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6. Barraza RA, Rasmussen CA, Loewen N, Cameron JD, Gabelt BT, Teo WL, Kaufman PL, Poeschla EM: Prolonged transgene expression with lentiviral vectors in the aqueous humor outflow pathway of nonhuman primates. Hum Gene Ther; 2009 Mar;20(3):191-200
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • We injected lentiviral vectors into the eyes of live nonhuman primates to assess potential for glaucoma gene therapy.
  • Their eyes were harvested 2-15 months postinjection for tissue analyses.
  • Some transduced cells were also detected in the iris and ciliary body.
  • The results demonstrate the first lentiviral vector transduction of the nonhuman primate aqueous humor outflow pathway and support application of the system to human glaucoma gene therapy.

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  • (PMID = 19301472.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-7422
  • [Journal-full-title] Human gene therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Gene Ther.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / R01 EY 14411; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / P30 EY016665; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / R01 EY014411; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / R01 EY 002698; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R01 AI 47536; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / R01 EY002698; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / P30 EY 016665
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 147336-22-9 / Green Fluorescent Proteins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2855254
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7. Vladyka V, Lis C Ák R, S Imonová G, Pilbauer J, Hejduková I, Novác Ek L: Progress in glaucoma treatment research: a nonrandomized prospective study of 102 patients with advanced refractory glaucoma treated by Leksell gamma knife irradiation. J Neurosurg; 2005 Jan;102(s_supplement):214-219

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  • [Title] Progress in glaucoma treatment research: a nonrandomized prospective study of 102 patients with advanced refractory glaucoma treated by Leksell gamma knife irradiation.
  • OBJECT: The authors performed a study to characterize the effects of ciliary body gamma knife surgery (GKS) for advanced glaucoma.
  • Blind eyes received 20 Gy to the 50% isodose.
  • If there was preserved vision the dose was 15 Gy.
  • Treatment complications were slight.
  • Pharmacotherapy could be reduced in all patients and ceased in approximately one third.

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  • (PMID = 28306455.001).
  • [ISSN] 1933-0693
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurosurg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; ciliary body / gamma knife surgery / glaucoma
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8. Tsinopoulos I, Papadopoulou V, Papandroudis A, Stangos N: Retinoblastoma with an unusual presentation in a child with polydactyly. Clinical associations and genetic implications. Acta Ophthalmol Scand; 2001 Feb;79(1):79-80
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  • Pathology reports of the enucleated globe showed choroidal and ciliary body invasion.
  • Therefore, subsequent chemotherapy treatment was undertaken.
  • [MeSH-major] Polydactyly / diagnosis. Retinal Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Retinoblastoma / ultrasonography
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Infant. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Mutation. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Retinoblastoma Protein / genetics

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  • (PMID = 11167295.001).
  • [ISSN] 1395-3907
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta ophthalmologica Scandinavica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Ophthalmol Scand
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Retinoblastoma Protein
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9. Marchini G, Ghilotti G, Bonadimani M, Babighian S: Effects of 0.005% latanoprost on ocular anterior structures and ciliary body thickness. J Glaucoma; 2003 Aug;12(4):295-300
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  • [Title] Effects of 0.005% latanoprost on ocular anterior structures and ciliary body thickness.
  • PURPOSE: To assess the effects of 0.005% latanoprost on the anterior segment geometry and ciliary body thickness using ultrasound biomicroscopy.
  • Before and after 1 week of 0.005% latanoprost administration, the following parameters were tested: refraction, visual acuity, pupil diameter, intraocular pressure, 5 conventional ultrasonographic A-scan variables, 16 ultrasound biomicroscopy parameters, and the ultrasound biomicroscopy ciliary body thicknesses at a distance of 1500 microns (CBT1), 2000 microns (CBT2), and 2500 microns (CBT3) from the scleral spur.
  • No significant correlation was detected between ciliary body thickness increase and intraocular pressure-lowering effect.
  • CONCLUSION: The increase of ciliary body thickness, which was measured in vivo by ultrasound biomicroscopy and associated with the intraocular pressure-lowering effect, indirectly supports the mechanism of uveoscleral outflow enhancement induced by latanoprost.
  • These data are in agreement with the biochemical hypothesis of the passage of the aqueous flow through the extracellular spaces of the ciliary muscle.
  • [MeSH-major] Ciliary Body / drug effects. Eye / drug effects. Eye / ultrasonography. Glaucoma, Open-Angle / drug therapy. Ocular Hypertension / drug therapy. Prostaglandins F, Synthetic / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Intraocular Pressure / drug effects. Male. Middle Aged. Osmolar Concentration

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  • (PMID = 12897573.001).
  • [ISSN] 1057-0829
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of glaucoma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Glaucoma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Prostaglandins F, Synthetic; 6Z5B6HVF6O / latanoprost
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10. Ritch R, Ishikawa H, Rothman R, Yu G, Liebmann JM: The efficacy of latanoprost is independent of the width of the ciliary body face. J Glaucoma; 2002 Jun;11(3):239-43
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The efficacy of latanoprost is independent of the width of the ciliary body face.
  • PURPOSE: To assess the relation between the intraocular pressure-lowering efficacy of latanoprost 0.005% and the area of the ciliary body face exposed to the anterior chamber as assessed by ultrasound biomicroscopy.
  • CONCLUSION: Although latanoprost lowers intraocular pressure by enhancing uveoscleral outflow, its efficacy is independent of the height of the ciliary face.
  • [MeSH-major] Antihypertensive Agents / therapeutic use. Ciliary Body / anatomy & histology. Glaucoma, Open-Angle / drug therapy. Intraocular Pressure / drug effects. Prostaglandins F, Synthetic / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Body Surface Area. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Ocular Hypertension / drug therapy. Ophthalmic Solutions. Prospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 12140402.001).
  • [ISSN] 1057-0829
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of glaucoma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Glaucoma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antihypertensive Agents; 0 / Ophthalmic Solutions; 0 / Prostaglandins F, Synthetic; 6Z5B6HVF6O / latanoprost
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11. Lee GH, Ahn JK, Park YG: Intravitreal triamcinolone reduces the morphologic changes of ciliary body after pars plana vitrectomy for retinal vascular diseases. Am J Ophthalmol; 2008 Jun;145(6):1037-1044
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Intravitreal triamcinolone reduces the morphologic changes of ciliary body after pars plana vitrectomy for retinal vascular diseases.
  • PURPOSE: To investigate the early postoperative changes in ciliary body after pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) for retinal vascular disease and to determine whether intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide (IVTA) affects postvitrectomy changes of the ciliary body.
  • The main outcome measures were the thickness and area of the ciliary body, the frequency of supraciliary effusions (SEs), angle-opening, and anterior chamber depth (ACD).
  • RESULTS: The thickness and area of the ciliary body significantly increased from day 1 to day 5 postoperatively.
  • The angle-opening and ACD were significantly decreased and dependent upon the findings of ciliary body thickness and SEs.
  • The degree of the morphologic changes of the ciliary body and the frequency of SEs were significantly lower and of shorter duration in the IVTA group compared to the non-IVTA group.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The PPV for retinal vascular disease induces the morphologic changes of the ciliary body associated with postoperative abnormalities in IOP during the early postoperative period.
  • Administration of IVTA at the end of the PPV effectively reduces or shortens the duration of the postvitrectomy changes of the ciliary body.
  • [MeSH-major] Ciliary Body / drug effects. Glucocorticoids / administration & dosage. Postoperative Complications. Retinal Diseases / surgery. Triamcinolone Acetonide / administration & dosage. Uveal Diseases / drug therapy. Vitrectomy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Case-Control Studies. Diabetic Retinopathy / surgery. Female. Humans. Injections. Male. Microscopy, Acoustic. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies. Retinal Vein Occlusion / surgery. Vitreous Body

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  • (PMID = 18378211.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9394
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Ophthalmol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glucocorticoids; F446C597KA / Triamcinolone Acetonide
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12. Matsubara A, Nakazawa T, Husain D, Iliaki E, Connolly E, Michaud NA, Gragoudas ES, Miller JW: Investigating the effect of ciliary body photodynamic therapy in a glaucoma mouse model. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci; 2006 Jun;47(6):2498-507
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  • [Title] Investigating the effect of ciliary body photodynamic therapy in a glaucoma mouse model.
  • PURPOSE: To investigate the morphologic and functional effects of verteporfin ciliary body photodynamic therapy (PDT) in a murine glaucoma model and normal mouse eyes.
  • Transscleral irradiation of the ciliary body was performed with light at a wavelength of 689 nm delivered through an optical fiber, with irradiance of 1800 mW/cm2 and fluence of 100 J/cm2.
  • One eye of each animal was treated, and the fellow eye served as the control.
  • RESULTS: In all groups, almost all ciliary body blood vessels in the treated area were thrombosed 1 day after PDT.
  • In DBA/2J mice, ciliary epithelium and stroma were severely damaged 1 day after PDT.
  • The reduction of mean IOP in DBA/2J mouse eyes persisted for 7 weeks, although the mean IOP in normal mouse eyes treated with 2 or 4.0 mg/kg verteporfin returned to the level of the fellow control eyes by 7 and 17 days after treatment, respectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Ciliary body PDT resulted in morphologic changes in the ciliary body, significant reduction of IOP, and prevention of ganglion cell loss in a mouse glaucoma model.
  • These results suggest that ciliary body PDT is a more selective cyclodestructive technique with potential clinical application in the treatment of glaucoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Ciliary Body / drug effects. Disease Models, Animal. Glaucoma / drug therapy. Photochemotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Count. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Female. In Situ Nick-End Labeling. Intraocular Pressure. Mice. Mice, Inbred C57BL. Mice, Inbred DBA. Photosensitizing Agents / therapeutic use. Porphyrins / therapeutic use. Retinal Ganglion Cells / pathology. Tonometry, Ocular. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16723462.001).
  • [ISSN] 0146-0404
  • [Journal-full-title] Investigative ophthalmology & visual science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / EY014104
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 0 / Porphyrins; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; 0 / vascular endothelial growth factor A, mouse; 129497-78-5 / verteporfin
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13. Lee FF, Foster CS: Pharmacotherapy of uveitis. Expert Opin Pharmacother; 2010 May;11(7):1135-46
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Pharmacotherapy of uveitis.
  • IMPORTANCE OF THE FIELD: The term 'uveitis' covers a broad spectrum of ocular inflammation affecting the iris, ciliary body, and/or the choroid, all of which comprise the uveal tract.
  • Untreated or poorly managed cases can lead to ciliary body dysfunction, inadequate aqueous production, chorioretinal damage, and possibly blindness.
  • AREAS COVERED IN THIS REVIEW: There are many medications that can be used to treat uveitis.
  • These medications, their appropriate uses, and side effect monitoring will be detailed.
  • WHAT THE READER WILL GAIN: There is a stepladder approach to treatment of ocular inflammation.
  • Corticosteroids are the treatment of choice for treating acute flares.
  • Steroid free remission is the goal of therapy and can be achieved with the use of chemotherapeutic agents.
  • Which medications are appropriate and how to escalate therapy will be reviewed.
  • TAKE HOME MESSAGE: Chronic systemic corticosteroid therapy is not an acceptable long treatment plan for uveitis, unless all other medications have failed.
  • Steroid sparing immunosuppressive therapy should be pursued as soon as acute flares of uveitis have been controlled.
  • [MeSH-major] Glucocorticoids / therapeutic use. Mydriatics / administration & dosage. Uveitis / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Humans. Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use. Severity of Illness Index. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 20367272.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-7666
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Opin Pharmacother
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glucocorticoids; 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 0 / Mydriatics
  • [Number-of-references] 91
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4. Cerase A, De Francesco S, Citterio A, Hadjistilianou T, Malandrini A, Mastrangelo D, Toti P, Venturi C: Growth of congenital malignant teratoid medulloepithelioma of the ciliary body: a case study. J Neurooncol; 2010 Feb;96(3):443-8
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  • [Title] Growth of congenital malignant teratoid medulloepithelioma of the ciliary body: a case study.
  • The purpose of this study was to describe the growth pattern of congenital malignant teratoid medulloepithelioma of the ciliary body by reporting clinical and imaging findings with pathological correlation.
  • An 11-month-old little girl presented with a whitish-pink iris mass in the right eye resulting from a small ciliary body mass consistent with medulloepithelioma at both clinical and computed tomography (CT) findings.
  • Biopsy revealed a malignant teratoid medulloepithelioma.
  • The eye was then enucleated, and histology confirmed the diagnosis.
  • Systemic chemotherapy and radiotherapy were not performed, since there was no extraocular extension.
  • This uncommon case displays the natural history of congenital malignant teratoid medulloepithelioma of the ciliary body.
  • While the tumour might have been successfully treated by local excision at diagnosis, the delay in surgical treatment led to tumour overgrowth with consequent need for enucleation.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms. Ciliary Body / pathology. Neoplasms, Neuroepithelial. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Infant. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 19669095.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7373
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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15. Al-Salam S, Algawi K, Alashari M: Malignant non-teratoid medulloepithelioma of ciliary body with retinoblastic differentiation: a case report and review of literature. Neuropathology; 2008 Oct;28(5):551-6
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  • [Title] Malignant non-teratoid medulloepithelioma of ciliary body with retinoblastic differentiation: a case report and review of literature.
  • A preliminary diagnosis of retinoblastoma with extraocular extension was made.
  • An exenteration of the left globe and orbital tissue was performed.
  • Histological examination showed that the lesion, which occupied the posterior chamber, involved the ciliary body, extending into the iris, sclera and cornea, projecting beyond the cornea anteriorly and extending to the retina posteriorly.
  • The tumor was described as malignant intraocular non-teratoid medulloepithelioma with retinoblastic differentiation arising from the ciliary body.
  • Tumor satellites were seen in the adjacent periocular soft tissue.
  • The treatment involved exenteration of the left globe and orbital tissue with secondary skin graft following chemotherapy.
  • The patient is well and has no recurrence after 1 year of treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Ciliary Body / pathology. Eye Neoplasms / pathology. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Cell Differentiation. Child. Diagnosis, Differential. Glaucoma / etiology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Retinoblastoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18410270.001).
  • [ISSN] 1440-1789
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuropathology : official journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuropathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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16. Zammataro A, Saletti R, Civiale C, Muccilli V, Cunsolo V, Foti S: Simultaneous quantification of carteolol and dorzolamide in rabbit aqueous humor and ciliary body by liquid chromatography/atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci; 2010 Mar 15;878(9-10):807-14
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  • [Title] Simultaneous quantification of carteolol and dorzolamide in rabbit aqueous humor and ciliary body by liquid chromatography/atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry.
  • A rapid, sensitive and selective method for the simultaneous quantification of carteolol and dorzolamide in rabbit aqueous humor (AH) and ciliary body (CB) has been developed and validated using reversed phase-high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) with isocratic elution coupled with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (APCI-MS/MS).
  • The sample preparation from CB was based on a two steps extraction procedure at different pH, utilizing a liquid-liquid extraction with a mixture of ethyl acetate, toluene and isopropanol 50:40:10 (v/v) at pH 8, followed by a second extraction with ethyl acetate at pH 11.
  • The assay proved to be accurate and precise when applied to the in vivo study of carteolol and dorzolamide in rabbit AH and CB after single administration of an eye drops containing both drugs.
  • [MeSH-major] Antihypertensive Agents / analysis. Aqueous Humor / chemistry. Carteolol / analysis. Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid / methods. Ciliary Body / chemistry. Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization / methods. Sulfonamides / analysis. Thiophenes / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Disease Models, Animal. Humans. Male. Ocular Hypertension / drug therapy. Rabbits

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  • [Copyright] 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20153987.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-376X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of chromatography. B, Analytical technologies in the biomedical and life sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Chromatogr. B Analyt. Technol. Biomed. Life Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antihypertensive Agents; 0 / Sulfonamides; 0 / Thiophenes; 8NF31401XG / Carteolol; 9JDX055TW1 / dorzolamide
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17. van Emelen C, Goethals M, Dralands L, Casteels I: Treatment of glaucoma in children with Sturge-Weber syndrome. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus; 2000 Jan-Feb;37(1):29-34
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  • [Title] Treatment of glaucoma in children with Sturge-Weber syndrome.
  • BACKGROUND: Sturge-Weber syndrome is a rare congenital neuro-oculocutaneous disorder.
  • In 7 of 8 patients with glaucoma, topical pharmacotherapy (beta-blockers and carbonic anhydrase inhibitors) alone failed to normalize intraocular pressures.
  • In those patients, cryocoagulation of the ciliary body was performed.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Cryocoagulation of the ciliary body combined with topical medication is an effective and safe treatment option in the management of glaucoma in children with Sturge-Weber syndrome.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenergic beta-Antagonists / therapeutic use. Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Ciliary Body / surgery. Cryosurgery. Glaucoma / surgery. Sturge-Weber Syndrome / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Drug Therapy, Combination. Eye Diseases / etiology. Female. Humans. Infant. Intraocular Pressure. Male. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 10714693.001).
  • [ISSN] 0191-3913
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric ophthalmology and strabismus
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenergic beta-Antagonists; 0 / Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors
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18. Tsilimbaris MK, Charisis SK, Naoumidi T, Panteleontidis V, Skondra D, Christodoulakis E, Naoumidi I: Contact transscleral ciliary body photodynamic therapy in pigmented rabbits using verteporfin and diode laser: evaluation of treatment parameters. Curr Eye Res; 2006 Jul-Aug;31(7-8):577-85

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  • [Title] Contact transscleral ciliary body photodynamic therapy in pigmented rabbits using verteporfin and diode laser: evaluation of treatment parameters.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate the treatment parameters necessary for achieving ciliary body photodynamic damage, enough to significantly reduce IOP, using verteporfin and a diode laser.
  • METHODS: The right eye ciliary body of 30 pigmented rabbits was irradiated using verteporfin (Visudyne) and a diode laser.
  • Animals were sacrificed 24 hours after the procedure and their eyes were evaluated by means of light and electron microscopy.
  • RESULTS: The therapy parameters that led to photodynamic effect avoiding thermal damage were laser power of 25 mW, irradiation time of 3 min per spot, and verteporfin dose of 1 mg/kg.
  • Transscleral ciliary body irradiation using these parameters resulted in vascular thrombosis of ciliary vessels and in substantial edema, resulting in separation of the two ciliary epithelium layers.
  • CONCLUSION: The combination of verteporfin and 690 nm diode laser is effective for the induction of ciliary body photodynamic damage, which results in significant but temporary IOP reduction, after transscleral PDT in pigmented rabbits.
  • [MeSH-major] Ciliary Body / drug effects. Laser Therapy. Photochemotherapy / methods. Photosensitizing Agents / pharmacology. Porphyrins / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Follow-Up Studies. Intraocular Pressure / drug effects. Microscopy, Electron. Rabbits. Sclera. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16877266.001).
  • [ISSN] 0271-3683
  • [Journal-full-title] Current eye research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr. Eye Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 0 / Porphyrins; 129497-78-5 / verteporfin
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19. Lane AM, Egan KM, Harmon D, Holbrook A, Munzenrider JE, Gragoudas ES: Adjuvant interferon therapy for patients with uveal melanoma at high risk of metastasis. Ophthalmology; 2009 Nov;116(11):2206-12
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  • [Title] Adjuvant interferon therapy for patients with uveal melanoma at high risk of metastasis.
  • PURPOSE: To examine whether interferon (IFN)-alfa-2a treatment after radiation or enucleation reduces death rates in patients with uveal melanoma.
  • PARTICIPANTS: Subjects were identified through the ocular oncology clinic of the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary.
  • Patients eligible for the study were at increased risk of metastasis because of the presence of at least one of the following characteristics: age >or=65 years, largest tumor diameter (LTD) >or=15 mm, ciliary body involvement of the tumor, or extrascleral tumor extension.
  • METHODS: Between May 1995 and June 1999, 121 patients with choroidal or ciliary body melanoma began a 2-year course of therapy (3 MIU IFN-alfa-2a subcutaneously 3 times per week), initiated within 3 years of primary therapy.
  • All patients underwent regular monitoring for drug toxicity.
  • To evaluate IFN-alfa-2a efficacy, we selected a series of historical controls frequency-matched (2:1) to IFN-alfa-2a-treated patients on age (+/-5 years), LTD (+/-3 mm), gender, and survival time between primary therapy and initiation of IFN therapy.
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Melanoma-related mortality, metastasis, IFN-related toxicities.
  • RESULTS: Fifty-five patients (45%) completed therapy; the median dose for IFN-alfa-2a-treated patients was 792 MIU (85% of the theoretic dose).
  • The median follow-up time in the IFN-alfa-2a-treated group was approximately 9 years.
  • Treatment and control groups were similar with respect to age (P = 0.78), LTD (P = 0.38), and gender (P = 1.0).
  • Of 363 patients, 108 developed metastasis under observation; 42 of these were IFN-alfa-2a-treated patients.
  • Cumulative 5-year melanoma-related death rates were 17% in the radiation or enucleation-only group, 15% in those who completed the entire IFN-alfa-2a course, and 35% in those who discontinued IFN-alfa-2a therapy.
  • In multivariate Cox regression, IFN-alfa-2a had no significant influence on melanoma-related mortality (rate ratio = 1.02, 95% confidence interval, 0.68-1.5, P = 0.91) or all-cause mortality (rate ratio = 0.84, 95% confidence interval, 0.58-1.2, P = 0.34).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Interferon-alfa-2a has no material influence on survival in patients with choroidal melanoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Interferon-alpha / therapeutic use. Melanoma / drug therapy. Uveal Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Eye Enucleation. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Recombinant Proteins. Risk Factors. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • [CommentIn] Ophthalmology. 2010 Sep;117(9):1861 [20816255.001]
  • (PMID = 19744725.001).
  • [ISSN] 1549-4713
  • [Journal-full-title] Ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ophthalmology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Interferon-alpha; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 76543-88-9 / interferon alfa-2a
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20. Augsten R, Königsdörffer E: [Surgical treatment of cyclodialysis]. Klin Monbl Augenheilkd; 2005 Jun;222(6):509-12

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  • [Title] [Surgical treatment of cyclodialysis].
  • When treatment with cycloplegics or steroids is ineffective in attaching the ciliary body, cyclodialysis should be surgically treated.
  • However, for reliable diagnosis and surgical therapy, an exact identification (size and extent) of the cyclodialysis cleft is imperative.
  • CASE REPORT: Four patients (19 to 65 years old, mean 45 years) with a detached ciliary body are described.
  • The diagnosis was established with UBM.
  • In spite of an intense treatment with cycloplegics and steroids no reattachment of the cyclodialysis took place.
  • CONCLUSION: In cases where drug therapies are unsuccessful in attaching the ciliary body, an operative fixation is recommended.
  • UBM is a very useful tool for making an exact diagnosis and defining the location of cyclodialysis as well as for follow-up of surgical treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Ciliary Body / injuries. Ciliary Body / surgery. Ophthalmologic Surgical Procedures / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Male. Microscopy, Acoustic. Middle Aged. Mydriatics / administration & dosage. Steroids / administration & dosage. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15973631.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Klinische Monatsblätter für Augenheilkunde
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Klin Monbl Augenheilkd
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Mydriatics; 0 / Steroids
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21. Vladyka V, Liscák R, Simonová G, Pilbauer J, Hejduková I, Novácek L: Progress in glaucoma treatment research: a nonrandomized prospective study of 102 patients with advanced refractory glaucoma treated by Leksell gamma knife irradiation. J Neurosurg; 2005 Jan;102 Suppl:214-9
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  • [Title] Progress in glaucoma treatment research: a nonrandomized prospective study of 102 patients with advanced refractory glaucoma treated by Leksell gamma knife irradiation.
  • OBJECT: The authors performed a study to characterize the effects of ciliary body gamma knife surgery (GKS) for advanced glaucoma.
  • Blind eyes received 20 Gy to the 50% isodose.
  • If there was preserved vision the dose was 15 Gy.
  • Treatment complications were slight.
  • Pharmacotherapy could be reduced in all patients and ceased in approximately one third.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Ciliary Body / pathology. Ciliary Body / surgery. Disease Progression. Equipment Design. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Pilot Projects. Prospective Studies. Radiation Dosage. Retinal Ganglion Cells / pathology. Visual Fields / physiology

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  • [CommentIn] J Neurosurg. 2005 Jul;103(1):192; author reply 192-3 [16121993.001]
  • (PMID = 15662813.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3085
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurosurg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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22. Alarma-Estrany P, Crooke A, Peral A, Pintor J: Requirement of intact sympathetic transmission for the ocular hypotensive effects of melatonin and 5-MCA-NAT. Auton Neurosci; 2007 Dec 30;137(1-2):63-6
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  • Melatonin and its analogue, 5-methoxycarbonylamino-N-acetyltryptamine (5-MCA-NAT), potently reduce intraocular pressure, and may be good candidates for the treatment of ocular hypertension and glaucoma.
  • This indicates that the sympathetic nervous system is involved in the production and drainage of aqueous humour by the ciliary body and trabecular meshwork, and that it mediates the effects of melatonin and its analogue, 5-MCA-NAT.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Depressants / therapeutic use. Melatonin / therapeutic use. Ocular Hypertension / drug therapy. Sympathetic Nervous System / physiology. Tryptamines / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenergic Uptake Inhibitors / adverse effects. Animals. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Interactions. Male. Oxidopamine / adverse effects. Rabbits. Reserpine / adverse effects. Sympathectomy, Chemical / methods. Sympatholytics / adverse effects. Vesicular Monoamine Transport Proteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17804303.001).
  • [ISSN] 1566-0702
  • [Journal-full-title] Autonomic neuroscience : basic & clinical
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Auton Neurosci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 5-methoxycarbonylamino-N-acetyltryptamine; 0 / Adrenergic Uptake Inhibitors; 0 / Central Nervous System Depressants; 0 / Sympatholytics; 0 / Tryptamines; 0 / Vesicular Monoamine Transport Proteins; 8B1QWR724A / Reserpine; 8HW4YBZ748 / Oxidopamine; JL5DK93RCL / Melatonin
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23. Maruyama I, Ohguro H, Nakazawa M: A case of acute angle-closure glaucoma secondary to posterior scleritis in patient with Sturge-Weber syndrome. Jpn J Ophthalmol; 2002 Jan-Feb;46(1):74-7
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  • OBSERVATIONS: Slit-lamp examination revealed diffuse episcleral venous hemangioma in the right eye.
  • With ultrasound biomicroscopy, a forward shift of the lens-iris diaphragm, a swelling of the ciliary body, and an anterior rotation of the ciliary processes with annular choroidal effusion were detected.
  • The patient responded well to treatment with systemic corticosteroids and cycloplegics.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In our patient, inflammatory changes of the sclera, including swelling of the ciliary body, choroidal effusion, an anterior rotation of the ciliary processes at the scleral spur, and swelling of the lens, leading to closure of the anterior chamber angle, were suggested to be the major mechanisms of intraocular pressure elevation.
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Adolescent. Anterior Eye Segment / pathology. Anterior Eye Segment / radiography. Anterior Eye Segment / ultrasonography. Antihypertensive Agents / therapeutic use. Betamethasone / therapeutic use. Drug Therapy, Combination. Glucocorticoids / therapeutic use. Humans. Intraocular Pressure. Male. Mydriatics / therapeutic use. Tomography, X-Ray Computed


24. Nicoară S: [The mechanisms of neuronal death in glaucoma]. Oftalmologia; 2000;51(2):4-6
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  • The current therapy of glaucoma (drugs, LASER, surgery) acts mainly on the trabecular meshwork and on the ciliary body.
  • Their practical value is represented by the finding of the ideal neuroprotective drug.

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  • (PMID = 11021116.001).
  • [ISSN] 1220-0875
  • [Journal-full-title] Oftalmologia (Bucharest, Romania : 1990)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oftalmologia
  • [Language] rum
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] ROMANIA
  • [Number-of-references] 9
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25. Singh AD, Shields CL, Shields JA: Prognostic factors in uveal melanoma. Melanoma Res; 2001 Jun;11(3):255-63
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  • [Title] Prognostic factors in uveal melanoma.
  • Uveal melanoma is the most common primary intraocular malignant tumour, with an annual incidence of approximately six cases per million per year.
  • Approximately 40% of patients with posterior uveal melanoma develop metastatic melanoma to the liver within 10 years after initial diagnosis.
  • Despite high accuracy of diagnosis and availability of various methods of treatment; the mortality due to uveal melanoma has remained unchanged.
  • The prognosis in uveal melanoma depends on clinical, histopathological and cytological factors.
  • Uveal melanoma can arise in the iris, the ciliary body or the choroid.
  • Iris melanomas have the best prognosis and ciliary body melanomas have the worst prognosis.
  • Based on retrospective studies, the mortality rates for uveal melanoma for comparable sized tumours treated by enucleation or other globe conserving methods such as radiotherapy appear to be similar.
  • Histopathological factors such as cell type, mitotic activity, microcirculation architecture, tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes and the presence of extrascleral extension are also significant predictors of survival.
  • More recently, cytological factors such as cell proliferation, cytogenic, and molecular genetic prognostic markers have been identified with the hope of detecting high risk cases for adjuvant systemic immune therapy or chemotherapy.
  • At present, the role of these therapeutic methods is not clearly established.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / diagnosis. Prognosis. Uveal Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Division. Disease Progression. Humans. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 11468514.001).
  • [ISSN] 0960-8931
  • [Journal-full-title] Melanoma research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Melanoma Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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26. Kirwan C, Carney D, O'Keefe M: Merkel cell carcinoma metastasis to the iris in a 23 year old female. Ir Med J; 2009 Feb;102(2):53-4
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  • Histological diagnosis can be difficult and electron microscopy or immunohistochemistry are frequently required in addition to light microscopy.
  • Management is stage dependant and frequently involves wide surgical excision with or without chemotherapy or radiation therapy.
  • Early diagnosis and complete surgical excision is associated with a favourable prognosis.
  • Intra-ocular metastases to the choroid and ciliary body have also been reported.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Hormones / therapeutic use. Adult. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Mydriatics. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / radiotherapy. Scalp

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  • (PMID = 19405321.001).
  • [ISSN] 0332-3102
  • [Journal-full-title] Irish medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ir Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones; 0 / Mydriatics
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27. Tumuluri K, Woo T, Crowston J, Healey PR, Gottlieb D, Maloof AJ: Bilateral leukemic orbital infiltration presenting as proptosis and narrow-angle glaucoma. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg; 2004 May;20(3):248-50
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  • B-scan ultrasonography revealed uveoscleral thickening and anterior rotation of the ciliary body.
  • Definitive treatment included systemic chemotherapy and steroids.
  • [MeSH-major] Exophthalmos / etiology. Glaucoma, Angle-Closure / etiology. Leukemia, Myeloid / complications. Leukemia, Myeloid / diagnosis. Leukemic Infiltration. Orbit / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15167739.001).
  • [ISSN] 0740-9303
  • [Journal-full-title] Ophthalmic plastic and reconstructive surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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28. Kraft ME, Glaeser H, Mandery K, König J, Auge D, Fromm MF, Schlötzer-Schrehardt U, Welge-Lüssen U, Kruse FE, Zolk O: The prostaglandin transporter OATP2A1 is expressed in human ocular tissues and transports the antiglaucoma prostanoid latanoprost. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci; 2010 May;51(5):2504-11
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The prostaglandin transporter OATP2A1 is expressed in human ocular tissues and transports the antiglaucoma prostanoid latanoprost.
  • PURPOSE: Latanoprost, a prostaglandin F(2alpha) analogue, has become one of the most widely used medications for the treatment of glaucoma.
  • The authors hypothesized that organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs) are responsible for the uptake of latanoprost into ocular tissues and, hence, that they contribute to the interindividual differences in drug concentrations and effects.
  • METHODS: Expression of prostaglandin (PG) transporters (OATP2A1, OATP2B1) in human ocular tissues was determined using real-time RT-PCR and immunofluorescence.
  • RESULTS: OATP2A1 and OATP2B1 mRNA expression was highest in the choroid/retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) complex and ciliary body.
  • OATP2A1 protein expression was most prominent in the RPE and in epithelial and endothelial cell layers of anterior segment tissues, such as cornea, conjunctiva, iris, and ciliary body, whereas OATP2B1 protein was additionally expressed in trabecular meshwork, Schlemm canal, and choroidal vasculature.
  • [MeSH-major] Anterior Eye Segment / metabolism. Antihypertensive Agents / metabolism. Choroid / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation / physiology. Organic Anion Transporters / genetics. Prostaglandins F, Synthetic / metabolism. Retinal Pigment Epithelium / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biological Transport. Cell Line. Chromatography, Liquid. Female. Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect. Glaucoma / drug therapy. Humans. Intraocular Pressure / drug effects. Kidney / embryology. Kidney / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Tandem Mass Spectrometry. Transfection

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  • (PMID = 20019365.001).
  • [ISSN] 1552-5783
  • [Journal-full-title] Investigative ophthalmology & visual science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antihypertensive Agents; 0 / Organic Anion Transporters; 0 / Prostaglandins F, Synthetic; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / SLCO2A1 protein, human; 0 / SLCO2B1 protein, human; 6Z5B6HVF6O / latanoprost
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29. Fang IM, Yang CH, Lin CP, Yang CM, Chen MS: Effects of pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate, an NF-kappaB inhibitor, on cytokine expression and ocular inflammation in experimental autoimmune anterior uveitis. J Ocul Pharmacol Ther; 2005 Apr;21(2):95-106
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  • At defined time points, cytokine mRNA expressions in the iris and ciliary body were measured by using a semiquantitative polymerase chain-reaction method.
  • We found that PDTC (100 and 200 mg/kg/day) effectively suppressed ocular inflammation, as indicated by reduced clinical scores and inflammatory cells infiltration in aqueous humor and the iris and ciliary body.
  • These findings suggest that the application of NF-kappaB inhibitors may be a potential therapeutic method for the treatment of acute anterior uveitis.
  • [MeSH-major] Autoimmune Diseases / drug therapy. Cytokines / biosynthesis. NF-kappa B / antagonists & inhibitors. Pyrrolidines / therapeutic use. Thiocarbamates / therapeutic use. Uveitis, Anterior / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Aqueous Humor / cytology. Aqueous Humor / immunology. Aqueous Humor / metabolism. Ciliary Body / immunology. Ciliary Body / metabolism. Ciliary Body / pathology. Disease Models, Animal. Injections, Intraperitoneal. Iris / immunology. Iris / metabolism. Iris / pathology. Leukocyte Count. Rats. Rats, Inbred Lew

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  • (PMID = 15857275.001).
  • [ISSN] 1080-7683
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of ocular pharmacology and therapeutics : the official journal of the Association for Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Ocul Pharmacol Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cytokines; 0 / NF-kappa B; 0 / Pyrrolidines; 0 / Thiocarbamates; 25769-03-3 / pyrrolidine dithiocarbamic acid
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30. Pucci V, Tappainer F, Borin S, Bellucci R: Long-term follow-up after transscleral diode laser photocoagulation in refractory glaucoma. Ophthalmologica; 2003 Jul-Aug;217(4):279-83
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. LIDOCAINE .

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  • BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Patients affected by glaucoma refractory to medical or surgical treatment are difficult to treat.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: One hundred and twenty eyes of 107 patients suffering from refractory glaucoma and treated with DLPC were followed at the Eye Clinic of Verona University for an average of 26 +/- 8 months.
  • RESULTS: A total of 207 treatments were given.
  • More than one treatment was given in 55 eyes (45.8%).
  • Mean total medications were reduced from 4.5 +/- 0.5 to 2.3 +/- 0.3.
  • No serious complications occurred in the 207 treatments.
  • It also served to reduce the number of antiglaucoma medications, thus improving both the quality of life of the patients and their compliance to therapy.
  • This procedure is relatively safe, very fast and easy to learn.
  • However, careful attention is required to determine the exact position of the ciliary body in malformative glaucoma.
  • Multiple treatments may be required to control IOP.
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Topical. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Anesthetics, Local / administration & dosage. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Injections. Intraocular Pressure. Intraoperative Complications. Lidocaine / administration & dosage. Male. Middle Aged. Pain / drug therapy. Pain / etiology. Reoperation. Treatment Outcome. Visual Acuity

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel
  • (PMID = 12792134.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-3755
  • [Journal-full-title] Ophthalmologica. Journal international d'ophtalmologie. International journal of ophthalmology. Zeitschrift fur Augenheilkunde
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ophthalmologica
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anesthetics, Local; 98PI200987 / Lidocaine
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31. Leszczyński R, Gierek-Ciaciura S, Forminśka-Kapuścik M, Mrukwa-Kominek E, Rokita-Wala I: Nonpenetrating very deep sclerectomy with reticulated hyaluronic acid implant in glaucoma treatment. Med Sci Monit; 2008 Feb;14(2):CR86-89
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. HYALURONIC ACID .

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  • [Title] Nonpenetrating very deep sclerectomy with reticulated hyaluronic acid implant in glaucoma treatment.
  • The NPVDS procedure was similar to traditional NPDS (control group); however, excision of sclera and exposure of ciliary body were also performed, and only a narrow scleral flap was retained at a distance of 0.5 mm from Schlemm's canal.
  • Success was defined as IOP <22 mmHg with or without glaucoma medication and laser procedures.
  • [MeSH-major] Glaucoma / drug therapy. Glaucoma / surgery. Hyaluronic Acid / administration & dosage. Sclera / surgery. Sclerostomy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Drug Implants. Female. Humans. Intraocular Pressure. Male. Middle Aged. Mitomycin / administration & dosage. Postoperative Complications / etiology. Prospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 18227766.001).
  • [ISSN] 1234-1010
  • [Journal-full-title] Medical science monitor : international medical journal of experimental and clinical research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med. Sci. Monit.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Editorial; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Drug Implants; 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; 9004-61-9 / Hyaluronic Acid
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32. Fröhlich SJ, Mueller AJ, Kampik A: [Relative contraindication of latanoprost in iris tumors with secondary glaucoma]. Ophthalmologe; 2003 Aug;100(8):633-8
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  • [Transliterated title] Relative Kontraindikation von Latanoprost bei Iristumor mit Sekundärglaukom.
  • Evident growth, increasing pigmentation and secondary glaucoma, however, are possible signs of a malignant transformation.
  • PROGRESSION: The patient was seen for the first time at our hospital 4 years previously, presenting an IOP of 28-30 mmHg of the right eye.
  • The tumor had developed marked heterochromia and a nodular prominent surface, the chamber angle was partly closed and completely hyperpigmented.
  • The ciliary body was not affected by the tumor and standard ultrasound revealed a maximum thickness of 1.2 mm.
  • DISCUSSION: The melanocytic iris tumor described shows malignant characteristics such as progressive heterochromia and secondary glaucoma.
  • With the evidence of absent tumor growth, there is no reason to suggest malignant degeneration.
  • Generally, in iris naevi or tumors requiring regular follow-up, application of latanoprost should be avoided in order not to conceal the alteration of pigmentation as possible malignant conversion.
  • [MeSH-major] Antihypertensive Agents / contraindications. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / chemically induced. Glaucoma / drug therapy. Intraocular Pressure / drug effects. Iris Neoplasms / chemically induced. Melanoma / chemically induced. Prostaglandins F, Synthetic / contraindications

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  • [Cites] Ophthalmology. 2002 Aug;109(8):1553-60 [12153810.001]
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  • (PMID = 12955445.001).
  • [ISSN] 0941-293X
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Ophthalmologe : Zeitschrift der Deutschen Ophthalmologischen Gesellschaft
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ophthalmologe
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antihypertensive Agents; 0 / Prostaglandins F, Synthetic; 6Z5B6HVF6O / latanoprost
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33. Scott RA, Pavesio C: Ocular side-effects from systemic HPMPC (Cidofovir) for a non-ocular cytomegalovirus infection. Am J Ophthalmol; 2000 Jul;130(1):126-7
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. PROBENECID .

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  • PURPOSE: To report a case of anterior uveitis and ocular hypotony during HPMPC treatment of a cytomegalovirus infection without ophthalmic involvement.
  • METHODS: A 61-year-old bisexual white man with AIDS presented with moderate anterior uveitis and ocular hypotony after 8 weeks of intravenous HPMPC and oral probenecid co-treatment of a presumed recurrence of cytomegalovirus encephalitis.
  • Cidofovir-related uveitis was diagnosed, and the HPMPC-probenecid co-treatment was switched to ganciclovir monotherapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This description of ophthalmic side effects from systemic HPMPC in the absence of ocular cytomegalovirus infection supports the hypothesis that anterior uveitis and ocular hypotony result from a direct interaction between the drug and the ciliary body.
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / drug therapy. Antiviral Agents / adverse effects. Cytomegalovirus Infections / drug therapy. Cytosine / adverse effects. Ocular Hypotension / chemically induced. Organophosphonates. Organophosphorus Compounds / adverse effects. Uveitis, Anterior / chemically induced
  • [MeSH-minor] Drug Therapy, Combination. Humans. Intraocular Pressure / drug effects. Male. Middle Aged. Probenecid / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 11004276.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9394
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Ophthalmol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antiviral Agents; 0 / Organophosphonates; 0 / Organophosphorus Compounds; 8J337D1HZY / Cytosine; JIL713Q00N / cidofovir; PO572Z7917 / Probenecid
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34. Kodjikian L, Grange JD, Baldo S, Baillif S, Garweg JG, Rivoire M: Prognostic factors of liver metastases from uveal melanoma. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol; 2005 Oct;243(10):985-93
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Prognostic factors of liver metastases from uveal melanoma.
  • OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to assess survival and identify prognostic factors for liver metastases diagnosed by systematic screening in uveal melanoma patients.
  • METHODS: Among 602 consecutive patients treated over 10 years for uveal melanoma and followed by systematic semi-annual hepatic screening (abdominal ultrasonography), 63 (10.5%) developed liver metastases; these patients form the basis of this study.
  • Factors including patient demographics, characteristics of the uveal tumor, metastasis-free interval, severity of liver metastatic involvement, and treatments of metastases were studied retrospectively regarding their prognostic value, using univariate (Kaplan-Meier method) and multivariate (Cox model) analyses.
  • RESULTS: Thirty-five patients (55.6% of the metastatic population) received systemic chemotherapy or best supportive care only; 14 patients (22.2% of the metastatic population) diagnosed with diffuse liver involvement had cytoreductive surgery and intra-arterial chemotherapy; 14 (22.2% of the metastatic population) had complete surgical removal of liver metastases followed by postoperative intra-arterial chemotherapy.
  • The median overall survival after diagnosis of liver metastases was 15 months.
  • In this cohort of 63 patients, ten or fewer preoperatively diagnosed metastases and primary uveal melanoma not involving the ciliary body were independently associated with better prognosis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that selected patients with screened liver metastases from uveal melanoma may benefit from aggressive treatment, including surgery.
  • The two independent favorable prognostic factors are fewer than ten metastases at screening and the absence of ciliary body involvement.
  • [MeSH-major] Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Melanoma / secondary. Uveal Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Hepatectomy. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 15891893.001).
  • [ISSN] 0721-832X
  • [Journal-full-title] Graefe's archive for clinical and experimental ophthalmology = Albrecht von Graefes Archiv fur klinische und experimentelle Ophthalmologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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35. Rivellese MJ, Baumal CR: Photodynamic therapy of eye diseases. J Ophthalmic Nurs Technol; 2000 May-Jun;19(3):134-41
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Macular Degeneration.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Photodynamic therapy of eye diseases.
  • Photodynamic therapy is presently being used to treat several cutaneous cancers.
  • The selective tissue damage with PDT is achieved by sequestration of the photosensitizer in the target tissue and focal activation of the photosensitizer by low energy directed light.
  • The potential uses for PDT include the treatment of ocular tumors, neovascularization and ciliary body ablation.
  • Visudyne already has been approved by the FDA for the treatment of subfoveal choroidal neovascularization, and many patients already have been treated with this drug.
  • [MeSH-major] Macular Degeneration / therapy. Photochemotherapy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Eye Neoplasms / therapy. Humans. Melanoma / therapy. Retinoblastoma / therapy

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  • (PMID = 11249242.001).
  • [ISSN] 0744-7132
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of ophthalmic nursing & technology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Ophthalmic Nurs Technol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 60
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40. Yu EN, Paredes I, Foster CS: Surgery for hypotony in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis-associated uveitis. Ocul Immunol Inflamm; 2007 Jan-Feb;15(1):11-7
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. METHOTREXATE .

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  • The two adult patients were noted to have atrophic ciliary processes intra-operatively, while the two pediatric patients had normal ciliary processes.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Release of traction on the ciliary body by inflammatory membranes may play a role in the management of hypotony in patients with JIA-associated uveitis.
  • This emphasizes the critical importance of early diagnosis and appropriate treatment of the inflammation before vision-robbing complications occur.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antirheumatic Agents / therapeutic use. Child. Child, Preschool. Cyclophosphamide / therapeutic use. Drug Therapy, Combination. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunologic Factors / therapeutic use. Methotrexate / therapeutic use. Retrospective Studies. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome. Visual Acuity

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  • (PMID = 17365801.001).
  • [ISSN] 0927-3948
  • [Journal-full-title] Ocular immunology and inflammation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ocul. Immunol. Inflamm.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antirheumatic Agents; 0 / Immunologic Factors; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate
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41. Jonas JB: Intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide for diabetic retinopathy. Dev Ophthalmol; 2007;39:96-110
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  • Intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide (IVTA) has been applied in exponentially increasing frequency for various intraocular neovascular and edematous diseases, including diabetic macular edema, proliferating diabetic retinopathy, neovascular glaucoma due to proliferative diabetic retinopathy, and chronic prephthisical ocular hypotony as complication of the surgical treatment of diabetic retinopathy.
  • In diabetic macular edema, the edema may almost completely resolve, and visual acuity may increase as much as macular ischemia and the tissue destruction by the diabetic process may allow.
  • Using a side effect of IVTA, i.e. steroid-induced elevation of intraocular pressure, IVTA may be applied for the therapy of chronic prephthisical ocular hypotony due to an insufficiency of the ciliary body as consequence of a surgical treatment of proliferative diabetic retinopathy.
  • [MeSH-major] Diabetic Retinopathy / drug therapy. Glucocorticoids / administration & dosage. Triamcinolone Acetonide / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Injections. Treatment Outcome. Visual Acuity / drug effects. Vitreous Body

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  • (PMID = 17245081.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-3751
  • [Journal-full-title] Developments in ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dev Ophthalmol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glucocorticoids; F446C597KA / Triamcinolone Acetonide
  • [Number-of-references] 83
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42. Song J, Deng PF, Stinnett SS, Epstein DL, Rao PV: Effects of cholesterol-lowering statins on the aqueous humor outflow pathway. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci; 2005 Jul;46(7):2424-32
The Lens. Cited by Patents in .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of cholesterol-lowering statin drugs on trabecular meshwork cellular properties and aqueous humor outflow.
  • METHODS: Primary cell cultures of porcine trabecular meshwork (PTM) and ciliary body (PCB) were treated with either lovastatin or compactin, to determine the effects of statins on cell shape, actin cytoskeletal organization, and cell-extracellular matrix interactions (focal adhesions) by immunofluorescence staining.
  • In addition, perfusion of organ-cultured porcine eye anterior segments with 100 microM lovastatin for 96 hours caused a significant increase in aqueous humor outflow facility (110%) compared with control eyes, in a reversible manner.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that the statin drugs lovastatin and compactin induce changes in cell shape and actin cytoskeletal organization and decrease MLC phosphorylation in PTM and PCB cells, all of which are events that are likely to lead to cellular and tissue relaxation.
  • An important finding is that statins exert an ocular hypotensive response in an organ-culture perfusion model, indicating the potential for this class of drugs in glaucoma therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Anticholesteremic Agents / pharmacology. Aqueous Humor / secretion. Ciliary Body / drug effects. Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors / pharmacology. Lovastatin / pharmacology. Trabecular Meshwork / drug effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Actins / metabolism. Animals. Blotting, Western. Cell Shape / drug effects. Cells, Cultured. Extracellular Matrix / metabolism. Focal Adhesions / metabolism. Myosin Light Chains / metabolism. Organ Culture Techniques. Phosphorylation. Swine. rho GTP-Binding Proteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 15980231.001).
  • [ISSN] 0146-0404
  • [Journal-full-title] Investigative ophthalmology & visual science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Actins; 0 / Anticholesteremic Agents; 0 / Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors; 0 / Myosin Light Chains; 9LHU78OQFD / Lovastatin; EC 3.6.5.2 / rho GTP-Binding Proteins
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43. Balestrazzi A, Blasi MA, Primitivo S, Balestrazzi E: Escherichia coli endophthalmitis after trans-scleral resection of uveal melanoma. Eur J Ophthalmol; 2002 Sep-Oct;12(5):437-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Escherichia coli endophthalmitis after trans-scleral resection of uveal melanoma.
  • PURPOSE: To report a case of Escherichia coli endophthalmitis after trans-scleral resection of an uveal melanoma.
  • METHODS: A large ciliary body melanoma was treated by trans-scleral resection and full-thickness sclerectomy because of epibulbar tumor extrusion, followed by adjuvant ruthenium plaque therapy.
  • RESULTS: Two months after treatment the patient developed wound dehiscence and consecutive endophthalmitis.
  • [MeSH-major] Ciliary Body. Endophthalmitis / microbiology. Escherichia coli Infections / etiology. Melanoma / surgery. Ophthalmologic Surgical Procedures / adverse effects. Uveal Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Anti-Bacterial Agents. Drug Therapy, Combination / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Sclera / surgery

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  • (PMID = 12474930.001).
  • [ISSN] 1120-6721
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Ophthalmol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents
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44. Garcia-Arumi J, Montolio Gil M, Morral Palau M, Segura Garcia A: Sympathetic ophthalmia after surgical resection of iridociliary melanoma. A case report. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol; 2006 Oct;244(10):1353-6
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  • [Title] Sympathetic ophthalmia after surgical resection of iridociliary melanoma. A case report.
  • BACKGROUND: We report a case of sympathetic ophthalmia with systemic findings following resection of a malignant melanoma of the iris and ciliary body, and describe the treatment and clinical outcome.
  • METHODS: A 49-year-old man underwent sector iridocyclectomy of a malignant iridociliary melanoma of the right eye.
  • High-dose systemic steroid and immunosuppressive (cyclosporine and azathioprine) therapy was prescribed.
  • Two months later chorioretinitis and macular edema persisted, and intravitreous triamcinolone was injected into the right eye.
  • RESULTS: Five weeks after resection of an iridociliary melanoma, our patient had reported acute bilateral vision loss.
  • High-dose intravenous steroids followed by oral prednisone at a tapering dose and immunosuppressive agents (cyclosporine and azathioprine), topical steroids in both eyes and intravitreal steroids in the right eye were administered.
  • Phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation were performed to treat a dense cataract of the right eye.
  • After 24 months of follow-up, best-corrected visual acuity was 20/200 in the right eye and 20/25 in the left; no signs of intraocular inflammation were observed and neurological signs had resolved.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Sympathetic ophthalmia is a rare, but severe disease that can occur after resection of iridociliary melanoma.
  • High-dose steroid therapy and supplementation with immunosuppressive agents early in the course of the disease was effective in resolving the condition.
  • [MeSH-major] Ciliary Body / surgery. Iris Neoplasms / surgery. Melanoma / surgery. Ophthalmia, Sympathetic / etiology. Postoperative Complications. Uveal Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Drug Therapy, Combination. Electroretinography. Fluorescein Angiography. Glucocorticoids / therapeutic use. Humans. Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use. Iridectomy. Male. Middle Aged. Visual Acuity

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  • (PMID = 16523295.001).
  • [ISSN] 0721-832X
  • [Journal-full-title] Graefe's archive for clinical and experimental ophthalmology = Albrecht von Graefes Archiv fur klinische und experimentelle Ophthalmologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glucocorticoids; 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents
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45. Kunimatsu S, Fujino Y, Nagata Y, Ono K, Mochizuki M, Numaga J, Kawashima H, Araie M: Ultrasound biomicroscopic study of sclerotomy sites after implantation of sustained release drug devices. Br J Ophthalmol; 2002 Aug;86(8):869-71
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. GANCICLOVIR .

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  • [Title] Ultrasound biomicroscopic study of sclerotomy sites after implantation of sustained release drug devices.
  • BACKGROUND/AIMS: To evaluate the potential of ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) as a tool to study the precise location and changes of sclerotomy sites of the eye with an intraocular drug delivery device.
  • Serial transverse and radial sections of the anterior ciliary body around the sclerotomy sites were obtained.
  • Three implants were deviated anteriorly and they were very close to the ciliary body and the lens (anterior deviation), while four implants were deviated posteriorly and away from the lens (posterior deviation).
  • [MeSH-major] Antiviral Agents / administration & dosage. Cytomegalovirus Retinitis / drug therapy. Ganciclovir / administration & dosage. Sclera / ultrasonography
  • [MeSH-minor] Delayed-Action Preparations. Drug Implants. Humans

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  • (PMID = 12140206.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-1161
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Ophthalmol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antiviral Agents; 0 / Delayed-Action Preparations; 0 / Drug Implants; P9G3CKZ4P5 / Ganciclovir
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1771234
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46. Watanabe N, Tominaga Y, Mizutani K, Ogawa T, Tsunobuchi-Ushijima H, Gomi Y: Inhibitory effects of amlexanox on carbachol-induced contractions of rabbit ciliary muscle and guinea-pig taenia caecum. J Pharm Pharmacol; 2000 Nov;52(11):1377-85
The Lens. Cited by Patents in .

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  • [Title] Inhibitory effects of amlexanox on carbachol-induced contractions of rabbit ciliary muscle and guinea-pig taenia caecum.
  • Instillation of amlexanox, an anti-allergic drug, over a long period improves myopia in some allergy patients and in monkeys.
  • The relaxing effect of amlexanox on persistent contraction of ciliary muscle may be involved in the improvement of myopia.
  • In this study, the mechanism of the noncompetitive inhibition of carbachol-induced contractions by amlexanox (1-100 microM) was investigated in isolated smooth muscle preparations of the rabbit ciliary body and guinea-pig taenia caecum.
  • In ciliary muscles, amlexanox (100 microM) inhibited both the phasic and tonic components of carbachol-induced contractions even in the presence of cyclopiazonic acid (10 microM) where the function of the sarcoplasmic reticulum was impaired, while diltiazem (3.2, 32 microM) did not.
  • Amlexanox did not increase the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cyclicAMP) content of ciliary muscles in the presence of 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (10 microM), while forskolin (1 microM) did.
  • Gel-shift assay showed that the inhibition of carbachol-induced contractions by amlexanox was accompanied by a decrease in phosphorylation of the 20-kDa myosin light chain in taenia caecum tissue preparations.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminopyridines / pharmacology. Anti-Allergic Agents / pharmacology. Carbachol / pharmacology. Cecum / drug effects. Cholinergic Agonists / pharmacology. Ciliary Body / drug effects. Muscle Contraction / drug effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Calcium / metabolism. Cyclic AMP / metabolism. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Guinea Pigs. Muscle, Smooth / physiology. Myopia / drug therapy. Myosin-Light-Chain Kinase. Phosphorylation. Rabbits

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  • (PMID = 11186246.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3573
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of pharmacy and pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pharm. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aminopyridines; 0 / Anti-Allergic Agents; 0 / Cholinergic Agonists; 8Y164V895Y / Carbachol; BRL1C2459K / amlexanox; E0399OZS9N / Cyclic AMP; EC 2.7.11.18 / Myosin-Light-Chain Kinase; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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47. Bora NS, Sohn JH, Bora PS, Kaplan HJ, Kulkarni P: Anti-inflammatory effects of specific cyclooxygenase 2,5-lipoxygenase, and inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitors on experimental autoimmune anterior uveitis (EAAU). Ocul Immunol Inflamm; 2005 Apr-Jun;13(2-3):183-9
The Lens. Cited by Patents in .

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  • METHODS: Lewis rats were immunized with melanin-associated antigen (MAA) isolated from bovine iris and ciliary body.
  • The first group of rats received subcutaneous injection of COX 2 inhibitor CS 236 at different time points.
  • Animals were also sacrificed at various time points for histologic analysis.
  • RESULTS: Control animals developed severe EAAU in both eyes.
  • Furthermore, daily CS 236 treatment after the onset of EAAU (Day 14-20) significantly reduced the severity (both clinical and histologic) of EAAU and shortened the duration of disease. iNOS inhibitor (AG) and 5-LP inhibitor (NDGA) partially attenuated EAAU.

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  • (PMID = 16019677.001).
  • [ISSN] 0927-3948
  • [Journal-full-title] Ocular immunology and inflammation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ocul. Immunol. Inflamm.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / R01 EY009730; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / R01 EY013335; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / EY10543
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors; 0 / Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors; 0 / Guanidines; 0 / Lipoxygenase Inhibitors; 0 / Pyrazoles; 0 / Sulfonamides; 7BO8G1BYQU / Masoprocol; EC 1.13.11.34 / Arachidonate 5-Lipoxygenase; EC 1.14.13.39 / Nitric Oxide Synthase; EC 1.14.13.39 / Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II; EC 1.14.13.39 / Nos2 protein, rat; EC 1.14.99.1 / Cyclooxygenase 2; EC 1.14.99.1 / Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases; JCX84Q7J1L / Celecoxib; SCQ4EZQ113 / pimagedine
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS18907; NLM/ PMC1851916
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48. Tsai YY, Lin JM, Shy JD: Acute scleral thinning after pterygium excision with intraoperative mitomycin C: a case report of scleral dellen after bare sclera technique and review of the literature. Cornea; 2002 Mar;21(2):227-9
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  • The ciliary body was visible through the thin and dry scleral lesion.
  • After topical lubricant therapy, the scleral lesion appeared normal thickness and white in color 3 days later.
  • Therapy was continued until the sclera epithelialized.
  • However, medical therapy should be continued until the surrounding conjunctiva has flattened and the sclera has epithelialized.
  • [MeSH-major] Lactose / analogs & derivatives. Methylcellulose / analogs & derivatives. Mitomycin / therapeutic use. Ophthalmologic Surgical Procedures / adverse effects. Postoperative Complications. Pterygium / drug therapy. Pterygium / surgery. Sclera / pathology. Scleral Diseases / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Humans. Intraoperative Period. Lubrication. Male. Middle Aged. Oxazines. Wound Healing / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 11862102.001).
  • [ISSN] 0277-3740
  • [Journal-full-title] Cornea
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cornea
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Oxazines; 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; 9004-67-5 / Methylcellulose; 99705-65-4 / MK 458; J2B2A4N98G / Lactose
  • [Number-of-references] 13
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49. Smith JR, Verwaerde C, Rolling F, Naud MC, Delanoye A, Thillaye-Goldenberg B, Apparailly F, De Kozak Y: Tetracycline-inducible viral interleukin-10 intraocular gene transfer, using adeno-associated virus in experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis. Hum Gene Ther; 2005 Sep;16(9):1037-46
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  • Members of the adeno-associated virus (AAV) family are good candidates for the treatment of ocular diseases because of their relative lack of pathogenicity.
  • We demonstrated that AAV2/2-GFP injected into the vitreous body transduced the iris and ciliary body, or anterior uvea, and the retina.
  • We showed that intravitreal injection of the AAV2/2-tetON-vIL-10 construct achieved detectable levels of vIL-10 mRNA and protein within the eye and was effective in protecting the rat retina against destruction.
  • This protection was dependent on the level of vIL-10 present in the aqueous humor/ vitreous body.
  • It appeared that the AAV2/5 vectors did not transduce the anterior uvea, the site at which inflammatory cells first localize in EAU, nor the ganglion cell layer; induced low expression of vIL-10 mRNA; and did not achieve detectable levels of transgene expression in the aqueous humor/vitreous body.
  • Local treatment with AAV2/2-tetON-vIL-10 did not dampen the systemic immune response, as determined by S-antigen-specific lymphocyte proliferation.
  • Our results show that local intravitreal injection of AAV2/2 is an effective means by which to deliver immunoregulatory molecules into the eye during uveitis, a chronic human ocular disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Autoimmune Diseases / therapy. Genetic Therapy / methods. Genetic Vectors / administration & dosage. Interleukin-10 / therapeutic use. Retinitis / therapy. Uveitis / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Aqueous Humor / drug effects. Arrestin. Cell Proliferation. Dependovirus / genetics. Disease Models, Animal. Gene Transfer Techniques. Green Fluorescent Proteins / genetics. Humans. Lymphocytes / cytology. Male. Rats. Rats, Inbred Lew. Retina / drug effects. Retina / pathology. Tetracycline / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 16149902.001).
  • [ISSN] 1043-0342
  • [Journal-full-title] Human gene therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Gene Ther.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Arrestin; 130068-27-8 / Interleukin-10; 147336-22-9 / Green Fluorescent Proteins; F8VB5M810T / Tetracycline
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50. Süveges I: [Intraocular tumours]. Magy Onkol; 2005;49(1):9-13
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  • Intraocular tumours may be benign or malignant.
  • Two of them deserve special attention: melanoma malignum oculi in adults and retinoblastoma in children.
  • Melanoma malignum may arise from all three areas of the uvea: the iris, the ciliary body and the choroid.
  • The more malignant growths are those which are situated closer to the posterior pole.
  • Histologically the epitheloid cell-type of melanoma is more malignant than those containing only spindle cells.
  • Their treatment depends on the size: in the case of large tumours enucleation is required, while for the smaller ones, radiation therapy can be applied.
  • Sixty-seven percent of the inherited-type cases are bilateral.
  • A white tissue mass growing into the vitreous is seen on the fundus.
  • Histologically the tumour contains malignant neuroepithelial cells, which may form a rosette.
  • In the case of large tumours the treatment is enucleation; in bilateral processes the bulbus with the larger mass is removed and the other eye is treated with radiation therapy.
  • In both cases chemotherapy is used according to a prescribed schedule.
  • Metastases to the eye occur most frequently from carcinomas of the breast, lungs or gastrointestinal tract.
  • These are treated with radiotherapy, chemotherapy and hormone therapy.
  • Some benign tumours are found by chance on routine eye examinations, others due to subjective and objective symptoms.
  • [MeSH-major] Eye Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Lymphoma / diagnosis. Lymphoma / therapy. Melanoma / diagnosis. Melanoma / therapy. Retinal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Retinal Neoplasms / therapy. Retinoblastoma / diagnosis. Retinoblastoma / therapy

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  • (PMID = 15902327.001).
  • [ISSN] 0025-0244
  • [Journal-full-title] Magyar onkologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Magy Onkol
  • [Language] hun
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Hungary
  • [Number-of-references] 2
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51. Kook MS, Cho HS, Yang SJ, Kim S, Chung J: Efficacy of latanoprost in patients with chronic angle-closure glaucoma and no visible ciliary-body face: a preliminary study. J Ocul Pharmacol Ther; 2005 Feb;21(1):75-84
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  • [Title] Efficacy of latanoprost in patients with chronic angle-closure glaucoma and no visible ciliary-body face: a preliminary study.
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of 0.005% latanoprost in lowering intraocular pressure (IOP) in patients with chronic angle-closure glaucoma (CACG) and no visible ciliary-body face.
  • Fourteen eyes of 14 Korean patients with CACG with 360 degrees of peripheral anterior synechiae (PAS) and an IOP greater than 21 mmHg without medication were treated with 0.005% latanoprost once-daily.
  • All patients completed 3 months of treatment with latanoprost.
  • The IOP, which was 30.3 +/- 4.5 (mean +/- standard deviation) mmHg at baseline, decreased to 22.6 +/- 4.9 mmHg after 1 week, 19.6 +/- 5.5 mmHg after 1 month, 19.4 +/- 4.9 mmHg after 2 months, and 21.5 +/- 5.9 mmHg after 3 months of treatment with latanoprost (P < 0.01 for each).
  • Ultrasound biomicroscopy of the anterior chamber angle showed anterior bowing of the iris with total occlusion of the angle by PAS, except for 5 eyes with focal microscopic openings to the ciliary-body face at various angles.
  • In this preliminary study, treatment with 0.005% latanoprost once-daily resulted in a significant reduction in IOP in CACG patients with 360 degrees of PAS on gonioscopy.
  • Our results suggest that latanoprost may be considered as a therapy of choice in these rare cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Antihypertensive Agents / therapeutic use. Ciliary Body / pathology. Glaucoma, Angle-Closure / drug therapy. Intraocular Pressure / drug effects. Prostaglandins F, Synthetic / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Anterior Chamber / pathology. Anterior Chamber / ultrasonography. Chronic Disease. Female. Gonioscopy. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Safety. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15718831.001).
  • [ISSN] 1080-7683
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of ocular pharmacology and therapeutics : the official journal of the Association for Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Ocul Pharmacol Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antihypertensive Agents; 0 / Prostaglandins F, Synthetic; 6Z5B6HVF6O / latanoprost
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52. Kaplan-Messas A, Naveh N, Avni I, Marshall J: Ocular hypotensive effects of cholinergic and adrenergic drugs may be influenced by prostaglandins E2 in the human and rabbit eye. Eur J Ophthalmol; 2003 Jan-Feb;13(1):18-23
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  • [Title] Ocular hypotensive effects of cholinergic and adrenergic drugs may be influenced by prostaglandins E2 in the human and rabbit eye.
  • PURPOSE: Increased PGE2 production by the iris and ciliary body regulate intraocular pressure (IOP) in vivo.
  • Various cholinergic and adrenergic compounds are traditionally used as antiglaucoma drugs, and their effect on IOP reduction is antagonised by cyclooxygenase inhibitors, indicating a role for eicosanoids in their hypotensive activity.
  • One of the most potent antiglaucoma drugs, PG2 alpha (Latanoprost), reduces IOP by increasing uveoscleral outflow and also increases PGE2 production by the iris and ciliary body in vivo.
  • We investigated whether cholinergic and adrenergic antiglaucoma drugs induce the production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in vitro by:.
  • 1) the iris-ciliary body (ICB) of rabbits and, 2) irises of glaucoma patients.
  • Human iris specimens were obtained from nine untreated cataract eyes, and five eyes under antiglaucoma medication undergoing surgery.
  • In vitro PGE2 production by treated glaucoma patients' irises was three times higher (p<0.001) than in cataract control patients.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The study found an increase in in vitro production of PGE2 by the irises of eyes treated with cholinergic and adrenergic antiglaucoma medications.
  • This suggests a role for endogenous PG production in the hypotensive effect of both classes of drug.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenergic Agents / pharmacology. Cholinergic Agents / pharmacology. Ciliary Body / drug effects. Dinoprostone / biosynthesis. Iris / drug effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Topical. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Animals. Echothiophate Iodide / pharmacology. Epinephrine / pharmacology. Humans. Intraocular Pressure / drug effects. Middle Aged. Ocular Hypotension / drug therapy. Ocular Hypotension / metabolism. Ophthalmic Solutions. Pilocarpine / pharmacology. Rabbits. Radioimmunoassay

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  • (PMID = 12635670.001).
  • [ISSN] 1120-6721
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Ophthalmol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenergic Agents; 0 / Cholinergic Agents; 0 / Ophthalmic Solutions; 01MI4Q9DI3 / Pilocarpine; BA9QH3P00T / Echothiophate Iodide; K7Q1JQR04M / Dinoprostone; YKH834O4BH / Epinephrine
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53. Wierzbowska J, Robaszkiewicz J, Figurska M, Stankiewicz A: Future possibilities in glaucoma therapy. Med Sci Monit; 2010 Nov;16(11):RA252-9
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  • [Title] Future possibilities in glaucoma therapy.
  • Glaucoma is a group of eye diseases causing irreversible optic nerve damage.
  • This review presents 4 elements of future glaucoma treatment strategies: baroprotection, vasoprotection, neuroprotection and gene therapy.
  • New baroprotection includes compounds that alter the actin cytoskeleton (rho-kinase inhibitors, latrunculin, cytochalasin), new drugs that enhance aqueous outflow via the trabecular meshwork (statins, steroid antagonists) and via the uveoscleral route (EP2 agonists, 5-HT2 agonists), as well as new classes of components that suppress aqueous humor formation (cannabinoids).
  • Vasoprotection includes blocking reperfusion injury (NOS-2 inhibitors, endothelin blockers, MMP-9 inhibitors).
  • Gene therapy may target various effectors: the trabecular meshwork (cytoskeleton regulatory proteins, miocyllin, MMPs), the ciliary body epithelium (genes modifying aqueous humor production, neuropeptides), the ciliary body cells (MMPs, genes of local PGs biosynthesis, ciliary muscle relaxants), the retinal ganglion cells (neurotrophin genes, anti-apoptotic genes), Müller cells (neurotrophins, GLAST) and conjunctiva (gene of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase, inhibitor p21).
  • [MeSH-major] Glaucoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Aqueous Humor / metabolism. Cell Death. Genetic Therapy. Humans. Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors / pharmacology. Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Intraocular Pressure / drug effects. Neuroprotective Agents / pharmacology. Neuroprotective Agents / therapeutic use. Prostaglandins, Synthetic / pharmacology. Prostaglandins, Synthetic / therapeutic use. Retinal Ganglion Cells / pathology. Trabecular Meshwork / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20980972.001).
  • [ISSN] 1643-3750
  • [Journal-full-title] Medical science monitor : international medical journal of experimental and clinical research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med. Sci. Monit.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors; 0 / Neuroprotective Agents; 0 / Prostaglandins, Synthetic
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54. Dong XG, Xu YM, Yuan GQ, Shi WY, Xie LX, Wang SG: [Intraocular implantation of cyclosporine A drug delivery system in the treatment of experimental uveitis]. Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi; 2005 Jul;41(7):636-41
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  • [Title] [Intraocular implantation of cyclosporine A drug delivery system in the treatment of experimental uveitis].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects and safety of cyclosporine A drug delivery system (CsA DDS) implanted into vitreous cavity on the treatment of experimental rabbit uveitis.
  • The electroretinography and histopathological examination in eye, liver and kidney were recorded.
  • A large amount of inflammatory cells infiltration and marked tissue disorganization were found at ciliary body and retina in groups A and B.
  • The mean drug level in vitreous cavity ws (491.0 +/- 481.6) ng/ml at 4 weeks, (575.2 +/-0373.2) ng/ml at 8 weeks and (301.5 +/- 128.5) ng/ml at 12 weeks.
  • CONCLUSION: Sustained therapeutic drug level could be achieved by implanting CsA DDS into vitreous cavity.
  • [MeSH-major] Cyclosporine / administration & dosage. Immunosuppressive Agents / administration & dosage. Uveitis / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Drug Delivery Systems. Drug Implants. Female. Male. Rabbits. Random Allocation. Vitreous Body / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16080900.001).
  • [ISSN] 0412-4081
  • [Journal-full-title] [Zhonghua yan ke za zhi] Chinese journal of ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Drug Implants; 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 83HN0GTJ6D / Cyclosporine
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55. Kolodny NH, Goode ST, Ryan W, Freddo TF: Evaluation of therapeutic effectiveness using MR imaging in a rabbit model of anterior uveitis. Exp Eye Res; 2002 Apr;74(4):483-91
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Evaluation of therapeutic effectiveness using MR imaging in a rabbit model of anterior uveitis.
  • Our goal was to determine if blood-aqueous barrier permeability could be similarly assessed, because MRI offers the theoretical advantage of providing quantitative data directly from inflamed uveal tissues rather than from the aqueous humor into which the inflammatory reaction spills.
  • As an additional challenge, we sought to use MRI to measure differences between the inflamed uveal tissues of corticosteroid-treated and placebo-treated uveitic eyes.
  • Anterior uveitis was induced in one eye of eight rabbits by subcutaneous injection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, followed after 10 days with intravitreal challenge.
  • MR image data were analyzed to determine percent change in peak enhancement of the ciliary body and anterior chamber.
  • Extensive contrast agent-induced MR image enhancement of both the anterior chamber and the ciliary processes was measured following the induction of uveitis.
  • MR signal enhancement data obtained from the ciliary processes proved to be the most reliable indicator of disease activity in this rabbit model of uveitis.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-Inflammatory Agents / therapeutic use. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Prednisolone / analogs & derivatives. Prednisolone / therapeutic use. Prodrugs / therapeutic use. Uveitis, Anterior / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Anterior Chamber / pathology. Ciliary Body / pathology. Contrast Media. Disease Models, Animal. Gadolinium DTPA. Rabbits. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.
  • (PMID = 12076092.001).
  • [ISSN] 0014-4835
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental eye research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Eye Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / R01-EY04567; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / R15-EY10615
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents; 0 / Contrast Media; 0 / Prodrugs; 8B2807733D / prednisolone acetate; 9PHQ9Y1OLM / Prednisolone; K2I13DR72L / Gadolinium DTPA
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56. Rauz S, Cheung CM, Wood PJ, Coca-Prados M, Walker EA, Murray PI, Stewart PM: Inhibition of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 lowers intraocular pressure in patients with ocular hypertension. QJM; 2003 Jul;96(7):481-90
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Inhibition of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 lowers intraocular pressure in patients with ocular hypertension.
  • BACKGROUND: Intraocular pressure (IOP) is maintained by a balance between aqueous humour (AH) production (dependent on sodium transport across a ciliary epithelial bi-layer) and drainage (predominantly through the trabecular meshwork).
  • In peripheral epithelial tissues, sodium and water transport is regulated by corticosteroids and the 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11beta-HSD) isozymes (11beta-HSD1 activating cortisol from cortisone, 11beta-HSD2 inactivating cortisol to cortisone).
  • AIM: To analyse expression of 11beta-HSD in the human eye and investigate its putative role in AH formation.
  • RT-PCR for 11beta-HSDs, glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptors (GR, MR) was performed on human ciliary body tissue.
  • RESULTS: ISH defined expression of 11beta-HSD1 in the ciliary epithelium, while RT-PCR analysis of ciliary body tissue confirmed expression of 11beta-HSD1, with additional GR and MR, but not 11beta-HSD2 expression.
  • Our data suggest that this is mediated through inhibition of 11beta-HSD1 in the ciliary epithelium.
  • Selective and topical inhibitors of 11beta-HSD1 could provide a novel treatment for patients with glaucoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carbenoxolone / pharmacology. Enzyme Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases / antagonists & inhibitors. Intraocular Pressure / drug effects. Ocular Hypertension / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] 11-beta-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 2. Aged. Aqueous Humor / chemistry. Aqueous Humor / enzymology. Cortisone / analysis. Double-Blind Method. Female. Humans. Hydrocortisone / analysis. Male. Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonists. Prospective Studies. Receptors, Glucocorticoid / antagonists & inhibitors

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  • (PMID = 12881590.001).
  • [ISSN] 1460-2725
  • [Journal-full-title] QJM : monthly journal of the Association of Physicians
  • [ISO-abbreviation] QJM
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonists; 0 / Receptors, Glucocorticoid; EC 1.1.- / Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases; EC 1.1.1.146 / 11-beta-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 2; EC 1.1.1.146 / HSD11B2 protein, human; MM6384NG73 / Carbenoxolone; V27W9254FZ / Cortisone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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57. De Potter P, Disneur D, Levecq L, Snyers B: [Ocular manifestations of cancer]. J Fr Ophtalmol; 2002 Feb;25(2):194-202
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  • [Transliterated title] Manifestations oculaires des cancers.
  • Cancer may affect the eye and orbit as a direct result of metastatic neoplastic infiltration, compression, or circulating antibodies involving paraneoplastic retinal degeneration.
  • The choroid is the most common site for uveal metastasis; metastases to the ciliary body, iris, retina, optic disk, and vitreous are rare.
  • Approximately one-third of patients have no history of primary cancer at the time of ocular diagnosis.
  • Breast and lung carcinomas for women and lung and gastrointestinal carcinomas for men most commonly metastasize to the eye and orbit.
  • The short-term prognosis for vision is usually good after an individualized therapeutic approach (chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, external beam radiotherapy, or plaque radiotherapy), but the systemic prognosis is poor.
  • The visual paraneoplastic syndromes encompass several distinct clinical and pathological entities including carcinoma-associated retinopathy (CAR), melanoma-associated retinopathy (MAR), and bilateral diffuse melanocytic uveal proliferation (BDUMP).
  • Anecdotal therapeutic responses are described after systemic steroids, immunoglobulin injection, and plasmapheresis.
  • [MeSH-major] Eye Neoplasms / secondary. Lymphoma / diagnosis. Paraneoplastic Syndromes
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Child. Choroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Choroid Neoplasms / secondary. Diagnosis, Differential. Eyelid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Eyelid Neoplasms / secondary. Female. Humans. Iris Neoplasms / diagnosis. Iris Neoplasms / secondary. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / diagnosis. Male. Melanoma / complications. Melanoma / diagnosis. Melanoma / secondary. Orbital Neoplasms / diagnosis. Orbital Neoplasms / secondary. Prognosis. Retinal Diseases / etiology. Retinal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Retinal Neoplasms / secondary. Visual Acuity. Vitreous Body

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  • (PMID = 11941243.001).
  • [ISSN] 0181-5512
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal français d'ophtalmologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Fr Ophtalmol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Number-of-references] 103
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58. De Marzo A, Aruta C, Marigo V: PEDF promotes retinal neurosphere formation and expansion in vitro. Adv Exp Med Biol; 2010;664:621-30
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Retinal stem cell (RSC) research offers unique opportunities for developing clinical application for therapy.
  • The ciliary body of adult mammals represents a source of quiescent RSC.
  • We tested combinations of PEDF with fibroblast growth factor (FGF) during RSC growth to evaluate self-renewal and subsequent differentiation into retinal-like neuronal cell types.
  • [MeSH-major] Eye Proteins / pharmacology. Nerve Growth Factors / pharmacology. Neurons / cytology. Retina / cytology. Serpins / pharmacology. Spheroids, Cellular / cytology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Differentiation / drug effects. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Mice. Mice, Inbred C57BL. Stem Cells / cytology. Stem Cells / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 20238066.001).
  • [ISSN] 0065-2598
  • [Journal-full-title] Advances in experimental medicine and biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv. Exp. Med. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] Italy / Telethon / / GGP06096
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Eye Proteins; 0 / Nerve Growth Factors; 0 / Serpins; 0 / pigment epithelium-derived factor
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59. Lee GC, Tam CP, Danesh-Meyer HV, Myers JS, Katz LJ: Bilateral angle closure glaucoma induced by sulphonamide-derived medications. Clin Exp Ophthalmol; 2007 Jan-Feb;35(1):55-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Bilateral angle closure glaucoma induced by sulphonamide-derived medications.
  • BACKGROUND: Sulphonamide-derived medications are widely used, although not always recognized as such.
  • We report the occurrence of bilateral angle closure glaucoma with sulphonamide-derived medications and highlight features of the presentation and treatment to assist in early diagnosis and management.
  • METHODS: The clinical records of three cases with bilateral angle closure glaucoma induced by three sulphonamide-derived medications, sulfasalazine, oral acetazolamide, and hydrochlorothiazide, were reviewed.
  • Cessation of the suspected medication is necessary to reverse the mechanism.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The proposed mechanism of angle closure glaucoma induced by sulphonamide medication involves an idiosyncratic reaction in the uveal tissues to these systemic drugs that is associated with expansion of the extracellular tissue of the ciliary body and choroid.
  • Management identification of sulphonamide-derived medications and immediate cessation of suspected sulphonamide-derived medication, refraction and ultrasound B scan or ultrasound biomicroscopy may aid in the proper diagnosis and can also be helpful for confirmation.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antihypertensive Agents / therapeutic use. Diuretics / adverse effects. Drug Therapy, Combination. Female. Gonioscopy. Humans. Intraocular Pressure / drug effects. Microscopy, Acoustic. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 17300572.001).
  • [ISSN] 1442-6404
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical & experimental ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Experiment. Ophthalmol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antihypertensive Agents; 0 / Diuretics; 0J48LPH2TH / Hydrochlorothiazide; 3XC8GUZ6CB / Sulfasalazine; O3FX965V0I / Acetazolamide
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60. Costagliola C, Cipollone U, Rinaldi M, della Corte M, Semeraro F, Romano MR: Intravitreal bevacizumab (Avastin) injection for neovascular glaucoma: a survey on 23 cases throughout 12-month follow-up. Br J Clin Pharmacol; 2008 Nov;66(5):667-73
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  • AIMS: Neovascular glaucoma (NVG) represents one of the most severe forms of secondary glaucoma, caused by a number of ocular and systemic conditions, which share the common element of retinal ischaemia/hypoxia that initiates the subsequent release of angiogenesis factors, with consequent development of new abnormal vessels through the ciliary body.
  • The aim was to examine the potential efficacy and safety of intravitreal injection of bevacizumab (IVB) (Avastin) in the treatment of NVG in patients who had already undergone the standard retinal ablative procedure.
  • Clinical data of 26 eyes from 23 patients, including diagnosis, visual acuity, iris fluorescein angiography stage and intraocular pressure (IOP), were collected.
  • Three injections of bevacizumab were scheduled for each recruited eye at 4-week intervals from the start.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Intravitreal bevacizumab, as adjunctive treatment to the standard retinal ablative procedure, seems promising for the management of conditions responsible of retinal ischaemia/hypoxia associated with NVG.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiogenesis Inhibitors / administration & dosage. Antibodies, Monoclonal / administration & dosage. Glaucoma, Neovascular / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Bevacizumab. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Injections, Intralesional. Intraocular Pressure / drug effects. Male. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies. Treatment Outcome. Visual Acuity / drug effects. Vitreous Body

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  • (PMID = 19032174.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2125
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of clinical pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Clin Pharmacol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 2S9ZZM9Q9V / Bevacizumab
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2661982
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61. Lu S, Cheng L, Hostetler KY, Koh HJ, Beadle JR, Davidson MC, Freeman WR: Intraocular properties of hexadecyloxypropyl-cyclic-cidofovir in Guinea pigs. J Ocul Pharmacol Ther; 2005 Jun;21(3):205-9
The Lens. Cited by Patents in .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • OBJECTIVE: We previously reported a long-lasting crystalline lipid pro-drug of cyclic cidofovir, hexadecyloxypropyl-cyclic-cidofovir (HDP-cCDV), to treat experimental retinitis in rabbit eyes.
  • With HDP-cCDV there was a longer intraocular therapeutic effect than with cidofovir (CDV) and no toxicity with 100 microg/eye.
  • METHODS: HDP-cCDV was intravitreally injected into 10 guinea pig eyes in doses of 4, 9, and 18 microg in 20 microL/eye.
  • An 18-microg quantity is the dose equivalent to 100 microg/eye in the rabbit.
  • Only one eye of each animal received drug and the fellow eye served as the control.
  • RESULTS: Intravitreal injections of doses of 18 microg/eye or lower revealed no toxicity and a high therapeutic index (132,000 to 3300 times higher than the 50% effective concentration for human cytomegalovirus) during 10 weeks of observation.
  • The crystalline drug depot was ophthalmoscopically visible in the inferior vitreous cavity for 5-10 weeks.
  • There was no difference in IOP between the drug-injected and control eyes at any time points (P > 0.05) except for day 3 after drug injection (P = 0.0338).
  • Histology revealed normal morphology and structures of the retina and ciliary body in all eyes (with or without treatment).
  • CONCLUSION: Crystalline HDP-cCDV may be a long-lasting and safer alternative to cidofovir to treat CMV retinitis without the retinal or ciliary body toxicity observed with CDV.
  • [MeSH-major] Antiviral Agents / toxicity. Ciliary Body / drug effects. Cytosine / analogs & derivatives. Intraocular Pressure / drug effects. Organophosphonates / toxicity. Retina / drug effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cytomegalovirus Retinitis / drug therapy. Delayed-Action Preparations. Electroretinography. Guinea Pigs. Injections. Vitreous Body / drug effects. Vitreous Body / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 15969637.001).
  • [ISSN] 1080-7683
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of ocular pharmacology and therapeutics : the official journal of the Association for Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Ocul Pharmacol Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R01 AI074057
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antiviral Agents; 0 / Delayed-Action Preparations; 0 / Organophosphonates; 0 / hexadecyloxypropyl-cyclic cidofovir; 8J337D1HZY / Cytosine
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62. Srivastava SK, Martin DF, Mellow SD, Parks DJ, Dastgheib K, Chan CC: Pathological findings in eyes with the ganciclovir implant. Ophthalmology; 2005 May;112(5):780-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • METHODS: Pathologic specimens collected from 1993 through 1999 at the National Eye Institute were reviewed.
  • Fibrous ingrowth developed from the implant site into the vitreous in 32 of the 33 eyes.
  • Foreign body giant cell reactions were observed in most of the eyes related to suture material.
  • Hyalinization, atrophic changes of the ciliary body in the area of implantation, or both were observed in 18 eyes.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The ganciclovir implant is well tolerated within the eye.
  • [MeSH-major] Antiviral Agents / therapeutic use. Eye Diseases / pathology. Eye Foreign Bodies / pathology. Foreign-Body Reaction / pathology. Ganciclovir / therapeutic use. Vitreous Body / pathology. Vitreous Hemorrhage / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / drug therapy. Adolescent. Adult. Atrophy. Ciliary Body / pathology. Cytomegalovirus Retinitis / drug therapy. Drug Implants. Female. Fibrosis. Giant Cells, Foreign-Body / pathology. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Wound Healing

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  • [CommentIn] Ophthalmology. 2006 May;113(5):888 [16650692.001]
  • (PMID = 15878057.001).
  • [ISSN] 1549-4713
  • [Journal-full-title] Ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ophthalmology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antiviral Agents; 0 / Drug Implants; P9G3CKZ4P5 / Ganciclovir
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63. van der Woerdt A: Management of intraocular inflammatory disease. Clin Tech Small Anim Pract; 2001 Feb;16(1):58-61
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  • The uvea of the eye is divided into the anterior uvea (iris and ciliary body) and posterior uvea (choroid).
  • Treatment is directed at the underlying systemic disease, if present, as well as symptomatic treatment for the eye.
  • The diagnostic and therapeutic approach to a patient with uveitis is discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Cat Diseases / diagnosis. Cat Diseases / drug therapy. Dog Diseases / diagnosis. Dog Diseases / drug therapy. Uveitis / veterinary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Hormones / therapeutic use. Animals. Cats. Choroiditis / diagnosis. Choroiditis / drug therapy. Choroiditis / veterinary. Dogs

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  • (PMID = 11373829.001).
  • [ISSN] 1096-2867
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical techniques in small animal practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Tech Small Anim Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones
  • [Number-of-references] 26
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64. Zelefsky JR, Fine HF, Rubinstein VJ, Hsu IS, Finger PT: Escitalopram-induced uveal effusions and bilateral angle closure glaucoma. Am J Ophthalmol; 2006 Jun;141(6):1144-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • A medical history and ophthalmic examination (including slit-lamp photography and high-frequency ultrasonography) were performed at the time of diagnosis and at resolution of her symptoms.
  • RESULTS: High-frequency ultrasonography revealed bilateral choroidal effusions with ciliary body detachments and angle closure.
  • Attempts to reduce intraocular pressure with topical ocular antihypertensive drugs and subsequent laser peripheral iridotomy were unsuccessful.
  • Discontinuation of escitalopram and corticosteroid therapy resulted in normalization of the patient's eyes.
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Adult. Anterior Eye Segment / ultrasonography. Depressive Disorder / drug therapy. Exudates and Transudates. Female. Functional Laterality. Glucocorticoids / therapeutic use. Humans. Intraocular Pressure

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  • (PMID = 16765693.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9394
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Ophthalmol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glucocorticoids; 0 / Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors; 0DHU5B8D6V / Citalopram
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65. Dinslage S, Hueber A, Diestelhorst M, Krieglstein G: The influence of Latanoprost 0.005% on aqueous humor flow and outflow facility in glaucoma patients: a double-masked placebo-controlled clinical study. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol; 2004 Aug;242(8):654-60
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  • During a 2 week wash-out period all patients received a systemic antiglaucomatous therapy (Acetazolamide) up to 3 days before baseline measurement.
  • Fluorophotometry, tonography and IOP were measured at baseline after 1 and 2 weeks of treatment.
  • The IOP significantly decreased (25%) after 1 and 2 weeks of treatment with Latanoprost(p<0.01).
  • Fluorophotometry measurements showed no difference in flow over time in both groups.
  • Although tonographic mean C values in both groups did not show any difference over time, the estimated total outflow facility C (Goldmann) increased significantly (p<0.05) in the verum-treated eyes after 2 weeks.
  • A significant difference of outflow co-efficient correlated to normal pressure (P0/C) was found after 2 weeks of treatment with Latanoprost (p<0.05).
  • CONCLUSIONS: In accordance with the literature we found a mean 25% decrease in IOP after 2 weeks of treatment with Latanoprost 0.005%.
  • The known effect of Latanoprost increase uveoscleral outflow by remodeling extracellular matrix and widening intermuscular spaces in the ciliary body may not detected by pneumotonography after 2 weeks of treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Aqueous Humor / drug effects. Glaucoma, Open-Angle / drug therapy. Glaucoma, Open-Angle / physiopathology. Prostaglandins F, Synthetic / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Double-Blind Method. Fluorophotometry. Humans. Intraocular Pressure / drug effects. Middle Aged. Ocular Hypertension / drug therapy. Ocular Hypertension / physiopathology. Solutions. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15241610.001).
  • [ISSN] 0721-832X
  • [Journal-full-title] Graefe's archive for clinical and experimental ophthalmology = Albrecht von Graefes Archiv fur klinische und experimentelle Ophthalmologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Prostaglandins F, Synthetic; 0 / Solutions; 6Z5B6HVF6O / latanoprost
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66. Banta JT, Hoffman K, Budenz DL, Ceballos E, Greenfield DS: Presumed topiramate-induced bilateral acute angle-closure glaucoma. Am J Ophthalmol; 2001 Jul;132(1):112-4
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  • PURPOSE: We describe a case of bilateral angle-closure glaucoma associated with oral topiramate therapy.
  • RESULTS: A 51-year-old man developed bilateral acute angle-closure glaucoma 2 weeks after beginning topiramate therapy for bipolar affective disorder.
  • Laser peripheral iridotomy was performed in the right eye without resolution of the acute attack.
  • Visual acuity, intraocular pressure, and anterior and posterior segment anatomy normalized 2 weeks after cessation of topiramate therapy.
  • CONCLUSION: Topiramate, a new sulfa-derivative antiepileptic medication, may cause idiosyncratic ciliochoroidal detachments and ciliary body edema leading to anterior displacement of the lens-iris diaphragm, lens thickening, and acute angle-closure glaucoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Administration, Oral. Bipolar Disorder / drug therapy. Choroid Diseases / chemically induced. Choroid Diseases / ultrasonography. Humans. Intraocular Pressure. Male. Middle Aged. Visual Acuity

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  • (PMID = 11438067.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9394
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Ophthalmol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anticonvulsants; 0H73WJJ391 / topiramate; 30237-26-4 / Fructose
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67. Soliman MM, Macky TA: Patency of superior ciliary sulcus in aphakic silicone oil-filled eyes: an ultrasound biomicroscopy study. Can J Ophthalmol; 2010 Feb;45(1):33-5

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Patency of superior ciliary sulcus in aphakic silicone oil-filled eyes: an ultrasound biomicroscopy study.
  • OBJECTIVE: To assess the patency of the superior ciliary sulcus in aphakic silicone oil-filled eyes by ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM).
  • They were also asked to look straight ahead, to bring the superior ciliary sulcus to the highest point of the globe.
  • Images of the superior ciliary sulcus were captured and analyzed.
  • RESULTS: The UBM images demonstrated an intact curved aqueous-silicone oil interface that appeared at some distance from and not filling the ciliary sulcus.
  • A patent superior ciliary sulcus was thus found in all patients, even in those with a widely opened ciliary sulcus.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The superior ciliary sulcus maintained its patency in aphakic silicone oil-filled eyes.

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  • (PMID = 20130707.001).
  • [ISSN] 1715-3360
  • [Journal-full-title] Canadian journal of ophthalmology. Journal canadien d'ophtalmologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Can. J. Ophthalmol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Silicone Oils
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68. Panday VA, Rhee DJ: Review of sulfonamide-induced acute myopia and acute bilateral angle-closure glaucoma. Compr Ophthalmol Update; 2007 Sep-Oct;8(5):271-6
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  • Sulfonamide medications can cause an idiosyncratic reaction, resulting in acute transient myopia and acute angle-closure glaucoma.
  • Typical clinical presentation includes bilateral involvement with blurring of vision that generally occurs over minutes to hours, nausea or vomiting, red eye, and headache.
  • Diagnosis is based on clinical suspicion, although an ultrasound biomicroscopy may be helpful in diagnosing swelling of the ciliary body.
  • Topiramate, a sulfa derivative, is used for the treatment of migraines or seizures.
  • Treatment of this condition is primarily supportive along with discontinuation of the medication; topical miotics and peripheral iridectomy are not helpful.
  • If intraocular pressure remains uncontrolled, additional therapies, such as topical intraocular pressure-lowering medications, high-dose steroids, and trabeculectomy, may need to be considered.
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Anticonvulsants / adverse effects. Anticonvulsants / therapeutic use. Fructose / adverse effects. Fructose / analogs & derivatives. Fructose / therapeutic use. Gastrointestinal Diseases / etiology. Headache / etiology. Humans. Migraine Disorders / drug therapy. Vision Disorders / etiology. Vision, Binocular

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  • (PMID = 18201514.001).
  • [ISSN] 1937-8394
  • [Journal-full-title] Comprehensive ophthalmology update
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Compr Ophthalmol Update
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anticonvulsants; 0 / Sulfonamides; 0H73WJJ391 / topiramate; 30237-26-4 / Fructose
  • [Number-of-references] 61
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69. Scherer WJ: Association between topical prostaglandin analog use and development of choroidal neovascular membranes in patients with concurrent glaucoma and age-related macular degeneration. J Ocul Pharmacol Ther; 2006 Apr;22(2):139-44
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  • The glaucoma medication latanoprost, and possibly other topical prostaglandin analogs, increase uveoscleral outflow and lower intraocular pressure (IOP) in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) by activating MMPs 1, 2, 3, and 9 in the ciliary body.
  • METHODS: A retrospective record review was performed to identify patients with a concurrent diagnosis of AMD and POAG between 1998 and 2004.
  • Usage of other glaucoma medications was also compared.
  • A minimum of 1 year of topical glaucoma medication was required for inclusion in the study.
  • Exclusion criteria included a history of CNVM prior to starting glaucoma medications and a previous history of glaucoma surgery.
  • No significant differences in the use of other glaucoma medications were observed between the two groups.
  • [MeSH-major] Antihypertensive Agents / adverse effects. Choroidal Neovascularization. Glaucoma / drug therapy. Macular Degeneration / complications. Prostaglandins, Synthetic / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 16722800.001).
  • [ISSN] 1080-7683
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of ocular pharmacology and therapeutics : the official journal of the Association for Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Ocul Pharmacol Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antihypertensive Agents; 0 / Prostaglandins, Synthetic
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70. Marquis RE, Whitson JT: Management of glaucoma: focus on pharmacological therapy. Drugs Aging; 2005;22(1):1-21
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Management of glaucoma: focus on pharmacological therapy.
  • In this disorder, retinal ganglion cell loss and excavation of the optic nerve head produce characteristic peripheral visual field deficits.
  • Patients with normal-tension glaucoma present with typical visual field and optic nerve head changes, without a documented history of elevated IOP.
  • Treatment of all forms of glaucoma consists of reducing IOP.
  • With proper treatment, progression of this disease can often be delayed or prevented.
  • Treatment options for glaucoma include medications, laser therapy and incisional surgery.
  • Surgical options for glaucoma treatment include trabeculectomy, glaucoma drainage tube implantation and ciliary body cyclodestruction.
  • While each of these types of procedures is effective at lowering IOP, therapy usually begins with medications.
  • Medications lower IOP either by reducing the production or by increasing the rate of outflow of aqueous humour within the eye.
  • Currently, there are five major classes of drugs used for the treatment of glaucoma: (i) cholinergics (acetylcholine receptor agonists);.
  • Treatment typically begins with the selection of an agent for IOP reduction.
  • Although beta-adrenoceptor antagonists are still commonly used by many clinicians, the PGAs are playing an increasingly important role in the first-line therapy of glaucoma.
  • As with any chronic disease, effective treatment depends on minimising the adverse effects of therapy and maximising patient compliance.
  • The introduction of a variety of well tolerated and potent medications over the past few years now allows the clinician to choose a treatment regimen on an individual patient basis and thereby treat this disorder more effectively.
  • [MeSH-major] Glaucoma / drug therapy. Intraocular Pressure / drug effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenergic Agonists / administration & dosage. Adrenergic Agonists / adverse effects. Adrenergic Agonists / therapeutic use. Adrenergic beta-Antagonists / administration & dosage. Adrenergic beta-Antagonists / adverse effects. Adrenergic beta-Antagonists / therapeutic use. Aqueous Humor / physiology. Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors / administration & dosage. Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors / adverse effects. Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Cholinergic Agonists / administration & dosage. Cholinergic Agonists / adverse effects. Cholinergic Agonists / therapeutic use. Drug Combinations. Humans. Prostaglandins / administration & dosage. Prostaglandins / adverse effects. Prostaglandins / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 15663346.001).
  • [ISSN] 1170-229X
  • [Journal-full-title] Drugs & aging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Drugs Aging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenergic Agonists; 0 / Adrenergic beta-Antagonists; 0 / Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors; 0 / Cholinergic Agonists; 0 / Drug Combinations; 0 / Prostaglandins
  • [Number-of-references] 179
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71. Mei H, Xing Y, Yang J, Wang A, Xu Y, Heiligenhaus A: Influence of antisense oligonucleotides targeting tumor necrosis factor-alpha on experimental herpetic-induced chorioretinitis of mouse eye. Pathobiology; 2009;76(1):45-50

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Influence of antisense oligonucleotides targeting tumor necrosis factor-alpha on experimental herpetic-induced chorioretinitis of mouse eye.
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect on the pathological process of topical treatment with antisense oligonucleotides (ASON) targeting tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) in experimental herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1)-induced chorioretinitis of mouse eye.
  • The Von Szily model was induced in mice by inoculating 1x10(5) plaque-forming units of HSV-1 (KOS strain) into the anterior chamber of the right eye.
  • In one group, FITC-labeled ASON targeting TNF-alpha was injected subconjunctively into the left eye on days -1, 1, and 4, whereas phosphate buffer was used in the same way on the same days in another group.
  • RESULTS: After infection, acute inflammation appeared in the right eye of both groups.
  • As for the non-inoculated eye, the inflammation in the ASON group was significantly decreased compared to the PBS group.
  • The number of inflammatory cells in the ASON group was significantly lower than in the PBS group, especially in the choroid, retina and ciliary body.
  • CONCLUSION: The results suggested that TNF-alpha ASON reduced the content of TNF-alpha in mouse eyes, and this topical treatment decreased the inflammatory reaction.
  • [MeSH-major] Chorioretinitis / drug therapy. Eye Infections, Viral / drug therapy. Oligonucleotides, Antisense / therapeutic use. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / metabolism

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 19188750.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0291
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathobiology : journal of immunopathology, molecular and cellular biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathobiology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Oligonucleotides, Antisense; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
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72. Pescosolido N, Imperatrice B, Karavitis P: The aging eye and the role of L-carnitine and its derivatives. Drugs R D; 2008;9 Suppl 1:3-14
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The aging eye and the role of L-carnitine and its derivatives.
  • The majority of ocular pathologies originate from a functional deterioration of intraocular tissues.
  • This age-related deterioration often occurs as a result of changes within the eye.
  • While carnitine levels in human ocular tissue are unknown, animal studies indicate that carnitine is differentially distributed within the eye with the highest concentrations reported in the iris, ciliary body and the choroid-retina.
  • This article reviews the potential use of L-carnitine and its derivatives in age-related ocular pathologies, such as AMD, cataract, glaucoma and dry eye syndrome.
  • [MeSH-major] Carnitine / therapeutic use. Eye Diseases / drug therapy. Vitamin B Complex / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Acetylcarnitine / pharmacology. Acetylcarnitine / therapeutic use. Aged. Aging. Animals. Antioxidants / pharmacology. Antioxidants / therapeutic use. Eye / drug effects. Eye / physiopathology. Humans

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  • (PMID = 19105587.001).
  • [ISSN] 1174-5886
  • [Journal-full-title] Drugs in R&D
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Drugs R D
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antioxidants; 12001-76-2 / Vitamin B Complex; 6DH1W9VH8Q / Acetylcarnitine; S7UI8SM58A / Carnitine
  • [Number-of-references] 80
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73. Ilieva I, Ohgami K, Jin XH, Suzuki Y, Shiratori K, Yoshida K, Kase S, Ohno S: Captopril suppresses inflammation in endotoxin-induced uveitis in rats. Exp Eye Res; 2006 Sep;83(3):651-7
The Lens. Cited by Patents in .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Captopril is an inhibitor of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) that is largely used in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases.
  • In addition, we checked its effect on activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) in iris and ciliary body (ICB) cells in vivo.
  • Captopril treatment significantly decreased the inflammatory cells infiltration, the level of protein, concentrations of TNF-alpha, PGE2, NO and MCP-1 in the aqueous humor.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-Inflammatory Agents / therapeutic use. Captopril / therapeutic use. Uvea / immunology. Uveitis / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 16698015.001).
  • [ISSN] 0014-4835
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental eye research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Eye Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents; 0 / Ccl2 protein, rat; 0 / Chemokine CCL2; 0 / Lipopolysaccharides; 0 / NF-kappa B; 0 / Nitrites; 9G64RSX1XD / Captopril; K7Q1JQR04M / Dinoprostone
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74. Valmaggia C, de Smet M: Endoscopic laser coagulation of the ciliary processes in patients with severe chronic glaucoma. Klin Monbl Augenheilkd; 2004 May;221(5):343-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Endoscopic laser coagulation of the ciliary processes in patients with severe chronic glaucoma.
  • BACKGROUND: To investigate the effect of endoscopic laser coagulation on the ciliary processes in order to control intraocular pressure (IOP) in patients with severe chronic glaucoma.
  • Preoperatively, all patients had not responded to intensive glaucomatous topical and systemic treatment (mean 4.2 drugs, range 3 - 5).
  • After pars plana vitrectomy, the ciliary processes were coagulated under endoscopic view over 180 - 270 degrees using endolaser (argon green with spots of 300 - 500 mW for 0.4 - 0.5 s).
  • The postoperative IOP was over 1 year under 21 mm Hg in patient 1 with one topical drug, and in patients 2 and 3 without any further treatment.
  • Patient 4 needed trabeculectomy and one topical drug to control IOP.
  • The IOP was not controlled in patient 5 with the shortest follow-up despite additional topical treatment.
  • No serious treatment-related complication was noted.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Endoscopic laser coagulation allows a precise destruction of the ciliary processes, and permits a better control of IOP in certain cases of severe chronic glaucoma.
  • Further investigations are necessary to better evaluate this therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Ciliary Body / surgery. Filtering Surgery. Glaucoma / surgery. Laser Coagulation. Ophthalmoscopy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Chronic Disease. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Intraocular Pressure / physiology. Male. Microsurgery. Middle Aged. Postoperative Complications / etiology. Postoperative Complications / physiopathology. Postoperative Complications / surgery. Reoperation. Trabeculectomy. Treatment Failure. Treatment Outcome. Vitrectomy

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  • (PMID = 15162276.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Klinische Monatsblätter für Augenheilkunde
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Klin Monbl Augenheilkd
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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75. Congdon NG, Friedman DS: Angle-closure glaucoma: impact, etiology, diagnosis, and treatment. Curr Opin Ophthalmol; 2003 Apr;14(2):70-3
Genetic Alliance. consumer health - Glaucoma.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Angle-closure glaucoma: impact, etiology, diagnosis, and treatment.
  • Although these numbers are based on data from Singapore and Mongolia, which may be applied to China only with caution, they emphasize the blinding potential of ACG, which is three times as likely to be associated with blindness as open-angle glaucoma (OAG).
  • The importance of topiramate as a cause of secondary angle closure has recently been understood, in part, because of a series of 19 such cases reported by investigators at the Food and Drug Administration.
  • SUMMARY: Angle closure in this setting appears to be caused by uveal effusion and anterior rotation of the ciliary body with resultant closure of the angle.
  • A number of novel treatments for AC and angle closure have recently been proposed, including cataract extraction, paracentesis, and argon laser iridoplasty.
  • As with proposed new diagnostic modalities, the efficacy of these treatments remains to be demonstrated with prospective studies, ideally organized in a controlled, randomized fashion.
  • [MeSH-major] Glaucoma, Angle-Closure / diagnosis. Glaucoma, Angle-Closure / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Blindness / etiology. Ciliary Body / physiopathology. Drug Therapy. Humans. Ophthalmologic Surgical Procedures. Uvea / physiopathology

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  • (PMID = 12698044.001).
  • [ISSN] 1040-8738
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Opin Ophthalmol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 23
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76. Birke MT, Neumann C, Birke K, Kremers J, Scholz M: Changes of osteopontin in the aqueous humor of the DBA2/J glaucoma model correlated with optic nerve and RGC degenerations. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci; 2010 Nov;51(11):5759-67
Mouse Genome Informatics (MGI). Mouse Genome Informatics (MGI) .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • OPN(+) cells were detected within the ciliary body of D2J, and OPN(+) RGCs were ≈30% reduced.
  • OPN treatment inhibited cell degeneration within the GCL in ex vivo-cultured D2Rj eyes and increased the metabolic activity of neuronal precursor cells.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aging / physiology. Animals. Blotting, Western. Cell Survival / drug effects. Cytokines / metabolism. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. In Situ Hybridization. Intraocular Pressure. Mice. Mice, Inbred C57BL. Mice, Inbred DBA. Nerve Degeneration / drug therapy. Nerve Degeneration / metabolism. Nerve Degeneration / pathology. Organ Culture Techniques. RNA, Messenger / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20574028.001).
  • [ISSN] 1552-5783
  • [Journal-full-title] Investigative ophthalmology & visual science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cytokines; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Spp1 protein, mouse; 106441-73-0 / Osteopontin
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77. Waki M, Yoshida Y, Oka T, Azuma M: Reduction of intraocular pressure by topical administration of an inhibitor of the Rho-associated protein kinase. Curr Eye Res; 2001 Jun;22(6):470-4
The Lens. Cited by Patents in .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Contractility of ciliary muscle could be implicated in regulation of intraocular pressure while that of ocular vessels could affect blood flow to retina.
  • METHODS: An inhibitor of ROCK, Y-27632, was dissolved in an ophthalmic solution and topically administered to the eye of a Japanese white rabbit.
  • Constriction of ciliary muscle was measured by the Magnus method using 12 eyes.
  • RESULTS: Topical application of 0.1 and 0.03% Y-27632 significantly decreased the intraocular pressure, with maximum decreases of 5.3 and 4.3 mm Hg after 90 minutes compared with the control eye.
  • Y-27632 inhibited the carbachol-induced constriction of rabbit ciliary muscle.
  • The inhibitor relaxed the excised ciliary muscle which was previously constricted by carbachol suggesting that the inhibitor acts to increase the uveoscleral outflow.
  • Our results suggest that the ROCK inhibitor is a promising treatment for glaucoma therapy in the next generation.
  • [MeSH-major] Amides / pharmacology. Antihypertensive Agents / pharmacology. Enzyme Inhibitors / pharmacology. Intraocular Pressure / drug effects. Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases / antagonists & inhibitors. Pyridines / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Topical. Animals. Carbachol / pharmacology. Ciliary Body / drug effects. Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins. Male. Muscle Contraction / drug effects. Muscle, Smooth / drug effects. Ophthalmic Solutions. Rabbits. Tonometry, Ocular. rho-Associated Kinases

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  • (PMID = 11584347.001).
  • [ISSN] 0271-3683
  • [Journal-full-title] Current eye research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr. Eye Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Amides; 0 / Antihypertensive Agents; 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / Ophthalmic Solutions; 0 / Pyridines; 138381-45-0 / Y 27632; 8Y164V895Y / Carbachol; EC 2.7.11.1 / Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases; EC 2.7.11.1 / rho-Associated Kinases
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78. Jäger M, Hemmerling T, Jonas JB: Retrobulbar catheter technique for postoperative titratable analgesia after glaucoma surgery. J Glaucoma; 2002 Feb;11(1):26-9
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  • PURPOSE: To assess an indwelling retrobulbar catheter for delivery of intraoperative anesthesia and postoperative analgesia in patients undergoing painful cyclodestructive and retinal destructive procedures as treatment of neovascular glaucoma.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: The prospective clinical interventional study included all 11 patients undergoing cyclocryocoagulation and/or retinal exocryocoagulation as treatment of neovascular glaucoma due to proliferate ischemic retinopathies.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Avoiding side effects of systemic analgesics and sedatives, an indwelling retrobulbar catheter for repeat postoperative injections of local anesthetics is useful and effective for titratable postoperative analgesia after painful cyclodestructive or retinal destructive surgery as treatment of neovascular glaucoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Anesthesia, Local / methods. Anesthetics, Local / administration & dosage. Catheters, Indwelling. Glaucoma, Neovascular / surgery. Pain, Postoperative / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Analgesia / methods. Catheterization / methods. Ciliary Body / surgery. Cryosurgery. Female. Humans. Male. Mepivacaine / administration & dosage. Middle Aged. Orbit. Prospective Studies. Retinal Diseases / complications. Retinal Diseases / surgery

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  • (PMID = 11821686.001).
  • [ISSN] 1057-0829
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of glaucoma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Glaucoma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anesthetics, Local; B6E06QE59J / Mepivacaine
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79. Birt CM: The use of topical ketorolac 0.5% for pain relief following cyclophotocoagulation. Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging; 2003 Sep-Oct;34(5):381-5
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. PREDNISOLONE .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Although usually successful, the procedure is often accompanied by pain.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Thirty-six patients requiring a cyclodestructive procedure were randomized into two groups.
  • Each group received a standardized cycloablative laser procedure and routine postoperative drops.
  • There was a significant difference between the groups in the average and daily pain rating, with the ketorolac therapy group reporting significantly less pain.
  • CONCLUSION: The addition of topical ketorolac significantly lessened the pain reported by patients following a cyclodestructive laser procedure.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal / therapeutic use. Ciliary Body / surgery. Ketorolac / therapeutic use. Laser Coagulation / adverse effects. Prednisolone / analogs & derivatives. Prednisolone / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Topical. Aged. Drug Therapy, Combination. Female. Glaucoma / surgery. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Ophthalmic Solutions. Pain Measurement / methods. Pain, Postoperative / drug therapy. Pain, Postoperative / etiology. Prospective Studies. Safety. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 14509461.001).
  • [ISSN] 1542-8877
  • [Journal-full-title] Ophthalmic surgery, lasers & imaging : the official journal of the International Society for Imaging in the Eye
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Comparative Study; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal; 0 / Ophthalmic Solutions; 8B2807733D / prednisolone acetate; 9PHQ9Y1OLM / Prednisolone; YZI5105V0L / Ketorolac
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80. Merani R, Sa-Ngiampornpanit T, Kerdraon Y, Billson F, McClellan KA: Euphorbia lactea sap keratouveitis: case report and review of the literature. Cornea; 2007 Jul;26(6):749-52

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • RESULTS: A 79-year-old woman presented 34 hours after she felt some sap of an E. lactea plant spray into her right eye.
  • Examination revealed ciliary injection, 90% corneal epithelial defect, marked stromal edema with Descemet folds, and anterior-chamber flare with a 1-mm hypopyon.
  • No foreign body was seen on B scan ultrasound or computed tomography scan of the orbits.
  • Intensive topical antibiotic therapy was started with cephalothin 5% and gentamicin 0.9%, and the pupil was dilated with atropine.
  • [MeSH-major] Cornea / drug effects. Euphorbia / chemistry. Keratitis / chemically induced. Plant Extracts / adverse effects. Uveitis, Anterior / chemically induced
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Anti-Infective Agents / administration & dosage. Corneal Edema / chemically induced. Corneal Edema / drug therapy. Drug Therapy, Combination. Female. Humans. Visual Acuity / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 17592331.001).
  • [ISSN] 0277-3740
  • [Journal-full-title] Cornea
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cornea
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Infective Agents; 0 / Plant Extracts
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81. Cekiç O, Bardak Y, Tiğ SU, Demirkol A, Ekim MM, Altintaş O, Yeşildağ A, Oyar O: Hemodynamic response to intravitreal triamcinolone in eyes with macular edema: intravitreal triamcinolone and ocular blood flow. Int Ophthalmol; 2007 Oct;27(5):313-9
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Steroids.

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  • Compared to controls, a significant difference existed in the ophthalmic artery resistant index (P = 0.001) and end-diastolic velocity (P < 0.001) in diabetics.
  • At one month, compared to fellow eyes, change in end diastolic velocity from baseline in treated eyes was significantly decreased in posterior ciliary arteries (0.68 +/- 0.34 cm/s [mean +/- SEM] vs. -1.04 +/- 0.81 cm/s, P = 0.012).
  • In eyes with retinal vein occlusion, baseline CDI evaluation demonstrated reduced posterior ciliary arteries systolic flow velocity compared to fellow and control eyes (13.24 +/- 1.04 cm/s, 16.37 +/- 0.76 cm/s and 14.33 +/- 1.41 cm/s, respectively, P = 0.007).
  • Increased peak systolic velocity in the posterior ciliary arteries at one week (P = 0.02), one month (P = 0.005) and two months (P = 0.04), and increase in central retinal artery resistant index at one month was noted (P = 0.05).
  • CONCLUSION: Intravitreal triamcinolone temporarily changed central retinal artery blood flow and posterior ciliary arteries' peak systolic blood velocity in eyes with retinal vein occlusion whilst no response of blood flow to triamcinolone injection but only transiently altered end diastolic blood velocity in posterior ciliary arteries was observed in diabetic eyes.
  • [MeSH-major] Blood Flow Velocity / drug effects. Diabetic Retinopathy / drug therapy. Eye / blood supply. Glucocorticoids / administration & dosage. Macular Edema / drug therapy. Triamcinolone Acetonide / administration & dosage. Vascular Resistance / drug effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diastole. Female. Humans. Injections. Male. Middle Aged. Ophthalmic Artery / physiopathology. Prospective Studies. Retinal Vein Occlusion / drug therapy. Retinal Vein Occlusion / physiopathology. Vitreous Body

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  • (PMID = 17505781.001).
  • [ISSN] 0165-5701
  • [Journal-full-title] International ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int Ophthalmol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glucocorticoids; F446C597KA / Triamcinolone Acetonide
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82. Sakai H, Sakima N, Nakamura Y, Nakamura Y, Hayakawa K, Sawaguchi S: Ciliochoroidal effusion induced by topical latanoprost in a patient with sturge-weber syndrome. Jpn J Ophthalmol; 2002 Sep-Oct;46(5):553-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: To report drug-induced ciliochoroidal effusion in a patient with Sturge-Weber syndrome.
  • Fundus examination showed marked glaucomatous disc cupping in his right eye and normal finding in his left.
  • The patient had a port-wine stain on his right upper eyelid ipsilateral to the glaucomatous eye.
  • Antiglaucomatous medications were begun, including topical latanoprost, with a diagnosis of juvenile onset glaucoma associated with Sturge-Weber syndrome.
  • Forty days after starting medication, latanoprost treatment was discontinued.
  • [MeSH-major] Choroid / metabolism. Ciliary Body / metabolism. Exudates and Transudates / metabolism. Prostaglandins F, Synthetic / adverse effects. Sturge-Weber Syndrome / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 12457915.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-5155
  • [Journal-full-title] Japanese journal of ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Jpn. J. Ophthalmol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Prostaglandins F, Synthetic; 6Z5B6HVF6O / latanoprost
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83. Borghi V, Bastia E, Guzzetta M, Chiroli V, Toris CB, Batugo MR, Carreiro ST, Chong WK, Gale DC, Kucera DJ, Jia L, Prasanna G, Ongini E, Krauss AH, Impagnatiello F: A novel nitric oxide releasing prostaglandin analog, NCX 125, reduces intraocular pressure in rabbit, dog, and primate models of glaucoma. J Ocul Pharmacol Ther; 2010 Apr;26(2):125-32
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. NITRIC OXIDE .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • In pharmacokinetic studies, NCX 125 and latanoprost resulted in similar latanoprost-free acid exposure in anterior segment ocular tissues.
  • This may lead to potential new perspectives in the treatment of patients at risk of glaucoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antihypertensive Agents / pharmacology. Disease Models, Animal. Glaucoma / drug therapy. Intraocular Pressure / drug effects. Nitric Oxide / metabolism. Prostaglandins F, Synthetic / pharmacology. Prostaglandins, Synthetic / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Aqueous Humor / metabolism. Ciliary Body / metabolism. Cyclic GMP / metabolism. Dogs. Female. Iris / metabolism. Macaca fascicularis. Macrophages / drug effects. Macrophages / metabolism. Male. Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II / antagonists & inhibitors. Ocular Hypertension / drug therapy. Ocular Hypertension / metabolism. Ophthalmic Solutions / pharmacology. Rabbits. Tumor Cells, Cultured / drug effects. Tumor Cells, Cultured / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20415621.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-7732
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of ocular pharmacology and therapeutics : the official journal of the Association for Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Ocul Pharmacol Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 1-(nitrooxymethyl)-2-(nitrooxy)ethyl 7-(3,5-dihydroxy-2-(3-hydroxy-5-phenylpentyl)cyclopentyl)-5-heptenoate; 0 / Antihypertensive Agents; 0 / Ophthalmic Solutions; 0 / Prostaglandins F, Synthetic; 0 / Prostaglandins, Synthetic; 31C4KY9ESH / Nitric Oxide; EC 1.14.13.39 / Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II; H2D2X058MU / Cyclic GMP
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84. Wang Z, Do CW, Avila MY, Peterson-Yantorno K, Stone RA, Gao ZG, Joshi B, Besada P, Jeong LS, Jacobson KA, Civan MM: Nucleoside-derived antagonists to A3 adenosine receptors lower mouse intraocular pressure and act across species. Exp Eye Res; 2010 Jan;90(1):146-54
The Lens. Cited by Patents in .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • IOP was measured invasively with a micropipette by the Servo-Null Micropipette System (SNMS) and by non-invasive pneumotonometry during topical drug application.
  • Antagonist efficacy was also assayed by measuring inhibition of adenosine-triggered shrinkage of native bovine nonpigmented ciliary epithelial (NPE) cells.

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  • (PMID = 19878673.001).
  • [ISSN] 1096-0007
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental eye research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Eye Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / R01 EY013624; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / EY01583; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / EY013624-08; United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / ; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / R01 EY013624-08; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / EY13624; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / P30 EY001583
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adenosine A3 Receptor Antagonists; 0 / Antihypertensive Agents; K72T3FS567 / Adenosine; Z07JR07J6C / 2-chloro-N(6)-(3-iodobenzyl)adenosine-5'-N-methyluronamide
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS156373; NLM/ PMC2789191
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85. Paskowitz DM, Donohue-Rolfe KM, Yang H, Yasumura D, Matthes MT, Hosseini K, Graybeal CM, Nune G, Zarbin MA, Lavail MM, Duncan JL: Neurotrophic factors minimize the retinal toxicity of verteporfin photodynamic therapy. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci; 2007 Jan;48(1):430-7
NCI CPTAC Assay Portal. NCI CPTAC Assay Portal .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Neurotrophic factors minimize the retinal toxicity of verteporfin photodynamic therapy.
  • PURPOSE: A prior study showed that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) rescues photoreceptors from collateral retinal damage caused by photodynamic therapy (PDT).
  • This study was conducted to determine whether ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), a combination of BDNF and CNTF, or pigment epithelial cell-derived growth factor (PEDF) might protect photoreceptors and retinal function more effectively than BDNF.
  • Also investigated was whether protection would be observed after a second round of PDT with adjunctive BDNF treatment.
  • METHODS: Normal rats received intravitreal injections of BDNF, CNTF, a combination of BDNF and CNTF, or PEDF in one eye and PBS in the other 2 days before PDT.
  • Another group of rats received two courses of PDT 3 months apart, with injection of BDNF 2 days before each treatment.
  • Adjunctive treatment with BDNF also protects retinal structure and function through two rounds of PDT, suggesting its potential value for patients who require multiple treatments.
  • [MeSH-major] Nerve Growth Factors / therapeutic use. Neuroprotective Agents / therapeutic use. Photochemotherapy. Photoreceptor Cells, Vertebrate / drug effects. Photosensitizing Agents / toxicity. Porphyrins / toxicity. Retinal Diseases / prevention & control
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor / therapeutic use. Cell Survival / drug effects. Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor / therapeutic use. Drug Therapy, Combination. Electroretinography / drug effects. Eye Proteins / therapeutic use. Injections. Rats. Rats, Inbred BN. Retina / drug effects. Retina / physiology. Serpins / therapeutic use. Vitreous Body

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  • (PMID = 17197564.001).
  • [ISSN] 0146-0404
  • [Journal-full-title] Investigative ophthalmology & visual science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / EY00415; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / EY01919; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / EY02162; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / EY06842
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor; 0 / Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor; 0 / Eye Proteins; 0 / Nerve Growth Factors; 0 / Neuroprotective Agents; 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 0 / Porphyrins; 0 / Serpins; 0 / pigment epithelium-derived factor; 129497-78-5 / verteporfin
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86. Abramson DH, Rollins IS, Lin A, Odell P, Folberg R: Tadalafil-induced subretinal and choroidal hemorrhage in a patient with an unsuspected uveal (choroidal and ciliary body) melanoma. Arch Ophthalmol; 2006 Jul;124(7):1058-60
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. TADALAFIL .

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  • [Title] Tadalafil-induced subretinal and choroidal hemorrhage in a patient with an unsuspected uveal (choroidal and ciliary body) melanoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carbolines / adverse effects. Choroid Hemorrhage / chemically induced. Melanoma / ultrasonography. Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors / adverse effects. Retinal Hemorrhage / chemically induced. Uveal Neoplasms / ultrasonography
  • [MeSH-minor] Erectile Dysfunction / drug therapy. Eye Enucleation. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Tadalafil

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  • [ErratumIn] Arch Ophthalmol. 2007 Mar;125(3):438. Dosage error in article text
  • (PMID = 16832036.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-9950
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of ophthalmology (Chicago, Ill. : 1960)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Ophthalmol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carbolines; 0 / Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors; 742SXX0ICT / Tadalafil
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87. Viestenz A, Bergua A, Mardin CY, Küchle M: [Acute bilateral angle-closure glaucoma secondary to ciliary body epithelial cysts of the pars plicata--correlation with the ultrasound biomicroscope]. Klin Monbl Augenheilkd; 2000 Aug;217(2):127-9
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  • [Title] [Acute bilateral angle-closure glaucoma secondary to ciliary body epithelial cysts of the pars plicata--correlation with the ultrasound biomicroscope].
  • [Transliterated title] Bilaterales akutes Winkelblockglaukom bei multiplen Epithelzysten der Pars plicata corporis ciliaris--Korrelation mit dem Ultraschall-Biomikroskop.
  • [MeSH-major] Ciliary Body / pathology. Cysts / complications. Glaucoma, Angle-Closure / pathology. Iris Diseases / complications. Pigment Epithelium of Eye / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Intraocular Pressure / drug effects. Iris / surgery. Laser Therapy. Miotics / therapeutic use. Pilocarpine / therapeutic use. Treatment Failure

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  • (PMID = 11022668.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Klinische Monatsblätter für Augenheilkunde
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Klin Monbl Augenheilkd
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] GERMANY
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Miotics; 01MI4Q9DI3 / Pilocarpine
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