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1. Copur MS, Deshpande A, Mleczko K, Norvell M, Hrnicek GJ, Woodward S, Frankforter S, Mandolfo N, Fu K, Chan WC: Full clinical recovery after topical acyclovir treatment of Epstein-Barr virus associated cutaneous B-cell lymphoma in patient with mycosis fungoides. Croat Med J; 2005 Jun;46(3):458-62
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. ACYCLOVIR .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Full clinical recovery after topical acyclovir treatment of Epstein-Barr virus associated cutaneous B-cell lymphoma in patient with mycosis fungoides.
  • Here we report a rare case of mycosis fungoides variant of a cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) which later developed Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) associated cutaneous B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder.
  • Histopathology and immunophenotyping of her tumor from the right breast nodule revealed a T-cell lymphoma consistent with mycosis fungoides.
  • After progression of her mycosis fungoides with worsening diffuse skin lesions on this regimen, her treatments were changed to oral bexarotene with an initial partial response followed by stable disease.
  • Three years from her initial presentation, she developed ulcerated cauliflower-like nodules on her forehead.
  • She was treated with topical acyclovir cream on the involved skin areas while continuing with oral bexarotene for mycosis fungoides.
  • Skin lesions gradually diminished and totally disappeared after four weeks of topical acyclovir treatment.
  • Bexarotene treatment was continued for another year until the mycosis fungoides progressed and became wide spread causing her death four and a half years after the initial diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Acyclovir / therapeutic use. Antiviral Agents / therapeutic use. Epstein-Barr Virus Infections / drug therapy. Lymphoma, B-Cell / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Topical. Female. Herpesvirus 4, Human / isolation & purification. Humans. Middle Aged. Mycosis Fungoides / complications. Skin Neoplasms / complications

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  • (PMID = 15861527.001).
  • [ISSN] 0353-9504
  • [Journal-full-title] Croatian medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Croat. Med. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Croatia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antiviral Agents; X4HES1O11F / Acyclovir
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2. Kiratli H, Gümüs K: [Mycosis fungoides of the eyelids. Two case reports]. J Fr Ophtalmol; 2006 Mar;29(3):323-6
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  • [Title] [Mycosis fungoides of the eyelids. Two case reports].
  • [Transliterated title] Mycosis fongoïde des paupières. A propos de deux cas.
  • Mycosis fungoides is a distinct variant of cutaneous T cell lymphoma.
  • Multiagent chemotherapy and PUVA treatment were administered with limited successful outcome on their cutaneous lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Eyelid Neoplasms. Mycosis Fungoides. Skin Neoplasms

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  • (PMID = 16557179.001).
  • [ISSN] 1773-0597
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal français d'ophtalmologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Fr Ophtalmol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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3. Bukhari IA: Rare variant of mycosis fungoides. Ann Saudi Med; 2006 Mar-Apr;26(2):150-1
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. ALL-TRANS-RETINOIC ACID .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Rare variant of mycosis fungoides.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Hair Follicle. Mycosis Fungoides / diagnosis. Mycosis Fungoides / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy. Tretinoin / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 16761456.001).
  • [ISSN] 0256-4947
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of Saudi medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Saudi Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Saudi Arabia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 5688UTC01R / Tretinoin
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4. Topar G, Zelger B, Schmuth M, Romani N, Thaler J, Sepp N: Granulomatous slack skin: a distinct disorder or a variant of mycosis fungoides? Acta Derm Venereol; 2001 Jan-Feb;81(1):42-4
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. METHYLPREDNISOLONE .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Granulomatous slack skin: a distinct disorder or a variant of mycosis fungoides?
  • Mycosis fungoides is the most common entity in this group.
  • Granulomatous slack skin is a rare form of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma closely related to mycosis fungoides.
  • We present here a patient with areas of lax skin for several years who developed a generalized erythroderma with associated immunoactivation and a deterioration in his general condition.
  • This report discusses clinically and histologically the differential diagnoses, namely granulomatous slack skin and granulomatous mycosis fungoides, and suggests that these 2 disorders are only variants in the broad spectrum of a single disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma, T-Cell, Cutaneous / pathology. Mycosis Fungoides / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biopsy, Needle. Chlorambucil / administration & dosage. Diagnosis, Differential. Drug Therapy, Combination. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Methylprednisolone / administration & dosage. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11411914.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5555
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta dermato-venereologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Derm. Venereol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Norway
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 18D0SL7309 / Chlorambucil; X4W7ZR7023 / Methylprednisolone
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5. DeBloom J 2nd, Severson J, Gaspari A, Scott G: Follicular mycosis fungoides: a case report and review of the literature. J Cutan Pathol; 2001 Jul;28(6):318-24
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. METHOTREXATE .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Follicular mycosis fungoides: a case report and review of the literature.
  • BACKGROUND: Follicular mycosis fungoides is an unusual variant of mycosis fungoides (MF).
  • [MeSH-major] Hair Follicle / pathology. Mycosis Fungoides / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Topical. Adult. Anti-Inflammatory Agents / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Dermatologic Agents / therapeutic use. Drug Therapy, Combination. Glucocorticoids. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Mechlorethamine / therapeutic use. Methotrexate / therapeutic use. T-Lymphocytes / chemistry. T-Lymphocytes / pathology. Treatment Outcome

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  • [CommentIn] J Cutan Pathol. 2002 Nov;29(10):625 [12453304.001]
  • (PMID = 11401680.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Dermatologic Agents; 0 / Glucocorticoids; 50D9XSG0VR / Mechlorethamine; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate
  • [Number-of-references] 21
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6. Health Quality Ontario: Extracorporeal photophoresis: an evidence-based analysis. Ont Health Technol Assess Ser; 2006;6(6):1-82

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness, safety and cost-effectiveness of extracorporeal photophoresis (ECP) for the treatment of refractory erythrodermic cutaneous T cell lymphoma (CTCL) and refractory chronic graft versus host disease (cGvHD).
  • The most frequently diagnosed form of CTCL is mycosis fungoides (MF) and its leukemic variant Sezary syndrome (SS).
  • The relative frequency and disease-specific 5-year survival of 1,905 primary cutaneous lymphomas classified according to the World Health Organization-European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (WHO-EORTC) classification (Appendix 1).
  • Mycosis fungoides had a frequency of 44% and a disease specific 5-year survival of 88%.
  • Cutaneous T cell lymphoma has an annual incidence of approximately 0.4 per 100,000 and it mainly occurs in the 5(th) to 6(th) decade of life, with a male/female ratio of 2:1.
  • Mycosis fungoides is an indolent lymphoma with patients often having several years of eczematous or dermatitic skin lesions before the diagnosis is finally established.
  • Mycosis fungoides commonly presents as chronic eczematous patches or plaques and can remain stable for many years.
  • Early in the disease biopsies are often difficult to interpret and the diagnosis may only become apparent by observing the patient over time.
  • CHRONIC GRAFT VERSUS HOST DISEASE: Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is a treatment used for a variety of malignant and nonmalignant disease of the bone marrow and immune system.
  • The procedure is often associated with serious immunological complications, particularly graft versus host disease (GvHD).
  • Of the patients with extensive disease, approximately 60% will respond to treatment and eventually be able to discontinue immunosuppressive therapy.
  • The remaining patients will develop opportunistic infection, or require prolonged treatment with immunosuppressive agents.
  • The most commonly involved tissues are the skin, liver, mouth, and eyes.
  • TREATMENT:   CUTANEOUS T CELL LYMPHOMA: The optimal management of MF is undetermined because of its low prevalence, and its highly variable natural history, with frequent spontaneous remissions and exacerbations and often prolonged survival.
  • Nonaggressive approaches to therapy are usually warranted with treatment aimed at improving symptoms and physical appearance while limiting toxicity.
  • Given that multiple skin sites are usually involved, the initial treatment choices are usually topical or intralesional corticosteroids or phototherapy using psoralen (a compound found in plants which make the skin temporarily sensitive to ultraviolet A) (PUVA).
  • "Second line" therapy for early stage disease is often topical chemotherapy, radiotherapy or total skin electron beam radiation (TSEB).
  • Treatment of advanced stage (IIB-IV) MF usually consists of topical or systemic therapy in refractory or rapidly progressive SS.
  • Bone marrow transplantation and peripheral blood stem cell transplantation have been used to treat many malignant hematologic disorders (e.g., leukemias) that are refractory to conventional treatment.
  • Reports on the use of these procedures for the treatment of CTCL are limited and mostly consist of case reports or small case series.
  • CHRONIC GRAFT VERSUS HOST DISEASE: Patients who develop cGvHD require reinstitution of immunosuppressive medication (if already discontinued) or an increase in dosage and possibly addition of other agents.
  • The current literature regarding cGvHD therapy is less than optimal and many recommendations about therapy are based on common practices that await definitive testing.
  • Numerous salvage therapies have been considered in patients with refractory cGvHD, including ECP.
  • Due to uncertainty around salvage therapies, Bhushan and Collins suggested that ideally, patients with refractory cGvHD should be entered into clinical trials.
  • Two Ontario expert consultants jointly estimated that there may be approximately 30 new erythrodermic treatment resistant CTCL patients and 30 new treatment resistant cGvHD patients per year who are unresponsive to other forms of therapy and may be candidates for ECP.
  • Extracorporeal photopheresis is a procedure that was initially developed as a treatment for CTCL, particularly SS.
  • The lymphocyte layer is treated with methoxsalen (a drug that sensitizes the lymphocytes to light) and exposed to UVA, following which the lymphocytes are returned to the patient.
  • Photosensitization is achieved by administering methoxsalen to the patient orally 2 hours before the procedure, or by injecting methoxsalen directly ino the leucocyte rich fraction.
  • The latter approach avoids potential side effects such as nausea, and provides a more consistent drug level within the machine.
  • In general, from the time the intravenous line is inserted until the white blood cells are returned to the patient takes approximately 2.5-3.5 hours.
  • For CTCL, the treatment schedule is generally 2 consecutive days every 4 weeks for a median of 6 months.
  • For cGvHD, an expert in the field estimated that the treatment schedule would be 3 times a week for the 1(st) month, then 2 consecutive days every 2 weeks after that (i.e., 4 treatments a month) for a median of 6 to 9 months.
  • REGULATORY STATUS: The UVAR XTS Photopheresis System is licensed by Health Canada as a Class 3 medical device (license # 7703) for the "palliative treatment of skin manifestations of CTCL."
  • It is not licensed for the treatment of cGvHD.

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  • (PMID = 23074497.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Ontario health technology assessment series
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ont Health Technol Assess Ser
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3379535
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7. Dearden C, Matutes E, Catovsky D: Pentostatin treatment of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Oncology (Williston Park); 2000 Jun;14(6 Suppl 2):37-40
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  • [Title] Pentostatin treatment of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma.
  • Mycosis fungoides is an indolent primary cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) that usually progresses from localized skin lesions to systemic disease.
  • Sézary syndrome is a distinct variant characterized by generalized erythroderma and circulating cerebriform cells in the peripheral blood.
  • Among the treatment modalities used in these diseases are skin-directed therapy, single-agent and combination systemic chemotherapy, and, more recently, bioimmunotherapy.
  • At The Royal Marsden Hospital, we treated 29 cutaneous T-cell lymphoma patients with pentostatin, including 16 with Sézary syndrome, 5 with mycosis fungoides, and 8 with other cutaneous T-cell lymphomas.
  • The majority (N = 20) had received prior therapy.
  • There was no significant treatment-related toxicity.
  • We conclude that pentostatin is an effective single-agent therapy for patients with Sézary syndrome but not for those with other cutaneous T-cell lymphomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Lymphoma, T-Cell / drug therapy. Pentostatin / therapeutic use. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Mycosis Fungoides / drug therapy. Sezary Syndrome / drug therapy. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 10887643.001).
  • [ISSN] 0890-9091
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology (Williston Park, N.Y.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncology (Williston Park, N.Y.)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 395575MZO7 / Pentostatin
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8. Tracey L, Villuendas R, Ortiz P, Dopazo A, Spiteri I, Lombardia L, Rodríguez-Peralto JL, Fernández-Herrera J, Hernández A, Fraga J, Dominguez O, Herrero J, Alonso MA, Dopazo J, Piris MA: Identification of genes involved in resistance to interferon-alpha in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Am J Pathol; 2002 Nov;161(5):1825-37
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  • Interferon-alpha therapy has been shown to be active in the treatment of mycosis fungoides although the individual response to this therapy is unpredictable and dependent on essentially unknown factors.
  • In an effort to better understand the molecular mechanisms of interferon-alpha resistance we have developed an interferon-alpha resistant variant from a sensitive cutaneous T-cell lymphoma cell line.
  • MAL expression was associated with longer time to complete remission.
  • Time-course experiments of the sensitive and resistant cells showed a differential expression of a subset of genes involved in interferon-response (1 to 4 hours), cell growth and apoptosis (24 to 48 hours.
  • [MeSH-minor] Carrier Proteins / biosynthesis. Carrier Proteins / genetics. DNA-Binding Proteins / biosynthesis. DNA-Binding Proteins / genetics. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Gene Expression Profiling. Humans. Kinetics. Models, Biological. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. RNA, Neoplasm / biosynthesis. Reproducibility of Results. STAT1 Transcription Factor. STAT3 Transcription Factor. Trans-Activators / biosynthesis. Trans-Activators / genetics. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 12414529.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9440
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Interferon-alpha; 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Receptors, Interleukin-1; 0 / STAT1 Transcription Factor; 0 / STAT1 protein, human; 0 / STAT3 Transcription Factor; 0 / STAT3 protein, human; 0 / TIRAP protein, human; 0 / Trans-Activators
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1850769
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9. Ishida M, Hotta M, Takikita-Suzuki M, Kojima F, Okabe H: CD8-positive granulomatous mycosis fungoides: a case report with review of the literature. J Cutan Pathol; 2010 Oct;37(10):1072-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] CD8-positive granulomatous mycosis fungoides: a case report with review of the literature.
  • Granulomatous mycosis fungoides (GMF) represents an uncommon variant of mycosis fungoides (MF) characterized by the presence of an associated granulomatous reaction.
  • She had been diagnosed with MF, and most of the eruption improved by psoralen ultraviolet A therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD8 / biosynthesis. Granuloma / pathology. Mycosis Fungoides / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diabetes Mellitus / pathology. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / metabolism. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. PUVA Therapy

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  • (PMID = 20579213.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD8
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10. Duvic M, Foss FM: Mycosis fungoides: pathophysiology and emerging therapies. Semin Oncol; 2007 Dec;34(6 Suppl 5):S21-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Mycosis fungoides: pathophysiology and emerging therapies.
  • Mycosis fungoides and its leukemic variant Sézary syndrome represent the most common CTCL subtypes.
  • Current treatment for patients with mycosis fungoides involves topical and systemic therapies for the cutaneous manifestations.
  • However, no therapy is curative and patients often progress to advanced extracutaneous CTCL with visceral organ complications or relapsed disease that is frequently refractory to most topical and aggressive systemic regimens.
  • The emergence of novel targeted therapies such as biologic agents, histone deacetylase inhibitors, and purine nucleoside phosphorylase inhibitors offers promise for more effective and safer treatment strategies for refractory CTCLs.
  • [MeSH-major] Histone Deacetylases / drug effects. Mycosis Fungoides. Purine-Nucleoside Phosphorylase / drug effects. Skin Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Clinical Trials as Topic. Humans. Immunologic Factors / therapeutic use. Purine Nucleosides / therapeutic use. Pyrimidinones / therapeutic use. Sezary Syndrome / drug therapy. Sezary Syndrome / physiopathology

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  • (PMID = 18086343.001).
  • [ISSN] 0093-7754
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunologic Factors; 0 / Purine Nucleosides; 0 / Pyrimidinones; 426X066ELK / forodesine; EC 2.4.2.1 / Purine-Nucleoside Phosphorylase; EC 3.5.1.98 / Histone Deacetylases
  • [Number-of-references] 56
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11. Frei GM, Kremer M, Hanschmann KM, Krause S, Albeck M, Sredni B, Schnierle BS: Antitumour effects in mycosis fungoides of the immunomodulatory, tellurium-based compound, AS101. Br J Dermatol; 2008 Mar;158(3):578-86
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Antitumour effects in mycosis fungoides of the immunomodulatory, tellurium-based compound, AS101.
  • OBJECTIVES: To investigate the antitumour activity of AS101 on cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL), of which mycosis fungoides (MF) is the most frequent disease variant.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that AS101 may be a promising antitumour drug for CTCL.
  • [MeSH-major] Adjuvants, Immunologic / therapeutic use. Apoptosis / drug effects. Ethylenes / therapeutic use. Mycosis Fungoides / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 18241275.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0963
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adjuvants, Immunologic; 0 / Ethylenes; 0 / ammonium trichloro(dioxoethylene-O,O'-)tellurate
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12. Bittencourt AL, Mota K, Oliveira RF, Farré L: A dyshidrosis-like variant of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma with clinicopathological aspects of mycosis fungoides. A case report. Am J Dermatopathol; 2009 Dec;31(8):834-7
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  • [Title] A dyshidrosis-like variant of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma with clinicopathological aspects of mycosis fungoides. A case report.
  • Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) is an aggressive type of leukemia/lymphoma associated with the human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV-I).
  • We describe an adult male patient clinically and pathologically diagnosed as mycosis fungoides and treated with chemotherapy after which complete involution of the lesions occurred.
  • A serological test performed at this time revealed HTLV-I infection, and a diagnosis of chronic ATL was made.
  • The delay that occurred in diagnosing ATL was due to the fact that mycosis fungoides and ATL may present the same clinical, histopathological, and immunohistochemical features.
  • [MeSH-major] Eczema, Dyshidrotic / pathology. HTLV-I Infections / pathology. Leukemia-Lymphoma, Adult T-Cell / pathology. Mycosis Fungoides / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cyclophosphamide. Diabetes Mellitus. Diagnosis, Differential. Doxorubicin. Human T-lymphotropic virus 1. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Interferon-alpha / therapeutic use. Male. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Prednisone. Vincristine. Zidovudine / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 19770630.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Interferon-alpha; 4B9XT59T7S / Zidovudine; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone; CHOP protocol
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13. Recio ED, Zambrano B, Alonso ML, de Eusebio E, Martín M, Cuevas J, Jaén P: Topical 5-aminolevulinic acid photodynamic therapy for the treatment of unilesional mycosis fungoides: a report of two cases and review of the literature. Int J Dermatol; 2008 Apr;47(4):410-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Topical 5-aminolevulinic acid photodynamic therapy for the treatment of unilesional mycosis fungoides: a report of two cases and review of the literature.
  • BACKGROUND: Unilesional mycosis fungoides (MF) is a rare variant of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL), characterized clinically by a solitary lesion and by histopathological features indistinguishable from multilesional MF.
  • The photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a new and effective treatment of precancerous lesions and non-melanoma skin cancers.
  • In recent years it has been used successfully for the treatment of MF.
  • Treatment was repeated three times at monthly intervals.
  • Skin biopsies were taken before and after therapy.
  • The biopsies confirmed a regression of the infiltrate after treatment.
  • CONCLUSIONS: PDT is effective and can be used successfully for MF treatment, particularly for patch and plaque stage MF, including unilesional MF.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminolevulinic Acid / therapeutic use. Mycosis Fungoides / drug therapy. Photochemotherapy. Photosensitizing Agents / therapeutic use. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Topical. Adult. Female. Humans. Low-Level Light Therapy / methods. Male. Middle Aged. Skin / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18377612.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-4632
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 88755TAZ87 / Aminolevulinic Acid
  • [Number-of-references] 19
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14. Lee J, Viakhireva N, Cesca C, Lee P, Kohler S, Hoppe RT, Kim YH: Clinicopathologic features and treatment outcomes in Woringer-Kolopp disease. J Am Acad Dermatol; 2008 Oct;59(4):706-12
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  • [Title] Clinicopathologic features and treatment outcomes in Woringer-Kolopp disease.
  • Woringer-Kolopp disease, also known as pagetoid reticulosis, is an exceedingly rare variant of mycosis fungoides.
  • Accurate diagnosis and effective treatment is essential to prevent progression to debilitating disease.
  • We review the major clinical and pathologic characteristics of this disease, focusing on treatment strategies and patient outcomes.
  • All of our patients were successfully treated with skin-directed therapies including topical steroids, topical nitrogen mustard, psoralen plus ultraviolet A, narrow-band ultraviolet B, and radiation therapy.
  • Our observations confirm that Woringer-Kolopp disease carries an excellent prognosis, and support that the most effective and appropriate treatment for recalcitrant or severe Woringer-Kolopp disease is localized radiation therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Mycosis Fungoides / diagnosis. Mycosis Fungoides / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Biopsy. Child. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Hand Dermatoses / diagnosis. Humans. Infant. Male. Mechlorethamine / administration & dosage. PUVA Therapy. Photons / therapeutic use. Radiation Dosage. Salvage Therapy. Skin / pathology. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18550209.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6787
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 50D9XSG0VR / Mechlorethamine
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15. Hefczyc JZ, Szyguła BE, Wertelecka IC: [Bacterial pericarditis in a patient with Sezary syndrome]. Wiad Lek; 2000;53(9-10):570-3
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  • Sezary Syndrome-T-cell cutaneous lymphoma is considered to be the leucaemic variant of mycosis fungoides.
  • The patient was treated with vancomycine and three cycles of chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Pericarditis / etiology. Sezary Syndrome / complications. Staphylococcal Infections / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Vancomycin / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 11148927.001).
  • [ISSN] 0043-5147
  • [Journal-full-title] Wiadomości lekarskie (Warsaw, Poland : 1960)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Wiad. Lek.
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 6Q205EH1VU / Vancomycin
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16. Hultgren TL, Jones D, Duvic M: Topical nitrogen mustard for the treatment of granulomatous slack skin. Am J Clin Dermatol; 2007;8(1):51-4
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  • [Title] Topical nitrogen mustard for the treatment of granulomatous slack skin.
  • Granulomatous slack skin (GSS) is a rare variant of mycosis fungoides in which inflammation leads to elastolysis manifested by pendulous skin folds with a predilection for flexural areas.
  • Histologic findings include many multinucleated giant cells with large numbers of nuclei and loss of dermal elastic tissue.
  • Definitive therapy has yet to be established, but recently interferon-alpha and radiation, interferon-gamma, and pentostatin have shown some success in the treatment of GSS.
  • Topical nitrogen mustard appears to be an effective skin-directed therapy for this rare condition.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / therapeutic use. Lymphoma, T-Cell, Cutaneous / drug therapy. Mechlorethamine / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Topical. Adult. Aged. Biopsy. Female. Humans. Male. Skin / pathology. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17298108.001).
  • [ISSN] 1175-0561
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Clin Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA16672-22; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K24-CA86815
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 50D9XSG0VR / Mechlorethamine
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17. Scarisbrick JJ: Staging and management of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Clin Exp Dermatol; 2006 Mar;31(2):181-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Most variants of CTCL are indolent lymphoma, the most common being mycosis fungoides.
  • In addition, Sézary syndrome, the leukaemic variant, has an aggressive clinical course.
  • Treatment of patients with early-stage disease (IA-IIB) should be limited to skin-directed therapy.
  • More advanced or resistant disease may be treated with systemic therapies such as extracorporeal photopheresis, immunotherapy, monoclonal antibody therapy, novel retinoids or chemotherapy, and where possible, patients should be entered into clinical trials.
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Bone Marrow Transplantation / methods. Dermatologic Agents / therapeutic use. Humans. Immunotherapy. Mycosis Fungoides / pathology. Mycosis Fungoides / therapy. Photopheresis / methods. Phototherapy / methods. Sezary Syndrome / classification. Sezary Syndrome / pathology. Sezary Syndrome / therapy

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  • (PMID = 16487086.001).
  • [ISSN] 0307-6938
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical and experimental dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Exp. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Dermatologic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 34
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18. Drugeon C, Charlat I, Boulinguez S, Viraben R: [Bexarotene therapy in folliculotropic cutaneous T-cell lymphoma]. Ann Dermatol Venereol; 2007 Aug-Sep;134(8-9):639-43
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  • [Title] [Bexarotene therapy in folliculotropic cutaneous T-cell lymphoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Lymphomes cutanés T folliculotropes traités par bexarotène.
  • BACKGROUND: Folliculotropic lymphoma is a variant of fungoid mycosis distinguished by its clinical features, histology, poor prognosis and poor response to the standard treatments for cutaneous T-cell lymphomas.
  • The purpose of our study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of bexarotene, an RXR receptor-selective retinoid, in the treatment of folliculotropic lymphoma after 3 months and 6 months of therapy.
  • Patients were included where diagnosis of folliculotropic lymphoma was based on histological evidence, provided they had received at least one prior treatment (PUVA therapy, Retinol/PUVA therapy, Caryolysine, Bicnu, methotrexate), and the affected body surface area could be calculated from initial whole-body photographs using the rule of 9.
  • Partial remission was seen after 3 months and 6 months of treatment in 75% of patients.
  • According to the Physical Global Assessment Scale (7-item evaluation scale), 75% of patients presented global improvement after 3 months of treatment compared with 87.5% after 6 months.
  • Five of the 8 patients experienced sexual dysfunction while on treatment with bexarotene, which resolved one month after discontinuation of therapy in four cases.
  • DISCUSSION: These global response levels confirm the place of bexarotene in the treatment of folliculotropic lymphoma.
  • Combined therapy appears to be warranted due to the difficulty in maintaining optimal dosages of the drug because of the frequency of adverse effects.
  • Preventive therapy for the hypothyroidism seen in practically all cases should prevent adverse effects of the drug on sexual function.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Mycosis Fungoides / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy. Tetrahydronaphthalenes / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Body Surface Area. Dyslipidemias / chemically induced. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Hypothyroidism / chemically induced. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Prospective Studies. Remission Induction. Retinoid X Receptors / agonists. Retrospective Studies. Sexual Dysfunction, Physiological / chemically induced. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17925686.001).
  • [ISSN] 0151-9638
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales de dermatologie et de vénéréologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Dermatol Venereol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Retinoid X Receptors; 0 / Tetrahydronaphthalenes; A61RXM4375 / bexarotene
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19. Horwitz SM: Novel therapies for cutaneous T-cell lymphomas. Clin Lymphoma Myeloma; 2008 Dec;8 Suppl 5:S187-92
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  • [Title] Novel therapies for cutaneous T-cell lymphomas.
  • The most common subtype, mycosis fungoides and its leukemic variant Sézary syndrome, frequently behave as a chronic lymphoma with good prognosis for early-stage disease and shortened survival only for patients in advanced stages.
  • Historically, these patients have experienced excessive toxicity from chemotherapy without durable benefit, leading to current conservative treatment strategies.
  • An increasing number of novel therapies are available or in development.
  • These newer therapies often have unique mechanisms of action and different toxicities with less myelosuppression than traditional cytotoxic chemotherapy.
  • Among these novel systemic therapies are so-called biologic therapies such as retinoids like bexarotene, the fusion toxin denileukin diftitox, lenalidomide, and toll-like receptor agonists.
  • Even agents considered to be conventional chemotherapy, such as gemcitabine or pegylated liposomal doxorubicin, have demonstrated activity in CTCL at relatively lower doses with less myelosuppression.
  • Evaluation through carefully designed clinical trials should lead to better, safer, and more effective treatment strategies in the future.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma, T-Cell, Cutaneous / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aminopterin / analogs & derivatives. Aminopterin / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Diphtheria Toxin / therapeutic use. Folic Acid Antagonists / therapeutic use. Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors. Humans. Interleukin-2 / therapeutic use. Photopheresis. Recombinant Fusion Proteins / therapeutic use. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy. Tetrahydronaphthalenes / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 19073526.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-9190
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical lymphoma & myeloma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Lymphoma Myeloma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 10-propargyl-10-deazaaminopterin; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Diphtheria Toxin; 0 / Folic Acid Antagonists; 0 / Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors; 0 / Interleukin-2; 0 / Recombinant Fusion Proteins; 0 / Tetrahydronaphthalenes; 25E79B5CTM / denileukin diftitox; A61RXM4375 / bexarotene; JYB41CTM2Q / Aminopterin
  • [Number-of-references] 44
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20. Meech SJ, Edelson R, Walsh P, Norris DA, Duke RC: Reversible resistance to apoptosis in cutaneous T cell lymphoma. Ann N Y Acad Sci; 2001 Sep;941:46-58
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Mycosis fungoides and its leukemic variant, Sézary syndrome, represent the most common forms of cutaneous T cell lymphomas (CTCL).
  • Unlike their normal counterparts, these malignant lymphocytes have prolonged life spans and are resistant to dying following treatment with most chemotherapeutic agents.
  • Factors leading to the resistance of apoptosis in CTCL and new therapeutic approaches for reversing this resistance will be discussed, including the important role that the Fas death pathway may play in the pathogenesis and treatment of CTCL.
  • [MeSH-major] Apoptosis. Lymphoma, T-Cell, Cutaneous / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes / immunology. DNA Damage. Fas Ligand Protein. Humans. Membrane Glycoproteins / physiology. Models, Biological. Mutation. PUVA Therapy. Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor / metabolism. Stress, Physiological

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  • (PMID = 11594582.001).
  • [ISSN] 0077-8923
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / AI-40607; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / AI-46394
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / FASLG protein, human; 0 / Fas Ligand Protein; 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins; 0 / Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor
  • [Number-of-references] 54
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21. Venturini A, Zane C, Rodella R, Leali C, Calzavara Pinton P, Zorzi F: Syringotropic cutaneous T cell lymphoma treated with PUVA therapy. Eur J Dermatol; 2005 Jul-Aug;15(4):262-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Syringotropic cutaneous T cell lymphoma treated with PUVA therapy.
  • Syringotropic cutaneous T cell Lymphoma (SCTCL) is a rare localized variant of CTCL.
  • Its relationship with mycosis fungoides and other CTCLs is not clarified and is still under discussion.
  • Several treatment approaches have been suggested, but therapeutic results are often disappointing.
  • We report the case of a patient with typical clinical and histopathological features of SCTCL and an excellent response to PUVA therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma, T-Cell, Cutaneous / diagnosis. Lymphoma, T-Cell, Cutaneous / drug therapy. PUVA Therapy. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 16048754.001).
  • [ISSN] 1167-1122
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of dermatology : EJD
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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22. Lansigan F, Foss FM: Current and emerging treatment strategies for cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Drugs; 2010 Feb 12;70(3):273-86
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Current and emerging treatment strategies for cutaneous T-cell lymphoma.
  • The most common subtypes of CTCL are mycosis fungoides and its leukaemic variant Sézary's syndrome.
  • For the treating physician, the question of how to choose a particular therapy in the management of CTCL is important.
  • Other than an allogeneic stem cell transplant, there are no curative therapies for this disease.
  • Hence, many treatment modalities need to be offered to the patient over the course of their life.
  • An accepted treatment approach has been to delay traditional chemotherapy, which can cause excessive toxicity without durable benefit.
  • More conservative treatment strategies in the initial management of CTCL have led to the development of newer biological and targeted therapies.
  • These therapies include biological immune enhancers such as interferon alpha and extracorporeal photopheresis that exert their effect by stimulating an immune response to the tumour cells.
  • Lastly, systemic chemotherapy including transplantation is used when rapid disease control is needed or if all other biological therapies have failed.
  • As response rates to most of the biological agents used to treat CTCL are 25-30%, it is also reasonable to consider clinical trials with novel agents if one or two front-line therapies have failed, especially before considering chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy / methods. Lymphoma, T-Cell, Cutaneous / drug therapy. Lymphoma, T-Cell, Cutaneous / therapy. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Clinical Protocols. Drug Administration Routes. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation / methods. Humans

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  • (PMID = 20166766.001).
  • [ISSN] 1179-1950
  • [Journal-full-title] Drugs
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Drugs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal
  • [Number-of-references] 90
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23. Lee CH, Mamelak AJ, Vonderheid EC: Erythrodermic cutaneous T cell lymphoma with hypereosinophilic syndrome: Treatment with interferon alfa and extracorporeal photopheresis. Int J Dermatol; 2007 Nov;46(11):1198-204
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Erythrodermic cutaneous T cell lymphoma with hypereosinophilic syndrome: Treatment with interferon alfa and extracorporeal photopheresis.
  • The lymphoproliferative variant of HES is thought to be mediated by an underlying hematologic process that drives eosinophil production through specific cytokines.
  • OBJECTIVE: We report a case of HES with cardiac involvement that developed in the context of erythrodermic mycosis fungoides, discuss the possible relationship between these diseases, and speculate on the role that eosinophils might play as a prognostic factor in CTCL.
  • [MeSH-major] Hypereosinophilic Syndrome. Interferon-alpha / therapeutic use. Lymphoma, T-Cell, Cutaneous. Photopheresis
  • [MeSH-minor] Cytokines / metabolism. Eosinophilia / drug therapy. Eosinophilia / metabolism. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. T-Lymphocyte Subsets / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17988344.001).
  • [ISSN] 0011-9059
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cytokines; 0 / Interferon-alpha
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24. Querfeld C, Nagelli LV, Rosen ST, Kuzel TM, Guitart J: Bexarotene in the treatment of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Expert Opin Pharmacother; 2006 May;7(7):907-15
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Bexarotene in the treatment of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma.
  • Mycosis fungoides and the leukaemic variant Sézary syndrome, collectively referred to as cutaneous T-cell lymphomas, are the most common entities.
  • No curative therapy exists and patients ultimately develop advanced or relapsed disease that is refractory to standard treatment options.
  • Therefore, there is a great need for the development of novel emerging therapies.
  • Bexarotene is the first synthetic nuclear retinoid X receptor-selective retinoid approved by the FDA for the treatment of refractory cutaneous T-cell lymphoma in all stages, as both an oral capsule and a topical gel formulation.
  • Bexarotene was found to induce apoptosis in a variety of preclinical in vitro and in vivo models including cutaneous T-cell lymphoma cells, and has shown efficacy in two multi-centre, open-label Phase II - III clinical trials for early and advanced stages of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma in patients who have failed or were refractory to standard therapies.
  • New insights into the immunomodulatory function of bexarotene have indicated opportunities for combined treatment with IFN-alpha, denileukin diftitox or phototherapy.
  • This article reviews the biological properties, pharmacokinetics, clinical efficacy, safety and role of bexarotene in the treatment of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Lymphoma, T-Cell, Cutaneous / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 16634713.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-7666
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Opin Pharmacother
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 72
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