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1. Kretschmer L, Preusser KP: Standardized axillary lymphadenectomy improves local control but not survival in patients with palpable lymph node metastases of cutaneous malignant melanoma. Langenbecks Arch Surg; 2001 Nov;386(6):418-25
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  • [Title] Standardized axillary lymphadenectomy improves local control but not survival in patients with palpable lymph node metastases of cutaneous malignant melanoma.
  • BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to investigate whether consistent application of standard surgical techniques contributes to improved local control or improved survival in melanoma patients with palpable lymph node metastases to the axilla.
  • Using multifactorial analysis, the standardized operative procedure resulted in a significantly lower risk of recurrence in the dissected axilla ( P=0.009).
  • No significance was accorded to the number of metastatic lymph nodes, tumor thickness, epidermal ulceration, site of primary melanoma, age, sex, or adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • Notably, no differences in the survival rates were observed between the two treatment groups.

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  • (PMID = 11735014.001).
  • [ISSN] 1435-2443
  • [Journal-full-title] Langenbeck's archives of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Langenbecks Arch Surg
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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2. Stein JA, Brownell I: Treatment approaches for advanced cutaneous melanoma. J Drugs Dermatol; 2008 Feb;7(2):175-9
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  • [Title] Treatment approaches for advanced cutaneous melanoma.
  • Advanced melanoma has a poor prognosis, and standard adjuvant treatment offers little survival advantage.
  • Current efforts are aimed at combining chemotherapy and novel immunomodulators, which these include melanoma vaccines, cytokines and anti-CTLA4 antibodies.
  • Hundreds of combination therapies are currently in trials.
  • All advanced melanoma patients should be considered for enrollment in a trial for their own benefit as well as for the advancement of melanoma treatment.
  • Most treatment protocols are evaluating combinations of adjuvant therapies, hoping to achieve a synergistic effect.
  • Ongoing research into the biology of melanoma continues to suggest new drug targets that will block tumor progression or enhance host response.
  • Until the day that an effective treatment for advanced melanoma is found, prevention and early detection will remain paramount in combating this deadly malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / therapy. Skin Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Cancer Vaccines / therapeutic use. Clinical Trials as Topic. Combined Modality Therapy. Drug Therapy / methods. Humans. Immunotherapy / methods. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 18335655.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-9616
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of drugs in dermatology : JDD
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Drugs Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cancer Vaccines
  • [Number-of-references] 36
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3. Fujimoto A, Takeuchi H, Taback B, Hsueh EC, Elashoff D, Morton DL, Hoon DS: Allelic imbalance of 12q22-23 associated with APAF-1 locus correlates with poor disease outcome in cutaneous melanoma. Cancer Res; 2004 Mar 15;64(6):2245-50
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  • [Title] Allelic imbalance of 12q22-23 associated with APAF-1 locus correlates with poor disease outcome in cutaneous melanoma.
  • Cutaneous melanoma is a highly aggressive tumor that is relatively resistant to chemotherapy and radiotherapy.
  • To determine whether loss of the APAF-1 locus influences tumor progression, we assessed loss of heterozygosity microsatellites on the APAF-1 locus (12q22-23) in 62 primary and 112 metastatic melanomas.
  • We discovered that frequency of allelic imbalance was significantly higher in metastatic tumors (n = 36 of 98; 37%) than in primary melanomas (n = 10 of 54; 19%; P = 0.02).
  • In metastatic melanomas, APAF-1 loss significantly correlated with a worse prognosis (P < 0.05) in the patients, and its loss during melanoma tumor progression suggests that APAF-1 is a tumor suppressor gene.
  • In summary, the study demonstrates that allelic imbalance in the 12q22-23 region is a genomic surrogate of poor disease outcome for cutaneous melanoma patients.

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  • (PMID = 15026369.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-5472
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA012582-310018; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA029605-270006; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA012582-319005; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P0 CA 29605; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA029605-270006; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA012582-310018; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P0 CA 12528; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA029605-279003; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA012582-319005; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA029605-279003
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / APAF1 protein, human; 0 / Apoptotic Protease-Activating Factor 1; 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm
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4. Shah NC, Gerstle JT, Stuart M, Winter C, Pappo A: Use of sentinel lymph node biopsy and high-dose interferon in pediatric patients with high-risk melanoma: the Hospital for Sick Children experience. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2006 Aug;28(8):496-500
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  • [Title] Use of sentinel lymph node biopsy and high-dose interferon in pediatric patients with high-risk melanoma: the Hospital for Sick Children experience.
  • BACKGROUND: Melanoma comprises less than 3% of all cancers seen in children.
  • Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNBX) is an important predictor of outcome in adult melanoma and has not been widely used in pediatrics.
  • OBJECTIVE: To review our experience with high-risk melanoma, the feasibility of SLNBX and the tolerance of high-dose interferon (HDI) therapy.
  • METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients with the diagnosis of cutaneous melanoma at our center over a 10-year period.
  • Six of 10 patients who underwent SLNBX had disease in the lymph nodes and no complications from this procedure were observed.
  • After complete lymph node dissection in these 6 patients, 1 developed wound infection and 2 had chronic lymph edema.
  • CONCLUSIONS: SLNBX is feasible and safe in pediatric melanoma and offers the potential to identify patients at high risk for disease progression who could benefit from HDI.
  • [MeSH-major] Interferons / therapeutic use. Melanoma / drug therapy. Melanoma / pathology. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Feasibility Studies. Female. Humans. Male. Maximum Tolerated Dose. Remission Induction. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16912589.001).
  • [ISSN] 1077-4114
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9008-11-1 / Interferons
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5. Meier S, Baumert BG, Maier T, Wellis G, Burg G, Seifert B, Dummer R: Survival and prognostic factors in patients with brain metastases from malignant melanoma. Onkologie; 2004 Apr;27(2):145-9
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  • [Title] Survival and prognostic factors in patients with brain metastases from malignant melanoma.
  • AIM: We wanted to determine the factors influencing survival in a retrospective review of patients with melanoma brain metastases to permit more specific recommendations regarding therapy.
  • Information on potential prognostic factors (age, sex, location of the primary tumor, Clark level, Breslow index, histological type, number of brain metastases, stage at initial diagnosis, location of brain metastases, and therapy) was collected from the medical records of 100 patients treated between 1966 and 2002.
  • RESULTS: The overall median survival time was 4.8 months, with 6-month, 1-year and 2-year survival percentages of 36, 14 and 5%, respectively.
  • Univariate analysis indicated that survival correlated significantly with radiotherapy (partial and whole brain), surgery, stereotactic radiosurgery, chemotherapy, Clark level and Breslow index.
  • Treatment with temozolomide (p = 0.052) and number of brain metastases (p = 0.07) failed to be statistically significant.
  • Multivariate analysis confirmed radiotherapy (partial and whole brain), surgery, stereotactic radiosurgery, chemotherapy and the location of brain metastases as independent and significant prognostic factors of survival.
  • CONCLUSION: Radiotherapy, chemotherapy and especially surgery and stereotactic radiosurgery seem to significantly prolong survival, as shown by multivariate analysis.
  • Treatment with temozolomide will possibly play an important role in the future management of patients with brain metastases from cutaneous melanoma, but further prospective studies to verify this assumption are urgently needed.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / mortality. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Melanoma / mortality. Melanoma / secondary. Risk Assessment / methods. Skin Neoplasms / mortality. Skin Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Distribution. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cohort Studies. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / mortality. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / therapy. Prognosis. Radiosurgery. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Sex Distribution. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2004 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg
  • (PMID = 15138346.001).
  • [ISSN] 0378-584X
  • [Journal-full-title] Onkologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Onkologie
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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6. Neale MH, Myatt NE, Khoury GG, Weaver P, Lamont A, Hungerford JL, Kurbacher CM, Hall P, Corrie PG, Cree IA: Comparison of the ex vivo chemosensitivity of uveal and cutaneous melanoma. Melanoma Res; 2001 Dec;11(6):601-9
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  • [Title] Comparison of the ex vivo chemosensitivity of uveal and cutaneous melanoma.
  • Cutaneous and uveal melanoma both have a poor prognosis and chemotherapy is usually unsuccessful.
  • We have previously reported the activity of a number of cytotoxic agents against metastatic cutaneous and primary choroidal uveal melanoma using an ex vivo adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-based chemosensitivity assay (ATP-TCA).
  • In this study we compare the results obtained with the two types of melanoma.
  • Cutaneous melanoma deposits in skin and lymph nodes (n = 58) and choroidal melanomas (n = 77) were tested using the ATP-TCA.
  • Analysis of the data based on an arbitrary threshold for sensitivity shows that both types of melanoma exhibit heterogeneity of sensitivity to all the agents and combinations tested.
  • With all the single agents except gemcitabine, cutaneous melanomas showed greater sensitivity in the assay, though this did not achieve statistical significance.
  • This was also true with the drug combinations, with the exception of treosulfan + gemcitabine, which had similar activity in each type of melanoma.
  • Of all the single agents tested, doxorubicin (47% of specimens classed as sensitive), vinorelbine (43%), treosulfan (41%) and paclitaxel (33%) showed the greatest activity with cutaneous melanoma.
  • In the uveal melanoma samples, mitoxantrone (33%), gemcitabine (22%) and treosulfan (21%) showed the greatest activity.
  • In contrast to the cutaneous melanomas, 13% of the uveal melanomas were sensitive to paclitaxel, 4% were sensitive to doxorubicin and 11% were found to be sensitive to vinorelbine.
  • Both tumour types showed greater sensitivity to combinations of cytotoxic agents.
  • The combination of treosulfan + gemcitabine was universally effective, with 72% of cutaneous melanomas and 80% of uveal melanomas exhibiting activity at the level selected to indicate sensitivity in the assay, though this will not necessarily indicate a similar level of clinical sensitivity.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Melanoma / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy. Uveal Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenosine Triphosphate. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 11725206.001).
  • [ISSN] 0960-8931
  • [Journal-full-title] Melanoma research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Melanoma Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 8L70Q75FXE / Adenosine Triphosphate
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7. Tas F, Duranyildiz D, Argon A, Oguz H, Camlica H, Yasasever V, Topuz E: Serum bcl-2 and survivin levels in melanoma. Melanoma Res; 2004 Dec;14(6):543-6
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  • [Title] Serum bcl-2 and survivin levels in melanoma.
  • This study was conducted to investigate the serum levels of bcl-2 and survivin in patients with melanoma and the relationship with tumour progression and known prognostic parameters.
  • Forty-four patients with cutaneous melanoma were investigated.
  • Serum samples were obtained on first admission before adjuvant and metastatic treatment were given and at follow-up.
  • The baseline serum bcl-2 levels were significantly higher in patients with melanoma than in the control group (P=0.01).
  • In node-positive patients (n=8) both of these anti-apoptotic substances were unchanged after interferon-alpha-2b therapy.
  • However, serum survivin concentrations were significantly increased in 10 patients with metastatic melanoma who underwent dacarbazine (DTIC)-based cytotoxic chemotherapy (P=0.047).
  • [MeSH-major] Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Melanoma / blood. Microtubule-Associated Proteins / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / blood. Skin Neoplasms / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / therapeutic use. Apoptosis. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Dacarbazine / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins. Interferon-alpha / therapeutic use. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins. Prognosis. Recombinant Proteins

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  • (PMID = 15577328.001).
  • [ISSN] 0960-8931
  • [Journal-full-title] Melanoma research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Melanoma Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 0 / BIRC5 protein, human; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins; 0 / Interferon-alpha; 0 / Microtubule-Associated Proteins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 99210-65-8 / interferon alfa-2b
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8. Kudriavtsev DV, Kudriavtseva GT, Mardynskiĭ IuS: [Adjuvant chemotherapy as a component of complex treatment for skin melanoma]. Vopr Onkol; 2008;54(2):170-7
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  • [Title] [Adjuvant chemotherapy as a component of complex treatment for skin melanoma].
  • The efficacy of adjuvant chemotherapy as a component of complex treatment for skin melanoma and that of combined treatment alone was compared.
  • 502 patients were given combined treatment including intensive preoperative irradiation of primary foci (STD-19Gy, TTD-50 Gy, 5 days), their extended excision with or without lymphadenectomy and postoperative irradiation of regional lymph nodes.
  • Combined treatment was administered to 124 patients; additional adjuvant chemotherapy--5-fluorouracil, methotrexate, vincristine and cyclophosphamide (4 components)--200; neo- and adjuvant chemotherapy with cisplatin and doxorubicin (2 components)--106; cisplatin, doxorubicin and dacarbazine (3 components)--29.
  • Forty-three patients receiving individualized chemotherapy were not included in the study.
  • Five-year actuarial survival in combined treatment group was 69.2 +/- 4.4% (M +/- m), 4-component therapy--58.2 +/- 3.6%, 2 components--68.7 +/- 4.9% and 3 components--80.0 +/- 8.3% (p > 0.2); 5-year recurrence-free survival- 68.1 +/- 4.4%, 57.5 +/- 3.6%; 63.1 +/- 5.0% and 60.9 +/- 10.0% respectively.
  • No significant differences were found as far as a correlation was concerned between actuarial survival and recurrence-free one, on the one hand, and tumor stage, depth and extent of invasion, on the other.
  • Hence, no beneficial effect of said adjuvant chemotherapeutic measures on combined treatment for locally-advanced skin melanoma was found.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Melanoma / drug therapy. Melanoma / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Actuarial Analysis. Adult. Aged. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Dacarbazine / administration & dosage. Disease-Free Survival. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Male. Methotrexate / administration & dosage. Middle Aged. Neoadjuvant Therapy / methods. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 18522165.001).
  • [ISSN] 0507-3758
  • [Journal-full-title] Voprosy onkologii
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vopr Onkol
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate
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9. Qasmi S, Sutra-Loubet C, Maubec E, Boitier F, Duvillard P, Carlotti A, Marinho E, Jacobelli S, Franck N, Gorin I, Vacher-Lavenu MC, Bouscarat F, Crickx B, Dupin N, Avril MF: [Melanoma in HIV patients: 14 cases]. Ann Dermatol Venereol; 2010 Dec;137(12):769-74
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  • [Title] [Melanoma in HIV patients: 14 cases].
  • [Transliterated title] Mélanomes chez des patients séropositifs pour le VIH : 14 cas.
  • BACKGROUND: a clinical study of 14 patients presenting both malignant melanoma and HIV infection, and analysis of the literature to determine the frequency and specific features of this association.
  • In 50% of cases, the primary melanoma consisted of spreading superficial melanoma with a mean Breslow thickness of 2.83 mm.
  • In two cases, regional lymph node metastasis was discovered but with no primary melanoma being identified.
  • HIV infection was already documented on diagnosis of melanoma in 11 cases, and it was discovered in three cases at the time of surgery for melanoma (treatment of the primary melanoma in two cases, and in one case, regional lymph node dissection two years after the initial diagnosis).
  • Eight patients died within a mean period of 39 months, with melanoma being the cause of death in six cases.
  • Following relapse of melanoma, the course of the disease was severe, with mean stage IV survival of 3.6 months.
  • No response to chemotherapy was observed where such treatment was feasible.
  • DISCUSSION: the presence of HIV appears to be an aggravating factor for the outcome of metastatic melanoma.
  • CONCLUSION: our study suggests the importance of clinical examination of pigmented lesions in HIV patients in order to ensure early identification of melanoma.
  • [MeSH-major] HIV Seropositivity / diagnosis. Melanoma / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cause of Death. Early Diagnosis. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / mortality. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate

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  • [Copyright] 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 21134578.001).
  • [ISSN] 0151-9638
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales de dermatologie et de vénéréologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Dermatol Venereol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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10. Luo D, Xia H: [Clinical and pathological characteristics of head and neck malignant melanoma]. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi; 2001 May;23(3):256-8
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  • [Title] [Clinical and pathological characteristics of head and neck malignant melanoma].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical and pathological characteristics of head and neck malignant melanoma.
  • METHODS: Sixty-eight cases of head and neck malignant melanoma were reviewed.
  • There were 33 patients with melanoma in the nasal cavity and oral cavity, 35 patients with melanoma in the skin.
  • Immunohistochemical studies helped diagnosis as all of the 42 melanoma specimens were posture for S-100 and 90.5% positive for HMB45.
  • In 52 of the 68 cases, the tumor was excised surgically, with additional radiotherapy in 13 cases or chemotherapy in 21 cases.
  • In 56 patients followed-up, 12 survived for 5 years, including 9 cases of skin melanoma and 3 cases of nasal and oral melanoma.
  • CONCLUSION: The histo-pathological features of malignant melanoma vary significantly.
  • Immunohistochemical staining helps diagnosis and differential diagnosis.
  • The prognosis of malignant melanoma in nasal cavity and oral cavity is poor as compared to that in the skin of head and neck region.
  • [MeSH-major] Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Melanoma / pathology. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. S100 Proteins / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Antigens, Neoplasm. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Melanoma-Specific Antigens. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 11783102.001).
  • [ISSN] 0253-3766
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua zhong liu za zhi [Chinese journal of oncology]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Melanoma-Specific Antigens; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / S100 Proteins
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11. Nishihara M, Sasayama T, Kondoh T, Tanaka K, Kohmura E, Kudo H: Long-term survival after surgical resection of primary spinal malignant melanoma. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo); 2009 Nov;49(11):546-8
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  • [Title] Long-term survival after surgical resection of primary spinal malignant melanoma.
  • He had a history of primary spinal intramedullary malignant melanoma at the T6 level 18 years previously, which had remained stable for 18 years.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging revealed central nervous system (CNS) dissemination of malignant melanoma.
  • Whole brain radiation therapy (30 Gy), local radiation therapy (15 Gy), and routine intrathecal injection of interferon beta were performed.
  • The progression of CNS dissemination of malignant melanoma was controlled without neurological deterioration for 38 months.
  • The prognosis for primary CNS malignant melanomas better than that for cutaneous melanoma.
  • The unusually long survival in the present case indicates the effectiveness of the combined radiotherapy and interferon therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / mortality. Melanoma / therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / mortality. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / therapy. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / mortality. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy / methods. Disease Progression. Disease-Free Survival. Headache / etiology. Humans. Interferon-beta / therapeutic use. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis / drug therapy. Neoplasm Metastasis / pathology. Neoplasm Metastasis / radiotherapy. Prognosis. Radiotherapy / methods. Spinal Cord / pathology. Spinal Cord / physiopathology. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19940408.001).
  • [ISSN] 1349-8029
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurologia medico-chirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurol. Med. Chir. (Tokyo)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 77238-31-4 / Interferon-beta
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12. Cheng SL, Huang Liu R, Sheu JN, Chen ST, Sinchaikul S, Tsay GJ: Toxicogenomics of kojic acid on gene expression profiling of a375 human malignant melanoma cells. Biol Pharm Bull; 2006 Apr;29(4):655-69
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  • [Title] Toxicogenomics of kojic acid on gene expression profiling of a375 human malignant melanoma cells.
  • Kojic acid is a natural product and normally used as a food additive and preservative, a skin-whitening agent in cosmetics, a plant growth regulator and a chemical intermediate.
  • Using DNA microarray technology, the overall biological effects of kojic acid on the gene expression profiling of a human skin A375 malignant melanoma cells were examined.
  • After treatment with kojic acid, a total of 361 differentially expressed genes were distinctively changed with 136 up-regulated genes and 225 down-regulated genes.
  • Seven down-regulated genes of APOBEC1, ARHGEF16, CD22, FGFR3, GALNT1, UNC5C and ZNF146 that were typically validated by the real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) analysis technology showed to be the tumor suppressor genes in melanoma cancer cells.
  • Thus, microarray technology coupled with RT-qPCR offered a high throughput method to explore the number of differentially expressed genes responding to kojic acid and their biological functions, and led to more understanding of kojic acid effects on skin cancer therapy and related side effects.
  • Moreover, the differentially expressed genes may become useful markers of skin malignant melanoma for further diagnostic and therapeutic applications.
  • [MeSH-major] Antioxidants / toxicity. Melanoma / genetics. Pyrones / toxicity. Skin Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Survival / drug effects. Computational Biology. Gene Amplification. Gene Expression / drug effects. Gene Expression Profiling. Genetic Markers. Humans. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. RNA, Neoplasm / biosynthesis. RNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 16595896.001).
  • [ISSN] 0918-6158
  • [Journal-full-title] Biological & pharmaceutical bulletin
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biol. Pharm. Bull.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antioxidants; 0 / Genetic Markers; 0 / Pyrones; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm; 6K23F1TT52 / kojic acid
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13. Chang JW: Cutaneous melanoma: Taiwan experience and literature review. Chang Gung Med J; 2010 Nov-Dec;33(6):602-12
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  • [Title] Cutaneous melanoma: Taiwan experience and literature review.
  • Malignant melanoma is a rare disease in Taiwan with an incidence rate of 0.65/100,000.
  • Excessive exposure to ultraviolet radiation is not associated with most Taiwanese melanoma cases.
  • Acral lentiginous melanoma comprises 58% of cutaneous melanoma.
  • Surgery, including resection of the primary melanoma, sentinel lymph nodes that may harbor microscopic metastasis, clinically abnormal lymph nodes, and selected distant metastases, is the most important treatment.
  • Lymphatic mapping and sentinel lymph node biopsy has changed the clinical stage in 22.2% of our patients.
  • In the past, chemotherapy alone was the most common treatment modality for metastatic disease.
  • Recently biochemotherapy has been more commonly utilized to treat patients with metastatic melanoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma. Skin Neoplasms

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  • (PMID = 21199605.001).
  • [ISSN] 2309-835X
  • [Journal-full-title] Chang Gung medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chang Gung Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] China (Republic : 1949- )
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14. Triozzi PL, Eng C, Singh AD: Targeted therapy for uveal melanoma. Cancer Treat Rev; 2008 May;34(3):247-58
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  • [Title] Targeted therapy for uveal melanoma.
  • Uveal melanoma is the most common primary intra-ocular malignancy in adults.
  • Overall mortality rate remains high because of the development of metastatic disease, which is highly resistant to systemic therapy.
  • Improved understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of cancers has led to a new generation of therapeutic agents that interfere with a specific pathway critical in tumor development or progression.
  • Although no specific genes have been linked to the pathogenesis of uveal melanoma, which differs from that of cutaneous melanoma, progress has been made in identifying potential targets involved in uveal melanoma apoptosis, proliferation, invasion, metastasis, and angiogenesis.
  • This review focuses on the prospects for improving the systemic therapy of uveal melanoma using molecularly targeted agents that are currently in clinical use as well as agents being tested in clinical trials.
  • Clinical trials of some of these approaches have been initiated in patients with metastatic uveal melanoma as well as in the adjuvant setting after primary therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / drug therapy. Uveal Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Apoptosis. Cell Proliferation. Clinical Trials as Topic. Drug Delivery Systems. Humans. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neovascularization, Pathologic. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt. Signal Transduction

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  • (PMID = 18226859.001).
  • [ISSN] 0305-7372
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer treatment reviews
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Treat. Rev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt
  • [Number-of-references] 126
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15. Terheyden P, Kortüm AK, Schulze HJ, Durani B, Remling R, Mauch C, Junghans V, Schadendorf D, Beiteke U, Jünger M, Becker JC, Bröcker EB: Chemoimmunotherapy for cutaneous melanoma with dacarbazine and epifocal contact sensitizers: results of a nationwide survey of the German Dermatologic Co-operative Oncology Group. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol; 2007 Jul;133(7):437-44
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  • [Title] Chemoimmunotherapy for cutaneous melanoma with dacarbazine and epifocal contact sensitizers: results of a nationwide survey of the German Dermatologic Co-operative Oncology Group.
  • PURPOSE: To scrutinize published data from small mono-centric studies and case reports which implicated high response rates and promising survival times for a combination therapy consisting of epifocal dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) and dacarbazine (DTIC) for metastasized melanoma.
  • This therapy merges the effects of an allergic contact dermatitis elicited at the site of a cutaneous metastasis, and systemic chemotherapy.
  • RESULTS: The objective response rate in stage III melanoma (n = 39) was 62%.
  • In contrast, only 9% objective responses were observed in 33 stage IV patients.
  • Interestingly, more than half of patients with objective remissions remained progression-free for more than 1 year irrespective of the stage of disease.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Epifocal DNCB combined with DTIC is effective in patients with regionally metastasized melanoma not amenable to surgery or isolated limb perfusion, whereas in stage IV disease in spite of few durable remissions the addition of DNCB does not improve the therapeutic efficacy of DTIC.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Dacarbazine / administration & dosage. Dinitrochlorobenzene / administration & dosage. Irritants / administration & dosage. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Germany. Humans. Male. Melanoma. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 17334785.001).
  • [ISSN] 0171-5216
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cancer research and clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Irritants; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; GE3IBT7BMN / Dinitrochlorobenzene
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16. Wang W, Edington HD, Rao UN, Jukic DM, Land SR, Ferrone S, Kirkwood JM: Modulation of signal transducers and activators of transcription 1 and 3 signaling in melanoma by high-dose IFNalpha2b. Clin Cancer Res; 2007 Mar 01;13(5):1523-31
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  • [Title] Modulation of signal transducers and activators of transcription 1 and 3 signaling in melanoma by high-dose IFNalpha2b.
  • STAT1 plays a prominent role in the effector immune response, whereas STAT3 is implicated in tumor progression and down-regulation of the response to type I IFNs.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We evaluated STAT1 and STAT3 jointly as mediators of IFNalpha effects in the setting of a prospective neoadjuvant trial of HDI, in which tissue samples were obtained before and after 20 doses of HDI therapy.
  • The pSTAT1/pSTAT3 ratios were augmented by HDI both in melanoma cells (P = 0.005) and in lymphocytes (P = 0.022).
  • The pSTAT1/pSTAT3 ratio in tumor cells at baseline may serve as a useful predictor of clinical outcome in cutaneous melanoma; the modulation of this ratio may serve as a predictor of therapeutic effect.
  • [MeSH-major] Interferon-alpha / therapeutic use. Melanoma / drug therapy. STAT1 Transcription Factor / drug effects. STAT3 Transcription Factor / drug effects. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters / drug effects. ATP-Binding Cassette, Sub-Family B, Member 3. Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Recombinant Proteins. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 17332298.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCATS NIH HHS / TR / UL1 TR000005
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters; 0 / ATP-Binding Cassette, Sub-Family B, Member 3; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Interferon-alpha; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 0 / STAT1 Transcription Factor; 0 / STAT3 Transcription Factor; 0 / STAT3 protein, human; 145892-13-3 / TAP2 protein, human; 43K1W2T1M6 / interferon alfa-2b
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17. Bedikian AY, Johnson MM, Warneke CL, McIntyre S, Papadopoulos N, Hwu WJ, Kim K, Hwu P: Systemic therapy for unresectable metastatic melanoma: impact of biochemotherapy on long-term survival. J Immunotoxicol; 2008 Apr;5(2):201-7
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  • [Title] Systemic therapy for unresectable metastatic melanoma: impact of biochemotherapy on long-term survival.
  • The impact of systemic therapy on survival of patients with metastatic melanoma is uncertain.
  • This retrospective analysis aimed to compare the response rates and survival of patients without prior therapy with cisplatin, vinblastine, dacarbazine and interleukin (IL)-2 who were treated with biochemotherapy (containing these drugs plus interferon-alpha) with those of patients who received combination chemotherapy with and without interferon-alpha (chemotherapy +/- IFN).
  • Records for 616 chemo-naive patients with unresectable metastatic melanoma who were treated on eight Phase II/III clinical trials between 1987 and 2001 were combined and reviewed The database included patients with melanoma of the skin (497 cases), unknown primary melanoma (83 cases), mucosal melanoma (21 cases), and uveal melanoma (15 cases).
  • Two hundred sixty-four patients received biochemotherapy, and 352 received chemotherapy +/- IFN.
  • The overall response rate (complete and partial) of patients treated with biochemotherapy was 52% (138/264) compared with 35% (122/352) among patients treated with chemotherapy +/- IFN regimens.
  • The median survival times for patients in the biochemotherapy and chemotherapy +/- IFN groups were 12.2 mo (95% CI: 10.9, 13.5) and 9.1 mo (95% CI: 8.1, 10.4), respectively (p < 0.0001).
  • Five-year overall survival rates of patients treated with biochemotherapy and chemotherapy +/- IFN were 17% and 7% (p = 0.0004), respectively.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Melanoma / drug therapy. Melanoma / mortality. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / mortality. Uveal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Uveal Neoplasms / mortality

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  • (PMID = 18569391.001).
  • [ISSN] 1547-6901
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of immunotoxicology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Immunotoxicol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Meta-Analysis
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / IL2 protein, human; 0 / Interferon-alpha; 0 / Interleukin-2; 5V9KLZ54CY / Vinblastine; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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18. Jäckel A, Bock M, Deichmann M, Waldmann V, Näher H: [Therapy of metastatic malignant uveal melanoma]. Hautarzt; 2001 Feb;52(2):98-103
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  • [Title] [Therapy of metastatic malignant uveal melanoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Therapie des metastasierten malignen Uveamelanoms.
  • The uvea is the most common site for extra-cutaneous melanoma and uveal melanoma is the most frequent primary intraocular tumour in adults.
  • Because its different location, biology, histology, genetic features and prognosis in comparison to cutaneous melanoma, this tumour is considered as a distinct entity in the group of malignant melanoma.
  • While primary uveal melanoma is usually treated by ophthalmologic oncologists, metastatic diseases is often managed by dermatologic oncologists.
  • Metastatic uveal melanoma is usually resistant to chemotherapeutic regimens established for the therapy of cutaneous melanoma.
  • Newer therapeutic modalities, such as local intra-arterial chemotherapy into the hepatic artery, perhaps combined with embolisation of feeder blood vessels of liver metastases, improves the prognosis of metastatic uveal melanoma.
  • Currently the nitrosourea derivate fotemustine is the drug of choice in the local hepatic and systemic treatment and seems to be superior to other chemotherapeutic agents.
  • Following the characterisation of primary uveal melanoma, we summarize the results of different treatment protocols for metastatic disease and give an overview of new strategies.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Chemoembolization, Therapeutic. Melanoma / secondary. Melanoma / therapy. Neoplasm Metastasis / therapy. Uveal Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Bone Neoplasms / therapy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Liver Neoplasms / therapy. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / therapy. Male. Middle Aged. Multicenter Studies as Topic. Nitrosourea Compounds / therapeutic use. Organophosphorus Compounds / therapeutic use. Prognosis. Skin Neoplasms / secondary. Skin Neoplasms / therapy. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 11244899.001).
  • [ISSN] 0017-8470
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift für Dermatologie, Venerologie, und verwandte Gebiete
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hautarzt
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Nitrosourea Compounds; 0 / Organophosphorus Compounds; GQ7JL9P5I2 / fotemustine
  • [Number-of-references] 29
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19. Dawe RS: Treatment options for non-melanoma skin cancer. G Ital Dermatol Venereol; 2009 Aug;144(4):453-8
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  • [Title] Treatment options for non-melanoma skin cancer.
  • Non melanoma skin cancers (basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma) are becoming more common.
  • There are many treatments including surgical modalities, use of electromagnetic radiations (as in photodynamic therapy), topical and intralesional chemotherapies and immunomodulating treatments.
  • There are up to date guidelines available that are useful when chosing treatments, but following these guidelines is not always appropriate to the individual.
  • This is a personal review in which the author explains some of the reasons why he recommends one treatment over another in particular situations.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. Skin Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 19755949.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-0488
  • [Journal-full-title] Giornale italiano di dermatologia e venereologia : organo ufficiale, Società italiana di dermatologia e sifilografia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] G Ital Dermatol Venereol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 38
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20. Morton LM, Curtis RE, Linet MS, Bluhm EC, Tucker MA, Caporaso N, Ries LA, Fraumeni JF Jr: Second malignancy risks after non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia: differences by lymphoma subtype. J Clin Oncol; 2010 Nov 20;28(33):4935-44
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  • [Title] Second malignancy risks after non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia: differences by lymphoma subtype.
  • PURPOSE: Previous studies have shown increased risks of second malignancies after non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL); however, no earlier investigation has quantified differences in risk of new malignancy by lymphoma subtype.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: We evaluated second cancer and leukemia risks among 43,145 1-year survivors of CLL/small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL), diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), or follicular lymphoma (FL) from 11 Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) population-based registries during 1992 to 2006.
  • RESULTS: Among patients without HIV/AIDS-related lymphoma, lung cancer risks were significantly elevated after CLL/SLL and FL but not after DLBCL (standardized incidence ratio [SIR], CLL/SLL = 1.42, FL = 1.28, DLBCL = 1.00; Poisson regression P for difference among subtypes, P(Diff) = .001).
  • A similar pattern was observed for risk of cutaneous melanoma (SIR: CLL/SLL = 1.92, FL = 1.60, DLBCL = 1.06; P(Diff) = .004).
  • Acute nonlymphocytic leukemia risks were significantly elevated after FL and DLBCL, particularly among patients receiving initial chemotherapy, but not after CLL/SLL (SIR: CLL/SLL = 1.13, FL = 5.96, DLBCL = 4.96; P(Diff) < .001).
  • Patients with HIV/AIDS-related lymphoma (n = 932) were predominantly diagnosed with DLBCL and had significantly and substantially elevated risks for second anal cancer (SIR = 120.50) and Kaposi's sarcoma (SIR = 138.90).
  • CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that differing immunologic alterations, treatments (eg, alkylating agent chemotherapy), genetic susceptibilities, and other risk factors (eg, viral infections, tobacco use) among lymphoma subtypes contribute to the patterns of second malignancy risk.

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  • (PMID = 20940199.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3020697
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21. Sersa G, Stabuc B, Cemazar M, Miklavcic D, Rudolf Z: Electrochemotherapy with cisplatin: clinical experience in malignant melanoma patients. Clin Cancer Res; 2000 Mar;6(3):863-7
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  • [Title] Electrochemotherapy with cisplatin: clinical experience in malignant melanoma patients.
  • Electrochemotherapy consists of chemotherapy followed by local application of electric pulses to the tumor to increase drug delivery into the cells.
  • The aim of this Phase II clinical study was to evaluate the antitumor effectiveness of electrochemotherapy using intratumoral cisplatin administration on cutaneous tumor nodules in malignant melanoma patients.
  • Four weeks after therapy, 78% objective responses were obtained in the electrochemotherapy group, and 38% objective responses were obtained in the cisplatin group.
  • Exposure of tumor nodules to electric pulses without cisplatin treatment had no effect on tumor growth.
  • Electrochemotherapy was well tolerated by all patients, and a good cosmetic effect was obtained, with only minimal scarring and a slight depigmentation of the skin.
  • Our results clearly demonstrate that electrochemotherapy with cisplatin is a highly effective approach for treatment of cutaneous malignant melanoma nodules.
  • The advantages of this therapy include its simplicity, the short duration of treatment sessions, low cisplatin doses, and insignificant side effects, as well as the fact that it can be done on an outpatient basis.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Electric Stimulation Therapy. Melanoma / therapy. Skin Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Data Interpretation, Statistical. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 10741708.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Comparative Study; Controlled Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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22. Gramiccia T, Saraceno R, Stefani AD, Chimenti S: Recent patents on melanoma with focus on genetic strategies. Recent Pat Antiinfect Drug Discov; 2008 Jun;3(2):136-44
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  • [Title] Recent patents on melanoma with focus on genetic strategies.
  • Several targetable pathways, responsible for survival and apoptosis resistance in melanoma cells, have been described and current research has focused on mechanism inactivating these pathways.
  • However, the therapeutic resistance of malignant melanoma remains the main limit that cast the poor prognosis of cutaneous melanoma.
  • Current advances in high-resolution genome-wide technologies, as well as gene-specific mutational analysis, in conjunction with genetic and phenotypic analyses, improved animal models, may ultimately help to better define the seminal molecular events contributing to disease pathogenesis and ultimately identify more effective therapeutic targets.
  • The focus of this review is to summarize the emerging patents in the treatment and diagnosis of melanoma related to the latest genetic models and bio-molecular discoveries.
  • [MeSH-major] Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Gene Targeting. Genetic Therapy / methods. Melanoma / therapy. Signal Transduction / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18673127.001).
  • [ISSN] 1574-891X
  • [Journal-full-title] Recent patents on anti-infective drug discovery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Recent Pat Antiinfect Drug Discov
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16; 0 / Microphthalmia-Associated Transcription Factor; E0399OZS9N / Cyclic AMP; EC 2.7.1.- / Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt; EC 2.7.11.24 / Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
  • [Number-of-references] 70
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23. Aoyama T, Saeki H, Samejima J, Fujii K, Ishikawa Y, Kawamoto M, Fujisawa J, Matsukawa H, Rino Y, Masuda M: [A case of recurrent gastrointestinal stromal tumor of the stomach with complete response to imatinib mesilate]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2009 Jun;36(6):975-8
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  • We report a patient who long had a complete response by chemotherapy with imatinib mesilate(IM)for locally recurrent gastrointestinal stromal tumor(GIST)of the stomach.
  • On July 2000, a 58-year-old woman was pointed out to have anemia in the course of surveillance for malignant melanoma of skin.
  • The diagnosis made was GIST from immunohistological findings of positive c-kit, positive CD34, negative HMB45, and negative S100.
  • After diagnosis, total gastrectomy, distal pancreatectomy, and splenectomy were performed.
  • On September 2003, a local recurrence was recognized, and then chemotherapy by 400 mg IM daily was started.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors / drug therapy. Piperazines / therapeutic use. Pyrimidines / therapeutic use. Stomach Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 19542718.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Benzamides; 0 / Piperazines; 0 / Pyrimidines; 8A1O1M485B / Imatinib Mesylate
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24. Singer M, Mutch MG: Anal melanoma. Clin Colon Rectal Surg; 2006 May;19(2):78-87
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  • [Title] Anal melanoma.
  • Anal melanoma is rare and aggressive malignancy.
  • Unlike cutaneous melanoma, anal melanoma has no known risk factors.
  • Surgical excision remains the cornerstone of therapy.
  • There are no long-term survivors of stage II or III disease; therefore, early diagnosis and treatment remain crucial.
  • Adjuvant chemotherapy, interferon, and radiation may offer some benefit.

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  • (PMID = 20011314.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-9681
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinics in colon and rectal surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Colon Rectal Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2780102
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Melanoma / abdominoperineal resection / anal / malignancy / wide local excision
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25. De Stefano I, Raspaglio G, Zannoni GF, Travaglia D, Prisco MG, Mosca M, Ferlini C, Scambia G, Gallo D: Antiproliferative and antiangiogenic effects of the benzophenanthridine alkaloid sanguinarine in melanoma. Biochem Pharmacol; 2009 Dec 1;78(11):1374-81
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  • [Title] Antiproliferative and antiangiogenic effects of the benzophenanthridine alkaloid sanguinarine in melanoma.
  • This study was aimed at evaluating the potential application of benzophenanthridine alkaloids, sanguinarine and cheleritrine, in the therapy of melanoma cancer.
  • In vitro antiproliferative activity of sanguinarine was higher than that of cheleritrine against the B16 melanoma 4A5 cells.
  • Oral treatment with sanguinarine reduced the tumor burden in a transplantable murine tumor grown in a syngeneic host (B16 melanoma 4A5 in C57BL/6 mice), and in a human tumor xenograft grown in immunodeficient mice (A375 human melanoma in athymic nude mice).
  • Three out of eleven A375-bearing treated mice were tumor-free at the end of treatment, and did not develop any tumor after a further, treatment-free, observation period of 60 days.
  • Data from the present study support the concept that sanguinarine can be effective in melanoma skin cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Benzophenanthridines / pharmacology. Isoquinolines / pharmacology. Melanoma, Experimental / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Angiogenesis Inhibitors / pharmacology. Angiogenesis Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Animals. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Collagen. Drug Combinations. Female. Humans. Laminin. Mice. Mice, Inbred C57BL. Mice, Nude. Neoplasm Transplantation. Proteoglycans. Transplantation, Heterologous

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  • (PMID = 19643088.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-2968
  • [Journal-full-title] Biochemical pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biochem. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Benzophenanthridines; 0 / Drug Combinations; 0 / Isoquinolines; 0 / Laminin; 0 / Proteoglycans; 119978-18-6 / matrigel; 9007-34-5 / Collagen; AV9VK043SS / sanguinarine; E3B045W6X0 / chelerythrine
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26. Gehl J, Geertsen PF: Efficient palliation of haemorrhaging malignant melanoma skin metastases by electrochemotherapy. Melanoma Res; 2000 Dec;10(6):585-9
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  • [Title] Efficient palliation of haemorrhaging malignant melanoma skin metastases by electrochemotherapy.
  • Electric pulses can cause transient permeabilization of cell membranes (electroporation) and this can be utilized to increase the uptake of chemotherapy (electrochemotherapy).
  • Preclinical studies have shown that in vivo electroporation causes transient shut down of blood flow both in normal and, in particular, malignant tissues.
  • We report the successful palliation of a malignant melanoma patient with bleeding skin metastases using electrochemotherapy.
  • In an on-going study of combined electrochemotherapy and low dose interleukin-2, one patient with bleeding skin metastases was included.
  • Nine skin metastases, of which seven were ulcerated, were treated.
  • The treated metastases developed crusts and the lesions healed in a matter of weeks.
  • Treatments were given under local anaesthesia, lasted a few minutes, and patient discomfort was brief and modest.
  • In conclusion, we propose that electrochemotherapy should be considered for the palliation of haemorrhaging metastases as it is an efficient, tolerable, brief, outpatient, once-only treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Drug Therapy / methods. Electroporation / methods. Hemorrhage / therapy. Melanoma / therapy. Skin Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Bleomycin / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Interleukin-2 / pharmacology. Male. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 11198481.001).
  • [ISSN] 0960-8931
  • [Journal-full-title] Melanoma research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Melanoma Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 0 / Interleukin-2; 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin
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27. Göhl J, Hohenberger W, Merkel S: [Malignant melanoma]. Chirurg; 2009 Jun;80(6):559-67
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  • [Title] [Malignant melanoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Malignes Melanom.
  • Malignant melanomas have one of the highest increases in incidence among malignancies.
  • There are four histological types: superficial spreading melanoma, nodular melanoma, acrolentiginous melanoma and lentigo maligna melanoma.
  • Sentinel lymph node biopsy is relevant in all melanomas with a Breslow tumor thickness >1 mm without clinically suspicious lymph nodes.
  • In the case of lymph node metastases therapeutic dissection is recommended, in patients with in-transit metastases of the extremities hyperthermic isolated limb perfusion with cytostatic agents may be indicated.
  • Resection of distant metastases can be useful if only one site is affected or a R0 resection is expected to be achieved.
  • Adjuvant, neoadjuvant and palliative procedures, such as radiotherapy, chemotherapy and immunotherapy are additional treatment options.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / surgery. Skin Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Palliative Care. Prognosis. Skin / pathology. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 19444395.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-4722
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Chirurg; Zeitschrift fur alle Gebiete der operativen Medizen
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chirurg
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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28. Sabatino M, Stroncek DF, Klein H, Marincola FM, Wang E: Stem cells in melanoma development. Cancer Lett; 2009 Jul 8;279(2):119-25
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  • [Title] Stem cells in melanoma development.
  • Cutaneous melanoma is a significant health problem worldwide.
  • Available treatments can induce objective tumor regression in a small percent of patients, but these responses are not always associated with improved long-term survival.
  • The resistance of melanoma to therapy and its predestined recurrence are related to the genetic heterogeneity and genomic instability of the tumor.
  • For many years these genetic alterations were thought to be linked to the accumulation of random mutations in functionally differentiated cells which transform them into malignant cells that have lost their ability to differentiate and have acquired drug resistance.
  • In the last few years it has been largely demonstrated that melanoma as other solid tumors contains a subpopulation of cells (CSCs) considered the source of the primary tumor mass, of new tumor nodules and responsible for drug resistance and cancer recurrence.
  • In this review, we provide an overview of findings and advances in CSCs research that are relevant to the initiation, natural history, and the response to treatment of malignant melanoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Melanoma / pathology. Neoplastic Stem Cells / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19095348.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-7980
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer letters
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Lett.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / ZIA CL002118-04; United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / ZIA CL002119-04
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Number-of-references] 64
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS393792; NLM/ PMC3405359
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29. Bütter A, Hui T, Chapdelaine J, Beaunoyer M, Flageole H, Bouchard S: Melanoma in children and the use of sentinel lymph node biopsy. J Pediatr Surg; 2005 May;40(5):797-800
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  • [Title] Melanoma in children and the use of sentinel lymph node biopsy.
  • BACKGROUND: The rarity of pediatric melanoma prompted our review of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) and associated prognosis.
  • METHODS: A chart review from 1989 to 2004 revealed 12 cases of cutaneous melanoma.
  • Variables analyzed included demographics, site, histology, tumor characteristics, nodal status, and distant metastasis (TMN status), SLNB and/or therapeutic lymph node dissection (TLND), adjuvant treatment, disease-free survival, and overall survival.
  • RESULTS: Mean age at diagnosis was 8.5 years with 7 of 12 patients younger than 10 years (range, 0.3-17.9 years).
  • Site distribution was the extremity (7), trunk (4), and head and neck (1).
  • All patients had wide local excision and primary closure or skin graft.
  • Only patients diagnosed after 2000 with melanomas thicker than 1 mm were offered SLNB (extremity = 2, trunk = 1, head and neck = 1).
  • Disease-free survival and overall survival by stage were stage I (n = 2, 3.9 years, 100%), stage II (n = 6, 7.7 years, 83%), stage III (n = 4, 2.6 years, 75%), and stage IV (n = 0).
  • A stage II patient with negative SLNB, adjuvant chemotherapy, and interferon died 26 months after diagnosis, and a stage III patient with clinically and pathologically positive nodes after TLND died 15 months after diagnosis.
  • CONCLUSION: Although a negative SLNB does not guarantee a favorable prognosis, its increasing use will further define its role in pediatric melanoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphatic Metastasis / diagnosis. Melanoma / secondary. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy. Skin Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Head and Neck Neoplasms / surgery. Humans. Infant. Interferons / therapeutic use. Lymph Node Excision. Male. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 15937817.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-5037
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 9008-11-1 / Interferons
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30. Romanini A, Manca G, Pellegrino D, Murr R, Sarti S, Bianchi F, Alsharif A, Orlandini C, Zucchi V, Castagna M, Gandini D, Salimbeni G, Ghiara F, Barachini P, Mariani G: Molecular staging of the sentinel lymph node in melanoma patients: correlation with clinical outcome. Ann Oncol; 2005 Nov;16(11):1832-40
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  • [Title] Molecular staging of the sentinel lymph node in melanoma patients: correlation with clinical outcome.
  • BACKGROUND: This study was designed to determine the debated prognostic significance of reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) positivity in melanoma patients' sentinel lymph node (SLN) negative by conventional histopathology (PATH).
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with primary stage I-II cutaneous melanoma underwent radioguided sentinel lymphadenectomy.
  • Their SLNs were assessed for tyrosinase (Tyr) and melanoma antigens recognized by T-cells (MART-1) mRNA expression using RT-PCR, in parallel with hematoxylin and eosin staining and immunohistochemistry.
  • Tyr and MART-1 expression in the SLNs were correlated with PATH assay results, standard prognostic factors, time to progression and overall survival.
  • CONCLUSIONS: RT-PCR is more sensitive than PATH to detect SLN metastases and it is a reliable predictor of disease relapse in stage I-II melanoma patients.

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  • (PMID = 16107497.001).
  • [ISSN] 0923-7534
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / MART-1 Antigen; 0 / MLANA protein, human; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; EC 1.14.18.1 / Monophenol Monooxygenase
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31. Kondapalli L, Soltani K, Lacouture ME: The promise of molecular targeted therapies: protein kinase inhibitors in the treatment of cutaneous malignancies. J Am Acad Dermatol; 2005 Aug;53(2):291-302
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  • [Title] The promise of molecular targeted therapies: protein kinase inhibitors in the treatment of cutaneous malignancies.
  • A new revolution in cancer therapy has arrived with the development of agents targeting cancer-related protein kinases, critical regulators of malignant behavior.
  • These drugs are selective inhibitors of protein kinases, which mediate most signal transduction pathways in malignant cells and result in increased proliferation, evasion of apoptosis, invasion, and metastasis.
  • Protein kinases are the second largest group of drug targets and they account for 20% to 30% of the drug discovery programs of many biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies.
  • A critical review of the literature is performed, highlighting selective inhibitors of signal transduction molecules involved in nonmelanoma skin cancer, melanoma, dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, Merkel cell carcinoma, Kaposi's sarcoma, and systemic mastocytosis.
  • These drugs will have important implications in clinical dermatology, based on their expected frequent use in the treatment of dermatologic malignancies, and their associated cutaneous side effects.
  • [MeSH-major] Protein Kinase Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Clinical Trials as Topic. Forecasting. Humans. Melanoma / drug therapy. Protein Kinases / physiology

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  • (PMID = 16021125.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6787
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors; EC 2.7.- / Protein Kinases
  • [Number-of-references] 109
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32. Naylor MF, Chen WR, Teague TK, Perry LA, Nordquist RE: In situ photoimmunotherapy: a tumour-directed treatment for melanoma. Br J Dermatol; 2006 Dec;155(6):1287-92
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  • [Title] In situ photoimmunotherapy: a tumour-directed treatment for melanoma.
  • We report a new immunological treatment for advanced cutaneous melanoma which combines laser stimulation with topical application of a toll-like receptor agonist.
  • This treatment, in situ photoimmunotherapy (ISPI), provides an alternative to traditional therapies for melanoma patients with cutaneous metastases.
  • A 6-week cycle of ISPI is carried out on cutaneous metastases located in a designated 20 x 20 cm treatment area: 2 weeks of pretreatment with twice-daily topical applications of imiquimod (5% cream under plastic occlusion), with a laser treatment session at week 2 and again at week 4.
  • Two patients with late-stage melanoma were treated with ISPI.
  • Patient 1 had the primary tumour and local metastases on the left arm, as well as metastatic tumours in the lungs [American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) stage IV].
  • Patient 2 had a head and neck melanoma with multiple local metastases (AJCC stage IIIC), which had failed repeated attempts at surgical resection and high-dose radiation therapy.
  • Patient 1 is now free of all clinically detectable tumours (including the lung metastases) >20 months after the first treatment cycle.
  • These two cases demonstrate that ISPI can clear local tumour and trigger beneficial systemic responses, with a side-effect profile that compares favourably with other treatments for advanced melanoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminoquinolines / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Melanoma / therapy. Photochemotherapy / methods. Skin Neoplasms / therapy. Toll-Like Receptors / agonists
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Infrared Rays / therapeutic use. Laser Therapy. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Male. Middle Aged. Photosensitizing Agents / therapeutic use. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17107404.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0963
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / P20 RR016478
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aminoquinolines; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 0 / Toll-Like Receptors; 99011-02-6 / imiquimod
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33. Murayama K, Takita H, Kiyohara Y, Shimizu Y, Tsuchida T, Yoneya S: [Melanoma-associated retinopathy with unknown primary site in a Japanese woman]. Nippon Ganka Gakkai Zasshi; 2006 Mar;110(3):211-7
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  • [Title] [Melanoma-associated retinopathy with unknown primary site in a Japanese woman].
  • BACKGROUND: We report the clinical features of the first case of a Japanese person with melanoma-associated retinopathy.
  • After one month of treatment, she still complained of photopsia in her right eye.
  • A full-field electroretinogram demonstrated a negative-type electroretinogram (ERG) waveform with attenuation of the b-wave amplitude in the right eye.
  • The lymph nodes on the right side of her neck were examined and the diagnosis was made of metastic cutaneous melanoma with unknown primary site; her visual dysfunction was diagnosed as melanoma-associated retinopathy.
  • The retinal inflammation improved after steroid treatment, but her visual dysfunction remained.
  • Chemotherapy and an immunotherapy regimen was begun, but 36 months later she died of metastatic melanoma in the lungs.
  • CONCLUSIONS: A woman treated for uveitis without any prior systemic and ocular diseases was diagnosed with melanoma-associated retinopathy and metastatic melanoma in the cervical lymph nodes of unknown primary origin.
  • ERG was useful for diagnosing this rare ocular condition in an early stage.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / secondary. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary. Retinal Diseases / etiology

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  • (PMID = 16562510.001).
  • [ISSN] 0029-0203
  • [Journal-full-title] Nippon Ganka Gakkai zasshi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Ganka Gakkai Zasshi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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34. Marazzi MC, Nielsen-Saines K, Buonomo E, Scarcella P, Germano P, Majid NA, Zimba I, Ceffa S, Palombi L: Increased infant human immunodeficiency virus-type one free survival at one year of age in sub-saharan Africa with maternal use of highly active antiretroviral therapy during breast-feeding. Pediatr Infect Dis J; 2009 Jun;28(6):483-7
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  • [Title] Increased infant human immunodeficiency virus-type one free survival at one year of age in sub-saharan Africa with maternal use of highly active antiretroviral therapy during breast-feeding.
  • METHODS: A prospective observational cohort study of HIV-1 exposed infants of mothers receiving pre and postnatal medical care at Drug Resource Enhancement Against AIDS and Malnutrition centers in Mozambique was conducted.
  • Women with CD4 cell counts less than 350/cmm at baseline continued HAART indefinitely.
  • HIV-1 diagnosis was ascertained in 287 infants (84%) including 4 who died.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-HIV Agents / therapeutic use. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. Breast Feeding. HIV Infections / drug therapy. HIV Infections / transmission. HIV-1 / drug effects. Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical / prevention & control
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Africa South of the Sahara. Chi-Square Distribution. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Pregnancy. Pregnancy Complications, Infectious / drug therapy. Proportional Hazards Models. Viral Load


35. Das Sarma M, Ghosh R, Patra A, Hazra B: Synthesis of novel aminoquinonoid analogues of diospyrin and evaluation of their inhibitory activity against murine and human cancer cells. Eur J Med Chem; 2008 Sep;43(9):1878-88
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  • [Title] Synthesis of novel aminoquinonoid analogues of diospyrin and evaluation of their inhibitory activity against murine and human cancer cells.
  • The synthesis and tumor-inhibitory activity of a series of aminonaphthoquinone derivatives of diospyrin, which was isolated from Diospyros montana Roxb., are presented here for the first time.
  • Further, the same analogue also exhibited considerable enhancement in antiproliferative activity when evaluated against human cell lines, viz. malignant skin melanoma and epidermoid laryngeal carcinoma (IC50=0.06 and 0.92 microM, respectively) in comparison to the natural precursor, diospyrin (IC50=0.82 and 3.58 microM, respectively).
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Carcinoma, Ehrlich Tumor / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Ehrlich Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma, Ehrlich Tumor / pathology. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Drug Design. Electrochemistry. Humans. Mice. Oxidation-Reduction. Reactive Oxygen Species / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18281125.001).
  • [ISSN] 0223-5234
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of medicinal chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Med Chem
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Benzoquinones; 0 / Naphthoquinones; 0 / Reactive Oxygen Species; 28164-57-0 / diospyrin; 3T006GV98U / benzoquinone
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36. Toyooka T, Ibuki Y: Histone deacetylase inhibitor sodium butyrate enhances the cell killing effect of psoralen plus UVA by attenuating nucleotide excision repair. Cancer Res; 2009 Apr 15;69(8):3492-500
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  • The use of histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACI), a promising new class of antineoplastic agents, in combination with cytotoxic agents, such as ionizing radiation and anticancer drugs, has been attracting attention.
  • In this study, we found that sodium butyrate (SB), a widely studied HDACI, remarkably enhanced the cell killing effect of psoralen plus UVA (PUVA) in several cancer cell lines, including skin melanoma.
  • Although a single treatment with PUVA or SB did not greatly affect cell survival, combined treatment with SB and PUVA induced marked apoptosis within 24 hours.
  • The SB-induced augmentation of the cell killing effect was more dramatic in combination with PUVA than with anticancer drugs.
  • In addition, the incorporation of bromodeoxyuridine and the formation of repair foci of proliferating cell nuclear antigen after PUVA treatment, associated with nucleotide excision repair (NER) in the removal of ICL, were not observed in SB-pretreated cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Apoptosis / drug effects. Butyrates / pharmacology. DNA Repair / drug effects. Ficusin / pharmacology. Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / enzymology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / genetics. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Cell Line, Tumor. Drug Synergism. Enzyme Inhibitors / pharmacology. Humans. Melanoma / drug therapy. Melanoma / enzymology. Melanoma / genetics. Melanoma / pathology. PUVA Therapy / methods. Photosensitizing Agents / pharmacology. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / enzymology. Skin Neoplasms / genetics. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19351858.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7445
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Butyrates; 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors; 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; KTZ7ZCN2EX / Ficusin
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37. Smith TJ, Coyne P: What is the evidence for implantable drug delivery systems for refractory cancer pain? Support Cancer Ther; 2004 Apr 1;1(3):185-9
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  • [Title] What is the evidence for implantable drug delivery systems for refractory cancer pain?
  • Despite best management, 14% of patients with cancer have unrelieved pain and many more have undesirable side effects from pain medicines.
  • Intrathecal implantable drug delivery systems (IDDSs) manage intractable cancer pain by delivering pain medications directly to the spinal fluid.
  • In addition to data from many nonrandomized trials, there are now randomized clinical trial data showing better clinical success, pain relief, drug toxicity control, and perhaps survival compared with comprehensive medical management (CMM).
  • The main outcome measure was clinical success, defined as a 20% improvement in pain control and composite drug toxicity.
  • In the randomized trial, more patients had clinical success with IDDS (84.5%) than with CMM (70.5%, P < 0.05).
  • After 4 weeks, the mean VAS pain score decreased from the baseline of 7.75 to 4.74 (39% reduction) in the CMM group and from 7.45 to 3.59 (52% reduction) in the IDDS group (P = 0.057).
  • The drug toxicity scores decreased from the baseline of 6.35 to 5.18 (19% reduction) in the CMM group and from 7.14 to 3.46 (52% reduction) in the IDDS group (P = 0.01).
  • Patients randomized to IDDS therapy had improved survival, with 53.9% alive at 6 months compared with 37.2% of the CMM group (P = 0.06).
  • There is now high-level randomized clinical trial evidence, in addition to consistent nonrandomized evidence, that IDDSs reduce pain and common drug toxicities and are associated with improved survival.

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  • (PMID = 18628140.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2912
  • [Journal-full-title] Supportive cancer therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Support Cancer Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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38. Jensen AØ, Thomsen HF, Engebjerg MC, Olesen AB, Sørensen HT, Karagas MR: Use of photosensitising diuretics and risk of skin cancer: a population-based case-control study. Br J Cancer; 2008 Nov 4;99(9):1522-8
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  • [Title] Use of photosensitising diuretics and risk of skin cancer: a population-based case-control study.
  • However, little is known about how these diuretics affect the risk of skin cancers.
  • In North Jutland County, Denmark, we investigated whether the use of photosensitising diuretics was associated with an increased risk for developing basal cell carcinoma (BCC), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and malignant melanoma (MM).
  • From the cancer registry, we identified primary cases of BCC, SCC and MM during the period of 1989-2003.
  • Prescriptions for photosensitising diuretics before cancer diagnosis were ascertained in the county's Prescription Database.
  • We found an increased risk of SCC (IRR of 1.79 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.45-2.21)) and MM (IRR of 1.43 (95% CI: 1.09-1.88)) among users of combined amiloride and hydrochlorothiazide therapy.


39. Migliano E, Monarca C, Tedesco M, Rizzo MI, Bucher S: [Merkel cell carcinoma and sentinel lymph node dissection: nine cases report]. G Chir; 2008 Jan-Feb;29(1-2):28-32
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  • Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is an aggressive cutaneous-neuroendocrine neoplasia with poor prognosis and high propensity for locoregional and distant metastasis.
  • The suitability of this technique is linked to the MCC high tendency to spread "in primis" at locoregional nodes such as other malignancies such as cutaneous melanoma.
  • Aim of the study is the prospective evaluation of the sentinel node dissection and of the adjuvant therapies in 9 patients MCC affected.
  • Diagnosis was made by excisional biopsy and histological examination.
  • Radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy as adjuvant therapy were implemented (4 cases).
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Merkel Cell / surgery. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy. Skin Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prospective Studies. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18252145.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-9005
  • [Journal-full-title] Il Giornale di chirurgia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] G Chir
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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40. Fayolle C, Pourchet J, Caron de Fromentel C, Puisieux A, Doré JF, Voeltzel T: Gadd45a activation protects melanoma cells from ultraviolet B-induced apoptosis. J Invest Dermatol; 2008 Jan;128(1):196-202
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  • [Title] Gadd45a activation protects melanoma cells from ultraviolet B-induced apoptosis.
  • Epidemiological and biological studies indicate that solar UVB radiation is involved in cutaneous malignant melanoma etiology.
  • We previously showed that melanocytes and melanoma cells exposed to UVB radiation activates a p53-independent pathway involving Gadd45a and, more recently, that Gadd45a plays a critical role in UVB-induced G2 cell cycle arrest of melanoma cells.
  • Furthermore, we show that inhibition of UV-induced Gadd45a overexpression also leads to increased sensitivity of melanoma cells to therapeutic agents such as DTIC and Cisplatin.
  • We conclude that UVB-induced Gadd45a overexpression protects melanoma cells from apoptosis, both by causing a G2 cell cycle arrest and by inhibiting the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway.
  • These observations suggest that Gadd45a inactivation could be a useful way to sensitize melanoma cells to chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Apoptosis / radiation effects. Cell Cycle Proteins / physiology. Melanocytes / radiation effects. Melanoma / pathology. Nuclear Proteins / physiology. Ultraviolet Rays


41. Eustace AJ, Mahgoub T, Tryfonopoulos D, O'Donovan N, Crown J: Prospects for non-immunological molecular therapeutics in melanoma. J BUON; 2010 Jan-Mar;15(1):9-18
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  • [Title] Prospects for non-immunological molecular therapeutics in melanoma.
  • In 2006 there were 60,000 new cases of cutaneous melanoma in the European Union and 13,000 deaths (www.europeancancerleagues. org).
  • Currently available systemic treatment options for metastatic melanoma, including both cytotoxic and immunologic therapies, produce low rates of response and have modest survival impact.
  • Therefore, there is an urgent need for effective novel therapies.
  • Molecularly targeted treatments have demonstrated efficacy in certain cancers e.g. in HER2- positive breast cancer and in chronic myeloid leukaemia.
  • Several pathways are currently being investigated as potential molecular targets in melanoma.
  • The best studied is BRAF which is frequently mutated in melanoma.
  • A multi tyrosine kinase inhibitor, sorafenib, which targets BRAF, has shown promising activity in preclinical studies and is currently being tested in combination with chemotherapy in patients with metastatic disease.
  • In addition to BRAF, therapies which target other components of the Raf/Ras/MAPK pathway are being investigated.
  • Progress on preclinical and clinical evaluation of these novel targets in melanoma will be reviewed.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Drugs, Investigational / therapeutic use. Melanoma / drug therapy. Signal Transduction / drug effects. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Angiogenesis Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Animals. Drug Design. Humans. Protein Kinase Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Treatment Outcome


42. Tarhini AA, Agarwala SS: Cutaneous melanoma: available therapy for metastatic disease. Dermatol Ther; 2006 Jan-Feb;19(1):19-25
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  • [Title] Cutaneous melanoma: available therapy for metastatic disease.
  • Survival of melanoma varies widely by stage, from a potentially highly curable disease when detected in early stages, to a disease with dismal prognosis when it reaches advanced inoperable stages.
  • Stage IV melanoma defines distant metastasis and continues to comprise an ominous prognosis, with a median survival of 6-9 months.
  • Currently, there is no therapeutic agent known to prolong survival in patients with metastatic melanoma.
  • Therapeutic approaches studied in metastatic melanoma include chemotherapy, biochemotherapy, nonspecific immune adjuvants, cancer-specific vaccines, cytokines, monoclonal antibodies, and specific immunostimulants.
  • Chemotherapy with single-agent dacarbazine is the only United States Food and Drug Administration (US-FDA)-approved chemotherapy agent for metastatic melanoma.
  • Immunological approaches have yielded the only newly US-FDA-approved agent for metastatic disease in 30 years, high-dose bolus IL-2, based on durable responses in some patients with metastatic melanoma, but with associated high toxicity rate and cost.
  • A number of novel therapeutic agents are undergoing active clinical investigation.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / drug therapy. Melanoma / mortality. Salvage Therapy. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / mortality
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Cancer Vaccines / administration & dosage. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Humans. Immunologic Factors / therapeutic use. Interleukin-2 / administration & dosage. Male. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic. Risk Assessment. Sensitivity and Specificity. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16405566.001).
  • [ISSN] 1396-0296
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatologic therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Cancer Vaccines; 0 / Immunologic Factors; 0 / Interleukin-2
  • [Number-of-references] 42
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43. Ogawa T, Nakayama B, Hasegawa Y, Fujimoto Y, Kohmura T, Matsuura H, Miyata H: Treatment of malignant melanoma of the lower eyelid using anterolateral thigh flap. Auris Nasus Larynx; 2000 Jan;27(1):79-82
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  • [Title] Treatment of malignant melanoma of the lower eyelid using anterolateral thigh flap.
  • Malignant melanoma is a poor prognostic disease with the potential for high mortality despite early diagnosis and currently available treatment.
  • We reported a case of malignant melanoma of the left lower eyelid, and presented the surgical excision and reconstruction using anterolateral thigh flap for skin defect.
  • It is evident that comprehensive treatment using radical surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy is necessary for cutaneous malignant melanoma of head and neck areas.
  • [MeSH-major] Eyelid Neoplasms / surgery. Melanoma / surgery. Skin Transplantation / methods. Surgical Flaps. Thigh
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Male. Postoperative Care. Reconstructive Surgical Procedures / methods

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  • (PMID = 10648074.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-8146
  • [Journal-full-title] Auris, nasus, larynx
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Auris Nasus Larynx
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] NETHERLANDS
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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44. Osborne JE, Hutchinson PE: Vitamin D and systemic cancer: is this relevant to malignant melanoma? Br J Dermatol; 2002 Aug;147(2):197-213
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  • [Title] Vitamin D and systemic cancer: is this relevant to malignant melanoma?
  • 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3[1,25(OH)2D3] is a well-known potent regulator of cell growth and differentiation and there is recent evidence of an effect on cell death, tumour invasion and angiogenesis, which makes it a candidate agent for cancer regulation.
  • The classical synthetic pathway of 1,25(OH)2D3 involves 25- and 1 alpha-hydroxylation of vitamin D3, in the liver and kidney, respectively, of absorbed or skin-synthesized vitamin D3.
  • There is recent focus on the importance in growth control of local metabolism of 1,25(OH)2D3, which is a function of local tissue synthetic hydroxylases and particularly the principal catabolizing enzyme, 24-hydroxylase.
  • The lines of evidence for an effect of vitamin D3 in systemic cancer are the laboratory demonstration of relevant effects on cellular growth, differentiation, apoptosis, malignant cell invasion and metastasis; epidemiological findings of an association of the occurrence and outcome of cancers with derangements of vitamin D3/1,25(OH)2D3 and the association of functional polymorphisms of the VDR with the occurrence of certain cancers.
  • In addition, vitamin D3 analogues are being developed as cancer chemotherapy agents.
  • There is accumulating evidence that the vitamin D3/1,25(OH)2D3/VDR axis is similarly important in malignant melanoma (MM).
  • Further work is necessary on the influence of serum vitamin D3 levels on the occurrence and prognosis of MM, the effects of sun protection measures on serum vitamin D3 levels in temperate climates and epidemiological studies on geographical factors and skin type on the prognosis of MM.
  • [MeSH-major] Cholecalciferol / metabolism. Melanoma / metabolism. Signal Transduction / physiology. Skin / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism. Vitamin D / analogs & derivatives
  • [MeSH-minor] Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Cell Differentiation. Cell Division. Colonic Neoplasms / metabolism. Female. Humans. Male. Polymorphism, Genetic. Prostatic Neoplasms / metabolism. Receptors, Calcitriol / genetics. Receptors, Calcitriol / metabolism


45. Daryanani D, Plukker JT, de Jong MA, Haaxma-Reiche H, Nap R, Kuiper H, Hoekstra HJ: Increased incidence of brain metastases in cutaneous head and neck melanoma. Melanoma Res; 2005 Apr;15(2):119-24
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  • [Title] Increased incidence of brain metastases in cutaneous head and neck melanoma.
  • The incidence of cutaneous melanoma is increasing, and 10-20% of these melanomas are located in the head and neck region.
  • The incidence of brain metastases, risk factors and outcome were analysed for melanomas originating in the head and neck region.
  • During the period 1965-2000, 324 patients [152 females (47%), 172 males (53%)] were treated for cutaneous melanoma of the head and neck.
  • The patients were staged according to the 2002 American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) melanoma staging system.
  • Twenty six (8%) head and neck patients, compared with 5.2% of extremity/truncal patients, developed brain metastases (confidence interval, 0.058-0.108; P<0.05).
  • The 26 head and neck patients (four Stage I, 10 Stage II and 12 Stage III) had a median age of 46 years (range, 16-79 years) and developed brain metastases after a median follow-up of 24 months (range, 4-75 months).
  • The patients were treated with steroids, surgery, radiation, chemotherapy, or a combination of these.
  • Risk factors identified for the development of brain metastases from head and neck melanoma were a younger age, male gender, Breslow thickness greater than 4 mm and increased mitotic rate.
  • The incidence of brain metastases is significantly higher in patients with cutaneous melanoma of the head and neck (8%) compared with those with extremity/truncal melanoma (5.2%).
  • The prognosis is still extremely poor with current therapies.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Melanoma / secondary. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Factors. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Incidence. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis / diagnosis. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Regression Analysis. Risk Factors. Sex Factors. Survival Analysis


46. Thies A, Pfüller U, Schachner M, Horny HP, Molls I, Schumacher U: Binding of mistletoe lectins to cutaneous malignant melanoma: implications for prognosis and therapy. Anticancer Res; 2001 Jul-Aug;21(4B):2883-7
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  • [Title] Binding of mistletoe lectins to cutaneous malignant melanoma: implications for prognosis and therapy.
  • However, no data concerning the three mistletoe lectins (MLs) and the spread of malignant melanoma have been published.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: The binding status of ML-I, -II and -III was histochemically assessed in 100 malignant melanomas and correlated with metastasis in a 10 year follow-up period.
  • CONCLUSION: Since ML-I is specific for galactose, high density galactose expression in malignant melanoma is a predictor of poor prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / metabolism. Lectins / metabolism. Melanoma / metabolism. Plant Preparations. Plant Proteins. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism. Toxins, Biological / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adjuvants, Immunologic / pharmacology. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Killer Cells, Natural / drug effects. Killer Cells, Natural / pathology. Life Tables. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Prognosis. Ribosome Inactivating Proteins, Type 2

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  • (PMID = 11712781.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adjuvants, Immunologic; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 0 / Lectins; 0 / Plant Preparations; 0 / Plant Proteins; 0 / Ribosome Inactivating Proteins, Type 2; 0 / Toxins, Biological; 0 / mistletoe lectin I; 0 / ribosome inactivating protein, Viscum
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47. Bujas T, Pavić I, Prus A, Marusić Z, Balicević D: Primary oral malignant melanoma: case report. Acta Clin Croat; 2010 Mar;49(1):55-9
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  • [Title] Primary oral malignant melanoma: case report.
  • Primary oral malignant melanoma usually presents as a dark brown or black lesion.
  • It is a rare malignancy, accounting for less than 1% of all melanomas and 1.6% of all head and neck malignancies, thus forming up to 0.5% of all oral malignancies in the world literature.
  • In general, the prognosis of oral melanoma is poor and worse than that of cutaneous melanoma.
  • The preferred treatment is radical surgery alone or in combination with radiotherapy, chemotherapy, immunotherapy and immunomodulatory agents.
  • A case is presented of a large malignant melanoma of oral cavity, noticed six months before initial biopsy and by history described as a rapidly growing mass.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / pathology. Mouth Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20635585.001).
  • [ISSN] 0353-9466
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta clinica Croatica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Clin Croat
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Croatia
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48. Slavícek A, Astl J, Válková D, Betka J, Petruzelka L: [Malignant mucosal melanoma of the head and neck]. Sb Lek; 2000;101(4):315-23
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  • [Title] [Malignant mucosal melanoma of the head and neck].
  • [Transliterated title] Maligní melanom sliznic hlavy a krku.
  • Mucosal melanoma comparison to cutaneous melanoma of the head and neck are rare and do poorly.
  • Approximately 0.5-2% of all melanomas occur from the mucous membranes of aerodigestive tract.
  • Most common site of the tumor are the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses but melanoma of the oral cavity are described too.
  • Therapy usually consists of surgical resection with or without postoperative radiotherapy and immunochemotherapy eventually.
  • The definite role of a kind of therapy in the treatment of mucosal melanoma is not remains to be defined as the small number of cases make prospective study challenging.
  • This article reviews 19 patients with mucosal melanoma of the head and neck treated at the Department of ENT and Head and Neck Surgery Charles University of Prague since 1980 to 1999.
  • Analysis of the metastatic disease, type of therapy and follow-up was retrospectively reviewed.
  • The site of the tumor was the lateral wall of the nasal cavity (five cases), nasal septum (four cases), maxilar cavity (two cases), and ethmoidal cavity, orbitoethmoidal complex, nasopharynx, saccus lacrimalis to ethmoidal sinuses diffused, tonsilla (one case each) and hypopharynx (two cases).
  • Primary treatment was surgical resection in ten cases, in one case with radiation therapy, and in seven cases chemotherapy.
  • In three cases were diagnostic surgery only and one patient was without therapy.
  • Four patients were treated radiation therapy and three chemotherapy after surgery.
  • For nine cases of recurrence of the disease were surgery (in five cases) and chemotherapy (in four cases).
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma. Mucous Membrane. Otorhinolaryngologic Neoplasms

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  • (PMID = 11702570.001).
  • [ISSN] 0036-5327
  • [Journal-full-title] Sborník lékar̆ský
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Sb Lek
  • [Language] cze
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
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49. Konstantinova MM, Gershanovich ML, Akimov MA, Nosov DA, Bogdanova NV: [Effectiveness and safety of combined mustoforan, cisplatin and tamoxifen for disseminated cutaneous melanoma (results of the IC4-10036-46-RU trial)]. Vopr Onkol; 2005;51(5):550-7
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  • [Title] [Effectiveness and safety of combined mustoforan, cisplatin and tamoxifen for disseminated cutaneous melanoma (results of the IC4-10036-46-RU trial)].
  • The multi-center non-randomized clinical study included 38 patients, aged 31-70, with morphologically (histologically and/or cytologically) verified diagnosis of disseminated cutaneous melanoma established objective response in 18.5% and clinically significant effect (55.5%) following first-line treatment with fotemustine in conjunction with cisplatin and tamoxifen.
  • Fotemustine as a first-line component of combination chemotherapy retarded metastatic spread to the brain.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / prevention & control. Melanoma / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Nitrosourea Compounds / administration & dosage. Organophosphorus Compounds / administration & dosage. Tamoxifen / administration & dosage. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16756009.001).
  • [ISSN] 0507-3758
  • [Journal-full-title] Voprosy onkologii
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vopr Onkol
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; English Abstract; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Nitrosourea Compounds; 0 / Organophosphorus Compounds; 094ZI81Y45 / Tamoxifen; GQ7JL9P5I2 / fotemustine; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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50. Tarhini AA, Kirkwood JM, Tawbi H, Gooding WE, Islam MF, Agarwala SS: Safety and efficacy of arsenic trioxide for patients with advanced metastatic melanoma. Cancer; 2008 Mar 1;112(5):1131-8
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  • [Title] Safety and efficacy of arsenic trioxide for patients with advanced metastatic melanoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Arsenic trioxide (ATO) cytotoxicity and apoptosis induction has been demonstrated with numerous cancer cell lines, including human melanoma.
  • METHODS: A second-line, phase 2, single-arm study of ATO was conducted in patients with inoperable American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) stage IV melanoma.
  • One cycle consisted of a loading dose of 0.32 mg/kg/day for 4 days in Week 1, followed by 0.25 mg/kg/day twice per week for 6 weeks, followed by 1 week of rest, at which time response assessment was performed.
  • All had stage IV melanoma including M1a (2 patients), M1b (6 patients), and M1c (13 patients) disease.
  • One patient had metastatic choroidal melanoma and 20 patients had cutaneous melanoma.
  • Twenty patients had received prior therapy.
  • Possible treatment-related grade 3 of 4 toxicities (using the National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria) included 1 case of idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura and 1 case of elevated lactate dehydrogenase.
  • Four patients did not complete the first cycle of therapy and were not evaluable for response.
  • Among 17 evaluable patients, 1 patient (6%; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0-29%) achieved a partial response lasting 7 months, and 10 patients (59%) had disease stabilization after at least 1 cycle, but all eventually developed disease progression.
  • The median time to disease progression was 17 weeks (95% CI, 11-38 weeks) and the median survival was 13 months (95% CI, 12-26 months).
  • CONCLUSIONS: ATO as tested in the current trial was found to be well tolerated and had limited activity in patients with metastatic melanoma.
  • The application of this agent in combination with either chemotherapy or agents that target recognized critical signaling and antiapoptotic pathways of melanoma has not yet been performed.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / toxicity. Arsenicals / therapeutic use. Choroid Neoplasms / drug therapy. Melanoma / drug therapy. Oxides / therapeutic use. Oxides / toxicity. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • [ErratumIn] Cancer. 2013 Feb 15;119(4):924
  • (PMID = 18286511.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50CA121973
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Arsenicals; 0 / Oxides; S7V92P67HO / arsenic trioxide
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51. Malik I, Shaharyar: Comparison of meropenem with ceftazidime as monotherapy of cancer patients with chemotherapy induced febrile neutropenia. J Pak Med Assoc; 2002 Jan;52(1):15-8
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  • [Title] Comparison of meropenem with ceftazidime as monotherapy of cancer patients with chemotherapy induced febrile neutropenia.
  • BACKGROUND: Ceftazidime is commonly used as monotherapy of cancer patients with fever and neutropenia.
  • Concern, however, has been raised regarding potential for drug resistance due to its widespread use.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: We prospectively treated 49 patients hospitalized for fever (> 38 degrees C) and neutropenia (ANC < or = 500/cmm) with meropenem.
  • RESULTS: Comparison of demographic features between the 2 groups revealed no differences in age, gender, type of neoplasm, number of patients with prior antibiotic use, number of days since chemotherapy, absolute neutrophil count and number of patients previously or already hospitalized.
  • Therapeutic outcome was same between the two groups.
  • Eighty four percent of patients receiving meropenem and 79% receiving ceftazidime required no modification of the initially assigned therapeutic regimen.
  • [MeSH-major] Ceftazidime / therapeutic use. Cephalosporins / therapeutic use. Neutropenia / drug therapy. Thienamycins / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects. Female. Fever / chemically induced. Fever / drug therapy. Humans. Male. Neoplasms / drug therapy. Prospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 11963577.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-9982
  • [Journal-full-title] JPMA. The Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Pak Med Assoc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Pakistan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Cephalosporins; 0 / Thienamycins; 9M416Z9QNR / Ceftazidime; FV9J3JU8B1 / meropenem
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52. Karst AM, Dai DL, Martinka M, Li G: PUMA expression is significantly reduced in human cutaneous melanomas. Oncogene; 2005 Feb 3;24(6):1111-6
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  • [Title] PUMA expression is significantly reduced in human cutaneous melanomas.
  • Cutaneous malignant melanoma is an aggressive form of skin cancer, characterized by strong chemoresistance and poor patient prognosis.
  • The molecular mechanisms underlying its resistance to chemotherapy remain unclear but are speculated to involve the dysregulation of apoptotic pathways.
  • In this study, we sought to determine whether PUMA (p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis) contributes to human melanoma formation, tumor progression, and survival.
  • We used tissue microarray and immunohistochemistry to examine PUMA expression in 107 primary melanomas, 51 metastatic melanomas, and 64 dysplastic nevi.
  • Here we report that PUMA expression is significantly weaker in primary melanomas compared to dysplastic nevi (P<0.0001), and is further reduced in metastatic melanomas compared to primary tumors (P=0.001).
  • We show that weak PUMA expression in melanoma correlates with poorer overall and disease-specific 5-year survival (P<0.005 and P<0.001, respectively) of melanoma patients and that PUMA expression in tumor tissue is an independent predictor of both overall and disease-specific 5-year survival (P=0.05).
  • Additionally, we show that exogenous PUMA expression in human melanoma cell lines (both wild type and mutant p53) results in significant apoptotic cell death.
  • Our results suggest that PUMA expression may be an important prognostic marker for human melanoma and that adenoviral delivery of PUMA sensitizes melanoma cells to apoptosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Melanoma / genetics. Melanoma / pathology. Proto-Oncogene Proteins / biosynthesis. Skin Neoplasms / genetics. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 15690057.001).
  • [ISSN] 0950-9232
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncogene
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncogene
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins; 0 / BBC3 protein, human; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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53. Maier H, Mühlmeier G, Kraft K, Blumstein NM, Tisch M: [Primary malignant melanoma of the parotid gland: a case report and review of the literature]. HNO; 2008 Jun;56(6):627-32
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  • [Title] [Primary malignant melanoma of the parotid gland: a case report and review of the literature].
  • [Transliterated title] Primäres malignes Melanom in der Glandula parotidea: Fallbericht und Literaturübersicht.
  • Malignant melanomas (MMs) of the parotid gland are relatively uncommon.
  • It is assumed that they originate in the glandular tissue or in intraglandular lymph nodes.
  • We present a case report and review of the literature on the diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of intraparotid malignant melanoma.
  • Diagnosis is based primarily on B-scan ultrasonography and fine-needle aspiration cytology.
  • Patients with a cytological diagnosis of MM are further evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography and receive a thorough ear-nose-throat and dermatological examination.
  • The treatment of choice is total parotidectomy and selective neck dissection.
  • The effectiveness of adjuvant treatments such as radiotherapy, chemotherapy, or immunotherapy remains controversial.
  • Patients with primary MMs of the parotid gland appear to have a better prognosis than those with parotid metastases from melanomas of the skin or mucous membranes.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / diagnosis. Melanoma / therapy. Parotid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Parotid Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Cites] HNO. 2006 Mar;54(3):166-70 [16091908.001]
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  • (PMID = 18066514.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-0458
  • [Journal-full-title] HNO
  • [ISO-abbreviation] HNO
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  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
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54. Crott R: Cost effectiveness and cost utility of adjuvant interferon alpha in cutaneous melanoma: a review. Pharmacoeconomics; 2004;22(9):569-80
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  • [Title] Cost effectiveness and cost utility of adjuvant interferon alpha in cutaneous melanoma: a review.
  • Although interferon alpha (IFN) has been approved since 1995 in the US as adjuvant therapy for high-risk melanoma patients, its cost effectiveness and economic value have only been recently addressed.
  • There are very few papers that address the overall cost and cost components of treating melanoma patients, all of them focusing on the US.
  • These studies showed the large cost of treatment of stage III and IV patients (around $US40,000-60,000 [1997/8 values]).
  • Chemotherapy and adjuvant immunomodulators comprised a large part of this cost.
  • Cost-effectiveness studies performed for the US, Spain and Italy have been largely based on the results of the pivotal Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) 1684 trial using high-dose (10-20 Megaunits [MU]/m(2)) IFN in mainly stage III patients.
  • Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios for adjuvant IFN versus observation from these studies fall in the range of $US13,000-40,000 per life-year gained (1998 values), depending on the time horizon, discount rate and cost of IFN, with an extrapolated life-gain over lifetime ranging between 1.9 and 3 years.
  • Only one study, the French Cooperative Melanoma Group trial in stage IIA/B patients, used low-dose (3 MU(2)) IFN and yielded a quite favourable incremental cost effectiveness ratio (cost per life-year gained) ranging from $US12,954 over 5 years (survival gain 3 months) to $US1,544 over a lifetime (extrapolated survival gain 2.6 years) [1995 values].
  • Although these results could be seen as supporting the more widespread use of adjuvant IFN in melanoma, it should be stressed that they were based on the only two positive clinical trials out of a total of ten.
  • The eight negative high-dose (HDI) and low-dose (LDI) IFN trials have failed to show an impact on survival (HDI: ECOG 1690 and North Central Cancer Treatment Group [NCCTG]; LDI: ECOG 1690, WHO-16, UK Coordinating Committee on Cancer Research [UKCCRC] and Austrian, Scottish and European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer trials).
  • A definitive appraisal of the cost effectiveness of IFN in melanoma patients will have to await these results and their economic analyses.
  • [MeSH-major] Adjuvants, Immunologic / economics. Interferon-alpha / economics. Melanoma / economics. Skin Neoplasms / economics
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Clinical Trials as Topic. Cost-Benefit Analysis. Health Care Costs. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Quality of Life. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 15209526.001).
  • [ISSN] 1170-7690
  • [Journal-full-title] PharmacoEconomics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pharmacoeconomics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adjuvants, Immunologic; 0 / Interferon-alpha
  • [Number-of-references] 38
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55. Meyer S, Vogt T, Landthaler M, Berand A, Reichle A, Bataille F, Marx AH, Menz A, Hartmann A, Kunz-Schughart LA, Wild PJ: Cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) and Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma (PPARG) Are Stage-Dependent Prognostic Markers of Malignant Melanoma. PPAR Res; 2009;2009:848645
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  • [Title] Cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) and Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma (PPARG) Are Stage-Dependent Prognostic Markers of Malignant Melanoma.
  • Using tissue microarrays (TMAs) we studied COX2/PPARG immunoreactivity in a broad spectrum of tumors focussing on clinicopathological correlations and the outcome of patients with malignant melanoma (MM).
  • TMA-1 contained normal and tumor tissues (n = 3448) from 47 organs including skin neoplasms (n = 323); TMA-2 88 primary MM, 101 metastases, and 161 benign nevi.
  • Based on a biomodulatory approach combining COX/PPAR-targeting with metronomic low-dose chemotherapy metastases of 36 patients participating in a randomized trial with metastatic (stage IV) melanoma were investigated using TMA-3.
  • Patients with PPARG-positive metastases and biomodulatory metronomic chemotherapy alone or combined with COX2/PPARG-targeting showed a significantly prolonged progression-free survival.
  • In metastatic MM, PPARG expression may be a predicitive marker for response to biomodulatory stroma-targeted therapy.

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  • (PMID = 19639032.001).
  • [ISSN] 1687-4757
  • [Journal-full-title] PPAR research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] PPAR Res
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2712952
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56. Taljaard M, Ward MR, Kutryk MJ, Courtman DW, Camack NJ, Goodman SG, Parker TG, Dick AJ, Galipeau J, Stewart DJ: Rationale and design of Enhanced Angiogenic Cell Therapy in Acute Myocardial Infarction (ENACT-AMI): the first randomized placebo-controlled trial of enhanced progenitor cell therapy for acute myocardial infarction. Am Heart J; 2010 Mar;159(3):354-60
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  • [Title] Rationale and design of Enhanced Angiogenic Cell Therapy in Acute Myocardial Infarction (ENACT-AMI): the first randomized placebo-controlled trial of enhanced progenitor cell therapy for acute myocardial infarction.
  • BACKGROUND: Despite the widespread use of pharmacological and/or interventional reperfusion therapies, recovery of cardiac function in myocardial infarction (MI) patients is often modest or even absent.
  • Unlike classical pharmacological treatments, the use of progenitor cells could potentially restore functional tissue in regions that otherwise would form only scar.
  • However, a major limitation of autologous cell therapy is the deleterious influence of age and cardiac risk factors on progenitor cell activity.
  • Circulating mononuclear cells (MNCs) are obtained by apheresis and subjected to differential culture for 3 days to select a population of highly regenerative, endothelial-like, culture modified MNCs (E-CMMs), often referred to as "early EPCs."
  • A total of 99 patients will be randomized to placebo (Plasma-Lyte A), autologous E-CMMs, or E-CMMs transfected with human endothelial nitric oxide synthase delivered by coronary injection into the infarct-related artery.
  • The primary efficacy end point is change from baseline to 6 months in global left ventricular ejection fraction by cardiac MRI; secondary endpoints include regional wall motion, wall thickening, infarct volume, time to clinical worsening, and quality of life.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This will be the first clinical trial to include a strategy designed to enhance the function of autologous progenitor cells by overexpressing endothelial nitric oxide synthase, and the first to use combination gene and cell therapy for the treatment of cardiac disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Myocardial Infarction / surgery. Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III / metabolism. Research Design. Stem Cell Transplantation. Stem Cells / enzymology

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  • (PMID = 20211295.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6744
  • [Journal-full-title] American heart journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. Heart J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 1.14.13.39 / Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III
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57. Erdei E, Torres SM: A new understanding in the epidemiology of melanoma. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther; 2010 Nov;10(11):1811-23
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  • [Title] A new understanding in the epidemiology of melanoma.
  • The incidence of melanoma is continuing to increase worldwide.
  • UV exposure is a known risk factor for melanoma.
  • Geographic location is known to influence UV exposure and the distribution of the incidence of melanoma.
  • Furthermore, epidemiologic data suggest that gender and genetics may influence the distribution of melanoma on the body surface and histopathologic characteristics of the lesion.
  • This article describes what is known about the impact of gender, ethnicity and geography on the progression of melanoma.
  • Advanced-stage cutaneous melanoma has a median survival time of less than 1 year.
  • Surgical removal, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapies and a variety of immunotherapies have been utilized in the treatment of melanoma.
  • Current treatment strategies and the results of recent clinical trials are also discussed in this article.

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  • (PMID = 21080806.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-8328
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert review of anticancer therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Rev Anticancer Ther
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / GM088021-01; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / K12 GM088021; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / K12 GM088021-01; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / K12GM088021
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS263920; NLM/ PMC3074354
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58. Li G, Bush JA, Ho VC: p53-dependent apoptosis in melanoma cells after treatment with camptothecin. J Invest Dermatol; 2000 Mar;114(3):514-9
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  • [Title] p53-dependent apoptosis in melanoma cells after treatment with camptothecin.
  • Cutaneous malignant melanoma is a life-threatening cancer with poor prognosis due to a high metastasis potential.
  • The main obstacle in treatment of metastatic melanoma is the resistance to chemotherapy.
  • As p53 plays an important part in apoptosis, we investigated the role of p53 in chemosensitivity of melanoma cells.
  • Previously, we found that melanoma cell lines containing wild-type p53 have significantly higher response rates to chemotherapy than cell lines with a mutant p53 gene.
  • To confirm the role of p53 in melanoma chemosensitivity further, we transfected an expression vector, pED1, which carries a mutant p53 gene, into a wild-type p53 melanoma cell line, MMAN.
  • We examined the effect of mutant p53 on camptothecin-induced apoptosis and the expression of genes which are known to be involved in apoptosis or drug resistance, such as bcl-2, bax, bak, p21waf1, and P-glycoprotein.
  • Our results indicate that overexpression of the mutant p53 increased the growth rate of MMAN cells, reduced the sensitivity to camptothecin, and lowered drug-induced apoptosis by 2-3-fold.
  • Furthermore, camptothecin treatment reduced bcl-2 and P-glycoprotein expression in wild-type p53 MMAN cells, but not cells overexpressing mutant p53.
  • These results demonstrate that p53 mutational status is a determinant of melanoma chemosensitivity. p53 may downregulate bcl-2 and P-glycoprotein to induce apoptosis in melanoma cells after chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / pharmacology. Apoptosis / genetics. Camptothecin / pharmacology. Genes, p53. Melanoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cricetinae. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21. Cyclins / genetics. Gene Expression / drug effects. Humans. Membrane Proteins / genetics. Mutation. P-Glycoprotein / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / biosynthesis. Tumor Cells, Cultured. bcl-2 Homologous Antagonist-Killer Protein. bcl-2-Associated X Protein

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  • (PMID = 10692111.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-202X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of investigative dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Invest. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 0 / BAK1 protein, human; 0 / BAX protein, human; 0 / CDKN1A protein, human; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21; 0 / Cyclins; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / P-Glycoprotein; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; 0 / bcl-2 Homologous Antagonist-Killer Protein; 0 / bcl-2-Associated X Protein; XT3Z54Z28A / Camptothecin
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59. Zumtobel U, Schwarze HP, Favre M, Taïeb A, Delaunay M: Widespread cutaneous carcinomas associated with human papillomaviruses 5, 14 and 20 after introduction of methotrexate in two long-term PUVA-treated patients. Dermatology; 2001;202(2):127-30
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  • [Title] Widespread cutaneous carcinomas associated with human papillomaviruses 5, 14 and 20 after introduction of methotrexate in two long-term PUVA-treated patients.
  • BACKGROUND: PUVA treatment for patients with severe psoriasis has been demonstrated to be highly effective.
  • However, an increased risk of nonmelanoma and melanoma skin cancers has been reported.
  • It is generally accepted that the risk of squamous-cell carcinoma (SCC) is significantly increased in patients with long-term PUVA therapy.
  • CASE REPORTS: Two cases of multiple SCCs associated with numerous PUVA keratoses and PUVA freckles after long-term PUVA therapy and subsequent treatment with MTX are presented.
  • Tumors and scrapings of psoriatic skin lesions were analyzed for the presence of oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes.
  • The genotype of HPV-5, -14 and -20 was detected in scrapings and skin tumors using PCR amplification.
  • CONCLUSION: These observations support the concept that long-term PUVA treatment is carcinogenic and rise questions concerning an additional influence of MTX in the development and progression of skin cancer.
  • Treatment with MTX should be considered cautiously in patients previously exposed to high doses of PUVA.
  • The presence of oncogenic HPVs in carcinomas and psoriatic skin lesions detected only with the highly sensitive nested PCR method is not necessarily a proof of their implication in skin carcinogenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Antirheumatic Agents / adverse effects. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / etiology. Cocarcinogenesis. Immunosuppressive Agents / adverse effects. Methotrexate / adverse effects. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / etiology. PUVA Therapy / adverse effects. Papillomaviridae / isolation & purification. Skin Neoplasms / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Female. Humans. Keratosis / etiology. Male. Middle Aged. Psoriasis / drug therapy. Skin / virology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 11306834.001).
  • [ISSN] 1018-8665
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatology (Basel, Switzerland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatology (Basel)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antirheumatic Agents; 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate
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60. Demidov LV, Manziuk LV, Kharkevitch GY, Pirogova NA, Artamonova EV: Adjuvant fermented wheat germ extract (Avemar) nutraceutical improves survival of high-risk skin melanoma patients: a randomized, pilot, phase II clinical study with a 7-year follow-up. Cancer Biother Radiopharm; 2008 Aug;23(4):477-82
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  • [Title] Adjuvant fermented wheat germ extract (Avemar) nutraceutical improves survival of high-risk skin melanoma patients: a randomized, pilot, phase II clinical study with a 7-year follow-up.
  • OBJECTIVE: The fermented wheat germ extract (FWGE) nutraceutical (Avemar), manufactured under "good manufacturing practice" conditions and, fulfilling the self-affirmed "generally recognized as safe" status in the United States, has been approved as a "dietary food for special medical purposes for cancer patients" in Europe.
  • In this paper, we report the adjuvant use of this nutraceutical in the treatment of high-risk skin melanoma patients.
  • METHODS: In a randomized, pilot, phase II clinical trial, the efficacy of dacarbazine (DTIC)-based adjuvant chemotherapy on survival parameters of melanoma patients was compared to that of the same treatment supplemented with a 1-year long administration of FWGE.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The inclusion of Avemar into the adjuvant protocols of high-risk skin melanoma patients is highly recommended.
  • [MeSH-major] Dietary Supplements. Melanoma / drug therapy. Plant Extracts / therapeutic use. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy. Triticum / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant / methods. Dacarbazine / adverse effects. Dacarbazine / therapeutic use. Drug Therapy, Combination. Female. Fermentation. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Male. Middle Aged. Pilot Projects. Treatment Outcome

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  • [ErratumIn] Cancer Biother Radiopharm. 2008 Oct;23(5):669
  • (PMID = 18771352.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-8852
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer biotherapy & radiopharmaceuticals
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Biother. Radiopharm.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Plant Extracts; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine
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61. Hashemi M, Stark A, Hugo H, Mehdorn M: Intracranial trigeminal nerve metastasis of a desmoplastic neurotropic melanoma: case report. Cent Eur Neurosurg; 2009 May;70(2):91-4
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  • [Title] Intracranial trigeminal nerve metastasis of a desmoplastic neurotropic melanoma: case report.
  • BACKGROUND: Desmoplastic neurotropic mela-noma is a rare and highly malignant variant of melanoma.
  • Solitary nervus trigeminus and Gasserian ganglion metastasis of a neurotropic melanoma has not been previously described in the literature.
  • 4 years previously he underwent tumor removal with an initial diagnosis of amelanotic malignant cutaneous melanoma; 1 year later, because of tumor recurrence, the patient underwent neck dissection, chemotherapy and radiation.
  • Histopathological studies proved the tumor to be a desmoplastic neurotropic melanoma (DNM) that was related to the previously treated malignant melanoma.
  • CONCLUSION: A metastatic tumor arising solely in a trigeminal nerve from a cutaneous malignant melanoma is quite rare; to our knowledge this may be the first report of such a case in the literature.
  • [MeSH-major] Cranial Nerve Neoplasms / secondary. Melanoma / secondary. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Trigeminal Nerve. Trigeminal Nerve Diseases / pathology

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  • [Copyright] (c) Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart, New York.
  • (PMID = 19711263.001).
  • [ISSN] 1868-4904
  • [Journal-full-title] Central European neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cent Eur Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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62. Zalaudek I, Ferrara G, Argenziano G, Ruocco V, Soyer HP: Diagnosis and treatment of cutaneous melanoma: a practical guide. Skinmed; 2003 Jan-Feb;2(1):20-31; quiz 32-3
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  • [Title] Diagnosis and treatment of cutaneous melanoma: a practical guide.
  • During the past decades, a number of new scientific evidences have been provided allowing a better understanding of the nature of cutaneous melanoma.
  • New scientific methods, such as dermoscopy, have been shown to improve the diagnostic accuracy of pigmented skin lesions and early recognition of melanoma.
  • Aggressive approaches for the surgical treatment of melanoma have been shown to be useless and have been replaced by more conservative surgical protocols and by sentinel lymph node biopsy.
  • In the advanced stage of melanoma, new chemotherapy protocols and immunotherapy have been proposed, whereas the role of vaccines is still under investigation.
  • In this review, the authors present an up-to-date overview of the epidemiologic, clinical, histopathologic, and therapeutic aspects of melanoma that can be used as a practical guide for the management of this tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / diagnosis. Melanoma / therapy. Precancerous Conditions / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / therapy. Surgical Procedures, Operative / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy / methods. Humans. Lymph Node Excision / methods. Risk Factors


63. Natu SA, Daga SR: Antiretroviral therapy in children: Indian experience. Indian Pediatr; 2007 May;44(5):339-43
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  • [Title] Antiretroviral therapy in children: Indian experience.
  • BACKGROUND: There is a paucity of reports on Highly Active Antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in children.
  • RESULTS: Mean weight increased from 15.2 to 16.8 kg (P < 0.001) while mean CD4 counts increased from 488/cmm to 765/cmm (P < 0.001).
  • Only 2 cases of drug associated adverse event were encountered.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Use of FDC in weight specific dosages is feasible and effective for treatment of Pediatric HIV in resource scarce setting.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-Retroviral Agents / therapeutic use. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. HIV Infections / drug therapy. Lamivudine / therapeutic use. Nevirapine / therapeutic use. Stavudine / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Child, Preschool. Drug Therapy, Combination. Feasibility Studies. Female. Guideline Adherence. Humans. India. Infant. Male. Patient Compliance. Pilot Projects


64. Mikhnin AE, Barchuk AS, Wagner RI, Anisimov VV: [Influence of growth rates of local recurrences and in-transit metastases on survival of patients with cutaneous melanoma]. Vopr Onkol; 2004;50(5):557-61
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  • [Title] [Influence of growth rates of local recurrences and in-transit metastases on survival of patients with cutaneous melanoma].
  • The growth rates of local recurrences and in-transit metastases of skin melanoma were assessed in 271 patients.
  • Median growth rate in the course of chemotherapy was 0.02 a day--1 which corresponded to a doubling time of 34.7 days.
  • Median survival time for patients with local recurrences and in-transit metastases was 22.6 months, 12-month survival--70.1%, 5-year--19.6% and 10-year--9.9%.
  • Growth rate appeared to be the most significant prognostic factor; similarly important were tumor volume, relapse-free interval, tumor mitotic rate, site and number of recurrences.
  • The following additional characteristics of tumor growth rate have been suggested: maximum growth rate and doubling time limit, to assess the rates of secondary tumor focus development.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / secondary. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15715096.001).
  • [ISSN] 0507-3758
  • [Journal-full-title] Voprosy onkologii
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vopr Onkol
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia
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65. Kung B, Aftab S, Wood M, Rosen D: Malignant melanoma metastatic to the thyroid gland: a case report and review of the literature. Ear Nose Throat J; 2009 Jan;88(1):E7
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  • [Title] Malignant melanoma metastatic to the thyroid gland: a case report and review of the literature.
  • The thyroid gland is a relatively uncommon site for a secondary malignancy; even less common is a case of malignant melanoma metastatic to the thyroid.
  • Fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) identified the mass as a malignant melanoma.
  • The patient had had no known primary skin melanoma.
  • Postoperatively, he declined to undergo radio- and chemotherapy.
  • FNAB again attributed the enlargement to malignant melanoma.
  • He developed ventilator-dependent respiratory failure and required a subtotal thyroidectomy for the placement of a tracheostomy tube.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / secondary. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / secondary. Thyroid Nodule / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Male. Neck Dissection. Neoplasm Staging. Risk Assessment. Thyroidectomy / methods. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19172560.001).
  • [ISSN] 1942-7522
  • [Journal-full-title] Ear, nose, & throat journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ear Nose Throat J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 14
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66. Bianciotto C, Demirci H, Shields CL, Eagle RC Jr, Shields JA: Metastatic tumors to the eyelid: report of 20 cases and review of the literature. Arch Ophthalmol; 2009 Aug;127(8):999-1005
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  • OBJECTIVE: To determine the primary sites, clinical features, treatment, and outcome of 20 patients with cancer metastatic to the eyelids.
  • RESULTS: The primary tumors included skin melanoma (4 [20%]), uveal melanoma (4 [20%]), breast carcinoma and conjunctival melanoma (3 [15%] each), renal cell carcinoma (2 [10%]), and medullary thyroid carcinoma, prostate carcinoma, lung carcinoma, and salivary gland carcinoma (1 [5%] each).
  • Eyelid metastasis was the first sign of systemic cancer in 3 patients (15%).
  • Ten patients (50%) had concomitant ocular site metastasis.
  • Primary treatment included excision alone in 6 patients (30%), external beam radiotherapy in 7 (35%), systemic chemotherapy in 4 (20%), and observation in 3 (15%).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Eyelid metastasis can display a variety of clinical features and should be considered in patients with known systemic cancer.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Ophthalmologic Surgical Procedures. Radiotherapy. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 19667336.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-3601
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of ophthalmology (Chicago, Ill. : 1960)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Ophthalmol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 19
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67. Chen T, Hou SX, Sun YY, Zheng Y: [Preparation of mitoxantrone liposomes and study on its in vivo distribution in rats after transdermal delivery]. Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban; 2006 Nov;37(6):934-7
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  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate in vivo distribution of the mitoxantrone(MIT) liposomes in SD rats after transdermal delivery.
  • The time courses of mitoxantrone concentration in vivo after the transdermal delivery of mitoxantrone liposomes were measured by HPLC assays and compared with the injection of mitoxantrone solution.
  • RESULTS: The mean diameter of the MIT liposomes was 50.98 nm, with the entrapping efficiency of 100%.
  • A significantly higher amount of mitoxantrone was delivered in cutis after transdermal delivery of mitoxantrone liposomes, compared with the injection of mitoxantrone solution; meanwhile, a significantly lower amount of mitoxantrone was delivered in plasma and other tissues after transdermal delivery of mitoxantrone liposomes, compared with the injection of mitoxantrone solution.
  • CONCLUSION: Transdermal delivery of mitoxantrone liposomes could be a potential therapy for cutaneous malignant melanoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Cutaneous. Animals. Female. Liposomes. Melanoma / drug therapy. Microscopy, Electron, Transmission. Particle Size. Rats. Rats, Sprague-Dawley. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 17236598.001).
  • [ISSN] 1672-173X
  • [Journal-full-title] Sichuan da xue xue bao. Yi xue ban = Journal of Sichuan University. Medical science edition
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Liposomes; BZ114NVM5P / Mitoxantrone
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68. Eigentler TK, Mügge LO, Bembenek A, Garbe C: [Cutaneous melanoma]. Hautarzt; 2007 Oct;58(10):885-97; quiz 898
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  • [Title] [Cutaneous melanoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Kutanes Melanom.
  • While the incidence of cutaneous melanoma (CM) continues to rise steadily, the mortality has stabilized.
  • Excision of the primary tumor with adequate safety margins is the treatment of choice.
  • Interferon-alpha is currently the only adjuvant therapy shown to have significant benefit in prospective randomized trials.
  • When distant metastases are present treatment is palliative and is aimed primarily at achieving tumor remission by operative, radiological, and pharmacological means.
  • Dacarbazine is considered the standard drug for systemic treatment.
  • Follow-up depends on the initial tumor parameters and the current stage of the disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Interferon-alpha / therapeutic use. Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced / drug therapy. Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced / pathology. Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced / surgery. Palliative Care. Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy. Skin / pathology. Ultraviolet Rays / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 17973138.001).
  • [ISSN] 0017-8470
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift für Dermatologie, Venerologie, und verwandte Gebiete
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hautarzt
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Interferon-alpha
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69. Pirker C, Lötsch D, Spiegl-Kreinecker S, Jantscher F, Sutterlüty H, Micksche M, Grusch M, Berger W: Response of experimental malignant melanoma models to the pan-Aurora kinase inhibitor VE-465. Exp Dermatol; 2010 Dec;19(12):1040-7
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  • [Title] Response of experimental malignant melanoma models to the pan-Aurora kinase inhibitor VE-465.
  • Aurora kinases represent promising novel cancer therapy targets.
  • Genomic analyses of human cutaneous melanoma (CMM) models (N = 51, low passage) by classical and/or array CGH revealed frequent gains at chromosome 20q (65%, amplifications in 45%) repeatedly including the Aurora A gene locus.
  • Accordingly, the majority of CMM cell cultures overexpressed Aurora A when compared to proliferating non-malignant cells.
  • Moreover, CMM cells even when arrested in G1/S cell cycle phase contained readily detectable levels of Aurora A indicating incomplete degradation during mitosis.
  • Already at low concentrations (10-100 nm), long-term (7-10 days) application of the pan-Aurora kinase inhibitor VE-465 completely prevented colony formation in all CMM models tested.
  • Moreover, application of the Aurora B-specific inhibitor ZM447439 and siRNA was less efficient to induce CMM cell death proofing that apoptosis induction by VE-465 depended predominantly on Aurora A targeting.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / drug therapy. Melanoma / pathology. Piperazines / pharmacology. Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases / antagonists & inhibitors
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / pharmacology. Apoptosis / drug effects. Aurora Kinase B. Aurora Kinases. Caspase 7 / metabolism. Cell Cycle / drug effects. Cell Cycle / physiology. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Cell Survival / drug effects. Chromosomes, Human / genetics. Drug Synergism. Gene Amplification / genetics. HCT116 Cells. Humans. Neoplastic Stem Cells / drug effects. Polyploidy. RNA, Small Interfering / genetics. Tumor Cells, Cultured / drug effects. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism

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  • [Copyright] © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
  • (PMID = 21087322.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0625
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Piperazines; 0 / RNA, Small Interfering; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 639089-54-6 / VX680; EC 2.7.11.1 / AURKB protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Aurora Kinase B; EC 2.7.11.1 / Aurora Kinases; EC 2.7.11.1 / Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases; EC 3.4.22.- / Caspase 7
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70. Zavos G, Papaconstantinou I, Chrisostomidis C, Kostakis A: Metastatic melanoma within a transplanted kidney: a case report. Transplant Proc; 2004 Jun;36(5):1411-2
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  • [Title] Metastatic melanoma within a transplanted kidney: a case report.
  • A 57-year-old woman recipient of a cadaveric renal allograft displayed metastatic melanoma within the transplant.
  • The patient, who received imunnosuppressive therapy with cyclosporine, azathioprine, and prednisone, displayed normal renal function for 10 months posttransplantation.
  • She was admitted due to multiple, large, rapidly growing skin nodules over the lower abdomen and to dyspnea.
  • After a diagnostic evaluation, the renal graft was removed, revealing metastatic melanoma within the transplanted kidney and 2 focal points of melanoma within the skin lesions.
  • The patient returned to hemodialysis, received chemotherapy and interferon A, but failed to respond and died 11 days after the nephrectomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Kidney Transplantation / adverse effects. Melanoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Postoperative Complications / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2004 Elsevier Inc.
  • (PMID = 15251346.001).
  • [ISSN] 0041-1345
  • [Journal-full-title] Transplantation proceedings
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Transplant. Proc.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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71. Durrani AJ, Moir GC, Diaz-Cano SJ, Cerio R: Malignant melanoma in an 8-year-old Caribbean girl: diagnostic criteria and utility of sentinel lymph node biopsy. Br J Dermatol; 2003 Mar;148(3):569-72
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  • [Title] Malignant melanoma in an 8-year-old Caribbean girl: diagnostic criteria and utility of sentinel lymph node biopsy.
  • The incidence of malignant melanoma (MM) is continuing to rise, although childhood MM remains rare.
  • We describe an 8-year-old Afro-Caribbean girl who developed a non pigmented lesion on the tip of her left thumb, which persisted despite treatment in primary care with cryotherapy.
  • She underwent amputation of the distal phalanx of her thumb, together with positive sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy and subsequent axillary lymph node clearance and adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • MMs are very rare in this age and skin-type group, therefore requiring strict diagnostic criteria.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / pathology. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy / methods. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Thumb
  • [MeSH-minor] Axilla. Child. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Nevus, Epithelioid and Spindle Cell / pathology

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  • (PMID = 12653752.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0963
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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72. Jasaitiene D, Valiukeviciene S, Makstiene J, Juodzbaliene EB: Metastatic amelanotic nodular melanoma during pregnancy. Medicina (Kaunas); 2008;44(6):467-71
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  • [Title] Metastatic amelanotic nodular melanoma during pregnancy.
  • This case report presents a very aggressive course of amelanotic nodular melanoma during pregnancy resulting in death five months after delivery.
  • A 34 year-old Caucasian woman at 19th week of the second pregnancy was diagnosed having amelanotic nodular melanoma (tumor thickness - 2.5 mm) with metastases to the regional right inguinal lymph node.
  • Amelanotic nodular melanoma represents malignant melanocytic tumor of the skin, which clinically mimics a variety of benign and malignant skin conditions and therefore commonly leads to delayed diagnosis.
  • Though primary tumor was excised immediately, other treatment procedures as radical lymphadenectomy and chemotherapy were delayed, and immunotherapy was not given totally.
  • At the 29th week of pregnancy, the woman via naturalem delivered a healthy female child, and the chemotherapy was started.
  • Since pregnancy limits the prescription of immunotherapy and chemotherapy, the prognosis for melanoma during pregnancy detected later than in the second stage is poor and can be illustrated by our reported case.
  • Such patients seems to be at higher risk to develop metastasis of melanoma in the internal organs and occasionally even in the fetus; therefore, they should be timely informed about that.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma, Amelanotic / secondary. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic. Skin Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Infant, Newborn. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis. Pregnancy. Pregnancy Trimester, Second. Pregnancy Trimester, Third. Prognosis. Puerperal Disorders / mortality. Skin / pathology. Time Factors


73. Rossi CR, Foletto M, Mocellin S, Pilati PL, Campana L, Rubello D, Lise M: TNF-based limb perfusion for cutaneous melanoma in transit metastases: suggestions for modification of the perfusional schedule. J Exp Clin Cancer Res; 2003 Dec;22(4 Suppl):103-7
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  • [Title] TNF-based limb perfusion for cutaneous melanoma in transit metastases: suggestions for modification of the perfusional schedule.
  • Isolated limb perfusion (ILP) is currently considered the standard treatment for melanoma patients with extensive in-transit disease, and L-PAM, combined or not with TNF, represents the most active drug.
  • Thirty-seven stage III patients underwent TNF-based limb perfusion, 22 with bulky disease, 15 with recurrences after perfusion with L-PAM.
  • [MeSH-major] Chemotherapy, Cancer, Regional Perfusion. Melanoma / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / therapeutic use. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Extremities / pathology. Female. Humans. Hyperthermia, Induced. Male. Melphalan / therapeutic use. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • [ErratumIn] J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2006 Sep;25(3):preceding table of contents. Ribello, D [corrected to Rubello, D]
  • (PMID = 16767915.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-9078
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of experimental & clinical cancer research : CR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Exp. Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase I; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; Q41OR9510P / Melphalan
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74. Hauschild A, Lischner S, Christophers E: [Surgical and adjuvant drug therapy in head and neck cutaneous melanoma]. Laryngorhinootologie; 2000 Jul;79(7):428-33
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  • [Title] [Surgical and adjuvant drug therapy in head and neck cutaneous melanoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Operative und adjuvante medikamentöse Therapie des kutanen Melanoms im Kopf-Hals-Bereich.
  • The rapid incidence rise of cutaneous melanoma resulted in an increasing interest in this particular tumor.
  • During the last years public prevention campaigns enlarged the awareness of melanoma, subsequently as a direct effect the mean tumor thickness of melanoma, the most predictable prognostic factor, decreased.
  • Moreover, the biology of melanoma initiation and metastasis has been studied extensively with special interest in molecular biology.
  • Controlled clinical studies answered several critical questions in respect to the standard care of surgery in melanoma.
  • Yet, the guidelines for the surgical treatment of head and neck melanoma are in accordance to that of other localisations with reduced safety margins around the primary tumor.
  • Moreover, ELND has been given up by most melanoma centers, since it is known that prospective-randomized trials were not able to demonstrate an increase of overall survival for patients with ELND compared with untreated patients.
  • Instead of this potentially aggressive treatment modality the examination of the first draining regional lymph node, sentinel node biopsy (SNB), has been introduced some years ago.
  • Recently, a large clinical trial demonstrated that the SNB status reflects the most valuable prognostic factor for primary melanoma known so far.
  • First studies in head and neck melanoma figured out that this technique is more complex in this special localisation, but produced comparable results.
  • Systemic adjuvant (prophylactic) therapy of high-risk melanoma should preferentially be applied within controlled clinical trials.
  • Most attractive candidates for an effective treatment are interferons.
  • Several studies ruled out that interferon alpha-treated melanoma patients demonstrate an extended disease-free survival.
  • Adjuvant chemotherapy has not shown a clinically relevant benefit.
  • [MeSH-major] Head and Neck Neoplasms / therapy. Melanoma / therapy. Skin Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Clinical Trials as Topic. Combined Modality Therapy. Dacarbazine / therapeutic use. Humans. Interferons / therapeutic use. Lymph Node Excision. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 11005097.001).
  • [ISSN] 0935-8943
  • [Journal-full-title] Laryngo- rhino- otologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Laryngorhinootologie
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] GERMANY
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 9008-11-1 / Interferons
  • [Number-of-references] 30
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75. Cuesta Alcalá JA, Caballero Martínez MC, Ripa Saldías L, Pascual Piédrola I, Solchaga Martínez A, Aldave Villanueva J, Arrondo Arrondo JL, Grasa Lanau V, Ponz González M, Ipiens Aznar A: [Therapeutic approach in adrenal melanoma. Review of the literature]. Arch Esp Urol; 2001 Sep;54(7):685-90
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  • [Title] [Therapeutic approach in adrenal melanoma. Review of the literature].
  • [Transliterated title] Actitud terapéutica en el melanoma suprarrenal. Revisión de la literatura.
  • OBJECTIVE: To review the treatment strategies for adrenal melanoma and to emphasize the role of curative surgical resection and adjuvant treatment in selected patients with melanoma metastatic to the adrenal gland versus chemotherapy alone in the treatment of patients with advanced malignant melanoma.
  • METHODS: A case of adrenal gland metastasis of a cutaneous melanoma (Clark IV, Breslow 5 mm.) treated by excision one year before that was referred to the Urology Department for Wünderlich syndrome is presented.
  • RESULTS: The analyzed series of programmed adrenalectomy for adrenal metastases from melanoma describe survivals of 26 (3), 36 (9), 59 (3) and 72 (5) months.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In the differential diagnosis of an incidentaloma, metastatic disease is likely in a patient with a history of malignant disease.
  • The frequency of malignant melanoma among metastatic adrenal disease varies between 1% and 8.6%; the majority are asymptomatic and incidental findings.
  • We believe that in selected patients with advanced malignant melanoma, with no major coexisting morbidity factors who have isolated melanoma metastatic to the adrenal gland or with limited extra-adrenal sites of disease, curative surgical resection and adjuvant treatment may improve their survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Melanoma / surgery

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  • (PMID = 11692432.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-0614
  • [Journal-full-title] Archivos españoles de urología
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Esp. Urol.
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Number-of-references] 10
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76. Robertson CA, Abrahamse H, Evans D: The in vitro PDT efficacy of a novel metallophthalocyanine (MPc) derivative and established 5-ALA photosensitizing dyes against human metastatic melanoma cells. Lasers Surg Med; 2010 Dec;42(10):766-76
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  • [Title] The in vitro PDT efficacy of a novel metallophthalocyanine (MPc) derivative and established 5-ALA photosensitizing dyes against human metastatic melanoma cells.
  • BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Numerous worldwide clinical trials have shown that photodynamic therapy (PDT) represents an effective and safe modality for various skin disorders, but little research has been done in terms of its effect on malignant melanomas (MM).
  • Thus, the aim of this study was to compare the effect of both established porphyrin photosensitizer 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) and novel metallophthalocyanine (MPc) photosensitizer on human metastatic skin cells which produce a MM.
  • RESULTS: Findings reported that in vitro human MM cell line A375 (EACC no: 88113005) are highly sensitive to growth inhibition and apoptosis induction by the cytotoxic side-effects induced by MPc and 5-ALA photosensitizing treatments post-laser irradiation at 680 and 636 nm, respectively.
  • The decrease of cell viability accompanied by an increased cytotoxicity and apoptotic and necrotic levels, with a time-dependant decrease in cellular proliferation was found to be far more significant for MPc-treated cells than 5-ALA-treated cells, since MPc was applied in far lower concentrations and exhibited far less photoxicity to control cells.
  • CONCLUSION: Hence, novel MPc proved to be the better photosensitizing dye for metastatic melanoma tumor destruction in combination with laser irradiation and is a particularly attractive photosensitizer since it exhibits so many ideal properties of a photosensitizing agent, thus further research of this possible anticancer agent could contribute to its potential application in PDT cancer treatment of MMs.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminolevulinic Acid / pharmacology. Indoles / pharmacology. Melanoma / drug therapy. Photochemotherapy. Photosensitizing Agents / pharmacology. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Culture Techniques. Cell Line, Tumor / drug effects. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Cell Survival / drug effects. Humans

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • [ErratumIn] Lasers Surg Med. 2011 Sep;43(8):869. Evans, Denise [added]
  • (PMID = 21246581.001).
  • [ISSN] 1096-9101
  • [Journal-full-title] Lasers in surgery and medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lasers Surg Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Indoles; 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 574-93-6 / phthalocyanine; 88755TAZ87 / Aminolevulinic Acid
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77. Lens M: Cutaneous melanoma: interferon alpha adjuvant therapy for patients at high risk for recurrent disease. Dermatol Ther; 2006 Jan-Feb;19(1):9-18
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  • [Title] Cutaneous melanoma: interferon alpha adjuvant therapy for patients at high risk for recurrent disease.
  • Systemic adjuvant therapy in melanoma patients is the systemic treatment that is administered with the goal of eradicating micrometastatic deposits in patients who are clinically free of disease after surgical removal of the primary melanoma, but with a high risk of systemic recurrence.
  • Interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) is one of the most frequently used adjuvant therapies.
  • Several randomized trials evaluated the efficacy of IFN-alpha in melanoma patients.
  • All trials, including meta-analysis, failed to demonstrate a clear impact of IFN-alpha therapy on overall survival in melanoma patients.
  • Based on currently available evidence, IFN-alpha therapy in the adjuvant setting should not be considered standard of care for patients who have melanoma.
  • Further research for this therapy is required.
  • [MeSH-major] Interferon-alpha / administration & dosage. Melanoma / drug therapy. Melanoma / mortality. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / mortality
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Disease-Free Survival. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic. Recombinant Proteins. Risk Assessment. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16405565.001).
  • [ISSN] 1396-0296
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatologic therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Interferon-alpha; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 99210-65-8 / interferon alfa-2b
  • [Number-of-references] 42
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78. Rao UN, Ibrahim J, Flaherty LE, Richards J, Kirkwood JM: Implications of microscopic satellites of the primary and extracapsular lymph node spread in patients with high-risk melanoma: pathologic corollary of Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Trial E1690. J Clin Oncol; 2002 Apr 15;20(8):2053-7
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  • [Title] Implications of microscopic satellites of the primary and extracapsular lymph node spread in patients with high-risk melanoma: pathologic corollary of Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Trial E1690.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: E1690 included 642 patients with American Joint Committee on Cancer stage IIB or III cutaneous melanoma.
  • Patients were randomized into high- and low-dose rIFN alpha-2b treatment arms and an observation arm.
  • RESULTS: Ulceration, mitotic activity, thickness, and size of tumor-bearing lymph nodes did not show a statistically significant correlation with either OS or RFS across all treatment arms.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Interferon-alpha / therapeutic use. Melanoma / drug therapy. Melanoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Mitotic Index. Neoplasm Staging. Recombinant Proteins. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Survival Analysis. Ulcer

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  • (PMID = 11956265.001).
  • [ISSN] 0732-183X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA14028; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA21115; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA23318; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA32102; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA39229; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA66636
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Interferon-alpha; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 99210-65-8 / interferon alfa-2b
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79. Puri N, Eller MS, Byers HR, Dykstra S, Kubera J, Gilchrest BA: Telomere-based DNA damage responses: a new approach to melanoma. FASEB J; 2004 Sep;18(12):1373-81
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  • [Title] Telomere-based DNA damage responses: a new approach to melanoma.
  • Melanoma is the most fatal skin cancer, often highly resistant to chemotherapy.
  • Here we show that treatment with an 11-base DNA oligonucleotide homologous to the telomere 3' overhang sequence (T-oligo) induces apoptosis of several established human melanoma cell lines, including the aggressive MM-AN line, whereas normal human melanocytes exposed to the same or higher T-oligo concentrations show only transient cell cycle arrest, implying that malignant cells are more sensitive to T-oligo effects.
  • We suggest that T-oligo mimics a physiologic DNA damage signal that is frequently masked in malignant cells and thereby activates innate cancer prevention responses.
  • T-oligos may provide a novel therapeutic approach to melanoma.
  • [MeSH-major] DNA Damage / genetics. Melanoma / genetics. Melanoma / pathology. Oligodeoxyribonucleotides / pharmacology. Telomere / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Apoptosis / drug effects. Cell Differentiation / drug effects. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / drug effects. Humans. Mice. Mice, SCID. Neoplasm Metastasis / drug therapy. Neoplasm Metastasis / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15333580.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-6860
  • [Journal-full-title] FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] FASEB J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / R03 AR050110-02
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Oligodeoxyribonucleotides
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80. Jahnke A, Makovitzky J, Briese V: Primary melanoma of the female genital system: a report of 10 cases and review of the literature. Anticancer Res; 2005 May-Jun;25(3A):1567-74
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  • [Title] Primary melanoma of the female genital system: a report of 10 cases and review of the literature.
  • BACKGROUND: Primary melanoma of the female genital system are extremely rare (2-3%).
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective review was undertaken of patients with primary melanoma of the female genital system treated from 1990-2003 at Rostock University Hospital, Germany.
  • Different treatments (sentinel node biopsy, inguinofemoral lymphadenectomy, en bloc resection, adjuvant Interferon-alpha-therapy, adjuvant chemotherapy) are discussed.
  • The complicated classification is reduced to a clinical path for daily use (UICC stage and invasion depth of Breslow, Clark's level and Chung's level).
  • RESULTS: We report on 10 patients, aged 26 to 76 years, with primary melanoma of the female genital tract.
  • Seven women developed a vulvar melanoma and one woman a malignant melanoma of the cutaneous inguinal region, while another 2 women had an unusual primary location of the malignant melanoma, the cervico-vaginal region (n=1) and the left ovary (n = 1).
  • [MeSH-major] Genital Neoplasms, Female / diagnosis. Melanoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Interferon-alpha / therapeutic use. Lymph Node Excision. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 16033062.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Interferon-alpha
  • [Number-of-references] 27
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81. Stang A, Stausberg J: Inpatient management of patients with skin cancer in Germany: an analysis of the nationwide DRG-statistic 2005-2006. Br J Dermatol; 2009 Nov;161 Suppl 3:99-106
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  • [Title] Inpatient management of patients with skin cancer in Germany: an analysis of the nationwide DRG-statistic 2005-2006.
  • BACKGROUND: In 2004, Germany introduced a nationwide DRG (Diagnosis Related Groups) based recompensation system for hospitals.
  • The aim of this study was to provide nationwide quantitative information about the in-hospital management of skin cancer patients in Germany based on the DRG statistic of the years 2005 through 2006.
  • The unit of analysis was the hospital admission with a diagnosis of skin melanoma (MEL) or nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) including 151.144 hospitalisations.
  • RESULTS: In 60% and 28% of all MEL- and NMSC-related hospitalisations respectively, skin cancers were surgically excised.
  • Local therapies other than surgical excision were more prevalent among hospitalisations for NMSC than for MEL (9% vs. 4%).
  • 22% and 1% of all MEL-related and NMSC-related hospitalisations respectively included a systemic chemotherapy.
  • DISCUSSION: We provide for the first time nationwide quantitative data on the in-hospital management of skin cancer patients.
  • The observed differences in the management of MEL and NMSC most likely reflect differences of the biology, epidemiology and therapeutic modalities of these cancers.
  • [MeSH-major] Diagnosis-Related Groups / statistics & numerical data. Hospitalization / statistics & numerical data. Skin Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Distribution. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Germany / epidemiology. Health Care Surveys. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Melanoma / economics. Melanoma / epidemiology. Melanoma / therapy. Middle Aged. Prevalence. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19775365.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2133
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] England
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82. Manca A, Kumar K, Taylor RS, Jacques L, Eldabe S, Meglio M, Molet J, Thomson S, O'Callaghan J, Eisenberg E, Milbouw G, Buchser E, Fortini G, Richardson J, Taylor RJ, Goeree R, Sculpher MJ: Quality of life, resource consumption and costs of spinal cord stimulation versus conventional medical management in neuropathic pain patients with failed back surgery syndrome (PROCESS trial). Eur J Pain; 2008 Nov;12(8):1047-58
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  • AIMS: To assess health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and cost implications of spinal cord stimulation plus non-surgical conventional medical management (SCS group) versus non-surgical conventional medical management alone (CMM group) in the management of neuropathic pain in patients with failed back surgery syndrome.
  • METHODS: A total of 100 patients were randomised to either the SCS or CMM group.
  • Healthcare resource consumption data relating to screening, the use of the implantable generator in SCS patients, hospital stay, and drug and non-drug pain-related treatment were collected prospectively.
  • RESULTS: The 6-month mean total healthcare cost in the SCS group (CAN$19,486; 12,653 euros) was significantly higher than in the CMM group (CAN$3994; 2594 euros), with a mean adjusted difference of CAN$15,395 (9997 euros) (p<0.001).
  • However, the gain in HRQoL with SCS over the same period of time was markedly greater in the SCS group, with a mean EQ-5D score difference of 0.25 [p<0.001] and 0.21 [p<0.001], respectively at 3- and 6-months after adjusting for baseline variables.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The addition of SCS to CMM in patients with neuropathic leg and back pain results in higher costs to health systems but also generates important improvements in patients' EQ-5D over the same period.
  • [MeSH-major] Analgesics / therapeutic use. Electric Stimulation Therapy / statistics & numerical data. Health Care Costs / statistics & numerical data. Low Back Pain / economics. Peripheral Nervous System Diseases / economics. Postoperative Complications / economics
  • [MeSH-minor] Australia. Canada. Cost-Benefit Analysis. Europe. Female. Health Resources / economics. Health Resources / utilization. Health Status. Hospitalization / statistics & numerical data. Humans. Israel. Longevity. Male. Middle Aged. Neurosurgical Procedures / adverse effects. Patient Satisfaction / statistics & numerical data. Prospective Studies. Quality of Life / psychology. Spinal Cord / physiology. Spinal Cord / surgery. Spinal Diseases / surgery. Spine / pathology. Spine / physiopathology. Spine / surgery. Syndrome. Treatment Failure

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  • [CommentIn] Nat Clin Pract Neurol. 2008 Sep;4(9):472-3 [18648348.001]
  • (PMID = 18359255.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-2149
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of pain (London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Pain
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Analgesics
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83. Adedoyin OT, Johnson AW, Ojuawo AI, Afolayan EA, Adeniji KA: Malignant melanoma in a black child: predisposing precursors and management. J Natl Med Assoc; 2004 Oct;96(10):1368-73
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  • [Title] Malignant melanoma in a black child: predisposing precursors and management.
  • Malignant melanoma (MM) remains a pediatric rarity world-wide, but perhaps more so in black Africans.
  • A diagnosis of MM was confirmed by the subsequent histopathologic findings from the fine-needle aspirate and biopsy specimens.
  • Chemotherapy was initiated but was truncated shortly after by parent-pressured discharge.
  • Despite the rarity of MM in a tropical African setting where management options are few, the current case underscores the need for a high clinical index of diagnostic suspicion, an early pursuit of investigative confirmation, and prophylactic excision in children with the predisposing skin lesions, like congenital giant hairy nevus.
  • [MeSH-major] African Continental Ancestry Group / genetics. Dysplastic Nevus Syndrome / complications. Melanoma / etiology. Skin Neoplasms / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Causality. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Nigeria. Risk Factors. Skin Pigmentation / genetics

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  • (PMID = 15540891.001).
  • [ISSN] 1943-4693
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the National Medical Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Natl Med Assoc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2568537
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84. Shields JA, Shields CL, Brotman HK, Carvalho C, Perez N, Eagle RC Jr: Cancer metastatic to the orbit: the 2000 Robert M. Curts Lecture. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg; 2001 Sep;17(5):346-54
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  • [Title] Cancer metastatic to the orbit: the 2000 Robert M. Curts Lecture.
  • RESULTS: Of 100 patients, the primary tumor site was breast in 53 (53%), prostate gland in 12 (12%), lung in 8 (8%), skin (melanoma) in 6 (6%), kidney in 5 (5%), gastrointestinal tract in 5 (5%), choroid (melanoma) in 2 (2%), parotid gland in 1 (1%), and adrenal gland (neuroblastoma) in 1 (1%).
  • Of patients in whom a detailed history was available, there was no history of cancer at the time of presentation in 19%.
  • There were 36 male patients and 64 female patients whose mean age at diagnosis was 62 years (median 60 years, range 5 to 91 years).
  • Treatment included chemotherapy, hormone therapy, irradiation, surgical excision, or observation, depending on clinical circumstances.
  • Among patients with sufficient follow-up, 95% died of metastasis, with overall mean survival of 15 months (median 15 months; range 3 to 96 months) after orbital diagnosis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The most common primary cancers that metastasize to the orbit are breast, prostate gland, and lung cancer.
  • In 19%, there is no history of cancer when the patient presents with ophthalmic symptoms and in 10% the primary site remains obscure despite systemic evaluation.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / secondary. Melanoma / secondary. Neoplasms / pathology. Neuroblastoma / secondary. Orbital Neoplasms / secondary. Sarcoma / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Tomography, X-Ray Computed


85. Brennan P, Coates M, Armstrong B, Colin D, Boffetta P: Second primary neoplasms following non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in New South Wales, Australia. Br J Cancer; 2000 Apr;82(7):1344-7
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  • [Title] Second primary neoplasms following non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in New South Wales, Australia.
  • The incidence of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) has been increasing rapidly over the last three decades.
  • We used data from the New South Wales Central Cancer Registry to analyse second primary neoplasms following NHL diagnosed between 1972 and 1995, to identify possible common causal agents.
  • A total of 12,452 patients contributed 54,308 person-years of follow-up during which time there were 705 second primary neoplasms compared to 592.99 expected (standardized incidence ratio (SIR = 1.19, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.10-1.28).
  • There were excesses of melanomas of skin (SIR = 2.38, 95% CI 1.92-2.91), lip cancer (SIR = 2.74, 95% CI 1.59-4.38), tongue cancer (SIR = 2.53, 95% CI 1.09-4.99) and bladder cancer (SIR = 1.64, 95% CI 1.19-2.21).
  • There was also over a threefold excess in soft tissue sarcomas (SIR = 3.61, 95% CI 1.80-6.45) and in thyroid cancer (SIR = 3.42, 95% CI 1.56-6.49).
  • The increases in melanoma of the skin and cancer of the lip and tongue among patients with NHL strongly suggest sunlight exposure as a shared causal agent.
  • The increase in soft tissue sarcomas might be due to shared effects of exposure to chemicals such as phenoxy acid herbicides.
  • The increases in bladder and thyroid cancers are likely to be explained by effects of treatment for NHL.
  • We did not find a chemotherapy related increased risk of myeloid leukaemia among NHL patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / drug therapy. Neoplasms, Second Primary / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Female. Humans. Incidence. Male. Melanoma / epidemiology. Melanoma / etiology. Middle Aged. New South Wales / epidemiology. Registries. Retrospective Studies. Risk Assessment. Skin Neoplasms / epidemiology. Skin Neoplasms / etiology. Sunlight / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 10755412.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0920
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] SCOTLAND
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2374485
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86. Hauschild A, Weichenthal M, Rass K, Linse R, Berking C, Böttjer J, Vogt T, Spieth K, Eigentler T, Brockmeyer NH, Stein A, Näher H, Schadendorf D, Mohr P, Kaatz M, Tronnier M, Hein R, Schuler G, Egberts F, Garbe C: Efficacy of low-dose interferon {alpha}2a 18 versus 60 months of treatment in patients with primary melanoma of &gt;= 1.5 mm tumor thickness: results of a randomized phase III DeCOG trial. J Clin Oncol; 2010 Feb 10;28(5):841-6
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  • [Title] Efficacy of low-dose interferon {alpha}2a 18 versus 60 months of treatment in patients with primary melanoma of >= 1.5 mm tumor thickness: results of a randomized phase III DeCOG trial.
  • PURPOSE Low-dose (LD) interferon (IFN) alfa (LDI) has demonstrated a consistent disease-free survival benefit for patients with clinically lymph node-negative melanoma in clinical trials.
  • However, the optimal duration of treatment is still under discussion, and no previous trial has evaluated this question specifically.
  • A prolongation of LDI from 18 months to 60 months might be of clinical benefit for patients with intermediate or high-risk melanoma.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS Eight hundred fifty patients with resected cutaneous melanoma of at least 1.5 mm tumor thickness were included in this prospective randomized, multicenter trial in Germany and Austria.
  • They were randomly assigned to receive 3 MU IFNalpha2a three times a week subcutaneously for either 18 months (arm A) or 60 months (arm B).
  • CONCLUSION A prolongation of conventional LDI therapy from 18 to 60 months showed no clinical benefit in patients with intermediate and high-risk primary melanoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Interferon-alpha / administration & dosage. Melanoma / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Austria. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Disease-Free Survival. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Germany. Humans. Injections, Subcutaneous. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Male. Middle Aged. Proportional Hazards Models. Prospective Studies. Recombinant Proteins. Risk Assessment. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20048184.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase III; Comparative Study; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Interferon-alpha; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 76543-88-9 / interferon alfa-2a
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87. Ascierto PA, Daponte A, Parasole R, Perrone F, Caracò C, Melucci M, Palmieri G, Napolitano M, Mozzillo N, Castello G: Intermediate dose recombinant interferon-alpha as second-line treatment for patients with recurrent cutaneous melanoma who were pretreated with low dose interferon. Cancer; 2000 Oct 1;89(7):1490-4
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  • [Title] Intermediate dose recombinant interferon-alpha as second-line treatment for patients with recurrent cutaneous melanoma who were pretreated with low dose interferon.
  • BACKGROUND: Interferon (IFN) is widely considered the most effective agent in the adjuvant therapy of patients with cutaneous melanoma (CM).
  • METHODS: A series of 24 consecutive CM patients who had undergone surgery for local, in-transit, or lymph node disease recurrence during adjuvant therapy with low dose IFN (IFNalpha-2b, 3 million units [MU] per day, three times per week) were enrolled for second-line therapy with intermediate dose IFN (IFNalpha-2b, 10 MU per day) for one year.
  • CONCLUSIONS: An increased dose of IFN as second-line adjuvant treatment was poorly tolerated and produced negative clinical outcomes in patients with CM.
  • In fact, the first adjuvant IFN treatment was ineffective in all patients.
  • Thus, the key factor in the treatment of CM seems to be patient responsiveness to IFN rather than the total dosage achieved.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Interferon-alpha / therapeutic use. Melanoma / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Disease Progression. Disease-Free Survival. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2000 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 11013362.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Interferon-alpha
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88. Fröhlich E: Proteases in cutaneous malignant melanoma: relevance as biomarker and therapeutic target. Cell Mol Life Sci; 2010 Dec;67(23):3947-60
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  • [Title] Proteases in cutaneous malignant melanoma: relevance as biomarker and therapeutic target.
  • Cutaneous malignant melanoma is the most aggressive skin cancer.
  • It is also the most rapidly spreading cancer in terms of worldwide incidence.
  • Although it is detected by simple inspection and can be relatively easily removed or treated, differential diagnosis to other melanocytic lesions, lack of prognostic markers, and no efficient treatment of advanced melanoma pose problems.
  • Detection and targeting of proteases may represent a useful tool since they play a role in tumor cell metabolism, invasion, angiogenesis and metastasis.
  • This review gives an overview of the role of proteases in development and progression of cutaneous malignant melanoma.
  • The potential use of proteases as differential markers for melanoma mimicking melanocytic lesions, as biomarkers in tissues, and as prognostic serum markers is discussed.
  • Current and future possibilities to target tumor proteases in therapy are presented.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor. Melanoma. Peptide Hydrolases / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Diagnosis, Differential. Disease Progression. Humans. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 20686912.001).
  • [ISSN] 1420-9071
  • [Journal-full-title] Cellular and molecular life sciences : CMLS
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cell. Mol. Life Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 3.4.- / Peptide Hydrolases
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89. Marx J: Medicine. DNA arrays reveal cancer in its many forms. Science; 2000 Sep 8;289(5485):1670-2
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  • [Title] Medicine. DNA arrays reveal cancer in its many forms.
  • The use of microarrays--slides or chips systematically dotted with DNA from thousands of genes--to determine gene expression patterns is providing a wealth of new information that should aid in cancer diagnosis and ultimately in therapy.
  • In the past several months, researchers in several labs have used microarray technology to identify specific subtypes of a variety of cancers, including leukemias and lymphomas, the dangerous skin cancer melanoma, and breast cancer.
  • In some cases, they can determine which cancers are likely to respond to current therapies and which aren't.
  • In addition, the studies are giving researchers a fix on which genes are important for the development, maintenance, and spread of the various cancers, and are thus possible drug targets.

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  • (PMID = 11001727.001).
  • [ISSN] 0036-8075
  • [Journal-full-title] Science (New York, N.Y.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Science
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] News
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
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90. Mu XC, Tran TA, Ross JS, Carlson JA: Topoisomerase II-alpha expression in melanocytic nevi and malignant melanoma. J Cutan Pathol; 2000 May;27(5):242-8
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  • [Title] Topoisomerase II-alpha expression in melanocytic nevi and malignant melanoma.
  • Malignant melanoma (MM) is considered to be a chemotherapy-refractory tumor.
  • New anti-cancer drugs (e.g. etoposide) that target DNA topoisomerases (e.g. topoisomerase II-alpha (topo IIalpha)) show activity against a wide variety of solid tumors.
  • The rate of topo IIalpha labeling in dysplastic melanocytic nevi, radial growth phase MM, vertical growth phase MM and metastatic MM revealed significant differences amongst groups and a positive covariance with advancing stage (means: 0.3, 0.5, 5, and 8 '+' cells/hpf, respectively; r=0.3, all p < or = 0.02).
  • These findings indicate topo IIalpha as a potential therapeutic target and marker for MM.
  • Immunohistochemical analysis of disseminated MM may allow for correlation with clinical response and enable selection of candidates sensitive for specific chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, Neoplasm / metabolism. DNA Topoisomerases, Type II / metabolism. Isoenzymes / metabolism. Melanoma / enzymology. Nevus, Pigmented / enzymology. Skin Neoplasms / enzymology

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  • (PMID = 10847549.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] DENMARK
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Isoenzymes; EC 5.99.1.3 / DNA Topoisomerases, Type II; EC 5.99.1.3 / DNA topoisomerase II alpha
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91. Heere-Ress E, Thallinger C, Lucas T, Schlagbauer-Wadl H, Wacheck V, Monia BP, Wolff K, Pehamberger H, Jansen B: Bcl-X(L) is a chemoresistance factor in human melanoma cells that can be inhibited by antisense therapy. Int J Cancer; 2002 May 1;99(1):29-34
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  • [Title] Bcl-X(L) is a chemoresistance factor in human melanoma cells that can be inhibited by antisense therapy.
  • Malignant melanoma is a tumor that responds poorly to a variety of apoptosis-inducing treatment modalities, such as chemotherapy.
  • Bcl-x(L) is an antiapoptotic member of the Bcl-2 family and is universally expressed in human melanoma.
  • To evaluate the Bcl-x(L) protein as a potential therapeutic target in melanoma, the influence of Bcl-x(L) expression levels on the chemoresistance of human melanoma cells was investigated.
  • Overexpression of Bcl-x(L) in stably transfected human melanoma Mel Juso cells significantly reduced sensitivity to cisplatin-induced apoptosis (p < or = 0.05).
  • In a parallel approach, reduction of Bcl-x(L) protein by specific AS oligonucleotide (ISIS 16009) treatment enhanced the chemosensitivity of Mel Juso cells by 62% compared to cells treated with MM control oligonucleotide (ISIS 16967) as well as chemotherapy-induced apoptosis.
  • These data suggest that Bcl-x(L) is an important factor contributing to the chemoresistance of human melanoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Apoptosis / drug effects. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Melanoma / drug therapy. Oligonucleotides, Antisense / therapeutic use. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / antagonists & inhibitors. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Blotting, Western. Cell Survival / drug effects. Drug Resistance. Flow Cytometry. Humans. Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases / metabolism. Transfection. Tumor Cells, Cultured. bcl-X Protein

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 11948488.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-7136
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / BCL2L1 protein, human; 0 / Oligonucleotides, Antisense; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; 0 / bcl-X Protein; EC 2.4.2.30 / Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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92. Nicol I, Chuto G, Gaudy-Marqueste C, Brenot-Rossi I, Grob JJ, Richard MA: [Role of FDG PET-CT in cutaneous melanoma]. Bull Cancer; 2008 Nov;95(11):1089-101
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  • [Title] [Role of FDG PET-CT in cutaneous melanoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Place de la TEP-TDM au FDG dans le mélanome cutané
  • PURPOSE: The indications of FDG PET-CT are well established for some neoplasms, such as lung cancer and lymphoma.
  • The role of FDG PET-CT for the management of cutaneous melanoma is less clear.
  • RESULTS: PET-CT is not indicated for the diagnosis of the malignancy of a suspicious cutaneous lesion, or for initial regional node staging.
  • PET-CT is not indicated for the initial staging of melanoma without node involvement.
  • PET-CT could be proposed for the staging of thick melanoma with macroscopic involvement of the sentinel node.
  • The sole curative treatment of melanoma being surgery, the most useful indications of PET-CT are preoperative staging of one (or more) nodal or distant metastases, whether histologically confirmed or not.
  • PET-CT is not indicated for assessing response to chemotherapy, except in clinical trials.
  • [MeSH-major] Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Melanoma / radionuclide imaging. Positron-Emission Tomography. Radiopharmaceuticals. Skin Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging

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  • (PMID = 19036682.001).
  • [ISSN] 1769-6917
  • [Journal-full-title] Bulletin du cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bull Cancer
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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93. Ranson M, Hersey P, Thompson D, Beith J, McArthur GA, Haydon A, Davis ID, Kefford RF, Mortimer P, Harris PA, Baka S, Seebaran A, Sabharwal A, Watson AJ, Margison GP, Middleton MR: Randomized trial of the combination of lomeguatrib and temozolomide compared with temozolomide alone in chemotherapy naive patients with metastatic cutaneous melanoma. J Clin Oncol; 2007 Jun 20;25(18):2540-5
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  • [Title] Randomized trial of the combination of lomeguatrib and temozolomide compared with temozolomide alone in chemotherapy naive patients with metastatic cutaneous melanoma.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate tumor response, pharmacodynamic effects, and safety of a combination of lomeguatrib (LM), an O6-methylguanine DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT) inactivator, and temozolomide (TMZ), TMZ alone, and LM/TMZ after disease progression on TMZ alone in patients with advanced melanoma.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with unresectable stage III or IV cutaneous melanoma who had no prior systemic chemotherapy were randomly assigned to receive either 40 to 80 mg LM and 125 mg/m2 TMZ or 200 mg/m2 TMZ on days 1 through 5 of each 28-day treatment cycle.
  • Drugs were administered orally for up to six cycles of treatment.
  • Patients on TMZ alone were offered LM/TMZ at progression, if fit enough to receive treatment.
  • Median time to disease progression was 65.5 days for LM/TMZ and 68 days for TMZ.
  • All treatments were well tolerated, although hematologic and gastrointestinal adverse events were common.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Dacarbazine / analogs & derivatives. Enzyme Inhibitors / administration & dosage. Melanoma / drug therapy. O(6)-Methylguanine-DNA Methyltransferase / antagonists & inhibitors. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Purines. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17577032.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / Purines; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 85622-93-1 / temozolomide; EC 2.1.1.63 / O(6)-Methylguanine-DNA Methyltransferase; S79265T71M / lomeguatrib
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94. Fiorentini G, Aliberti C, Del Conte A, Tilli M, Rossi S, Ballardini P, Turrisi G, Benea G: Intra-arterial hepatic chemoembolization (TACE) of liver metastases from ocular melanoma with slow-release irinotecan-eluting beads. Early results of a phase II clinical study. In Vivo; 2009 Jan-Feb;23(1):131-7
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  • [Title] Intra-arterial hepatic chemoembolization (TACE) of liver metastases from ocular melanoma with slow-release irinotecan-eluting beads. Early results of a phase II clinical study.
  • BACKGROUND: Uveal melanoma (UM) is the most common primary intraocular malignancy in adults and the liver is the predominant site of metastases (LM).
  • If metastases appear, none of the systemic treatments established for cutaneous melanoma so far have any significant impact.
  • TACE combines hepatic artery embolization with infusion of concentrated doses of chemotherapeutic drugs.
  • The use of IRI as drug-eluting beads seems to optimize TACE in UM.
  • The median follow-up time from the beginning of therapy was 6.5 months (range 4-9 months).
  • Eight patients are alive at the time of this analysis.
  • The most important adverse event was abdominal pain during the procedure.
  • Adequate supportive treatment with antibiotic and antiemetic prophylaxis, desametazone and intravenous hydration is strictly necessary until stabilization of serum levels of transaminases and to prevent infections.
  • A major analgesic such as morphine must be used before and after the procedure.
  • CONCLUSION: TACE containing beads preloaded with IRI is effective in the treatment of LM from UM.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / therapeutic use. Camptothecin / analogs & derivatives. Chemoembolization, Therapeutic / methods. Liver Neoplasms / therapy. Melanoma / therapy. Uveal Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Liver / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Microspheres. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19368137.001).
  • [ISSN] 0258-851X
  • [Journal-full-title] In vivo (Athens, Greece)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] In Vivo
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 7673326042 / irinotecan; XT3Z54Z28A / Camptothecin
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95. Dimitrov BD, Rachkova MI, Atanassova PA: Cyclic patterns of incidence rate for skin malignant melanoma: association with heliogeophysical activity. J Zhejiang Univ Sci B; 2008 Jun;9(6):489-95
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  • [Title] Cyclic patterns of incidence rate for skin malignant melanoma: association with heliogeophysical activity.
  • BACKGROUND: Our previous studies revealed cyclicity in the incidence rate of skin malignant melanoma (SMM; ICD9, Dx:172) in the Czech Republic (period T=7.50-7.63 years), UK (T=11.00 years) and Bulgaria (T=12.20 years).
  • Incidences compared with the sunspot index Rz (lag-period dT=+2, +4, +6, +10 or +12 years) have indicated that maximal rates are most likely to appear on descending slopes of the 11-year solar cycle, i.e., out of phase.
  • METHODS: Annual incidences of SMM from 5 countries (Czech Republic, UK, Bulgaria, USA and Canada) over various time spans during the years 1964-1992 were analyzed and their correlations with cyclic Rz (sunspot number) and aa (planetary geomagnetic activity) indices were summarized.
  • The association of SMM for USA and Canada with Rz (dT=+6 and +7 years, respectively) and aa (dT=-10 and +9 years, respectively) was described.
  • Possible interactions of cyclic non-photic influences (UV irradiation, Schumann resonance signal, low-frequency geomagnetic fluctuations) with brain waves absorbance, neuronal calcium dynamics, neuro-endocrine axis modulation, melatonin/serotonin disbalance and skin neuro-immunity impairment as likely causal pathways in melanoma appearance, were also discussed.
  • CONCLUSION: The above findings on cyclicity and temporal association of SMM with cyclic environmental factors could not only allow for better forecasting models but also lead to a better understanding of melanoma aetiology.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / epidemiology. Periodicity. Skin Neoplasms / epidemiology. Solar Activity

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  • (PMID = 18543403.001).
  • [ISSN] 1673-1581
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Zhejiang Univ Sci B
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2408703
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96. Esmaeli B, Wang B, Deavers M, Gillenwater A, Goepfert H, Diaz E, Eicher S: Prognostic factors for survival in malignant melanoma of the eyelid skin. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg; 2000 Jul;16(4):250-7
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  • [Title] Prognostic factors for survival in malignant melanoma of the eyelid skin.
  • PURPOSE: This study aimed to determine the prognostic factors for survival and disease-free interval for malignant melanoma of the eyelid skin.
  • Twenty-four patients with eyelid skin melanoma were identified through a search of the tumor registry at M. D.
  • Anderson Cancer Center.
  • Primary treatment in all cases entailed wide local excision of the tumor.
  • Patients in whom regional lymph node metastasis developed underwent parotidectomy or neck dissection, with or without adjuvant chemotherapy or external beam radiation.
  • Survival analysis in terms of disease-free survival and recurrence-free survival was performed using age, sex, location of tumor (upper lid, lower lid, or both), histologic type of melanoma, Breslow thickness, and Clark's level as independent variables for survival.
  • RESULTS: Age, sex, location, and the histologic type of tumor were not significant prognostic indicators for survival in this cohort.
  • CONCLUSION: Clark's level > or = IV or Breslow thickness > or = 1.5 mm are poor prognostic indicators for malignant melanomas of the eyelid skin.
  • [MeSH-major] Eyelid Neoplasms / mortality. Melanoma / mortality. Skin Neoplasms / mortality
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / mortality. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. United States / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 10923972.001).
  • [ISSN] 0740-9303
  • [Journal-full-title] Ophthalmic plastic and reconstructive surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
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97. Pasquali S, Mocellin S: The anticancer face of interferon alpha (IFN-alpha): from biology to clinical results, with a focus on melanoma. Curr Med Chem; 2010;17(29):3327-36
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  • [Title] The anticancer face of interferon alpha (IFN-alpha): from biology to clinical results, with a focus on melanoma.
  • Alpha interferons (IFN) are type I IFNs that have pleiotropic effects on cell functions.
  • IFNs-alpha represent the cytokines exhibiting the longest record of use in clinical oncology for the treatment of over a dozen of cancer types, including some hematological malignancies and solid tumors.
  • Although targeted anticancer agents have recently replaced IFN-alpha in the treatment of certain hematological (e.g. chronic myeloid leukemia) and solid (e.g. renal cell carcinoma) malignancies, this cytokine is still used for the treatment of patients with specific tumor types, such as cutaneous melanoma.
  • In this review we describe the evidence supporting the main mechanisms underlying IFN-alpha anticancer effects using both preclinical and clinical findings; moreover, we focus on the results of IFN-alpha for the treatment of patients with high-risk cutaneous melanoma, one of the malignancies most resistant to conventional chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Interferon Type I / therapeutic use. Melanoma / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Clinical Trials as Topic. Dendritic Cells / drug effects. Dendritic Cells / immunology. Drug Evaluation, Preclinical. Humans. Mice. Recombinant Proteins