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1. Ghaemmaghami F, Ayatollahi H, Daneshbodi B, Azmoodeh FA: Unusual location of ovarian mixed germ cell tumor. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2005 Sep-Oct;15(5):979-83
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  • [Title] Unusual location of ovarian mixed germ cell tumor.
  • Intra-abdominal unusual location of mixed germ cell tumor of ovary, which consisted of endodermal sinus tumor and immature teratoma components, has been reported.
  • Patient was a 21-year-old girl with a chief complaint of abdominal pain and mass.
  • Ultrasound and computed tomography scan showed lobulated cystic mass.
  • Laparotomy was performed, and due to specific localization, in which tumor localized as a tumoral bridge between two ovaries, we just performed maximal fertility-sparing surgery by preserving ovaries, tubes, and uterus.
  • After that, four courses of chemotherapy (bleomycin, etoposide, and cis-platinum) were done to cure her.
  • The alfa-fetoprotein became negative after three courses of chemotherapy, and she is under observation for the time being.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16174255.001).
  • [ISSN] 1048-891X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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2. David YB, Weiss A, Shechtman L, Shalev E: Tumor chemoconversion following surgery, chemotherapy, and normalization of serum tumor markers in a woman with a mixed type germ cell ovarian tumor. Gynecol Oncol; 2002 Mar;84(3):464-7
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  • [Title] Tumor chemoconversion following surgery, chemotherapy, and normalization of serum tumor markers in a woman with a mixed type germ cell ovarian tumor.
  • BACKGROUND: Malignant germ cell tumors of the ovary are often curative after conservative surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • Persistent tumors despite normalization of serum tumor markers may represent retroconversion to benign masses, but this is rare in ovarian tumors without teratoma elements.
  • CASE: A young woman with a stage IIIC mixed germ cell ovarian tumor containing endodermal and dysgerminoma elements and elevated serum tumor markers underwent conservative surgery followed by chemotherapy.
  • Residual tumor persisted on CT despite the normalization of serum tumor markers.
  • The residual tissue was resected and contained benign tissue.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In cases where masses persist and serum tumor markers normalize, attaining a histological diagnosis, and not chemotherapy, should be considered.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Germinoma / drug therapy. Germinoma / surgery. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 11855890.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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3. Jondle DM, Shahin MS, Sorosky J, Benda JA: Ovarian mixed germ cell tumor with predominance of polyembryoma: a case report with literature review. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2002 Jan;21(1):78-81
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  • [Title] Ovarian mixed germ cell tumor with predominance of polyembryoma: a case report with literature review.
  • An ovarian mixed germ cell tumor in a 34-year-old woman contained a predominant component of polyembryoma as well as foci of choriocarcinoma, yolk sac tumor, and immature teratoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Germinoma / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Choriocarcinoma / drug therapy. Choriocarcinoma / pathology. Choriocarcinoma / surgery. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / drug therapy. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / pathology. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / surgery. Female. Histocytochemistry. Humans. Hysterectomy. Ovariectomy. Pregnancy. Teratoma / drug therapy. Teratoma / pathology. Teratoma / surgery

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  • (PMID = 11781529.001).
  • [ISSN] 0277-1691
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 18
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4. Bakri YN, Ezzat A, Akhtar, Dohami, Zahrani: Malignant germ cell tumors of the ovary. Pregnancy considerations. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol; 2000 May;90(1):87-91
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  • [Title] Malignant germ cell tumors of the ovary. Pregnancy considerations.
  • OBJECTIVE: To study the pregnancy association and malignant germ cell tumors of the ovary with regard to its effects on tumor prognosis.
  • STUDY DESIGN: : Seventy-five patients with malignant germ cell tumors of the ovary treated at the King Faisal Specialist Hospital-Research Center (KFSH-RC) Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between January 1976 and December 1992, were reviewed.
  • Data was retrieved from the medical records and the database of ovarian tumor pathology.
  • Patients with tumor/pregnancy association were identified and correlation with obstetrical outcome and tumor prognosis analyzed.
  • Patients who conceived after treatment were identified and their reproductive outcome described.
  • RESULTS: Malignant germ cell tumor was associated with pregnancy in a group of ten patients.
  • Possible tumor effects upon pregnancy in this group included operative delivery by caesarean section (n=3), mid-trimester termination (n=2), spontaneous abortion (n=1).
  • Four patients had normal vaginal birth with no apparent tumor effects upon pregnancy.
  • Pregnancy did not seem to influence the tumor prognosis of pure dysgerminoma (n=6), however, two patients with non-dysgerminomatous germ cell tumor (one endodermal sinus tumor and one immature teratoma) died of rapidly progressive disease during the second trimester.
  • Two patients with advanced (stage IIIC) disease concurrent with pregnancy (one pure dysgerminoma and one mixed germ cell tumor), had normal fetal outcomes and achieved long-term survival.
  • Amongst the 22 patients who planned to conceive after conservative surgery, with or without post-operative adjuvant chemotherapy, 12 conceived (12/22) and achieved a total of 20 pregnancies.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that, (1) The association of pure dysgerminoma and pregnancy did not adversely affect the tumor prognosis or fetal outcome.
  • However, the question remains as to whether pregnancy worsened the prognosis of non-dysgerminomatous germ cell tumors. (2) Recent platinum-based regimens of multiagent chemotherapy for germ cell tumors did not seem to affect fertility potential.
  • [MeSH-major] Germinoma / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Pregnancy. Pregnancy Outcome. Reproductive History

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  • (PMID = 10767517.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-2115
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of obstetrics, gynecology, and reproductive biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Obstet. Gynecol. Reprod. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] IRELAND
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5. Tewari K, Cappuccini F, Disaia PJ, Berman ML, Manetta A, Kohler MF: Malignant germ cell tumors of the ovary. Obstet Gynecol; 2000 Jan;95(1):128-33
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  • [Title] Malignant germ cell tumors of the ovary.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of adjuvant therapy for ovarian germ cell tumors.
  • METHODS: We reviewed records of women who had malignant germ cell tumors of the ovary from 1977-1997.
  • RESULTS: Seventy-two women had surgical resections of malignant ovarian germ cell tumors and most received adjuvant therapy.
  • Tumor subtypes included dysgerminoma (n = 20), yolk sac tumor (n = 8), immature teratoma (n = 29) and mixed germ cell tumor (n = 15).
  • Fifty-six women were treated with postoperative chemotherapy, predominantly platinum-based regimens.
  • CONCLUSION: These data confirmed that platinum-based adjuvant treatments allow most women with ovarian germ cell malignancies to have conservative surgery without compromising survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Germinoma / surgery. Ovarian Neoplasms / surgery. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Pregnancy. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 10636515.001).
  • [ISSN] 0029-7844
  • [Journal-full-title] Obstetrics and gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Obstet Gynecol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
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6. Zhao S, Kato N, Endoh Y, Jin Z, Ajioka Y, Motoyama T: Ovarian gonadoblastoma with mixed germ cell tumor in a woman with 46, XX karyotype and successful pregnancies. Pathol Int; 2000 Apr;50(4):332-5
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  • [Title] Ovarian gonadoblastoma with mixed germ cell tumor in a woman with 46, XX karyotype and successful pregnancies.
  • An extremely rare case of unilateral gonadoblastoma with mixed germ cell tumor arising in the ovary of a 27-year-old woman with 46,XX karyotype and two successful pregnancies is reported.
  • The mixed germ cell tumor was composed of choriocarcinoma, embryonal carcinoma, yolk sac tumor, immature teratoma and dysgerminoma.
  • The patient has been well, without evidence of disease for over 10 years since her first surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Germinoma. Gonadoblastoma. Ovarian Neoplasms

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  • (PMID = 10849320.001).
  • [ISSN] 1320-5463
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] AUSTRALIA
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7. Itani Y, Kawa M, Toyoda S, Yamagami K, Hiraoka K: Growing teratoma syndrome after chemotherapy for a mixed germ cell tumor of the ovary. J Obstet Gynaecol Res; 2002 Jun;28(3):166-71
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  • [Title] Growing teratoma syndrome after chemotherapy for a mixed germ cell tumor of the ovary.
  • A retroperitoneal enlarging mass was detected and resected in a 24-year-old nulliparous woman after fertility-preserving surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy for a malignant germ cell tumor (MGCT) of the right ovary.
  • Alpha-fetoprotein, which was elevated to 21236.6 ng/mL before the initial surgery, persisted within normal after the completion of adjuvant platinum-based chemotherapy.
  • Growing teratoma syndrome originating from ovarian germ cell tumor is very rare.
  • Surgical resection and histological confirmation of growing mass after MGCT treatment is essential before conducting salvage chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Germinoma / surgery. Neoplasms, Second Primary / surgery. Ovarian Neoplasms / surgery. Teratoma / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Syndrome. alpha-Fetoproteins / analysis

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  • (PMID = 12214834.001).
  • [ISSN] 1341-8076
  • [Journal-full-title] The journal of obstetrics and gynaecology research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins
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8. Kitajima Y, Endo T, Hayashi T, Ishioka S, Baba T, Honnma H, Saito T: A successful IVF-pregnancy in a patient who underwent conservative surgery followed by a regimen of cisplatin, vinblastine and peplomycin to treat an advanced ovarian mixed germ cell tumour: a case report. Hum Reprod; 2007 Mar;22(3):850-2
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  • [Title] A successful IVF-pregnancy in a patient who underwent conservative surgery followed by a regimen of cisplatin, vinblastine and peplomycin to treat an advanced ovarian mixed germ cell tumour: a case report.
  • Mixed germ cell tumours of the ovary, one type of malignant ovarian germ cell tumours (MOGCTs), are rare gynaecologic cancers usually affecting young women.
  • We report the case of a patient with an advanced ovarian mixed germ cell tumour who underwent fertility-saving surgery followed by a chemotherapy regimen of cisplatin, vinblastine and peplomycin.
  • To the best of our knowledge, the patient is the first to be treated successfully with the combination chemotherapy regimen and then conceive safely using assisted reproductive technology (ART).
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Fertilization in Vitro. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / therapy. Pregnancy, Multiple
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Infant, Newborn. Infertility, Female / etiology. Male. Peplomycin / administration & dosage. Peplomycin / therapeutic use. Peritoneal Diseases / complications. Peritoneal Diseases / pathology. Pregnancy. Pregnancy Outcome. Tissue Adhesions. Twins. Vinblastine / administration & dosage. Vinblastine / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 17067995.001).
  • [ISSN] 0268-1161
  • [Journal-full-title] Human reproduction (Oxford, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Reprod.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 56H9L80NIZ / Peplomycin; 5V9KLZ54CY / Vinblastine; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; PVP protocol 4
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9. Rebischung C, Pautier P, Morice P, Lhomme C, Duvillard P: Alpha-fetoprotein production by a malignant mixed Müllerian tumor of the ovary. Gynecol Oncol; 2000 Apr;77(1):203-5
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  • [Title] Alpha-fetoprotein production by a malignant mixed Müllerian tumor of the ovary.
  • Elevated levels of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), a fetal serum protein, usually signal the development of hepatoma or germ cell tumors, including endodermal sinus tumors.
  • We report the case of a 52-year-old woman with an alpha-fetoprotein-producing malignant mixed Müllerian tumor (MMMT) of the ovary.
  • Serum AFP was 5348 ng/ml at diagnosis.
  • Immunohistochemistry confirmed that the carcinomatous component of this biphasic tumor was the seat of AFP production.
  • After three cycles of combination chemotherapy, the patient achieved a complete remission.
  • Serum AFP was strongly correlated with response to treatment.
  • This is the first report of AFP production by a MMMT of the ovary without a yolk sac component.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / biosynthesis. Mixed Tumor, Mullerian / metabolism. Ovarian Neoplasms / metabolism. alpha-Fetoproteins / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2000 Academic Press.
  • (PMID = 10739713.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins
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10. Nishio S, Ushijima K, Fukui A, Fujiyoshi N, Kawano K, Komai K, Ota S, Fujiyoshi K, Kamura T: Fertility-preserving treatment for patients with malignant germ cell tumors of the ovary. J Obstet Gynaecol Res; 2006 Aug;32(4):416-21
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  • [Title] Fertility-preserving treatment for patients with malignant germ cell tumors of the ovary.
  • AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate whether fertility preservation influences the clinical outcome in patients with malignant germ cell tumors of the ovary (MGCTO).
  • Thirty-five patients were included in the study, 14 with immature teratoma, 11 with dysgerminoma, eight with endodermal sinus tumor, and two with mixed germ cell tumor.
  • As the adjuvant treatment, 30 patients received chemotherapy, while five patients did not receive any chemotherapy.
  • She was 13 years old with a stage IV endodermal sinus tumor.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Irrespective of the stage of the disease, conservative surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy for MGCTO can achieve a favorable outcome in terms of survival and fertility.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / surgery. Ovarian Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16882268.001).
  • [ISSN] 1341-8076
  • [Journal-full-title] The journal of obstetrics and gynaecology research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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11. Matsuura Y, Kitajima M, Hachisuga T, Tanimoto A, Okura N, Kihara I: Malignant mixed müllerian tumor with malignant neuroectodermal components (teratoid carcinosarcoma) of the ovary: Report of a case with clinicopathologic findings. J Obstet Gynaecol Res; 2010 Aug;36(4):907-11
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  • [Title] Malignant mixed müllerian tumor with malignant neuroectodermal components (teratoid carcinosarcoma) of the ovary: Report of a case with clinicopathologic findings.
  • Malignant mixed müllerian tumor (MMMT) or carcinosarcoma of the female genital tract is a rare neoplasm.
  • Malignant ovarian tumor composed of müllerian epithelial tumor and malignant germ cell tumor is also rare, with most cases composed of endometrioid adenocarcinoma and yolk sac tumor.
  • Ovarian MMMT with malignant neuroectodermal components resembling immature teratoma is extremely rare.
  • We report a case of teratoid carcinosarcoma of the ovary occurring in a 40-year-old female.
  • The resected tumor measuring over 20 cm in diameter consisted of cystic and solid components and was very fragile.
  • Microscopic examination showed a heterogenous mixed tumor composed of malignant epithelial, malignant mesodermal and malignant neuroectodermal components.
  • There was no tumor immunoreactivity to alpha-fetoprotein, carcinoembryonic antigen, human chorionic gonadotropin, and inhibin.
  • In spite of aggressive combination chemotherapy and three times of laparotomy, the patient died of disease 3 years 10 months after the initial treatment.
  • This quite rare ovarian tumor closely resembled nasopharyngeal tumors described as 'teratoid carcinosarcoma' is biologically aggressive.
  • We report the fourth case of ovarian teratoid carcinosarcoma.
  • Further cases need to be accumulated to make diagnosis and to determine a successful treatment modality.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinosarcoma / pathology. Mixed Tumor, Mullerian / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Teratoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Ovary / pathology. Ovary / surgery

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  • (PMID = 20666968.001).
  • [ISSN] 1447-0756
  • [Journal-full-title] The journal of obstetrics and gynaecology research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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12. Bafna UD, Umadevi K, Kumaran C, Nagarathna DS, Shashikala P, Tanseem R: Germ cell tumors of the ovary: is there a role for aggressive cytoreductive surgery for nondysgerminomatous tumors? Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2001 Jul-Aug;11(4):300-4
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  • [Title] Germ cell tumors of the ovary: is there a role for aggressive cytoreductive surgery for nondysgerminomatous tumors?
  • Thirty-three patients with germ cell tumor of the ovary were seen at Kidwai Memorial Institute of Oncology (KMIO), Bangalore, between 1996 and 1999.
  • Twelve patients had endodermal sinus tumor (EST), 11 dysgerminoma, seven mixed germ cell tumor, and three immature teratoma.
  • All but one patient received a combination of bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin (BEP) either as neoadjuvant (NACT, 3 cases) or as adjuvant therapy (28 cases).
  • In the present study, all 11 patients with dysgerminoma achieved sustained complete remission (CR), irrespective of the size of residual disease at the time of chemotherapy.
  • Four out of six cases (66.6%) with bulky nondysgerminomatous tumor achieved CR, which was sustained in three cases and one recurred.
  • This study indicates that there may be a role for aggressive cytoreductive surgery, either primary/interval or at the time of second-look laparotomy, in selected patients with nondysgerminomatous germ cell tumor of the ovary.
  • [MeSH-major] Germinoma / surgery. Ovarian Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bleomycin / administration & dosage. Child. Child, Preschool. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11520369.001).
  • [ISSN] 1048-891X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; BEP protocol
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13. Lee KH, Lee IH, Kim BG, Nam JH, Kim WK, Kang SB, Ryu SY, Cho CH, Choi HS, Kim KT, Korean Gynecologic Oncology Group: Clinicopathologic characteristics of malignant germ cell tumors in the ovaries of Korean women: a Korean Gynecologic Oncology Group Study. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2009 Jan;19(1):84-7
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  • [Title] Clinicopathologic characteristics of malignant germ cell tumors in the ovaries of Korean women: a Korean Gynecologic Oncology Group Study.
  • We evaluated the clinicopathologic characteristics of malignant germ cell tumors in the ovaries of South Korean women and determined the prognostic factors affecting recurrence.
  • Histologically, immature teratoma was the most common tumor type (n = 68), followed by dysgerminoma (n = 54), endodermal sinus tumor (n = 38), mixed form (n = 24), and choriocarcinoma (n = 12).
  • Postoperative chemotherapy was administered in 166 patients, and the most common regimen was bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin (n = 120).
  • Recurrence was observed in 13 patients (6.8%) and was influenced by the stage of the tumor and patient age (>40 years).
  • The results of this study demonstrate that most malignant germ cell tumors of the ovary in Korean women are detected in the early stage and have excellent survival outcomes with conservative operation and platinum-based chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Korea. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19258947.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-1438
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Investigator] Lee JK; Park JJ; Cha MS; Kim JH; Lee JM; Park SY; Kim SC; Lee SK
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14. Tsujioka H, Hamada H, Miyakawa T, Hachisuga T, Kawarabayashi T: A pure nongestational choriocarcinoma of the ovary diagnosed with DNA polymorphism analysis. Gynecol Oncol; 2003 Jun;89(3):540-2
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  • [Title] A pure nongestational choriocarcinoma of the ovary diagnosed with DNA polymorphism analysis.
  • BACKGROUND: Choriocarcinoma arises in the ovary from gestational or nongestational origin.
  • Nongestational choriocarcinoma of the ovary is extremely rare and the pure type is less frequent than the mixed type with other germ cell tumors.
  • Diagnosis of pure nongestational choriocarcinoma is very difficult without genetic analysis.
  • CASE: We report a pure nongestational choriocarcinoma primarily arising in a 19-year-old woman's ovary.
  • Following abdominal operative procedure, careful examination of the tumor revealed pure choriocarcinoma without combination of other germ cell tumors.
  • Multiple courses of chemotherapy with an EMA/CO regimen were effective for this case.
  • We could distinguish the genetic origin of this tumor analyzing only two or three appropriate VNTR loci.
  • [MeSH-major] Choriocarcinoma / genetics. DNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Ovarian Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Polymorphism, Genetic

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  • (PMID = 12798727.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm
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15. De Backer A, Madern GC, Oosterhuis JW, Hakvoort-Cammel FG, Hazebroek FW: Ovarian germ cell tumors in children: a clinical study of 66 patients. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2006 Apr;46(4):459-64
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  • [Title] Ovarian germ cell tumors in children: a clinical study of 66 patients.
  • BACKGROUND: Ovarian germ cell tumors are rare in childhood.
  • The aim of this study is to review clinical presentation, management, and outcome in a two-center series of girls with ovarian germ cell tumor.
  • PROCEDURE: The records of 66 patients (median age 9 years) with histologically proven ovarian germ cell tumor (either benign or malignant), treated over a 44-year-span, were reviewed.
  • Sixteen patients had an emergency operation for tumor torsion.
  • Unilateral salpingo-oophorectomy was the most frequently performed procedure (n = 46), and ovarian-sparing tumorectomy was performed in 9 patients (one bilaterally).
  • Histologically, teratomas were found most frequently (mature: 45, immature: 9), followed by mixed tumors (n = 7), yolk sac tumors (n = 3), dysgerminoma (n = 2), gonadoblastoma (n = 2), and embryonal carcinoma (n = 1).
  • Surgical removal of the tumor with or without the ovary and/or adnex was the sole treatment in 55 patients, chemotherapy was administered in 10 and radiotherapy + chemotherapy in one.
  • Two patients, with malignant disease, died.
  • The 64 survivors are now between 8 months and 44 years after treatment.
  • CONCLUSIONS: With a recurrence rate of 4.5% and a mortality rate of 3%, this series confirms the excellent prognosis for girls with ovarian germ cell tumor (GCT).
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / drug therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neoplasm Staging. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16206211.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5009
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
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16. Ayhan A, Taskiran C, Bozdag G, Altinbas S, Altinbas A, Yuce K: Endodermal sinus tumor of the ovary: the Hacettepe University experience. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol; 2005 Dec 1;123(2):230-4
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  • [Title] Endodermal sinus tumor of the ovary: the Hacettepe University experience.
  • OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the treatment regimens used for patients with endodermal sinus tumors (EST), and also to examine the prognostic value of surgicopathological variables.
  • STUDY DESIGN: Twenty-two patients treated for pure EST, and seven patients who had mixed germ cell tumors with EST components were included.
  • Initial surgery consisting of surgical staging to achieve optimal debulking was the principal mode of therapy.
  • RESULTS: The median age at the time of diagnosis was 18 (range 8-45).
  • As an adjuvant therapy 18 patients (62%) received platin-based chemotherapy, three patients (10%) had non-platin-based chemotherapy, four patients (14%) had radiotherapy, and four patients (14%) had combined radiotherapy plus non-platin-based chemotherapy.
  • Platin-based chemotherapy achieved significant survival benefit (P = 0.03 and P < 0.001, respectively).
  • There was no significant survival difference with respect to age, histology, and tumor size.
  • CONCLUSION: Fertility-sparing surgery with a postoperative platin-based combination chemotherapy should be the selected mode of treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Endodermal Sinus Tumor / therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Child. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Gynecologic Surgical Procedures. Hospitals, University. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Platinum Compounds / therapeutic use. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Turkey

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  • (PMID = 16026921.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-2115
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of obstetrics, gynecology, and reproductive biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Obstet. Gynecol. Reprod. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Platinum Compounds
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17. Gupta D, Deavers MT, Silva EG, Malpica A: Malignant melanoma involving the ovary: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 23 cases. Am J Surg Pathol; 2004 Jun;28(6):771-80
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  • [Title] Malignant melanoma involving the ovary: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 23 cases.
  • Ovarian malignant melanoma (MM), primary or metastatic, is an extremely rare tumor and in the absence of a previous diagnosis can represent a diagnostic challenge.
  • A previous history of MM was definitively obtained in 14 patients; in these cases, the interval between the primary MM and the ovarian metastasis ranged from 15 to 228 months (mean 77.7 months).
  • The tumor was unilateral in 19 and bilateral in 4 cases.
  • The tumor size ranged from 4.5 to 23 cm (average 10 cm); the melanoma arising in a cystic teratoma was 0.2 mm in thickness.
  • The tumor was grossly pigmented in 8 cases (35%).
  • The tumor cell type was epithelioid in 19 cases, spindled in 2 cases, mixed epithelioid and spindled in 1 case, and small cell in 1 case.
  • In 8 cases, initial diagnoses included sex cord stromal tumor, germ cell tumor, sarcoma, or undifferentiated carcinoma.
  • Treatment performed in 18 of the cases are as follows: oophorectomy with/without chemotherapy (10); total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy with/without chemotherapy (6); vaginal hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, and chemotherapy (1); and total abdominal hysterectomy with salpingo-oophorectomy (1).
  • In conclusion, MM involving the ovary is a rare disease, predominantly seen in women of reproductive age, and is associated with a poor prognosis.
  • The tumor is most often metastatic from another site and is unilateral in most cases.
  • Nodular or diffuse pattern and epithelioid cell type are most frequently seen, and the tumor can be mistaken for germ cell and sex cord stromal tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Antigens, Neoplasm. Calbindin 2. DNA-Binding Proteins / analysis. Ethnic Groups. Female. Humans. Hysterectomy. Immunohistochemistry. Inhibins / analysis. MART-1 Antigen. Melanoma-Specific Antigens. Microphthalmia-Associated Transcription Factor. Middle Aged. Monophenol Monooxygenase / analysis. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. S100 Calcium Binding Protein G / analysis. S100 Proteins / analysis. Teratoma / pathology. Transcription Factors / analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15166669.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / CALB2 protein, human; 0 / Calbindin 2; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / MART-1 Antigen; 0 / MITF protein, human; 0 / MLANA protein, human; 0 / Melanoma-Specific Antigens; 0 / Microphthalmia-Associated Transcription Factor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / S100 Calcium Binding Protein G; 0 / S100 Proteins; 0 / Transcription Factors; 57285-09-3 / Inhibins; EC 1.14.18.1 / Monophenol Monooxygenase
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18. Veras E, Deavers MT, Silva EG, Malpica A: Ovarian nonsmall cell neuroendocrine carcinoma: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 11 cases. Am J Surg Pathol; 2007 May;31(5):774-82
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  • [Title] Ovarian nonsmall cell neuroendocrine carcinoma: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 11 cases.
  • Nonsmall cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (NSCNEC) of the ovary is a rare and aggressive tumor commonly associated with other surface epithelial and germ cell neoplasms.
  • In 8 cases, NSCNEC was associated with other epithelial neoplasms, including mucinous neoplasms of low malignant potential, mucinous carcinoma, endometrioid carcinoma, mixed endometrioid and mucinous carcinoma, and a high-grade carcinoma, not otherwise specified.
  • In 2 cases, the tumor was associated with a mature cystic teratoma; one of them also containing an invasive moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma.
  • A single case was associated with a benign ovarian cyst.
  • The latter case had a dermoid cyst in the contralateral ovary.
  • NSCNEC represented anywhere from 10% to 90% of the ovarian tumor.
  • Seven patients were treated with total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy followed by chemotherapy.
  • One patient had a bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy with omentectomy and appendectomy followed by chemotherapy; 1 patient had a total abdominal hysterectomy with right salpingo-oophorectomy followed by chemotherapy; one had a bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy followed by chemotherapy, and one had a right salpingo-oophorectomy with appendectomy followed by chemotherapy.
  • In summary, ovarian NSCNEC is an aggressive tumor with a tendency to present at advanced stage and cause death within a mean of 17 months after diagnosis; however, some patients, particularly those with stage I disease and/or those who have received platinum-based therapy, may have a more favorable prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / pathology. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Combined Modality Therapy. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Neoplasm Staging. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary. Remission Induction. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17460463.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
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19. Abe A, Furumoto H, Yoshida K, Nishimura M, Irahara M, Kudo E, Sano T: A case of ovarian endometrioid adenocarcinoma with a yolk sac tumor component. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2008 Jan-Feb;18(1):168-72
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  • [Title] A case of ovarian endometrioid adenocarcinoma with a yolk sac tumor component.
  • Endometrioid adenocarcinoma of the ovary coexists very rarely with yolk sac tumor (YST).
  • This unusual mixed tumor is thought to be a rare variant of endometrioid ovarian carcinoma because of its aggressive behavior, lack of response to chemotherapy, and unfavorable prognosis.
  • We report a case of ovarian endometrioid adenocarcinoma with a YST component in a postmenopausal woman.
  • She has been clinically free of tumor for 20 months.
  • The occurrence of this unusual case suggests that even somatic carcinomas may acquire an extraembryonal germ cell differentiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Endometrioid / pathology. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bleomycin / administration & dosage. Bridged Compounds / administration & dosage. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Middle Aged. Platinum / administration & dosage. Taxoids / administration & dosage. alpha-Fetoproteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17466041.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-1438
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Bridged Compounds; 0 / Taxoids; 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins; 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 1605-68-1 / taxane; 49DFR088MY / Platinum; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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20. Aygun B, Kimpo M, Lee T, Valderrama E, Leonidas J, Karayalcin G: An adolescent with ovarian osteosarcoma arising in a cystic teratoma. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2003 May;25(5):410-3
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  • [Title] An adolescent with ovarian osteosarcoma arising in a cystic teratoma.
  • A 14-year-old girl had an abdominal mass with the characteristics of an ovarian germ cell tumor on computed tomography scan.
  • The mass, arising from the left ovary, was completely resected and found to be osteosarcoma arising from a mature cystic teratoma.
  • Seven months after completion of chemotherapy, there were simultaneous local recurrence and lung metastases.
  • Previously, 10 cases of ovarian osteosarcoma have been reported in the literature: 5 were primary osteosarcoma of the ovary, 4 were associated with teratomas, and 1 was part of a malignant mixed mesodermal tumor of the ovary.
  • Of the 10, there are only 2 long-term survivors, both of whom were treated with adjuvant chemotherapy following complete resection.
  • [MeSH-major] Osteosarcoma / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Teratoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 12759630.001).
  • [ISSN] 1077-4114
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 16
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