZR7023 / Methylprednisolone
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53. Shi J, Shao ZH, Liu H, Bai J, Cao YR, He GS, Tu MF, Wang XL, Hao YS, Yang TY, Yang CL: Transformation of myelodysplastic syndromes into acute myeloid leukemias. Chin Med J (Engl); 2004 Jul;117(7):963-7
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  • [Title] Transformation of myelodysplastic syndromes into acute myeloid leukemias.
  • BACKGROUND: Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDSs), also called preleukemias, are a group of myeloid hematopoietic malignant disorders.
  • We studied the transformation of MDS into acute myeloid leukemia (AML).
  • The clinical manifestation, peripheral blood and bone marrow condition, karyotypes, immunophenotypes, response to treatment, and prognosis of AML evolution from MDS (MDS-AML) were also observed.
  • RESULTS: During the course of this study, over the past eight years and seven months, 21 (13.91%) of 151 MDS patients progressed to overt leukemia, with a median interval of 5 (1 - 23) months.
  • There were five parameters positively correlated to leukemic transformation: under 40 years of age, pancytopenia of 3 lineages, more than 15% blasts in the bone marrow, at least two abnormal karyotypes, and treatment with combined chemotherapy.
  • All of the 21 patients with leukemia suffered from MDS-AML, and most of them were M2, M4, or M5.
  • Two (9.52%) MDS-AML patients developed extramedullary infiltration.
  • After developing AML, 8 (47.06%) patients developed abnormal karyotypes.
  • High expression of immature myeloid antigens, including CD33 [(49.83 +/- 24.50)%], CD13 [(36.38 +/- 33.84)%], monocytic antigen CD14 [(38.50 +/- 24.60)%], and stem cell marker CD34 [(34.67 +/- 30.59)%], were found on bone marrow mononuclear cells from MDS-AML patients after leukemic transformation.
  • In some cases, lymphoid antigens, such as CD5, CD7, CD9, and CD19, coexisted with myeloid antigens.
  • A low complete remission rate (31.25%) and a short survival time, with median survival of 6 (1 - 28) months, were found in patients with MDS-AML treated by induction chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: MDS has a high risk of developing into AML, either gradually or rapidly.
  • Patients with MDS-AML have specific biological characteristics and a worse prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / etiology. Myelodysplastic Syndromes / complications


54. Novoa V, Nuñez N, Cervellini M, Starosta A, Carballo OG: [Presence of B cell clones in acute myelomonocytic leukemia]. Medicina (B Aires); 2010;70(2):163-5
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  • [Title] [Presence of B cell clones in acute myelomonocytic leukemia].
  • [Transliterated title] Hallazgo de células clonales B en leucemia mielomonocítica aguda.
  • The coexistence of acute myeloid leukemia and chronic lymphocytic leukemia in the same patient is rare.
  • The majority of the cases correspond to patients that developed acute leukemia during the evolutionary course of a chronic lymphatic leukemia following treatment with chemotherapy drugs.
  • We report a case of acute myelomonocytic leukemia concurrent with untreated B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia in which the use of flow cytometry analysis with a large panel of monoclonal antibodies, allowed the demonstration of different pathological populations and determine immunophenotyping patterns.
  • Published cases of simultaneous chronic lymphocytic leukemia and acute leukemia are reviewed.
  • The use of multiparametric flow cytometry to differentiate the populations demonstrates the utility of this technology in the diagnosis of these hematological malignancies.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / analysis. B-Lymphocytes / pathology. Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell / pathology. Leukemia, Myelomonocytic, Acute / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20447900.001).
  • [ISSN] 0025-7680
  • [Journal-full-title] Medicina
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Medicina (B Aires)
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Argentina
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal
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55. Akimkin VG, Ledin EV, Skvortsov SV, Rukavitsyn OA: [Incidence of hepatitis B virus infection in patients with blood disease]. Ter Arkh; 2007;79(11):28-31
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  • [Title] [Incidence of hepatitis B virus infection in patients with blood disease].
  • AIM: To define incidence of HBV infection in patients with blood diseases caused by blood components transfusion; correlation between infection rate and blood disease nosological entity, intensity of hemoreplacement therapy, time of hepatitis B incubation period in patients with hematological malignancies after the diagnosis and initiation of polychemotherapy (PCT).
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: In 2000-2007 a prospective clinicoepidemiological trial was made to detect markers of HBV infection among 303 patients 15 to 76 years of age treated in the department of acute leukemia chemotherapy of N.N.
  • Burdenko Military Hospital for acute lymphoid and myeloblastic leukemia, chronic myeloid leukemia in a blastic crisis, myelodysplastic syndrome in blast transformation, lymphoproliferative diseases with bone marrow affection.
  • Among the infected patients there were 16 (53.4%) patients with different variants of acute myeloblastic leukemia, 12 (40.0%) with different immunophenotypes of acute lymphoblastic leukemia, 1 (3.3%) patient with acute biphenotypical leukemia and 1 (3.3%) with lymphoma/leukemia.
  • HBV infection was registered in patients 2 to 32 months after the beginning of the treatment.
  • Most of the patients - 23 (74%) of 30 - were infected with HBV within the first year after hematological diagnosis and PCT induction course.
  • HBV was diagnosed within treatment year two in 5 (16%) patients and within year three after PCT in 3 (10%).
  • CONCLUSION: High incidence of HBV infection in patients with hematological malignancies points to a high epidemiological risk of hemoreplacement therapy, unsatisfactory quality of donor blood testing and necessity of updating methods of donor infection detection.
  • [MeSH-major] Hepatitis B / epidemiology. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / epidemiology. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Antiviral Agents / therapeutic use. Biomarkers. Blood Transfusion / methods. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Incidence. Male. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 18219969.001).
  • [ISSN] 0040-3660
  • [Journal-full-title] Terapevticheskiĭ arkhiv
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ter. Arkh.
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antiviral Agents; 0 / Biomarkers
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56. Nagata T, Mugishima H, Yoden A, Yoshikawa K, Oguni T, Yamashiro K, Yamamori S, Harada K: A case of monoclonal gammopathy associated with acute myelomonocytic leukemia with eosinophilia suggested to be the result of lineage infidelity. Am J Hematol; 2000 Sep;65(1):66-71
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  • [Title] A case of monoclonal gammopathy associated with acute myelomonocytic leukemia with eosinophilia suggested to be the result of lineage infidelity.
  • Acute myelomonocytic leukemia (AMMoL) accompanied by monoclonal gammopathy is a rare condition, and its pathogenesis and the cytogenetic mechanism of such leukemogenesis have not been determined in detail.
  • A case of AMMoL with eosinophilia accompanied by immunoglobulin G kappa monoclonal gammopathy is described.
  • The intensities of the rearranged bands for these genes on Southern blot analysis suggested the existence of a major population of leukemic cells with rearranged Igkappa gene and minor population(s) of leukemic cells with rearranged c-myc and/or c-jun proto-oncogene(s) in the patient's bone marrow and indicated the occurrence of genetic evolutionary changes in leukemic cells in this patient before starting chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Eosinophilia / complications. Leukemia, Myelomonocytic, Acute / complications. Paraproteinemias / complications

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 10936867.001).
  • [ISSN] 0361-8609
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunoglobulin G; 0 / Immunoglobulin kappa-Chains; 9007-49-2 / DNA
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57. Nishikawa M, Yamamoto M, Watanabe Y, Kita K, Shiku H: Clinical significance of low protein phosphatase-1 activity of blasts in acute myelogenous leukemia with high white cell counts. Int J Oncol; 2001 Mar;18(3):559-65
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  • [Title] Clinical significance of low protein phosphatase-1 activity of blasts in acute myelogenous leukemia with high white cell counts.
  • To determine the clinical importance of PP1 expression, we compared PP1 activity of leukemic blasts with other putative prognostic factors in 46 patients with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) who were treated with remission induction chemotherapy.
  • PP1 was ubiquitously but differently expressed in various FAB subtypes (M1-M5), although PP1 activity was significantly higher in blasts of AML-M4 than in AML-M2.
  • PP1 activity was significantly lower in elderly patients > or =55 years (P=0.005), and in those with high white cell counts > or =100,000/microl (P=0.039) at initial diagnosis.
  • Correlation was observed between PP1 activity (<0.15 vs > or =0.15 nmol/min/10(8) cells) and prognosis of AML patients.
  • The median overall survival was 8 months for patients with low PP1 activity compared to 27 months for those with high PP1 activity in their AML cells.
  • This preliminary study suggests that low PP1 activity may be associated with shortened survival time for AML patients with high white cell counts.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / enzymology. Leukocytosis / enzymology. Phosphoprotein Phosphatases / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Antigens, CD34 / metabolism. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Cytosol / physiology. Female. Humans. Leukocyte Count. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Protein Phosphatase 1. Remission Induction. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11179487.001).
  • [ISSN] 1019-6439
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD34; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; EC 3.1.3.16 / Phosphoprotein Phosphatases; EC 3.1.3.16 / Protein Phosphatase 1
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58. Mozziconacci MJ, Carbuccia N, Prebet T, Charbonnier A, Murati A, Vey N, Chaffanet M, Birnbaum D: Common features of myeloproliferative disorders with t(8;9)(p12;q33) and CEP110-FGFR1 fusion: report of a new case and review of the literature. Leuk Res; 2008 Aug;32(8):1304-8
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  • [Title] Common features of myeloproliferative disorders with t(8;9)(p12;q33) and CEP110-FGFR1 fusion: report of a new case and review of the literature.
  • The 8p12 myeloproliferative syndrome is a rare, generally aggressive chronic myeloproliferative disorder (MPD).
  • We report here the tenth case of translocation (8;9)(p12;q33) in an acute myelomonocytic leukemia and provide a review of the literature that points to common syndrome features: the t(8;9)(p11;q33) MPD transforms rapidly, and always in myelomonocytic leukemia, with a possible B- or T-lymphoid involvement, which may include tonsil invasion.
  • [MeSH-major] Chromosomes, Human, Pair 8. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 9. Leukemia, Myelomonocytic, Acute / genetics. Myeloproliferative Disorders / genetics. Oncogene Proteins, Fusion / metabolism. Receptor, Fibroblast Growth Factor, Type 1 / metabolism. Translocation, Genetic

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  • (PMID = 18096225.001).
  • [ISSN] 0145-2126
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Fusion; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Fibroblast Growth Factor, Type 1; EC 2.7.11.- / CEP110-FGFR1 fusion protein, human
  • [Number-of-references] 14
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59. Anan T, Imamura T, Yokoyama S, Fujiwara S: Erythema nodosum and granulomatous lesions preceding acute myelomonocytic leukemia. J Dermatol; 2004 Sep;31(9):741-7
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  • [Title] Erythema nodosum and granulomatous lesions preceding acute myelomonocytic leukemia.
  • A 65-year-old female with a one-month history of painful eruptions on her lower extremities was admitted to our hospital.
  • These eruptions also disappeared with treatment with oral PSL (20 mg daily).
  • No underlying disease, including sarcoidosis, diabetes mellitus, or rheumatoid arthritis, was found.
  • However, five months later, the patient developed conspicuous leukocytosis.
  • She was diagnosed with acute myelomonocytic leukemia (M4) and treated with chemotherapy.
  • After complete remission had been achieved, the EN reappeared, in association with an increase in blastic cells in the bone marrow.
  • Physicians must remember that recurrent EN and granulomatous lesions can be a prodromal sign of leukemia.
  • [MeSH-major] Erythema Nodosum / diagnosis. Granuloma / diagnosis. Leukemia, Myelomonocytic, Acute / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Lower Extremity


60. Graf M, Hecht K, Reif S, Pelka-Fleischer R, Pfister K, Schmetzer H: Expression and prognostic value of hemopoietic cytokine receptors in acute myeloid leukemia (AML): implications for future therapeutical strategies. Eur J Haematol; 2004 Feb;72(2):89-106
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  • [Title] Expression and prognostic value of hemopoietic cytokine receptors in acute myeloid leukemia (AML): implications for future therapeutical strategies.
  • There is evidence to suggest, that those receptors (R) could play a role in leukemia with respect to cell differentiations and its regulation, prognosis, and pathobiology.
  • Knowledge of individual cytokine receptor (CKR) profiles could provide new discoveries about CKR-supported therapeutic considerations.
  • METHODS: We have studied the expression of CKR on mononuclear bone marrow (BM) cells of 89 patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) at first diagnosis, three patients at relapse or with persisting AML and eight healthy probands by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis using directly fluorescein-conjugated antibodies: CD114 (hG-CSF-R), CD116 (hGM-CSF-R), CD117 (hSCF-R), CD123 (hIL-3-R), CD130 (gp130subunit), CD135 (hFL-R).
  • RESULTS: All investigated CKR were more frequently expressed in AML-samples than in healthy BM-samples, except CD130, which was only expressed on 5-6% of AML-blasts in all and with only one healthy BM-sample being CD130(+).
  • Within the French-American-British (FAB) types we observed a maturation- and lineage (granulocytic/monocytic)-committed expression profile.
  • Monocytic subtypes (FAB-type M4/M5) showed significantly more GM-CSF-R(+) (P = 0.001) and FL-R(+) (P = 0.001) and significantly less stem cell factor-R (SCF-R(+)) (P = 0.02) cases.
  • Highest proportions of G-CSF-R(+) blasts were observed in FAB-type M3.
  • In undifferentiated leukemias (FAB-type M1, M2) high amounts of SCF-R(+), IL-3-R(+), and FL-R(+) blasts could be detected.
  • FL-R was the only CKR, which was positive in FAB-type M0 (n = 2).
  • For clinical evaluation only patients treated by the AML-CG-protocol, were included (n = 53).
  • CONCLUSION: We can conclude, that CKR-expression in AML is maturation- and lineage-committed and the proportions of especially early acting CKR have influence on relapse-free survival probability of AML-patients, independently of the karyotype.
  • With respect to the individual CKR status the benefit of cytokines as priming agents, as agents to treat neutropenia or to influence the metabolism of chemotherapy can be discussed under new points of view.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / immunology. Receptors, Cytokine / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Bone Marrow Cells / immunology. Bone Marrow Cells / pathology. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Predictive Value of Tests. Prognosis. Recurrence. Time Factors


61. Yen A, Fenning R, Chandraratna R, Walker P, Varvayanis S: A retinoic acid receptor beta/gamma-selective prodrug (tazarotene) plus a retinoid X receptor ligand induces extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation, retinoblastoma hypophosphorylation, G0 arrest, and cell differentiation. Mol Pharmacol; 2004 Dec;66(6):1727-37
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  • Using HL-60 human myeloblastic leukemia cells, a cell line that undergoes G0 cell cycle arrest and myeloid differentiation in response to retinoic acid (RA), tazarotene failed to cause extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation, a requirement for retinoic acid (RA)-induced G0 arrest and differentiation; retinoblastoma (RB) hypophosphorylation, another characteristic of RA-induced G0 arrest and cell differentiation; G0 arrest; or differentiation into mature myeloid cells.
  • However, when used in combination with a retinoid X receptor (RXR)-selective ligand, tazarotene caused ERK activation, RB tumor suppressor protein hypophosphorylation, G0 arrest, and myeloid differentiation.
  • Tazarotene used with RXR-selective ligand may thus be a useful antineoplastic agent in differentiation induction therapy as exemplified by the prototypical RA treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Differentiation / drug effects. Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases / metabolism. G0 Phase / drug effects. Receptors, Retinoic Acid / genetics. Retinoid X Receptors / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Enzyme Activation / drug effects. HL-60 Cells. Humans. Kinetics. Ligands. Nicotinic Acids / pharmacology. Phosphorylation. Prodrugs / pharmacology. Transcriptional Activation / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 15383624.001).
  • [ISSN] 0026-895X
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ligands; 0 / Nicotinic Acids; 0 / Prodrugs; 0 / Receptors, Retinoic Acid; 0 / Retinoid X Receptors; 0 / retinoic acid receptor beta; 0 / retinoic acid receptor gamma; 81BDR9Y8PS / tazarotene; EC 2.7.11.24 / Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases
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62. Wu J, Fantasia JE, Kaplan R: Oral manifestations of acute myelomonocytic leukemia: a case report and review of the classification of leukemias. J Periodontol; 2002 Jun;73(6):664-8
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  • [Title] Oral manifestations of acute myelomonocytic leukemia: a case report and review of the classification of leukemias.
  • BACKGROUND: Oral signs and symptoms may indicate a serious underlying systemic disease.
  • The most frequently observed oral findings of leukemia are mucosal bleeding and ulceration, petechiae, and gingival hyperplasia.
  • This case report describes a 53-year-old male who presented with gingival enlargement and bleeding, fatigue, and recent weight loss as initial manifestations of acute myelomonocytic leukemia.
  • METHODS: A gingival biopsy was performed, revealing the presence of a hypercellular infiltrate of atypical myeloid and monocytic cells.
  • RESULTS: Flow cytometry results confirmed that the infiltrate was of a myelomonocytic origin, and a diagnosis of acute myelomonocytic leukemia was rendered.
  • The patient responded well to a chemotherapeutic induction regimen of cytosine arabinoside and idarubicin hydrochloride, with regression of gingival enlargement and remission of disease.
  • The patient continued with consolidation chemotherapy and an autologous bone marrow transplant, but eventually died 22 months after initial diagnosis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Oral health care professionals, especially periodontists, must recognize that gingival enlargement may represent an initial manifestation of an underlying systemic disease.
  • Acute myelogenous leukemia is a hematological disorder with a predilection for gingival involvement.
  • [MeSH-major] Gingival Hemorrhage / etiology. Gingival Overgrowth / etiology. Leukemia, Myelomonocytic, Acute / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cytarabine / therapeutic use. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Idarubicin / therapeutic use. Leukemia / classification. Male. Middle Aged

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  • [CommentIn] J Periodontol. 2002 Oct;73(10):1228 [12416783.001]
  • (PMID = 12083541.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3492
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of periodontology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Periodontol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine; ZRP63D75JW / Idarubicin
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63. Vázquez E, Castellote A, Piqueras J, Ortuno P, Sánchez-Toledo J, Nogués P, Lucaya J: Second malignancies in pediatric patients: imaging findings and differential diagnosis. Radiographics; 2003 Sep-Oct;23(5):1155-72
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  • [Title] Second malignancies in pediatric patients: imaging findings and differential diagnosis.
  • Therapeutic advances in the treatment of pediatric neoplasms have improved the prognosis but have also increased the risk of developing rare second malignant neoplasms (SMNs).
  • Primary neoplasms that are often associated with SMNs include lymphoma, retinoblastoma, medulloblastoma, neuroblastoma, and leukemia.
  • The most common SMNs are central nervous system (CNS) tumors, sarcomas, thyroid and parotid gland carcinomas, and leukemia, particularly acute myeloblastic leukemia.
  • Genetic predisposition, chemotherapy, and especially radiation therapy are implicated as pathogenic factors in SMN.
  • Differential diagnosis can be very difficult, and outcome is often fatal.
  • Treatment protocols should be modified to reduce the risk for SMN without compromising the effectiveness of initial therapy.
  • Clinicians should individualize treatment for patients who are genetically predisposed to SMN.
  • In addition, radiologists should be familiar with the long-term consequences of antineoplastic therapy to facilitate diagnosis and anticipate adverse outcomes.
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans

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  • [Copyright] Copyright RSNA, 2003
  • (PMID = 12975507.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-1323
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiographics : a review publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiographics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 52
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64. Imberti D, Vallisa D, Anselmi E, Moroni CF, Bertè R, Lazzaro A, Bernuzzi P, Arcari AL, Cavanna L: Safety and efficacy of enoxaparin treatment in venous thromboembolic disease during acute leukemia. Tumori; 2004 Jul-Aug;90(4):390-3
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  • [Title] Safety and efficacy of enoxaparin treatment in venous thromboembolic disease during acute leukemia.
  • BACKGROUND: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a quite common complication in acute leukemia, although its real incidence is unknown.
  • The best treatment of this complication is still a matter of debate due to the very high risk of hemorrhage in this group of patients.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: From December 2000 to December 2002 four Caucasian patients with acute leukemia developed VTE complications.
  • Two patients with acute lymphoid leukemia (L1 and L2 according to the FAB classification) developed deep venous thrombosis during the administration of chemotherapy; one patient with acute myeloid leukemia (AML, M2 according to the FAB classification) had pulmonary thromboembolism at diagnosis, while another AML patient (M4 according to FAB) showed deep venous thrombosis as the first symptom of leukemia.
  • The clinical diagnosis of symptomatic VTE was confirmed by objective imaging procedures including lower limb venous color Doppler imaging in all cases and a ventilation-perfusion lung scan in one case.
  • RESULTS: During antithrombotic treatment neither VTE recurrences nor hemorrhagic complications or heparin-induced thrombocytopenia occurred.
  • The platelet count at the beginning of enoxaparin treatment was very low (mean, 55,750 x 109/L; range, 12,000-121,000 x 10(9)/L) and treatment did not affect platelet recovery.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Enoxaparin proved to be efficacious and safe in the management of deep venous thrombosis with or without pulmonary embolism in patients affected by acute leukemia.
  • Enoxaparin cured acute venous thrombosis, prevented recurrences and did not cause any hemorrhagic complications despite prolonged severe thrombocytopenia.
  • [MeSH-major] Anticoagulants / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Enoxaparin / therapeutic use. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / drug therapy. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / drug therapy. Thromboembolism / drug therapy. Venous Thrombosis / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Fibrinolytic Agents / therapeutic use. Hemorrhage / chemically induced. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Platelet Count. Retrospective Studies. Thrombocytopenia / chemically induced. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15510981.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-8916
  • [Journal-full-title] Tumori
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tumori
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anticoagulants; 0 / Enoxaparin; 0 / Fibrinolytic Agents
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65. Mylonakis ME, Petanides TA, Valli VE, Vernau W, Koytinas AF, Michael RS: Acute myelomonocytic leukaemia with short-term spontaneous remission in a cat. Aust Vet J; 2008 Jun;86(6):224-8
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  • [Title] Acute myelomonocytic leukaemia with short-term spontaneous remission in a cat.
  • A 2-year-old, spayed female domestic shorthair cat was referred with a history of anorexia and depression of 1 week duration.
  • A complete blood count (CBC) and a biochemistry profile showed leukocytosis, numerous blast cells in the peripheral blood, thrombocytopenia, hyperglobulinaemia and a positive test for feline leukaemia virus antigen.
  • A diagnosis of acute myelomonocytic leukaemia was made on the basis of the results of bone marrow cytology, histopathology, and immunochemistry (CD3, CD79a, lysozyme, and myeloperoxidase) tests.
  • Following an unexpected 1-month period of clinical and clinicopathological remission without chemotherapy, the cat relapsed and died 1 week later.
  • [MeSH-major] Cat Diseases / diagnosis. Leukemia, Myelomonocytic, Acute / veterinary. Neoplasm Regression, Spontaneous

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  • (PMID = 18498558.001).
  • [ISSN] 0005-0423
  • [Journal-full-title] Australian veterinary journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Aust. Vet. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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66. Kawasaki H, Isoyama K, Eguchi M, Hibi S, Kinukawa N, Kosaka Y, Oda T, Oda M, Nishimura S, Imaizumi M, Okamura T, Hongo T, Okawa H, Mizutani S, Hayashi Y, Tsukimoto I, Kamada N, Ishii E: Superior outcome of infant acute myeloid leukemia with intensive chemotherapy: results of the Japan Infant Leukemia Study Group. Blood; 2001 Dec 15;98(13):3589-94
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  • [Title] Superior outcome of infant acute myeloid leukemia with intensive chemotherapy: results of the Japan Infant Leukemia Study Group.
  • This study analyzed data on 35 infants with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) who were treated with intensive chemotherapy between 1995 and 1998 in Japan.
  • The incidence of boys, younger age (< 6 months old), and hyperleukocytosis at onset was high in patients with the M4/M5 subtype (n = 23) in the French-American-British classification, compared with the non-M4/M5 subtype (n = 12).
  • Thirteen (56%) and 16 (70%) patients with the M4/M5 subtype also showed 11q23 translocations and MLL gene rearrangements, respectively, whereas only one patient with the non-M4/M5 subtype had this rearrangement.
  • EFS showed no significant difference between 2 subgroups divided by age, gender, presence of the MLL gene rearrangements, and white blood cell count at onset; EFS in patients with the M4/M5 subtype tended to be better than those with the non-M4/M5 subtype.
  • These findings suggest that the intensive chemotherapy with the ANLL91 protocol might have been responsible for the observed good outcome of infant AML, even without SCT.
  • The presence of the MLL gene rearrangements or the age at onset had no impact on the outcome of infant AML.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / adverse effects. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Cytarabine / administration & dosage. Cytarabine / adverse effects. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Etoposide / adverse effects. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / drug therapy. Proto-Oncogenes. Transcription Factors. Treatment Outcome
  • [MeSH-minor] Aclarubicin / administration & dosage. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 11. DNA-Binding Proteins / genetics. Disease-Free Survival. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / analogs & derivatives. Female. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. Histone-Lysine N-Methyltransferase. Humans. Immunophenotyping. Infant. Male. Mitoxantrone / administration & dosage. Myeloid-Lymphoid Leukemia Protein. Prognosis. Remission Induction. Survival Rate. Translocation, Genetic. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • [CommentIn] Blood. 2002 Apr 1;99(7):2626-7 [11926186.001]
  • (PMID = 11739161.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-4971
  • [Journal-full-title] Blood
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Blood
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / MLL protein, human; 0 / Transcription Factors; 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine; 149025-06-9 / Myeloid-Lymphoid Leukemia Protein; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 74KXF8I502 / Aclarubicin; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; BZ114NVM5P / Mitoxantrone; D58G680W0G / pirarubicin; EC 2.1.1.43 / Histone-Lysine N-Methyltransferase; ANLL91 protocol
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67. Diagne I, Diagne-Gueye NR, Gaye-Ly K, Sow D, Camara B, Diack-Mbaye A, Signate-Sy H, Ba M, Sarr M, Moreira C, Kuakuvi N: [Management problems of malignant hemopathies among children in Senegal]. Dakar Med; 2002;47(1):12-7
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  • [Transliterated title] Problèmes posés par la prise en charge des hémopathies malignes chez l'enfant au Sénégal.
  • However they remain usually lethal instead of a great improvement of their prognosis in suitable therapeutic conditions.
  • Mean age at the desease diagnosis was 9.5 years and sex ratio 2.57 (18 boys and 7 girls).
  • The malignant type was acute leukemia (AL) in 11 cases (44%) including 9 cases of of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and 2 cases of acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML); chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) in 2 cases (8%), Hodgkin's desease (HD) in 9 cases (36%) and non hodgkinian lymphoma (NHL) in 3 cases.
  • NHLwere Burkitt type in 2casesand lymphoblastic type in 1 case.
  • Their was no maxillary or facial localisation in Burkitt type lymphoma.
  • The mean duration between the first clinical symptomes and the diagnosis of the disease was 4 months and delayed diagnosis was mainly due to delayed transfer from peripheral health services to hospital.
  • Among 19 patients whose records were available, 17 were subjected to chemotherapy.
  • Thirteen patients died while followed up and mean survival after first hospitalisation in these cases was 120 days in ALL, 38 days in AML, 2.5 years in HD and 18 months in NHL The other patients were lost of sight and presumed to be dead at home.
  • Eventually, this study showed that, in our hospital, children with malignant hemopathies did not derive benefit of therapeutic progress enregistered long time ago in developed countries, since they remain constantly lethal.
  • The main factors of lethality could be delayed transfer to hospital because of lack of knowledge about these pathologies in the peripheral health services and poor therapeutic conditions in reference hospitals.
  • Creation of specialised clinical haematology department could enable us to improve the prognosis of these affections by an optimal use of available human and material ressources.

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  • (PMID = 15776584.001).
  • [ISSN] 0049-1101
  • [Journal-full-title] Dakar médical
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dakar Med
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Senegal
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68. Schmidt JE, Tamburro RF, Sillos EM, Hill DA, Ribeiro RC, Razzouk BI: Pathophysiology-directed therapy for acute hypoxemic respiratory failure in acute myeloid leukemia with hyperleukocytosis. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2003 Jul;25(7):569-71
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  • [Title] Pathophysiology-directed therapy for acute hypoxemic respiratory failure in acute myeloid leukemia with hyperleukocytosis.
  • A 17-year-old with acute myeloid leukemia M4 and hyperleukocytosis developed fulminant hypoxemic respiratory failure at presentation.
  • Following graduated chemotherapy, his pulmonary status again deteriorated coincident with tumor lysis.
  • Patients with myelomonocytic leukemias are at risk for early death due to pulmonary complications.
  • The use of adjuvant therapies directed by specific pathophysiology might decrease this risk.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / complications. Nitric Oxide / therapeutic use. Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Adult / physiopathology. Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Adult / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Inhalation. Adolescent. Humans. Leukocytosis / complications. Male. Oxygen / blood. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 12847327.001).
  • [ISSN] 1077-4114
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 21765
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 31C4KY9ESH / Nitric Oxide; S88TT14065 / Oxygen
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69. Kröger N, Damon L, Zander AR, Wandt H, Derigs G, Ferrante P, Demirer T, Rosti G, Solid Tumor Working Party of the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation, German Adjuvant Breast Cancer Study Group, University of California, San Francisco: Secondary acute leukemia following mitoxantrone-based high-dose chemotherapy for primary breast cancer patients. Bone Marrow Transplant; 2003 Dec;32(12):1153-7
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  • [Title] Secondary acute leukemia following mitoxantrone-based high-dose chemotherapy for primary breast cancer patients.
  • The incidence of secondary myelodysplasia/acute myeloid leukemia (AML) was retrospectively assessed in an international joint study in 305 node-positive breast cancer patients, who received mitoxantrone-based high-dose chemotherapy (HDCT) followed by autologous stem cell support as adjuvant therapy.
  • After a median follow-up of 57 months (range 10-125), three cases of secondary AML (sAML) were observed, resulting in a cumulative incidence of 0.94%.
  • One case of sAML developed 18 months after HDCT (FAB M3) The karyotype was translocation 15;17 and, after induction therapy, the patient underwent autologous stem cell transplantation, and is in complete remission (CR) of both breast cancer and AML.
  • The second patient developed AML (FAB M4eo with inversion 16) 5 months after HDCT.
  • This patient achieved CR after induction therapy, but died of infectious complication.
  • A third patient developed AML (FAB M4) 6 months after HDCT.
  • She achieved CR after induction therapy, but relapsed and expired 28 months after diagnosis of AML. sAML after mitoxantrone-based HDCT is a possible, but rare complication in breast cancer patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Leukemia, Myeloid / chemically induced. Mitoxantrone / adverse effects. Neoplasms, Second Primary / chemically induced
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Adult. Aged. Bone Marrow Transplantation. Combined Modality Therapy. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Cytarabine / administration & dosage. Daunorubicin / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Epirubicin / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Incidence. Leukemia, Myelomonocytic, Acute / chemically induced. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / chemically induced. Leukemia, Radiation-Induced / epidemiology. Leukemia, Radiation-Induced / etiology. Lymphatic Metastasis. Melphalan / administration & dosage. Middle Aged. Paclitaxel / administration & dosage. Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant / adverse effects. Thiotepa / administration & dosage. Transplantation Conditioning. Transplantation, Autologous

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  • (PMID = 14647269.001).
  • [ISSN] 0268-3369
  • [Journal-full-title] Bone marrow transplantation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bone Marrow Transplant.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine; 3Z8479ZZ5X / Epirubicin; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; 905Z5W3GKH / Thiotepa; BZ114NVM5P / Mitoxantrone; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel; Q41OR9510P / Melphalan; ZS7284E0ZP / Daunorubicin
  • [Number-of-references] 35
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70. Dusenbery KE, Howells WB, Arthur DC, Alonzo T, Lee JW, Kobrinsky N, Barnard DR, Wells RJ, Buckley JD, Lange BJ, Woods WG: Extramedullary leukemia in children with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia: a report from the Children's Cancer Group. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2003 Oct;25(10):760-8
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  • [Title] Extramedullary leukemia in children with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia: a report from the Children's Cancer Group.
  • OBJECTIVES: To describe features of patients with acute myeloid leukemia presenting with extramedullary leukemic tumors (EML).
  • METHODS: Among 1,832 patients entered on Children's Cancer Group's chemotherapy trials with acute myeloid leukemia, 199 patients had EML, defined as any leukemic collection outside the bone marrow cavity.
  • Group 1 patients tended to be younger, had higher white blood cell counts, were more often CNS positive, had FAB M4 or M5 subtypes, and possessed more abnormalities of chromosome 11 than group 3 patients.
  • Group 2 patients were younger, more often had the FAB M2 subtype, and had a higher incidence of t(8;21)(q22;q22) abnormality than group 3, but had similar white blood cell counts and incidence of CNS positivity at diagnosis.
  • Localized radiotherapy to the site of EML at the end of induction chemotherapy did not improve outcome.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / complications. Sarcoma, Myeloid / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Chromosome Aberrations. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Prognosis. Recurrence. Skin Neoplasms / complications. Skin Neoplasms / genetics. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 14528097.001).
  • [ISSN] 1077-4114
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
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71. Ogata S, Takeuchi M, Fujita H, Shibata K, Okumura K, Taguchi H: Apoptosis induced by niacin-related compounds in K562 cells but not in normal human lymphocytes. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem; 2000 Jun;64(6):1142-6
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  • In our previous study, we found that niacin-related compounds induced apoptosis in human acute myelomonocytic leukemia cells, HL-60.
  • We have investigated whether these compounds acted as inducers of apoptosis also in various other cell types.
  • In human chronic myelogenous leukemia cells, K562, which are relatively resistant to various inducers of apoptosis, the apoptosis was induced by picolinic acid and dipicolinic acid in about 50% of the cells 5-10 mM via the caspase pathway, but was not at 1 mM.
  • [MeSH-major] Apoptosis / drug effects. Lymphocytes / cytology. Lymphocytes / drug effects. Niacin / analogs & derivatives
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Humans. K562 Cells. Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive / drug therapy. Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive / metabolism. Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive / pathology. Niacinamide / pharmacology. Peroxides / metabolism. Picolinic Acids / pharmacology. Reactive Oxygen Species / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 10923782.001).
  • [ISSN] 0916-8451
  • [Journal-full-title] Bioscience, biotechnology, and biochemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] JAPAN
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Peroxides; 0 / Picolinic Acids; 0 / Reactive Oxygen Species; 25X51I8RD4 / Niacinamide; 2679MF687A / Niacin; 4H3BH6YX9Q / isonicotinamide; QZV2W997JQ / picolinic acid; UE81S5CQ0G / dipicolinic acid
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72. Ginsberg JP, Orudjev E, Bunin N, Felix CA, Lange BJ: Isolated extramedullary relapse in acute myeloid leukemia: A retrospective analysis. Med Pediatr Oncol; 2002 Jun;38(6):387-90
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  • [Title] Isolated extramedullary relapse in acute myeloid leukemia: A retrospective analysis.
  • BACKGROUND: Little is known about the characteristics and outcome of children with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) experiencing an isolated extramedullary relapse (IEMR).
  • PROCEDURE: The tumor registry of The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia identified 215 patients with AML diagnosed between 1970 and 2000, of which 16 (7.4%) experienced IEMR.
  • Patient- and disease-related features and outcome of patients with IEMR and other patients with AML were compared.
  • RESULTS: IEMR occurred a median of 4.5 months (1.5-74 months) from diagnosis.
  • Male to female ratio was 4.3:1 in patients with IEMR and 1.1:1 in the other patients with AML (P = 0.048).
  • Median age at diagnosis and median presenting WBC were not significantly different in patients with and without IEMR.
  • Patients with IEMR were more likely to have extramedullary disease (EMD) at diagnosis (31 vs. 4.5%) (P =.002) and FAB M4 or M5 morphology (P =.0001).
  • One survivor of IEMR received local irradiation and continued on maintenance therapy while the other five received chemotherapy, irradiation, and allogeneic marrow transplant in second or third remission.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Patients with isolated EMR are typically young males with monoblastic or myeloblastic leukemia who present with EMD at diagnosis.
  • Marrow transplant following chemotherapy and local radiotherapy offer the potential for long-term survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Myeloid / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Recurrence. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 11984798.001).
  • [ISSN] 0098-1532
  • [Journal-full-title] Medical and pediatric oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med. Pediatr. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K12-CA76931; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / T32-CA09615
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
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73. McGrattan P, Humphreys M, Hull D, McMullin MF: Transformation of cytogenetically normal chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia to an acute myeloid leukaemia and the emergence of a novel +13, +15 double trisomy resulting in an adverse outcome. Ulster Med J; 2007 Sep;76(3):131-5
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  • [Title] Transformation of cytogenetically normal chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia to an acute myeloid leukaemia and the emergence of a novel +13, +15 double trisomy resulting in an adverse outcome.
  • Peripheral blood (PB) analysis revealed a white blood cell count (WBC) of 15.9 x 10(9)/l with monocytes 5.4 x 10(9)/l.
  • A diagnosis of chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia (CMML) was made.
  • BM aspirate analysis also revealed 89% myeloid blasts and G-banding detected the emergence of an abnormal clone harbouring an extra copy of chromosomes 13 and 15.
  • A diagnosis of disease transformation to acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) was made.
  • Post chemotherapy BM aspirate was very hypocellular and the abnormal +13, +15 clone was still present suggesting primary refractory disease.
  • A second course of chemotherapy was only administered for 24 hours due to complications.
  • The abnormal +13, +15 clone was still present and it was decided that no further treatment apart from palliative care could be offered.
  • The patient died 11 weeks later, five months after AML transformation.
  • This is the first description of a cytogenetically normal CMML patient transforming to AML with the emergence of a unique +13, +15 double trisomy resulting in an adverse outcome.
  • [MeSH-major] Chromosomes, Human, Pair 13 / genetics. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 15 / genetics. Leukemia, Myeloid / genetics. Leukemia, Myelomonocytic, Chronic / genetics. Trisomy / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Cytogenetics. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17853637.001).
  • [ISSN] 0041-6193
  • [Journal-full-title] The Ulster medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ulster Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Northern Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2075573
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74. Okada S, Hongo T, Yamada S, Watanabe C, Fujii Y, Ohzeki T, Horikoshi Y, Ito T, Yazaki M, Komada Y, Tawa A: In vitro efficacy of l-asparaginase in childhood acute myeloid leukaemia. Br J Haematol; 2003 Dec;123(5):802-9
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  • [Title] In vitro efficacy of l-asparaginase in childhood acute myeloid leukaemia.
  • To explore the potential efficacy of l-asparaginase treatment in acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) patients, we studied the in vitro resistance of French-American-British (FAB) subtypes of childhood AML to l-asparaginase using a methyl-thiazol-tetrazolium assay.
  • We tested leukaemic cells obtained from 177 common acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (cALL) and 228 AML children at diagnosis.
  • The median 70% lethal dose of l-asparaginase (LD70asp) (U/ml) was 0.46 in the cALL and 6.70 in the AML samples.
  • The median LD70asp among each FAB subtype of AML was 0.76 (M0), 0.46 (M1), 10.00 (M2), 10.00 (M3), 1.18 (M4), 1.35 (M5) and 10.00 (M7).
  • Type M3 samples had the highest LD70asp.
  • The LD70asp of the M2 samples was significantly higher than that of the M1, M4 and M5 samples.
  • In conclusion, cells from AML types M1, M4 and M5 were relatively sensitive to l-asparaginase, and M1 cells were as sensitive as those of cALL, suggesting that l-asparaginase treatment may be effective for these subtypes of AML.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Asparaginase / therapeutic use. Leukemia, Myeloid / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Adolescent. Age Factors. Analysis of Variance. Child. Child, Preschool. Drug Administration Schedule. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Female. Humans. Infant. Lethal Dose 50. Leukemia, Monocytic, Acute / drug therapy. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / drug therapy. Leukemia, Myelomonocytic, Acute / drug therapy. Lymphocyte Count. Male. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / drug therapy. Sex Factors

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  • (PMID = 14632770.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-1048
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of haematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Haematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; EC 3.5.1.1 / Asparaginase
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75. Niparuck P, Chuncharunee S, Ungkanont A, Udomtrupayakul U, Aungchaisuksiri P, Rerkamnuatchoke B, Jootar S, Atichartakarn V: Long-term outcomes of de novo acute myeloid leukemia in Thai patients. J Med Assoc Thai; 2009 Sep;92(9):1143-9
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  • [Title] Long-term outcomes of de novo acute myeloid leukemia in Thai patients.
  • BACKGROUND: Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is the heterogeneous disease.
  • As per previous reports, there are some differences in clinical features and cytogenetic biomarkers of AML among different ethnic backgrounds.
  • Therefore, we conducted a retrospective study to analyze clinical outcomes and predictive factors of Thai AML patients receiving chemotherapy treatment.
  • MATERIAL AND METHOD: The authors performed a retrospective analysis of 106 adults with newly diagnosed de novo AML at Ramathibodi Hospital between 2003 and 2007.
  • Of 101 patients with non- M3 subtype, the patients received induction and consolidation chemotherapy with anthracyclin plus cytarabine based regimens (3 + 7).
  • All patients achieving complete remission (CR) were treated with intensive chemotherapy using intermediate dose cytarabine plus anthracyclin based protocol.
  • All patients with M3 subtype, the induction chemotherapy consisted of a combination of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and anthracyclin.
  • All patients achieving complete remission (CR) were treated with three courses of mitoxantrone as consolidation chemotherapy, followed by maintenance chemotherapy with methotrexate, etoposide and ATRA.
  • Common subtypes were M4 (28.3%), M1 (26.4%) and M2 (20.8%).
  • AML with recurrent cytogenetic translocations, complex chromosome, trisomy 8, polyploidy, del 5q and del 7q were found in 16.8, 6.3, 5.3, 5.3, 2.1 and 3.2%, respectively.
  • Of the 96 evaluable patients, 60 (62.5%) achieved complete remission (CR), 38 (39.6%) with the first course of chemotherapy.
  • Median time to CR was 54 days (25-168 days).
  • Median follow-up time was 10.4 months, 5-year-DFS and 5-year-OS were 41 and 22.2%, respectively.
  • CONCLUSION: The overall complete remission rate of Thai AML patients is in 60%.
  • Only a small proportion of the presented patients have long-term DFS and OS, the significant factor for predicting survival of Thai AML patients is the complete remission status.
  • Poor-risk cytogenetic factors are associated with poor treatment outcomes.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / epidemiology. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Cohort Studies. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Thailand. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19772172.001).
  • [ISSN] 0125-2208
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand = Chotmaihet thangphaet
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Assoc Thai
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Thailand
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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76. Bernasconi P, Orlandi E, Cavigliano P, Calatroni S, Boni M, Astori C, Pagnucco G, Giglio S, Caresana M, Lazzarino M, Bernasconi C: Translocation (8;16) in a patient with acute myelomonocytic leukemia, occurring after treatment with fludarabine for a low-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Haematologica; 2000 Oct;85(10):1087-91
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  • [Title] Translocation (8;16) in a patient with acute myelomonocytic leukemia, occurring after treatment with fludarabine for a low-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
  • We describe a 65-year old woman who developed a t(8;16)(p11;p13) positive acute myeloid leukemia (AML)-M4 without a prior myelodysplasia thirty-six months after a low-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma treated with alkylating agents (chlorambucil and cyclophosphamide) and fludarabine, a purine analog with a significant activity in lymphoproliferative disorders.
  • The t(8;16)(p11;p13) is present in 0.4% of AML of M4-M5 cytotype.
  • The patient died of sepsis after the first course of induction chemotherapy.
  • This is the first t(8;16) AML-M4 arising after fludarabine treatment of which the leukemogenic role in our case is very difficult to ascertain.
  • Most t(8;16) t-AML cases had received anthracyclines with or without cyclophosphamide; none was ever administered chlorambucil.
  • [MeSH-major] Chromosomes, Human, Pair 16. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 8. Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell / pathology. Leukemia, Myelomonocytic, Acute / genetics. Leukemia, Myelomonocytic, Acute / pathology. Neoplasms, Second Primary. Translocation, Genetic
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Vidarabine / analogs & derivatives. Vidarabine / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 11025602.001).
  • [ISSN] 0390-6078
  • [Journal-full-title] Haematologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Haematologica
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] ITALY
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; FA2DM6879K / Vidarabine; P2K93U8740 / fludarabine
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77. Aoki T, Miyamoto T, Yoshida S, Yamamoto A, Yamauchi T, Yoshimoto G, Mori Y, Kamezaki K, Iwasaki H, Takenaka K, Harada N, Nagafuji K, Teshima T, Akashi K: Additional acquisition of t(1;21)(p32;q22) in a patient relapsing with acute myelogenous leukemia with NUP98-HOXA9. Int J Hematol; 2008 Dec;88(5):571-4
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  • [Title] Additional acquisition of t(1;21)(p32;q22) in a patient relapsing with acute myelogenous leukemia with NUP98-HOXA9.
  • We report a 29-year-old Japanese male with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML)-M4 with a cryptic t(7;11)(p15;p15), in which a chimeric NUP98-HOXA9 fusion was detected by polymerase chain reaction analysis and a chromosomal analysis showed 46,XY.
  • The patient received intensive chemotherapy and underwent autologous stem cell transplantation, and remission was confirmed by the disappearance of NUP98-HOXA9.
  • This is the first reported case with AML who had a cryptic t(7;11)(p15;p15), and additionally acquired t(1;21)(p32;q22) at relapse.
  • [MeSH-major] Chromosomes, Human / genetics. Core Binding Factor Alpha 2 Subunit / genetics. Homeodomain Proteins / genetics. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / genetics. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / therapy. Nuclear Pore Complex Proteins / genetics. Oncogene Proteins, Fusion / genetics. Translocation, Genetic
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Asian Continental Ancestry Group. Humans. Japan. Male. Recurrence. Stem Cell Transplantation. Time Factors. Transplantation, Autologous

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  • (PMID = 19005624.001).
  • [ISSN] 1865-3774
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / AML1-ETO fusion protein, human; 0 / Core Binding Factor Alpha 2 Subunit; 0 / Homeodomain Proteins; 0 / NUP98-HOXA9 fusion protein, human; 0 / Nuclear Pore Complex Proteins; 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Fusion
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78. Ikezoe T, Chen SS, Heber D, Taguchi H, Koeffler HP: Baicalin is a major component of PC-SPES which inhibits the proliferation of human cancer cells via apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. Prostate; 2001 Dec 1;49(4):285-92
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  • METHODS: Baicalin was evaluated for its ability to inhibit clonal growth, and to induce cell cycle arrest of various cancer types (PC-3, DU145, LNCaP prostate cancer cell lines, MCF-7 breast cancer cell line, HL-60 myeloblastic leukemia cell line, and NB4 promyelocytic leukemia cell line).
  • The ability of baicalin to induce apoptosis of cancer cells was examined by both staining with Annexin V and detection of cleavage of Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP)(3).
  • RESULTS: Baicalin inhibited the clonal proliferation of LNCaP and PC3 prostate cancer cell lines, and the HL-60 and NB4 myeloblastic/promyelocytic leukemia cell lines with a 50% inhibition (ED(50)) that ranged between 6.4 x 10(-6) to 12 x 10(-6) mol/L.
  • Concomitantly, differentiation and apoptosis were induced in HL-60 cells, as measured by expression of CD11b antigen, staining with annexin V, and detection of cleavage of PARP.
  • Baicalin may be a novel, adjunctive therapy for selected malignancies including prostate cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / pharmacology. Apoptosis / drug effects. Flavonoids / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Annexin A5 / analysis. Blotting, Western. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Cell Cycle / drug effects. Cell Cycle Proteins / biosynthesis. Cell Differentiation / drug effects. Cell Division / drug effects. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27. Cyclins / biosynthesis. Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor. Drugs, Chinese Herbal / pharmacology. Female. Flow Cytometry. HL-60 Cells / drug effects. HL-60 Cells / metabolism. Humans. Macrophage-1 Antigen / analysis. Male. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Prostatic Neoplasms / metabolism. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology. Tumor Cells, Cultured. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / biosynthesis

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 11746275.001).
  • [ISSN] 0270-4137
  • [Journal-full-title] The Prostate
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prostate
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Annexin A5; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 0 / CDKN1A protein, human; 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21; 0 / Cyclins; 0 / Drugs, Chinese Herbal; 0 / Flavonoids; 0 / Macrophage-1 Antigen; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 147604-94-2 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27; 347Q89U4M5 / baicalin
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79. Duell T, Poleck-Dehlin B, Schmid C, Wunderlich B, Ledderose G, Mittermuller J, Kolb HJ, Schmetzer H: Clonal karyotype evolution involving ring chromosome 1 with myelodysplastic syndrome subtype RAEB-t progressing into acute leukemia. Acta Haematol; 2006;116(2):131-6
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  • [Title] Clonal karyotype evolution involving ring chromosome 1 with myelodysplastic syndrome subtype RAEB-t progressing into acute leukemia.
  • Karyotypic evolution is a well-known phenomenon in patients with malignant hematological disorders during disease progression.
  • The diagnosis of a myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) FAB subtype RAEB-t was established in April 1993 by histological bone marrow (BM) examination, and therapy with low-dose cytosine arabinoside was initiated.
  • One month later, the patient progressed to an acute myeloid leukemia (AML), subtype M4 with 40% BM blasts and cytogenetic examination showed clonal evolution by the appearance of additional numerical aberrations in addition to the ring chromosome [46,XY,r(1),+8,-21/45,XY,r(1),+8,-21,-22/46, XY].
  • Intensive chemotherapy and radiotherapy was applied to induce remission in preparation for allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) from the patient's HLA-compatible son.
  • A relapse in January 1997 was successfully treated using donor lymphocyte infusion and donor peripheral blood stem cells (PB-SC) in combination with GM-CSF as immunostimulating agent in April 1997, and the patient's clinical condition remained stable as of January 2005.
  • This is an interesting case of a patient with AML secondary to MDS.
  • With the ring chromosome 1 we also describe a rare cytogenetic abnormality that predicted the poor prognosis of the patient, but the patient could be cured by adoptive immunotherapy and the application of donor's PB-SC.
  • This case confirms the value of cytogenetic analysis in characterizing the malignant clone in hematological neoplasias, the importance of controlling the quality of an induced remission and of the detection of a progress of the disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Anemia, Refractory, with Excess of Blasts / genetics. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 1. Leukemia / genetics. Ring Chromosomes
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Chromosome Banding. Diagnosis, Differential. Disease Progression. Humans. Immunophenotyping. Karyotyping. Male. Middle Aged


80. Steinherz PG, Shukla N, Kobos R, Steinherz L: Remission re-induction chemotherapy with clofarabine, topotecan, thiotepa, and vinorelbine for patients with relapsed or refractory leukemia. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2010 May;54(5):687-93
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  • [Title] Remission re-induction chemotherapy with clofarabine, topotecan, thiotepa, and vinorelbine for patients with relapsed or refractory leukemia.
  • BACKGROUND: We determined the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of clofarabine when administered with topotecan, vinorelbine, thiotepa, and dexamethasone (TVTC) for children with relapsed or refractory acute leukemia, and observed the efficacy and toxicities of this therapy.
  • PROCEDURE: Twelve patients with acute lymphoblastic or myeloblastic leukemia were given a 14-day remission induction therapy.
  • Three patients had progressive disease.
  • One patient died on day 45 with marrow hypoplasia without evidence of leukemia.
  • CONCLUSION: TVTC has significant anti-leukemic activity in both acute lymphoblastic and myeloblastic leukemia.
  • This is the recommended dose for the phase II study in patients with refractory or relapsed leukemia, a population which has limited therapeutic options.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / drug therapy. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / drug therapy. Salvage Therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenine Nucleotides / administration & dosage. Adenine Nucleotides / adverse effects. Adolescent. Adult. Arabinonucleosides / administration & dosage. Arabinonucleosides / adverse effects. Child. Child, Preschool. Drug Administration Schedule. Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions. Female. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. Humans. Infant. Male. Maximum Tolerated Dose. Recurrence. Remission Induction. Thiotepa / administration & dosage. Thiotepa / adverse effects. Topotecan / administration & dosage. Topotecan / adverse effects. Vinblastine / administration & dosage. Vinblastine / adverse effects. Vinblastine / analogs & derivatives

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  • (PMID = 20205253.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5017
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adenine Nucleotides; 0 / Arabinonucleosides; 5V9KLZ54CY / Vinblastine; 762RDY0Y2H / clofarabine; 7M7YKX2N15 / Topotecan; 905Z5W3GKH / Thiotepa; Q6C979R91Y / vinorelbine
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81. Rajesh G, Sadasivan S, Hiran KR, Nandakumar R, Balakrishnan V: Acute myeloid leukemia presenting as obstructive jaundice. Indian J Gastroenterol; 2006 Mar-Apr;25(2):93-4
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  • [Title] Acute myeloid leukemia presenting as obstructive jaundice.
  • We report a 32-year-old man with acute myeloid leukemia presenting as obstructive jaundice.
  • On evaluation he was found to have the eosinophilic variant of M4 subtype acute myeloid leukemia.
  • He expired before chemotherapy could be instituted.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Common Bile Duct Diseases / complications. Humans. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / complications. Male

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  • (PMID = 16763341.001).
  • [ISSN] 0254-8860
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of gastroenterology : official journal of the Indian Society of Gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Gastroenterol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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82. Hijiya N, Metzger ML, Pounds S, Schmidt JE, Razzouk BI, Rubnitz JE, Howard SC, Nunez CA, Pui CH, Ribeiro RC: Severe cardiopulmonary complications consistent with systemic inflammatory response syndrome caused by leukemia cell lysis in childhood acute myelomonocytic or monocytic leukemia. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2005 Jan;44(1):63-9
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  • [Title] Severe cardiopulmonary complications consistent with systemic inflammatory response syndrome caused by leukemia cell lysis in childhood acute myelomonocytic or monocytic leukemia.
  • BACKGROUND: Life-threatening pulmonary complications that coincide with cell lysis during early chemotherapy and that mimic systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) have been reported in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML).
  • METHODS: We reviewed the records of patients with de novo AML, excluding M3 and Down syndrome, treated at our institution between 1991 and 2002 to determine the prevalence of severe SIRS with grade 3/4 pulmonary complications and to identify AML subtypes associated with severe SIRS.
  • To examine the role of cell lysis, we compared leukocyte reduction in AML subtypes affected by severe SIRS with that in unaffected subtypes.
  • Severe SIRS was significantly more common in myelomonocytic or monocytic AML (M4/M4eo/M5) than in other subtypes (P = 0.010) and significantly more common in M4eo than in M4/M5 (P = 0.008).
  • Among 112 cases for which information was available, leukocyte reduction was significantly greater in patients with M4/M4eo/M5 than among others during the first 4 days of chemotherapy (P = 0.015).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Patients with M4/M4eo/M5 AML, especially M4eo, experience life-threatening cardiopulmonary complications of tumor lysis that meet the criteria for severe SIRS.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Death. Leukemia, Monocytic, Acute / complications. Leukemia, Monocytic, Acute / drug therapy. Leukemia, Myelomonocytic, Acute / complications. Leukemia, Myelomonocytic, Acute / drug therapy. Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Male. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 15368547.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5009
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-21765
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
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83. van der Kolk DM, de Vries EG, van Putten WJ, Verdonck LF, Ossenkoppele GJ, Verhoef GE, Vellenga E: P-glycoprotein and multidrug resistance protein activities in relation to treatment outcome in acute myeloid leukemia. Clin Cancer Res; 2000 Aug;6(8):3205-14
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] P-glycoprotein and multidrug resistance protein activities in relation to treatment outcome in acute myeloid leukemia.
  • Despite treatment with intensive chemotherapy, a considerable number of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) die from their disease due to the occurrence of resistance.
  • Overexpression of the transporter proteins P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and multidrug resistance protein (MRP) 1 has been identified as a major cause of cross-resistance to functionally and structurally unrelated drugs.
  • In the present study, the functional activity of P-gp and MRP was determined in 104 de novo AML patients with a flow cytometric assay using rhodamine 123 (Rh123) in combination with PSC833 and carboxyfluorescein (CF) in combination with MK-571.
  • The results were compared with clinical outcome and with known prognostic factors.
  • The functional activity of P-gp and MRP, expressed as Rh123 efflux blocking by PSC833 and CF efflux blocking by MK-571, demonstrated a great variability in the AML patients.
  • A low Rh123 accumulation and a high Rh123 efflux blocking by PSC833 were associated with a low complete remission (CR) rate after the first cycle of chemotherapy (P = 0.008 and P = 0.01, respectively).
  • AML patients with French-American-British classification M1 or M2 showed a lower Rh123 accumulation than patients with French-American-British classification M4 or M5 (P = 0.02).
  • No association was observed between the multidrug resistance parameters and overall survival of the AML patients.
  • [MeSH-major] ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters / metabolism. ATP-Binding Cassette, Sub-Family B, Member 1 / metabolism. Leukemia, Myeloid / drug therapy. Leukemia, Myeloid / metabolism. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cyclosporins / pharmacology. Drug Resistance, Multiple. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Female. Flow Cytometry. Fluoresceins / pharmacokinetics. Fluorescent Dyes / pharmacokinetics. Glutathione / metabolism. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Multidrug Resistance-Associated Proteins. Propionates / pharmacology. Quinolines / pharmacology. RNA, Messenger / biosynthesis. RNA, Messenger / genetics. Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Rhodamine 123 / pharmacokinetics. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 10955805.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters; 0 / ATP-Binding Cassette, Sub-Family B, Member 1; 0 / Cyclosporins; 0 / Fluoresceins; 0 / Fluorescent Dyes; 0 / Multidrug Resistance-Associated Proteins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Propionates; 0 / Quinolines; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 1N3CZ14C5O / Rhodamine 123; 3301-79-9 / 6-carboxyfluorescein; 5Q9O54P0H7 / verlukast; GAN16C9B8O / Glutathione; Q7ZP55KF3X / valspodar
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84. Tsukaguchi M, Furukawa Y, Shibano M, Kitani T: [Five cases of de novo acute myeloid leukemia with trilineage myelodysplasia (AML/TMDS) achieved CR with the continuous drip infusion of low-dose etoposide and low-dose cytosine arabinoside combined with mitoxantrone (MEtA)]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2004 Jul;31(7):1119-23
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  • [Title] [Five cases of de novo acute myeloid leukemia with trilineage myelodysplasia (AML/TMDS) achieved CR with the continuous drip infusion of low-dose etoposide and low-dose cytosine arabinoside combined with mitoxantrone (MEtA)].
  • From 1998 to 2001, 5 consecutive cases of AML/TMDS entered our hospital and achieved complete remission (CR) with continuous drip infusion of low-dose etoposide and low-dose Ara-C combined with mitoxantrone (MEtA regimen).
  • These patients had an acute onset and no preceding hematologic disorders.
  • They were diagnosed M2/TMDS or M4/TMDS.
  • Patient 5 was given additional MIT (6.7 mg/m2 on day 6).
  • All cases achieved CR in 21-24 days after the end of the therapy.
  • MEtA regimen is available for AML/TMDS.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / drug therapy. Leukemia, Myelomonocytic, Acute / drug therapy. Myelodysplastic Syndromes / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cell Lineage. Cytarabine / administration & dosage. Disease-Free Survival. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Administration Schedule. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Mitoxantrone / administration & dosage. Remission Induction


85. Koh G, Yamane T, Aoyama Y, Sakamoto C, Nakamae H, Hasegawa T, Terada Y, Hino M: [Acute myelomonocytic leukemia complicated with multiple lower intestinal ulcers induced by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2005 Jan;32(1):111-3
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  • [Title] [Acute myelomonocytic leukemia complicated with multiple lower intestinal ulcers induced by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs].
  • We report an 18-year-old woman with acute myelomonocytic leukemia, who developed massive lower intestinal bleeding following induction chemotherapy.
  • Colonoscopy revealed multiple circular ulcers but no infectious colitis or infiltration of leukemia.
  • She took nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NASIDs) for pyrexia and pharyngalgia for a long time.
  • Transarterial embolization therapy using microcoils was tried with unsatisfactory results.
  • Finally, colonoscopic clipping therapy and continuous arterial injection of vasopressin were performed.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal / adverse effects. Colonic Diseases / chemically induced. Leukemia, Myelomonocytic, Acute / complications. Peptic Ulcer Hemorrhage / chemically induced
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Colonoscopy. Cytarabine / administration & dosage. Daunorubicin / administration & dosage. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 15675595.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal; 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine; ZS7284E0ZP / Daunorubicin
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86. Nagashima T, Izumi T, Muroi K, Miyasato A, Uchida M, Imagawa S, Komatsu N, Yoshida M, Hatake K, Miura Y, Ozawa K: [Two cases of acute myelogenous leukemia complicated with fatal gastrointestinal tract bleeding after treatment with idarubicin and cytarabine]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2000 Mar;27(3):487-90
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Two cases of acute myelogenous leukemia complicated with fatal gastrointestinal tract bleeding after treatment with idarubicin and cytarabine].
  • We describe herein two newly diagnosed patients with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), who were treated twice with an idarubicin hydrochloride (IDR)-containing regimen as a response-orientated induction therapy.
  • The two patients were as follows: a 35-year-old male, FAB-M4, and a 47-year-old female, FAB-M0.
  • They received the same induction chemotherapy (IDR 12 mg/m2 for four days and cytarabine 100 mg/m2 for ten days).
  • During the period of myelosuppression, they developed severe gastrointestinal hemorrhage.
  • One died of sepsis, and the other of acute respiratory distress syndrome without a recovery in bone marrow.
  • Careful observation will be needed to prevent such severe complications after the treatment with IDR.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / adverse effects. Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage / chemically induced. Idarubicin / adverse effects. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Bone Marrow / drug effects. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged


87. Tasaka T, Nagai M, Matsuhashi Y, Uehara E, Kakazu N, Abe T, Tamura T: Marked thrombocytosis following relapse of acute myeloblastic leukemia associated with development of translocation (2;14) (p13;q32). Leuk Lymphoma; 2002 Oct;43(10):2063-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Marked thrombocytosis following relapse of acute myeloblastic leukemia associated with development of translocation (2;14) (p13;q32).
  • Thrombocytosis is a rare finding in acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML).
  • Here, we describe a patient with AML who relapsed with marked thrombocytosis.
  • The patient was initially diagnosed as having AML (M4) with a low platelet count.
  • The patient was started on combination chemotherapy including high-dose etoposide and achieved complete remission.
  • Despite the repeated combination chemotherapy, the patient died with progressive disease.
  • This case suggests that the additional chromosomal aberration t(2;14)(p13;q32) may be related to abnormal thrombocytosis in AML.
  • [MeSH-major] Chromosomes, Human, Pair 14. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 2. Leukemia, Myelomonocytic, Acute / complications. Thrombocytosis / genetics. Translocation, Genetic
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cytogenetic Analysis. Disease Progression. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Male. Platelet Count. Recurrence

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  • (PMID = 12481911.001).
  • [ISSN] 1042-8194
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia & lymphoma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Lymphoma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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88. Wuchter C, Leonid K, Ruppert V, Schrappe M, Büchner T, Schoch C, Haferlach T, Harbott J, Ratei R, Dörken B, Ludwig WD: Clinical significance of P-glycoprotein expression and function for response to induction chemotherapy, relapse rate and overall survival in acute leukemia. Haematologica; 2000 Jul;85(7):711-21
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  • [Title] Clinical significance of P-glycoprotein expression and function for response to induction chemotherapy, relapse rate and overall survival in acute leukemia.
  • BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: A multidrug-resistance (MDR) phenotype mediated by P-glycoprotein (P-gp) contributes to chemotherapy failure in acute leukemia.
  • However, the exact prognostic significance of this resistance mechanism is still unclear, mostly due to methodologic problems in P-gp detection.
  • We therefore investigated, whether P-gp expression levels or functional P-gp activity better predict response to induction chemotherapy, relapse rate and overall survival in acute leukemia.
  • DESIGN AND METHODS: We examined cell samples of 121 adults with de novo acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and 102 children with newly diagnosed acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) for P-gp expression and functional P-gp activity by flow cytometry.
  • P-gp function was determined by the rhodamine 123 (rh123)-efflux test (AML n=121, ALL n=102) and P-gp expression levels using the P-gp specific monoclonal antibodies (moabs) MRK-16 (AML n=51, ALL n=31), 4.E3 (AML n=35, ALL n=32), or UIC-2 (AML n=68, ALL n=50).
  • We correlated our findings with the immunophenotype, FAB morphology, cytogenetics and clinical data of the examined patients.
  • RESULTS: P-gp expression levels as detected by MRK-16 and 4.E3 were very low and did not differ between AML and ALL as estimated using relative fluorescence intensity (RFI) values and D-values by Kolmogorow-Smirnov (KS) statistics.
  • For moab UIC-2, P-gp expression levels were higher in AML than in ALL.
  • Within AML, moab UIC-2 mainly reacted with myelomonocytic-differentiated leukemic cells of the FAB M4/5 subtypes.
  • No correlation between P-gp expression levels as detected by MRK-16, 4.E3 or UIC-2 and the response to induction chemotherapy or relapse rate, both in AML and ALL, was observed.
  • However, a prognostic impact of P-gp expression levels on overall survival in AML was seen for moab MRK-16.
  • Moreover, within AML, P-gp function was higher in immature blast cells as defined by immunophenotype and FAB morphology and correlated with response to induction chemotherapy, relapse rate, overall survival as well as cytogenetic risk groups.
  • In ALL, the overall functional P-gp activity was lower than in AML and did not correlate with immunophenotypical subgroups, response to induction chemotherapy, relapse rate or overall survival.
  • INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrate a prognostic impact of P-gp in AML but not ALL and indicate that the functional rh123-efflux assay should be preferred for flow-cytometric P-gp evaluation in acute leukemia compared with P-gp expression analysis by monoclonal antibodies.
  • [MeSH-major] Drug Resistance, Multiple / genetics. Leukemia / drug therapy. P-Glycoprotein / genetics. P-Glycoprotein / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Bone Marrow Cells / metabolism. Bone Marrow Cells / pathology. Child. Child, Preschool. Gene Expression. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Leukemia, Myeloid / drug therapy. Middle Aged. Phenotype. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / drug therapy. Prognosis. Recurrence. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 10897123.001).
  • [ISSN] 0390-6078
  • [Journal-full-title] Haematologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Haematologica
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] ITALY
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / P-Glycoprotein
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89. Johansson B, Axelsson P, Billström R, Strömbeck B, Arheden K, Olofsson T, Cervin A, Adriansson M, Tanke HJ, Mitelman F, Fioretos T: Isodicentric 7p, idic(7)(q11.2), in acute myeloid leukemia associated with older age and favorable response to induction chemotherapy: a new clinical entity? Genes Chromosomes Cancer; 2001 Mar;30(3):261-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Isodicentric 7p, idic(7)(q11.2), in acute myeloid leukemia associated with older age and favorable response to induction chemotherapy: a new clinical entity?
  • Three adult de novo acute myeloid leukemias (AML M1, M2, and M4) with an isochromosome 7p are presented.
  • Although the patients were elderly--68, 72, and 78 years old--they all responded very well to chemotherapy, achieving complete remission lasting more than a year.
  • Thus, the abnormality should formally be designated idic(7)(q11.2).
  • Furthermore, the breakpoints also differed within one of the cases, being located on both the proximal and the distal side of the most centromeric probe used.
  • Based on our three patients, as well as on a previously reported 82-year-old patient with AML M2 and idic(7)(q11) as the only chromosomal change, we suggest that this abnormality, as the sole anomaly, is associated with AML in elderly patients who display a good response to induction chemotherapy and, hence, have a favorable prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Aging / genetics. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 7 / genetics. Isochromosomes / genetics. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / drug therapy. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Chromosome Banding. Cytarabine / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Idarubicin / therapeutic use. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence / methods. Leukemia, Myelomonocytic, Acute / drug therapy. Leukemia, Myelomonocytic, Acute / genetics. Male. Remission Induction. Thioguanine / therapeutic use

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 11170283.001).
  • [ISSN] 1045-2257
  • [Journal-full-title] Genes, chromosomes & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Genes Chromosomes Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine; FTK8U1GZNX / Thioguanine; ZRP63D75JW / Idarubicin; LAI regimen
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90. Aboulafia DM, Meneses M, Ginsberg S, Siegel MS, Howard WW, Dezube BJ: Acute myeloid leukemia in patients infected with HIV-1. AIDS; 2002 Apr 12;16(6):865-76
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Acute myeloid leukemia in patients infected with HIV-1.
  • OBJECTIVES: Myelodysplasia is a frequent consequence of HIV infection, but acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is rare.
  • Clinical presentations and outcomes of patients with HIV and subsequent AML are reviewed.
  • METHODS: Five HIV-infected individuals who were subsequently diagnosed with AML were evaluated and treated.
  • A further 42 cases of AML among patients with antecedent HIV infection were identified using MEDLINE, AIDSLINE, and CancerLit searches.
  • RESULTS: HIV infection was present for a median of 48 months (71-180) before AML was diagnosed and the median reported CD4 cell count was 210 x 106 cells/l.
  • In five instances, a delay in diagnosis occurred when cytopenias were initially attributed to HIV or zidovudine-based therapy.
  • In 45 patients, diagnosis was according to the French-American-British (FAB) leukemia classification schema and in two the FAB type was not specified.
  • M2 (n = 15) and M4 (n = 14) subtypes represented 64% (29/45) of reported cases.
  • Patients with a CD4 cell count < 200 x 106 cells/l (n = 11) had a median survival time of 7 weeks, while patients with a CD4 cell count >or= 200 x 106 cells/l (n = 7) had a median survival of 7 months (P = 0.005).
  • Although long-lasting chemotherapy-induced responses were rare, the majority of treated patients did achieve complete hematologic remissions.
  • Treatment-related morbidity did not appear to be excessive.
  • CONCLUSION: In the absence of randomized and prospective clinical studies to guide decision making, this analysis indicates that induction chemotherapy may be a reasonable option for selected HIV-infected patients with AML and adequate immune function.
  • [MeSH-major] HIV Infections / complications. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Female. HIV-1 / isolation & purification. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis


91. Paydaş S, Zorludemir S, Sahin B: Vasculitis and leukemia. Leuk Lymphoma; 2000 Dec;40(1-2):105-12
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  • [Title] Vasculitis and leukemia.
  • Vasculitis may accompany neoplasias and be of paraneoplastic type or associated with drugs used in patient treatment.
  • We evaluated skin biopsies of twenty-eight cases with vasculitis accompanying leukemias reviewed and clinical outcome was evaluated.
  • Eleven of the 28 cases had paraneoplastic vasculitis and 17 had vasculitis associated with various drugs including chemotherapy, cytokines and antibacterial agents.
  • Paraneoplastic vasculitis was seen in 3 cases with chronic myelocytic leukemia in blastic phase, 5 patients with acute myeloblastic leukemia, and 3 with myelodysplastic syndrome.
  • Drugs responsible for the 17 cases of vasculitis included hydroxyurea, vincristine, cytosine-arabinoside, methotrexate, all-trans retinoic acid, granulocyte-colony stimulating factor, interferon and antibiotics.
  • Paraneoplastic vasculitis is not rare in leukemias and may be a manifestation of the blastic phase of chronic myeloid leukemia.
  • Furthermore paraneoplastic vasculitis can be fatal in myelodysplastic syndromes and may be present clinically before the specific diagnosis is made.
  • Drugs used in routine therapy may be the cause of the vasculitis, thus skin biopsy should be performed in all cutaneous lesions in patients with hemopoietic neoplasias.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia / complications. Vasculitis / etiology

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  • (PMID = 11426610.001).
  • [ISSN] 1042-8194
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia & lymphoma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Lymphoma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Infective Agents; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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92. Owatari S, Otsuka M, Uozumi K, Takeshita T, Hanada S: Two cases of secondary acute myeloid leukemia accompanying adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma. Int J Hematol; 2007 Jan;85(1):32-5
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  • [Title] Two cases of secondary acute myeloid leukemia accompanying adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma.
  • We identified 2 cases of secondary acute myeloid leukemia (AML) following adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) in patients who had previously received chemotherapy.
  • Both cases were thought to represent therapy-related AML because the patients had previously received combination chemotherapy including epipodophyllotoxin, anthracycline, and alkylating agents for the ATL.
  • The cases were diagnosed as AML M4 with eosinophilia and AML M2, with the chromosomal abnormalities inv(16)(p13q22) and t(8;21)(q22;q22), respectively.
  • In our hospital, only these 2 cases of secondary AML accompanying ATL were identified among 90 cases of acute- or lymphoma-type ATL diagnosed from October 1999 to July 2006.
  • The frequency of coexisting AML and ATL is lower than that reported for acute leukemia coexisting with other lymphoid malignancies.
  • The low frequency of secondary leukemia with ATL may be associated with the short survival times of ATL patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Leukemia, Myeloid / chemically induced. Leukemia-Lymphoma, Adult T-Cell / complications. Neoplasms, Second Primary / chemically induced
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Alkylating Agents / therapeutic use. Anthracyclines / therapeutic use. Chromosome Aberrations. Female. Humans. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / chemically induced. Leukemia, Myelomonocytic, Acute / chemically induced. Male. Middle Aged. Podophyllotoxin / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 17261499.001).
  • [ISSN] 0925-5710
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Alkylating Agents; 0 / Anthracyclines; L36H50F353 / Podophyllotoxin
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93. Doti CA, Gondolesi GE, Sheiner PA, Emre S, Miller CM, Aledort LM: Leukemia after liver transplant. Transplantation; 2001 Nov 27;72(10):1643-6
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  • [Title] Leukemia after liver transplant.
  • INTRODUCTION: Acute leukemia is rare after solid organ transplantation.
  • METHODS: Review of data on 3 patients with acute leukemia identified among 1365 who underwent liver transplantation at our center, and a review of the literature.
  • RESULTS: In patient 1, AML-M4 developed 19 months after transplant for cryptogenic cirrhosis.
  • In patient 2, B cell acute lymphoid leukemia was diagnosed 10 months after liver transplant for fulminant hepatitis.
  • Both patients had normal cytogenetics, and achieved complete remission with chemotherapy.
  • In patient 3, acute monocytic leukemia-M3 with t(15;17) arose 18 months after transplant for hepatitis C cirrhosis.
  • This patient received treatment with retinoic acid and chemotherapy, but developed a disseminated intravascular coagulation and died before completing therapy.
  • No patient presented with chromosomal abnormalities commonly seen in secondary leukemia.
  • The latency period to diagnosis after transplant was 10-19 months.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Acute leukemia, although rare after liver transplantation, should be considered in the differential diagnosis of hematological complications.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / etiology. Liver Transplantation / adverse effects. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / etiology


94. Jenkin RD, Al-Shabanah M, Al-Nasser A, El-Solh H, Aur R, Al Sudairy R, Mustafa MM, Al Fawaz I, Gray A, da Cunha M, Ayas M, Al Mahr M, Kofide A, Mahgoub AN, Rifai S, Belgaumi A, Al Jefri A, Al Musa A, Sabbah R: Extramedullary myeloid tumors in children: the limited value of local treatment. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2000 Jan-Feb;22(1):34-40
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  • [Title] Extramedullary myeloid tumors in children: the limited value of local treatment.
  • PURPOSE: To determine the incidence of extramedullary tumors (EMT) in Saudi Arabian children with acute myeloid leukemia, the factors associated with these tumors and the impact of local treatment on local tumor control, complete remission and survival rates.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: One hundred children, median age 6 years, who received their primary treatment for acute myeloid leukemia at King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, from 1983 to 1997 were studied.
  • EMT at diagnosis occurred in 18 (18%) patients at 25 sites.
  • Meningeal leukemia, hepatosplenomegaly, lymph node enlargement, gingival hypertrophy, and cutaneous infiltration were not included in the definition of EMT.
  • With these exclusions, children with EMT were younger than those without EMT (median age, 3.5 v. 7.5 years) and were more likely to have meningeal leukemia at diagnosis (33% v. 10%).
  • The t(8;21) translocation was associated with a 47% EMT incidence compared with 23% without the translocation.
  • Local radiation treatment was given to 16 of 25 (64%) EMT sites.
  • RESULTS: The overall 5-year survival rate for all patients was 28%, and this was not significantly influenced by the drug regimen used, meningeal leukemia at diagnosis, the presence of the (8;21) translocation, M4 and M5 morphology combined, or EMT at diagnosis.
  • Significant differences were observed in the 5-year survival rates for patients who underwent allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (52%; N = 37) and those who attained complete remission (CR) but did not undergo transplantation (21%; N = 44) and those who did not achieve complete remission with initial therapy (5%; N = 19).
  • Systemic and local EMT CR was achieved in 17 of 18 patients with EMT, including 12 patients who underwent radiation treatment and 5 of 6 of those who did not.
  • Isolated relapse was not seen at an EMT site and was not noted at any later stage of the disease.
  • Local radiation treatment of an EMT site did not appear to contribute to overall CR and survival rates.
  • The use of radiation treatment should be conservative and limited to patients in whom there is a real and immediate threat to vision or renal function or when the spinal cord is compromised.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Myeloid / pathology. Leukemia, Myeloid / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Adolescent. Bone Marrow Transplantation. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Incidence. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Meningeal Neoplasms / epidemiology. Meningeal Neoplasms / pathology. Meningeal Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Saudi Arabia / epidemiology. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 10695819.001).
  • [ISSN] 1077-4114
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
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95. Murohashi I, Yoshida K, Kishimoto K, Takahashi T, Wakao D, Jinnai I, Yagasaki F, Kawai N, Suzuki T, Matsuda A, Hirashima K, Bessho M: Differential response to stem cell factor and Flt3 ligand by the FAB subtype in acute myeloid leukemia clonogenic cells. J Interferon Cytokine Res; 2002 Mar;22(3):335-41
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  • [Title] Differential response to stem cell factor and Flt3 ligand by the FAB subtype in acute myeloid leukemia clonogenic cells.
  • Proliferative response of blast clonogenic cells to various hematopoietic growth factors (HGF), including stem cell factor (SCF) and flt3 ligand (FL) was investigated in 100 patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) in myeloid crisis (MC).
  • The frequency of spontaneous colony formation was significantly high in CML in MC (55%) and AML French-American-British (FAB) subtype M4 (48%) compared with M2 (16%).
  • The frequency of proliferative response to various HGF alone and in combination according to FAB subtype and CML in MC was as follows: that to granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) was lowest in M1 and CML in MC (50%) compared with other FAB subtypes (>or=86%), that to granulocyte-macrophage CSF (GM-CSF) was lowest in CML in MC (44%) compared with FAB subtypes (>or=74%), and that to interleukin-3 (IL-3) was lowest in CML in MC (30%) compared with FAB subtypes (>or=78%).
  • The frequency of proliferative response to both SCF and FL increased in the order of M1 (33%), M2 (63%), M4-5 (95%), and M6 (100%).
  • The results are summarized as follows: absence of spontaneous colony formation and response to HGF other than SCF and FL, designated as HGF-dependent growth (M3); spontaneous colony formation and lowest response to HGF, designated as autonomous growth (CML in MC); and spontaneous colony formation and highest response to HGF including SCF and FL, designated as autocrine growth (M4-6).
  • M1 and M2 were intermediate between CML in MC and M4-6.
  • The relation between in vitro growth pattern of blast clonogenic cells and prognosis in AML FAB subtype and CML in MC is discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Myeloid / drug therapy. Leukemia, Myelomonocytic, Acute / drug therapy. Membrane Proteins / pharmacology. Stem Cell Factor / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Blast Crisis / drug therapy. Blast Crisis / pathology. Cell Division / drug effects. Clone Cells. Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor / pharmacology. Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor / pharmacology. Humans. Interleukin-3 / pharmacology. Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive / drug therapy. Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive / pathology. Recombinant Proteins / pharmacology. Retrospective Studies. Tumor Cells, Cultured. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 12034041.001).
  • [ISSN] 1079-9907
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of interferon & cytokine research : the official journal of the International Society for Interferon and Cytokine Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Interferon Cytokine Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Interleukin-3; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 0 / Stem Cell Factor; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; 0 / flt3 ligand protein; 143011-72-7 / Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor; 83869-56-1 / Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor
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96. Silva ML, Land MG, Maradei S, Otero L, Veith M, Brito G, Klumb C, Fernandez T, Pombo-de-Oliveira MS: Translocation (11;11)(p13- p15;q23) in a child with therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia following chemotherapy with DNA-topoisomerase II inhibitors for Langerhans cell histiocytosis. Cancer Genet Cytogenet; 2002 May;135(1):101-2
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  • [Title] Translocation (11;11)(p13- p15;q23) in a child with therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia following chemotherapy with DNA-topoisomerase II inhibitors for Langerhans cell histiocytosis.
  • We report a new case of therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia in a child with Langerhans cell histiocytosis.
  • This patient was previously treated with a protocol of multidrug chemotherapy, containing a relatively low dose of etoposide (total dose of 900/m(2)).
  • Twenty-six months after the end of the therapy, the patient returned to the hospital with fever and anemia.
  • The bone marrow examination showed massive infiltration with French-American-British acute myeloid leukemia classification M4 blast cells.
  • The patient did not respond to an intensive treatment with high dose ARA-C and idarubicin.
  • The cytogenetic abnormality of the blast cells was a t(11;11)(p13 -15;q23), that has not been described before in a secondary leukemia case.
  • [MeSH-major] Chromosomes, Human, Pair 11 / genetics. Enzyme Inhibitors / adverse effects. Etoposide / adverse effects. Histiocytosis, Langerhans-Cell / drug therapy. Leukemia, Myelomonocytic, Acute / genetics. Neoplasms, Second Primary / genetics. Topoisomerase II Inhibitors. Translocation, Genetic
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Child, Preschool. Cytarabine / administration & dosage. Drug Therapy, Combination. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Idarubicin / administration & dosage. Karyotyping. Male. Nuclear Pore Complex Proteins / genetics. Prednisolone / administration & dosage. Prednisolone / therapeutic use. Vinblastine / administration & dosage. Vinblastine / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 12072208.001).
  • [ISSN] 0165-4608
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer genetics and cytogenetics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Genet. Cytogenet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / Nuclear Pore Complex Proteins; 0 / Topoisomerase II Inhibitors; 0 / nuclear pore complex protein 98; 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine; 5V9KLZ54CY / Vinblastine; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 9PHQ9Y1OLM / Prednisolone; ZRP63D75JW / Idarubicin
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97. Chowdhury T, Brady HJ: Insights from clinical studies into the role of the MLL gene in infant and childhood leukemia. Blood Cells Mol Dis; 2008 Mar-Apr;40(2):192-9
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  • [Title] Insights from clinical studies into the role of the MLL gene in infant and childhood leukemia.
  • Translocations involving the Mixed Lineage Leukemia (MLL) gene at 11q23 are found in both acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML), but have different prognostic implications depending on the phenotype of the leukemia in de novo pediatric cases.
  • Rearrangements of the MLL gene are found in most cases of infant AML and regardless of age confer an intermediate risk.
  • The treatment of MLL-rearranged ALL in children involves increased intensification of chemotherapy, and infants with ALL are treated with an intensive regimen of ALL- and AML-like chemotherapy, with the proportion of MLL-rearranged cases being responsible for the poor outcome in this age group.
  • The use of DNA microarray analysis to distinguish a particular gene signature for MLL-rearranged leukemias is shedding light on the molecular mechanisms and potential therapeutic targets of these leukemias.
  • It may also prove to have a useful role in both diagnosis and prognosis.
  • This review considers recent advances in our understanding of the role of MLL gene rearrangements in pediatric clinical practice.
  • [MeSH-major] Gene Rearrangement. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / genetics. Myeloid-Lymphoid Leukemia Protein / genetics. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17905612.001).
  • [ISSN] 1079-9796
  • [Journal-full-title] Blood cells, molecules & diseases
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Blood Cells Mol. Dis.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 149025-06-9 / Myeloid-Lymphoid Leukemia Protein
  • [Number-of-references] 82
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98. Hiçsönmez G: The effect of steroid on myeloid leukemic cells: the potential of short-course high-dose methylprednisolone treatment in inducing differentiation, apoptosis and in stimulating myelopoiesis. Leuk Res; 2006 Jan;30(1):60-8
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  • [Title] The effect of steroid on myeloid leukemic cells: the potential of short-course high-dose methylprednisolone treatment in inducing differentiation, apoptosis and in stimulating myelopoiesis.
  • Several in vitro studies have shown that dexamethasone (Dex) and prednisolone can induce differentiation of some mouse and human myeloid leukemic cells to macrophages and granulocytes.
  • Based on in vitro experiments, we have shown that short-course (3-7 days) high-dose methylprednisolone (HDMP) (20-30 mg/kg/day) treatment can induce differentiation of myeloid leukemic cells in vivo in children with different subtypes of acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML) (AML-M1, -M2, -M3, -M4, -M7).
  • We have also shown that induction of apoptosis of myeloid leukemic cells with or without differentiation is possible by short-course HDMP treatment.
  • In addition, short-course HDMP treatment has been shown to be effective in accelerating leukocyte recovery, possibly stimulating normal CD34-positive hematopoietic progenitor cells.
  • Addition of HDMP to mild cytotoxic chemotherapy (low-dose cytosine arabinoside (LD-Ara-c), weekly mitoxantrone and Ara-c or 6-thioguanine) increased the remission rate (87-89%) and improved the outcome of AML children.
  • We believe that the results of our 17-year clinical experience will provide important benefits to AML patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-Inflammatory Agents / pharmacology. Apoptosis / drug effects. Cell Differentiation / drug effects. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / metabolism. Methylprednisolone / pharmacology. Myelopoiesis / drug effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antigens, CD34 / metabolism. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Hematopoietic Stem Cells / metabolism. Hematopoietic Stem Cells / pathology. Humans. Leukocytes / metabolism. Leukocytes / pathology. Male. Mice. Recovery of Function / drug effects. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15979702.001).
  • [ISSN] 0145-2126
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents; 0 / Antigens, CD34; X4W7ZR7023 / Methylprednisolone
  • [Number-of-references] 111
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99. Han K, Kahng J, Kim M, Lim J, Kim Y, Cho B, Kim HK, Min WS, Kim CC, Lee KY, Kim BK, Kang CS: Expression of functional markers in acute nonlymphoblastic leukemia. Acta Haematol; 2000;104(4):174-80
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  • [Title] Expression of functional markers in acute nonlymphoblastic leukemia.
  • Multidrug resistance parameters, tissue infiltration parameters, receptors for colony-stimulating factors (CSFr) and cell cycle parameters were analyzed using flow cytometry in 145, 109 initial and 36 relapsed or refractory, acute nonlymphoblastic leukemia (ANLL) patients to find out clinically more reliable functional parameters.
  • Complete remission rate after standard chemotherapy falls in PGP-positive cases (p = 0.001).
  • The percentage of the granulocyte-macrophage-CSFr expression was high in M4 and M5, and granulocyte-CSFr-positive ANLL showed less extramedullary infiltration (p = 0.007) and more PGP expression.
  • In conclusion, analysis of these new functional parameters could help to predict and overcome the clinical behavior of each ANLL at the time of diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Aged. Antigens, Surface / analysis. Bone Marrow Cells / chemistry. Bone Marrow Cells / metabolism. Cell Adhesion Molecules / analysis. Cell Cycle. Child. Child, Preschool. Drug Resistance, Multiple. Female. Flow Cytometry. Humans. Infant. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Receptors, Colony-Stimulating Factor / analysis. Recurrence. Remission Induction

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel
  • (PMID = 11279307.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5792
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta haematologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Haematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Surface; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cell Adhesion Molecules; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Receptors, Colony-Stimulating Factor
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100. Leong CF, Azma RZ, Cheong SK, Salwati S, Sharifah NA: Complex karyotypic abnormalities in a case of acute myeloid leukaemia--M4Eo. Malays J Pathol; 2005 Jun;27(1):45-50
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  • [Title] Complex karyotypic abnormalities in a case of acute myeloid leukaemia--M4Eo.
  • A 25-year-old man was referred to Hospital UKM with a 2-week history of fever, productive cough and loss of appetite.
  • Full blood picture demonstrated leukocytosis with 90% blasts, and bone marrow examination confirmed the diagnosis of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) French-American-British (FAB) classification of M4 with eosinophilia.
  • Cytological examination of the pleural fluid demonstrated numerous blast cells indicating leukemic infiltration of the lungs, which is a rare presentation in AML.
  • He was then started on induction chemotherapy with intravenous daunorubicin and cytarabine.
  • In the midst of treatment, he developed an episode of seizure and cerebro-spinal fluid cytology confirmed central nervous system (CNS) leukaemic infiltration.
  • Repeat bone marrow examination done on day 15 of chemotherapy showed persistence of excess blasts indicating refractory AML.
  • The disease progressed and he succumbed about 8 weeks after the initial diagnosis was made.
  • We highlight here a case of AML-M4Eo with complex karyoyptic abnormalities presenting with leukaemic infiltration of the lungs and CNS which had imparted a bad prognosis for this subtype of AML, AML-M4Eo.
  • [MeSH-major] Chromosome Aberrations. Leukemia, Myelomonocytic, Acute / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. China / ethnology. Cytarabine / therapeutic use. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Injections, Spinal. Karyotyping. Male. Methotrexate / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 16676693.001).
  • [ISSN] 0126-8635
  • [Journal-full-title] The Malaysian journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Malays J Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Malaysia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate
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