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1. Melo GM, Sguilar DA, Petiti CM, Eichstaedt AG, Caiado RR, Souza RA: Concomitant thyroid Malt lymphoma and papillary thyroid carcinoma. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol; 2010 Jun;54(4):425-8
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  • [Title] Concomitant thyroid Malt lymphoma and papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • The objective of this study was to describe the rare thyroid MALT lymphoma concomitant with papillary thyroid carcinoma in a male patient who was submitted to total thyroidectomy.
  • Treatment and follow-up issues are addressed.
  • Male patient complains of fast thyroid enlargement without lymphadenophaty and normal clinical exams.
  • The pathology showed multicentric papillary thyroid carcinoma, concomitant thyroid MALT lymphoma and Hashimoto's thyroiditis.
  • After RIT no further radiotherapy or chemotherapy was indicated.
  • It was concluded that primary thyroid MALT lymphoma is uncommon being the papillary thyroid carcinoma more frequent.
  • Both occurring concomitantly is very rare and the treatment has to prioritize the tumor of worst prognosis at the discovery moment.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Lymphoma, B-Cell, Marginal Zone / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 20625656.001).
  • [ISSN] 1677-9487
  • [Journal-full-title] Arquivos brasileiros de endocrinologia e metabologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
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2. Zinzani PL, Stefoni V, Musuraca G, Tani M, Alinari L, Gabriele A, Marchi E, Pileri S, Baccarani M: Fludarabine-containing chemotherapy as frontline treatment of nongastrointestinal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. Cancer; 2004 May 15;100(10):2190-4
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  • [Title] Fludarabine-containing chemotherapy as frontline treatment of nongastrointestinal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma is a specific clinicopathologic entity with gastric and nongastrointestinal site involvement.
  • The authors reported the clinical outcome of patients with Stage IE nongastrointestinal MALT lymphoma treated with a frontline fludarabine-containing regimen or with a regimen containing cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and prednisone (CVP).
  • Presenting sites included periorbital soft tissue (n = 8), lung (n = 5), skin (n = 5), salivary glands (n = 5), lacrimal glands (n = 5), and thyroid (n = 3).
  • Four patients, all treated with CVP, experienced disease recurrence and then achieved a second CR after FM salvage treatment.
  • No tumor recurrence was observed in patients with thyroid, lacrimal gland, or pulmonary lymphoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The fludarabine-containing FM regimen provided a relatively effective frontline (or salvage) treatment option for patients with nongastrointestinal Stage IE MALT lymphoma and probably was superior to CVP in terms of efficacy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. DNA (Cytosine-5-)-Methyltransferase / antagonists & inhibitors. Lymphoma, B-Cell, Marginal Zone / drug therapy. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / drug therapy. Vidarabine / analogs & derivatives. Vidarabine / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prednisone / administration & dosage. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2004 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 15139063.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; EC 2.1.1.37 / DNA (Cytosine-5-)-Methyltransferase; FA2DM6879K / Vidarabine; P2K93U8740 / fludarabine; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone; COP protocol 2
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3. Ke X, Jing H, Li M, An X, Gao Z: [Analysis of 37 pathological and clinic data of extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT)]. Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao; 2003 Apr 18;35(2):123-7
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  • [Title] [Analysis of 37 pathological and clinic data of extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT)].
  • OBJECTIVE: To provide pathological and clinical evidences in order to establish standardized diagnosis and treatment for MALT lymphoma.
  • METHODS: Pathological characters, grade, stage, prognostic factors and treatment of 37 cases of MALT lymphoma were analyzed which were diagnosed from January 2000 to June 2002.
  • RESULTS: The 39 patients(8.82%) were diagnosed as MALT lymphoma out of 442 NHL patients(37 patients were followed up, and two missing).
  • The marjority of tumors were found in stomach, intestinal, thyroid, parotid gland, orbit and lung.
  • Of phenotype 35 cases were CD20 positive, and 4 cases were diagnosed as MALT lymphoma supported by PCR detecting IgH re-arrangement.
  • Patients with GI MALT lymphoma received 3-cycle antibiotic treatment.
  • Most of patients received chemotherapy, with 4 plus local radiotherapy.
  • Only one patient received antibiotic treatment alone.
  • No one received radiation treatment alone.
  • CONCLUSION: MALT lymphoma was often seen in older patients, most of whom were in low-grade with slow disease progression.
  • The site, grade, stage and molecular genetic change are important prognostic factors, which can help us to make decision in choosing suitable treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Helicobacter Infections. Lymphoma, B-Cell, Marginal Zone / pathology

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  • (PMID = 12920824.001).
  • [ISSN] 1671-167X
  • [Journal-full-title] Beijing da xue xue bao. Yi xue ban = Journal of Peking University. Health sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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4. Doi Y, Goto A, Murakami T, Yamashita H, Yamashita H, Noguchi S: Primary thyroid lymphoma associated with Graves' disease. Thyroid; 2004 Sep;14(9):772-6
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  • [Title] Primary thyroid lymphoma associated with Graves' disease.
  • We report herein a case of thyroid mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma in a patient receiving antithyroid drug therapy for Graves' disease.
  • Three years later, she presented with rapid and painless enlargement of the thyroid.
  • Ultrasonography revealed a circumscribed hypoechoic area bilaterally in each lobe of the thyroid, and fine-needle aspiration biopsy showed diffuse monotonous infiltration of small- to medium-sized atypical lymphoid cells. (67)Ga scintigraphy was positive exclusively in the thyroid.
  • After total thyroidectomy, the patient received radiation therapy for treatment of stage IE primary thyroid lymphoma.
  • Results of histological examination, immunohistochemical analysis, and flow cytometric analysis confirmed MALT lymphoma.
  • To our knowledge, there have been few published reports of primary thyroid lymphoma associated with Graves' disease.
  • Our experience with this case, though rare, indicates that an enlarged thyroid in cases of Graves' disease should be examined carefully for primary thyroid lymphoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Graves Disease / complications. Lymphoma, B-Cell, Marginal Zone / complications. Thyroid Neoplasms / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antithyroid Agents / therapeutic use. Diagnostic Imaging. Female. Humans. Methimazole / therapeutic use. Radiotherapy. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 15361265.001).
  • [ISSN] 1050-7256
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antithyroid Agents; 554Z48XN5E / Methimazole
  • [Number-of-references] 17
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5. Tsang RW, Gospodarowicz MK, Pintilie M, Wells W, Hodgson DC, Sun A, Crump M, Patterson BJ: Localized mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma treated with radiation therapy has excellent clinical outcome. J Clin Oncol; 2003 Nov 15;21(22):4157-64
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  • [Title] Localized mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma treated with radiation therapy has excellent clinical outcome.
  • PURPOSE: Extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma) is a distinct lymphoma with unique clinicopathologic features.
  • We report the clinical outcome of stage I and II MALT lymphoma treated with involved field radiation therapy (RT).
  • Presenting sites were stomach (17 patients), orbital adnexa (31 patients), salivary glands (24 patients), thyroid gland (13 patients), and other sites (18 patients).
  • Ninety-three patients received RT--85 received RT alone, and eight received chemotherapy and RT--with a median dose of 30 Gy.
  • The median follow-up time was 5.1 years.
  • Relapse sites were mostly contralateral paired-organ or distant MALT locations and, infrequently, lymph nodes.
  • No relapses were observed in patients with stomach or thyroid lymphoma, whereas 14 of 63 patients (22%) experienced relapse in the other sites.
  • Transformed lymphoma was observed in 14% of patients (two of 14) experiencing relapse.
  • CONCLUSION: Moderate-dose RT achieved excellent local control in localized MALT lymphomas and had curative potential for three fourths of the patients.
  • Gastric and thyroid MALT lymphomas had better outcome, whereas distant failures were common for other sites.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma, B-Cell, Marginal Zone / radiotherapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Anti-Bacterial Agents / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Helicobacter Infections / complications. Helicobacter Infections / drug therapy. Helicobacter pylori. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Neoplasms, Second Primary / epidemiology. Prognosis. Remission Induction. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 14615444.001).
  • [ISSN] 0732-183X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents
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6. Amouri A, Chtourou L, Mnif L, Mdhaffar M, Abid M, Ayedi L, Daoud J, Elloumi M, Boudawara T, Tahri N: [MALT lymphoma of the rectum: a case report treated by radiotherapy]. Cancer Radiother; 2009 Jan;13(1):61-4

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  • [Title] [MALT lymphoma of the rectum: a case report treated by radiotherapy].
  • [Transliterated title] Lymphome de MALT du rectum : à propos d'un cas traité par irradiation.
  • The mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma is a distinct clinical pathologic entity that develops in diverse anatomic locations such as the stomach, salivary gland, thyroid, lung, skin and breast.
  • To our knowledge, only ten cases of primary rectal MALT lymphoma have been reported in the literature.
  • We report a 46-year-old woman with rectal MALT lymphoma, which regressed after radiotherapy.
  • Microscopic and immunohistologic studies of the biopsy specimen showed typical features of low grade MALT lymphoma.
  • Upper endoscopy showed chronic gastritis with lymphoid follicles but without any infiltration of lymphoma cells.
  • No extra-intestinal involvement was found on the staging evaluation, which included computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen, chest, pelvis and a bone marrow biopsy.
  • Repeated colonoscopy 4 months after the end of treatment showed that the rectal tumor had not regressed.
  • Biopsy specimens confirmed the persistent infiltration of lymphoma cells.
  • The patient was considered to be a non-responder to eradication therapy and was indicated for radiotherapy.
  • He underwent a total of 34 Gy.
  • Complete regression was confirmed by colonoscopic and histologic examination at 2 months after the end of treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma, B-Cell, Marginal Zone / radiotherapy. Rectal Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy. Chronic Disease. Colonoscopy. Female. Gastritis / complications. Gastritis / diagnosis. Gastritis / drug therapy. Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage / etiology. Helicobacter Infections / complications. Helicobacter Infections / diagnosis. Helicobacter Infections / drug therapy. Helicobacter pylori. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Patient Selection. Radiotherapy Dosage. Rare Diseases. Rectal Diseases / etiology. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19101191.001).
  • [ISSN] 1278-3218
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer radiothérapie : journal de la Société française de radiothérapie oncologique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Radiother
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Number-of-references] 27
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7. Gospodarowicz M, Tsang R: Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas. Curr Oncol Rep; 2000 Mar;2(2):192-8
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  • [Title] Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas.
  • Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma has attracted attention because its concept has amalgamated the study of etiology and pathogenesis in an intriguing group of lymphomas.
  • MALT lymphomas are a B-cell malignancy with characteristic lymphoepithelial lesions; cells are CD20-positive and CD5- and CD10-negative.
  • They commonly occur in the stomach, orbit, salivary glands, and thyroid.
  • Lymphocyte homing has been implicated in gastrointestinal MALT and may be involved in other MALT lymphomas.
  • Local therapy, either through surgery or radiotherapy, is curative in a high proportion of patients.
  • MALT lymphomas respond to chemotherapy, but there is no evidence that cure can be achieved, although prolonged survival is common.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Lymphoma, B-Cell, Marginal Zone / pathology. Lymphoma, B-Cell, Marginal Zone / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Male. Prognosis. Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic. Severity of Illness Index. Surgical Procedures, Operative / methods. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11122843.001).
  • [ISSN] 1523-3790
  • [Journal-full-title] Current oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Oncol Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
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8. Arima N, Tsudo M: Extragastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma showing the regression by Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy. Br J Haematol; 2003 Mar;120(5):790-2
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  • [Title] Extragastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma showing the regression by Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy.
  • Primary thyroid MALT lymphoma occurring in Hasimoto's thyroiditis was diagnosed.
  • After subtotal gastrectomy by itself, thyroid lymphoma became smaller transiently.
  • Then the patient was treated with H. pylori eradication therapy, resulting in the complete disappearance of lymphoma.
  • Although H. pylori organisms were not detected in the lymphoma tissue by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), it might be implicated in the pathogenesis of extragastric MALT lymphomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / microbiology. Helicobacter Infections / drug therapy. Helicobacter pylori. Lymphoma, B-Cell, Marginal Zone / microbiology. Stomach Neoplasms / microbiology. Thyroid Neoplasms / microbiology
  • [MeSH-minor] 2-Pyridinylmethylsulfinylbenzimidazoles. Aged. Amoxicillin / therapeutic use. Clarithromycin / therapeutic use. Drug Therapy, Combination / therapeutic use. Gastrectomy. Humans. Lansoprazole. Male. Omeprazole / analogs & derivatives. Omeprazole / therapeutic use. Thyroiditis, Autoimmune / microbiology

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  • (PMID = 12614211.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-1048
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of haematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Haematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 2-Pyridinylmethylsulfinylbenzimidazoles; 0K5C5T2QPG / Lansoprazole; 804826J2HU / Amoxicillin; H1250JIK0A / Clarithromycin; KG60484QX9 / Omeprazole
  • [Number-of-references] 10
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9. Yoshino T, Ichimura K, Mannami T, Takase S, Ohara N, Okada H, Akagi T: Multiple organ mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas often involve the intestine. Cancer; 2001 Jan 15;91(2):346-53
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  • [Title] Multiple organ mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas often involve the intestine.
  • BACKGROUND: Low grade mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas usually are confined to single extranodal organs.
  • Although some case reports have been published, clinicopathologic characteristics of multiorgan MALT lymphomas remain unclear.
  • METHODS: The authors evaluated 7 MALT lymphoma cases involving multiorgans in the past 7 years.
  • In this period, they experienced 304 cases of MALT lymphomas.
  • Four cases showed multiple organ involvement at the initial diagnosis or after a short period.
  • In the other three cases, primary foci were the stomach, thyroid gland, and ocular adnexa; after a rather long period (3 years or more), distant metastases were found.
  • The patients were rather resistant to the various therapeutic approaches.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Multiorgan MALT lymphomas are rather rare.
  • Most cases probably derived from a single clone, and lymphoma cells may selectively move among MALTs via a homing system with preferential involvement of the colon.
  • Because multiorgan MALT lymphomas rarely achieve complete remission by treatment with combination chemotherapy or irradiation, MALT lymphomatous lesions should be checked carefully, especially in the large intestine.
  • [MeSH-major] Colonic Neoplasms / pathology. Lymphoma, B-Cell, Marginal Zone / pathology. Stomach Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Base Sequence. Fatal Outcome. Female. Gene Rearrangement. Humans. Lung Neoplasms / genetics. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Lymphoma, B-Cell / genetics. Lymphoma, B-Cell / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Molecular Sequence Data. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 11180081.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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10. Malek SN, Hatfield AJ, Flinn IW: MALT Lymphomas. Curr Treat Options Oncol; 2003 Aug;4(4):269-79
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  • [Title] MALT Lymphomas.
  • Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas occur in a variety of organs, including the orbit, conjunctiva, salivary glands, skin, thyroid gland, lungs, stomach, and intestine.
  • Diagnosis is made by pathologic evaluation of a tissue biopsy.
  • Staging includes a history and physical, chemistries, computed tomography scan, and bone marrow biopsy.
  • Treatment is tailored to organ involvement and stage at presentation.
  • Eradication of Helicobacter pylori using a triple anti-H. pylori regimen approved by the US Food and Drug Administration is standard therapy for all H. pylori-positive gastric MALT lymphomas.
  • Endoscopic ultrasound- and computed tomography-staged gastric MALT stage IE tumors will achieve a complete response with this approach in approximately 60% to 90% of patients (the more superficial the tumor, the better the response).
  • Tumors with a significant high-grade component or large cell tumors with a minor low-grade MALT component should receive CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone)-based chemotherapy.
  • Localized MALT lymphomas of the orbit, conjunctiva, salivary glands, and thyroid gland are treated successfully with radiotherapy.
  • Surgery as first-line therapy for gastric MALT lymphomas was replaced by attempts at organ preservation.
  • In the past, margin-free surgical excision or tumor debulking followed by radiation therapy and chemotherapy has been highly effective for gastric MALT lymphomas.
  • Therefore, surgical excision of large cell or bulky tumors of the stomach, thyroid, lung, and salivary gland, followed by adjuvant radiotherapy or chemotherapy, may still be an important consideration in selected patients.
  • Disseminated MALT lymphomas are incurable and are treated primarily with chemotherapy according to symptoms.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma, B-Cell, Marginal Zone / therapy

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  • (PMID = 12943607.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-2729
  • [Journal-full-title] Current treatment options in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Treat Options Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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11. Cho JH, Park YH, Kim WS, Oh SY, Cho SI, Kang HJ, Na II, Ryoo BY, Yang SH, Kim K, Jung CW, Park K, Ko YH, Lee SS: High incidence of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue in primary thyroid lymphoma: a clinicopathologic study of 18 cases in the Korean population. Leuk Lymphoma; 2006 Oct;47(10):2128-31
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  • [Title] High incidence of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue in primary thyroid lymphoma: a clinicopathologic study of 18 cases in the Korean population.
  • The present study aimed to evaluate the clinicopathologic features and treatment outcomes of patients with primary thyroid lymphoma (PTL).
  • Thirteen cases involved the thyroid alone (stage IE) and five cases involved the regional lymph nodes (stage IIE).
  • Histopathologic studies revealed marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) in 13 patients and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) in three patients.
  • The other two patients showed features of both MALT and DLBCL.
  • Surgery and chemotherapy with or without radiotherapy were performed.
  • The prognosis of patients with primary thyroid lymphoma appears to be favourable.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma, B-Cell, Marginal Zone / complications. Lymphoma, B-Cell, Marginal Zone / epidemiology. Thyroid Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Incidence. Korea. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 17071486.001).
  • [ISSN] 1042-8194
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia & lymphoma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Lymphoma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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12. Tsang RW, Gospodarowicz MK, Pintilie M, Bezjak A, Wells W, Hodgson DC, Crump M: Stage I and II MALT lymphoma: results of treatment with radiotherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2001 Aug 1;50(5):1258-64
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  • [Title] Stage I and II MALT lymphoma: results of treatment with radiotherapy.
  • PURPOSE: Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma is a distinct disease with specific clinical and pathologic features that may affect diverse organs.
  • We analyzed our recent experience with Stage I/II MALT lymphoma presenting in the stomach and other organs to assess the outcome following involved field radiation therapy (RT).
  • Patients with transformed MALT were excluded.
  • Presenting sites included stomach, 15; orbital adnexa, 19; salivary glands, 15; thyroid, 8; lung, 5; upper airways, 3 (nasopharynx, 2; larynx, 1); urinary bladder, 3; breast, 1; and rectum, 1.
  • Sixty-two patients received radiation therapy: 52 received RT alone, 7 received chemotherapy and RT, and 3 received antibiotics followed by RT.
  • Median RT dose was 30 Gy (range, 17.5--35 Gy).
  • Most frequently used RT prescriptions were 25 Gy (26 patients-18 orbit, 6 stomach, and 2 salivary glands), 30 Gy (23 patients), and 35 Gy (8 patients).
  • Five patients had complete surgical excision of lymphoma and no other treatment (stomach 1, salivary 2, lung 2), whereas 2 patients with gastric lymphoma received antibiotics only.
  • One patient refused treatment and was excluded from the analysis of treatment outcome, leaving 69 patients with a median follow-up of 4.2 years (range, 0.3-11.4 years).
  • No relapses were observed in patients with stomach and thyroid lymphoma.
  • Among the 5 patients treated with surgery only, 2 relapsed locally (lung, and minor salivary gland).
  • CONCLUSION: Localized MALT lymphomas have excellent prognosis following moderate-dose RT.
  • Gastric and thyroid MALT lymphomas have better early outcome, as compared to the other sites where distant failure is more common.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma, B-Cell, Marginal Zone / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Anti-Bacterial Agents / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Chlorambucil / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Disease-Free Survival. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Helicobacter Infections / complications. Helicobacter Infections / drug therapy. Helicobacter pylori. Humans. Life Tables. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Neoplasms, Second Primary / epidemiology. Prednisone / administration & dosage. Prognosis. Remission Induction. Retrospective Studies. Stomach Neoplasms / drug therapy. Stomach Neoplasms / mortality. Stomach Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Stomach Neoplasms / surgery. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 11483337.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents; 18D0SL7309 / Chlorambucil; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone; CHOP protocol; COP protocol 2
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13. Suh C, Huh J, Roh JL: Extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue arising in the extracranial head and neck region: a high rate of dissemination and disease recurrence. Oral Oncol; 2008 Oct;44(10):949-55
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  • [Title] Extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue arising in the extracranial head and neck region: a high rate of dissemination and disease recurrence.
  • Nongastrointestinal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma, although generally indolent in nature, has variable and heterogeneous clinical course and biologic behavior.
  • We have evaluated the clinical features and follow-up of patients with MALT lymphomas involving the head and neck in our institution.
  • Forty-four new patients with MALT lymphomas arising in ocular adnexa (24 patients, group A) and other head and neck sites (20 patients, group B) of the salivary gland (13), thyroid gland (3) and other regions (4) were retrospectively analyzed.
  • At initial diagnosis, 21 patients had solitary lesions (16/24 in the group A vs. 5/20 in the group B, P=.008); 23 had disseminated disease at multiple sites (11 patients) and/or lymph node involvement (15 patients: 3/24 in the group A vs. 12/20 in the group B, P=.025).
  • Treatment consisted of local therapy, consisting of surgical resection and/or radiotherapy, in 34 patients and systemic chemotherapy with/without local therapy in 10 patients.
  • Patients with MALT lymphomas of the head and neck are at relatively high risk for multifocal or lymph node involvement.
  • Recurrence at prolonged times after therapy indicates the need for close long-term monitoring, and for prospective trials to prevent recurrence.
  • [MeSH-major] Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Lymphoma, B-Cell, Marginal Zone / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Lymphatic Metastasis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 18234544.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-0593
  • [Journal-full-title] Oral oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oral Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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14. Zhou SY, Huang DZ, Shi YK, He XH, Wu YH, Li YX: [Clinicopathologic features of primary thyroid lymphoma]. Ai Zheng; 2005 Jan;24(1):95-8
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  • [Title] [Clinicopathologic features of primary thyroid lymphoma].
  • BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE: Primary thyroid lymphoma (PTL) is a rare disease.
  • It is likely to be misdiagnosed, and its treatment remains controversy.
  • This study was to investigate clinicopathologic features of PTL, and explore proper treatments.
  • All patients were B-cell original; according to WHO classification, 16 (72.7%) were diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), and 6 (27.3%) were mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma.
  • Five patients received surgery alone; 7 received radiotherapy after surgery, 6 received chemotherapy after surgery, 4 received chemotherapy and radiotherapy after surgery.
  • The majority of PTL is B-cell original; DLBCL, and MALT lymphoma were the most common histological subtypes.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma, B-Cell, Marginal Zone / therapy. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / therapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / therapy. Thyroidectomy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Prednisone / administration & dosage. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Sex Factors. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 15642210.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Ai zheng = Aizheng = Chinese journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ai Zheng
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone; CHOP protocol
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15. Kebapcilar L, Alacacioglu I, Comlekci A, Ozcan MA, Piskin O, Kargi A, Undar B, Yesil S: Primary thyroid lymphoma: case series with literature review. J BUON; 2009 Apr-Jun;14(2):295-9
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  • [Title] Primary thyroid lymphoma: case series with literature review.
  • Non Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL) of the thyroid are rare thyroid neoplasms.
  • The majority of histopathologic types are extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) type and, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL).
  • Most of them arise in a background of Hashimoto's thyroiditis and patients mostly present with a rapidly enlarging thyroid mass and with pressure symptoms.
  • Treatment depends on the histological subtype and stage of the disease and includes radiotherapy and chemotherapy.
  • The prognosis usually is favorable with proper treatment.
  • Herein, we discuss the clinical diagnosis and treatment of thyroid lymphoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma, B-Cell / diagnosis. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19650181.001).
  • [ISSN] 1107-0625
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of B.U.ON. : official journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J BUON
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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16. Yamashita H, Nakagawa K, Asari T, Murakami N, Igaki H, Ohtomo K: Radiotherapy for 41 patients with stages I and II MALT lymphoma: a retrospective study. Radiother Oncol; 2008 Jun;87(3):412-7

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Radiotherapy for 41 patients with stages I and II MALT lymphoma: a retrospective study.
  • PURPOSE: Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma is a distinct disease with specific clinical and pathologic features that may affect diverse organs.
  • We analyzed our recent experience with Stage I/II MALT lymphoma presenting in the stomach and other organs to assess the outcome following radiation therapy (RT) alone.
  • Patients with transformed MALT were excluded.
  • Presenting sites included stomach, 11; orbital adnexa, 21; thyroid, 1; other head and neck, 3; small bowel, 3; skin, 1; and rectum, 1.
  • Mean follow-up time was 32.0 months (range, 2.1-162 months).
  • Only one patient died from bile duct carcinoma at 22 months from the start of irradiation for conjunctiva MALT lymphoma without recurrence of lymphoma.
  • One patient with a duodenal lymphoma had a recurrence in non-irradiated distant sites at 1 month.
  • Another patient with a bilateral eye lid lymphoma had a recurrence within radiation field at 41 months.
  • CONCLUSION: Localized MALT lymphomas have excellent prognosis following moderate-dose RT (30Gy/20fr).
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma, B-Cell, Marginal Zone / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Disease Progression. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Helicobacter Infections / complications. Helicobacter Infections / drug therapy. Helicobacter pylori. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Radiation Injuries / pathology. Radiotherapy Dosage

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  • (PMID = 18423914.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-8140
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiotherapy and oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiother Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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17. Akcali Z, Sakalli H, Noyan T, Kayaselcuk F, Ozyilkan O: Primary thyroid lymphoma: report of two cases. East Afr Med J; 2004 Jul;81(7):378-80
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  • [Title] Primary thyroid lymphoma: report of two cases.
  • Primary thyroid lymphoma is a rare disease.
  • Main histopathologic subtypes are either mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) or diffuse large cell lymphomas.
  • Treatment options are surgical resection in localised, low-grade MALT lymphomas or systemic chemotherapy in aggressive, diffuse large cell lymphomas.
  • But, sometimes other histopathologic subtypes can be seen and therapeutic approaches must be done.
  • We report two patients who have primary thyroid lymphoma.
  • There was no history of Hashimoto's thyroiditis in either case, and neither of them had MALT histologic subtype.
  • First patient a sixty four year old woman, admitted to hospital because of bilateral thyroid nodules.
  • Histological subtype was B cell follicular lymphoma.
  • Second patient, a 50 year old man, presented with complaints of a left thyroid mass and dyspnoea.
  • Total thyroidectomy was carried out and chemotherapy was given.
  • Histological diagnosis was diffuse large B cell lymphoma.
  • Thyroid lymphomas had heterogenous histological and clinical characteristics.
  • In localised, non-aggressive subtypes, surgical treatment must be considered.
  • Postoperative chemotherapy or radiotherapy may be necessary in some patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma, B-Cell / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 15490712.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-835X
  • [Journal-full-title] East African medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] East Afr Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Kenya
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18. Colović M, Matić S, Kryeziu E, Tomin D, Colović N, Atkinson HD: Outcomes of primary thyroid non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: a series of nine consecutive cases. Med Oncol; 2007;24(2):203-8
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  • [Title] Outcomes of primary thyroid non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: a series of nine consecutive cases.
  • Primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) of the thyroid gland is a rare disease with an incidence of 0.5 per 100,000 population.
  • Stages IE and IIE thyroid NHL have been traditionally treated by surgical resection; however, modern treatment consists of chemotherapy and local radiotherapy, and surgery is often reserved for tissue diagnosis and relief of airway compression.
  • We retrospectively reviewed the management and outcomes of nine consecutive patients with thyroid NHL, eight females and one male (median age 63 yr, range 34-71 yr) treated between 1994 and 1999.
  • Pathohistology and immunohistochemistry identified two patients with mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT), three follicular center cell lymphoma (FCC), two patients large B-cell lymphoma (BLCL), one a marginal zone lymphoma (MZL), and one patient a peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL).
  • One (MALT) patient underwent surgery alone; three patients surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy (two FCC, one PTCL); three patients surgery and chemotherapy (one MALT, one FCC, one LBCL); and two chemotherapy alone (one LBCL, one MZL).
  • The PTCL patient, a 34-yr-old man, died from disseminated disease at 13 mo despite secondary chemotherapy, and one LBCL patient with extensively invasive local disease died from stroke 17 mo after diagnosis.
  • With appropriate therapy primary thyroid NHL has a favorable course; however, prognosis depends on the histology, local spread, and the stage of the disease at presentation, as well as the patient's performance status.
  • Surgery in combination with chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy is still warranted for intermediate and high-grade thyroid NHLs, with over 77% of patients achieving long-term remission.
  • Peripheral T-cell lymphoma carries a poor prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / pathology. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / therapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Gland / surgery. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17848745.001).
  • [ISSN] 1357-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Medical oncology (Northwood, London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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19. Widder S, Pasieka JL: Primary thyroid lymphomas. Curr Treat Options Oncol; 2004 Aug;5(4):307-13
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Primary thyroid lymphomas.
  • Primary thyroid lymphoma is a rare disease that continues to produce diagnostic and therapeutic dilemmas.
  • There was great difficulty in distinguishing thyroid lymphoma from anaplastic thyroid carcinoma but, because of new immunocytochemical staining techniques and increased cytopathologic knowledge, our ability to diagnose thyroid lymphoma has improved drastically over the past decade.
  • Surgery that was once the mainstay of treatment for this disease, now plays a minimal role.
  • Current treatment regimens for primary thyroid lymphoma consist of chemotherapy (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone) and external beam radiation.
  • The overall and distant relapse rates have been shown to be significantly lower in those patients receiving combined modality therapy compared to chemotherapy or radiation alone.
  • Although the role of surgery has changed over time, it continues to play an important role, especially in confirming diagnoses through open biopsies, potentially providing local control in the more indolent subtypes, and may play a role in the palliation of symptoms for large obstructive lymphomas.
  • Most thyroid lymphomas are B-cell origin, with six different histologic subtypes, but there appears to be two distinct clinical and prognostic groupings of these rare tumors.
  • The more indolent lymphomas are the subgroup of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas comprising approximately 6% to 27% of thyroid lymphomas.
  • This subgroup, when localized to the thyroid (stage IE), responds well to total thyroidectomy or radiation with a complete response rate of more than 90%, leading some authors to recommend surgery as primary therapy in the treatment of localized MALT lymphomas.
  • Therefore, surgery as a primary treatment for thyroid lymphomas would only be recommended under ideal conditions, such as MALT subtype stage IE only, and completely resectable with minimal morbidity.
  • The more common subtype, comprising up to 70% of cases, is diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.
  • Up to 40% of all diffuse large cell lymphomas appear to have undergone transformation from a MALT lymphoma, but they behave in a similar fashion to diffuse large cell lymphomas.
  • Treatment for these tumors should include chemotherapy and radiation.
  • Surgery is rarely beneficial in diffuse large cell lymphoma and the mixed large cell subtypes because the disease is generally disseminated and surgical excision of all disease is not possible or associated with increased morbidity.
  • However, there may be a role for palliative surgical debulking to alleviate obstructive symptoms while the patient is undergoing standard chemotherapy and radiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma, B-Cell, Marginal Zone / pathology. Lymphoma, B-Cell, Marginal Zone / therapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Biopsy, Needle. Clinical Trials as Topic. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Radiotherapy, High-Energy / methods. Risk Assessment. Survival Analysis. Thyroidectomy / methods. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15233907.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-2729
  • [Journal-full-title] Current treatment options in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Treat Options Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 27
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20. Derringer GA, Thompson LD, Frommelt RA, Bijwaard KE, Heffess CS, Abbondanzo SL: Malignant lymphoma of the thyroid gland: a clinicopathologic study of 108 cases. Am J Surg Pathol; 2000 May;24(5):623-39
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Malignant lymphoma of the thyroid gland: a clinicopathologic study of 108 cases.
  • We report a retrospective clinicopathologic study of 108 primary thyroid gland lymphomas (PTLs), classified using the REAL and proposed WHO classification schemes.
  • All patients presented with a thyroid mass.
  • The PTLs were classified as marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) or MZBL (n = 30), diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) with MZBL (n = 36), DLBCL without MZBL (n = 41), and follicle center lymphoma (FCL; n = 1).
  • Excluding the FCL, features of lymphomas of MALT-type were identified in all groups, despite a follicular architecture in 23% of cases.
  • Ninety-one percent of patients presented with stage IE or IIE disease, whereas 69% had perithyroidal soft tissue infiltration.
  • All patients were treated with surgical excision followed by adjuvant therapy (76%): chemotherapy (15%), radiation (19%), or a combination of radiation and chemotherapy (42%).
  • Statistically, stages greater than IE, presence of DLBCL, rapid clinical growth, abundant apoptosis, presence of vascular invasion, high mitotic rate, and infiltration of the perithyroidal soft tissue were significantly associated with death with disease.
  • In summary, PTLs typically occur in middle- to older-aged individuals as a thyroid mass, with a predilection for females.
  • Despite their histologic heterogeneity and frequent simulation of other lymphoma subtypes, virtually all PTLs are lymphomas of MALT-type arising in the setting of LT.
  • Overall, PTLs have a favorable outcome with appropriate therapy, but prognosis depends on both clinical stage and histology.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphoma, B-Cell / pathology. Lymphoma, B-Cell, Marginal Zone / pathology. Lymphoma, Follicular / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 10800981.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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21. Sakuraba M, Onuki T, Mae M, Yoshida T, Nitta S: [Three cases of primary pulmonary malignant lymphoma]. Nihon Kokyuki Gakkai Zasshi; 2000 Sep;38(9):714-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Three cases of primary pulmonary malignant lymphoma].
  • Primary pulmonary malignant lymphoma is a rare disease that is thought to belong to a category of malignant lymphomas arising from mucosa- or bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT or BALT).
  • We encountered 3 cases of primary pulmonary malignant lymphoma, Case 1: In a 51-year-old male, an abnormal shadow was detected in chest radiography in the right S9 after an operation for thyroid carcinoma.
  • The diagnosis was malignant lymphoma (marginal zone B-cell lymphoma).
  • Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery was performed, and the diagnosis was malignant lymphoma (marginal zone B-cell lymphoma).
  • The diagnosis was Hodgkin's disease, nodular sclerosing type.
  • Chemotherapy was given after surgery and the patient is now alive without recurrence.
  • As the pulmonary malignant lymphoma was difficult to diagnosepreoperatively, it was necessary to resect the mass for diagnostic purposes.
  • Therefore lobectomy was performed as the treatment of choice.
  • Systemic chemotherapy is performed for the diffuse type of pulmonary lymphoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Lymphoma, B-Cell / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 11109812.001).
  • [ISSN] 1343-3490
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Kokyūki Gakkai zasshi = the journal of the Japanese Respiratory Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nihon Kokyuki Gakkai Zasshi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] JAPAN
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22. Pereira FO, Graf H, Nomura LM, Neto JZ, Collaço LM, Boguszewski CL: Concomitant presentation of Hashimoto's thyroiditis and maltoma of the thyroid in a twenty-year-old man with a rapidly growing mass in the neck. Thyroid; 2000 Sep;10(9):833-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Concomitant presentation of Hashimoto's thyroiditis and maltoma of the thyroid in a twenty-year-old man with a rapidly growing mass in the neck.
  • We report an uncommon case of a 20-year-old man, who noted a painless, growing mass in his neck, which appeared in a weekend, associated with moderate dysphagia and weakness.
  • The neck lesion showed a depressed iodine uptake in the left thyroid lobe, which had an asymmetrical pseudocystic pattern associated with poor vascularization in the ultrasound scan.
  • Cytologic examination showed a lymphocyte thyroiditis in association with lymphoma of large cell arising from mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT-lymphoma or maltoma).
  • The patient underwent a left thyroid lobectomy while being treated with levothyroxine for Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and the surgical treatment was further complemented with chemotherapy using fludarabine.
  • The histologic examination confirmed the cytologic findings and the immunohistochemistry showed a B-cell type maltoma.
  • Additional investigation provided no evidence of disease in other tissues.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma, B-Cell, Marginal Zone / complications. Thyroid Neoplasms / complications. Thyroiditis, Autoimmune / complications. Vidarabine / analogs & derivatives
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Autoantibodies / blood. Humans. Iodide Peroxidase / immunology. Male. Thyroglobulin / immunology. Thyroidectomy. Thyrotropin / blood. Thyroxine / blood. Thyroxine / therapeutic use. Triiodothyronine / blood

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  • (PMID = 11041463.001).
  • [ISSN] 1050-7256
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Autoantibodies; 06LU7C9H1V / Triiodothyronine; 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin; EC 1.11.1.8 / Iodide Peroxidase; FA2DM6879K / Vidarabine; P2K93U8740 / fludarabine; Q51BO43MG4 / Thyroxine
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