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1. Lee SC, Kim KH, Kim SH, Lee NS, Park HS, Won JH: Mixed testicular germ cell tumor presenting as metastatic pure choriocarcinoma involving multiple lung metastases that was effectively treated with high-dose chemotherapy. Cancer Res Treat; 2009 Dec;41(4):229-32

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Mixed testicular germ cell tumor presenting as metastatic pure choriocarcinoma involving multiple lung metastases that was effectively treated with high-dose chemotherapy.
  • Choriocarcinoma in the testis is very rare, and it represents less than 1% (0.3%) of all the testicular germ cell tumors.
  • It is a particularly aggressive variant of non-seminoma tumor, which is characterized by a high serum beta-HCG level and multiple lung metastases.
  • We report here on a case of choriocarcinoma with multiple lung metastases, and the patient has achieved continuous remission for 2 years after combination chemotherapy of BEP (bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin) and sequential high-dose chemotherapy with autologous peripheral stem cell rescue.

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  • (PMID = 20057969.001).
  • [ISSN] 2005-9256
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research and treatment : official journal of Korean Cancer Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res Treat
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2802842
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Germ cell and embryonal / High-dose chemotherapy / Neoplasms / Testicular choriocarcinoma
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2. Tomasković I, Sorić T, Trnski D, Ruzić B, Kraus O: Giant testicular mixed germ cell tumor. a case report. Med Princ Pract; 2004 Mar-Apr;13(2):111-3
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  • [Title] Giant testicular mixed germ cell tumor. a case report.
  • OBJECTIVE: We report a case that we believe to be the largest example of a testicular mixed germ cell tumor with a clearly defined histology pattern.
  • CLINICAL PRESENTATION AND INTERVENTIONS: A 21-year-old patient consulted a urologist concerning a giant testicular mass.
  • At the time of presentation the tumor measured 29 x 20 x 16 cm, with a weight of 4,850 g.
  • Histopathology revealed a mixed germ cell tumor containing 80% of yolk sack tumor, 10% of teratoma and 10% of embryonal carcinoma.
  • Orchiectomy and chemotherapy were successful in the treatment of primary tumor and bilateral lung metastases.
  • CONCLUSION: This tumor grew to extraordinary dimensions because of the patient's failure, due to fear, lack of knowledge and embarrassment, to seek medical help and to health professionals' negligence when performing regular check-ups.
  • [MeSH-major] Germinoma / diagnosis. Testicular Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Humans. Lung Neoplasms / radiography. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Male. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel
  • (PMID = 14755145.001).
  • [ISSN] 1011-7571
  • [Journal-full-title] Medical principles and practice : international journal of the Kuwait University, Health Science Centre
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med Princ Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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3. El Sayed S, Grando JP, Almeida SH, Mortati Neto N, Moreira HA: Post-chemotherapy residual mass in non-seminomatous testicular cancer. The role of retroperitoneal lymph node dissection. Int Braz J Urol; 2004 Sep-Oct;30(5):384-8
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  • [Title] Post-chemotherapy residual mass in non-seminomatous testicular cancer. The role of retroperitoneal lymph node dissection.
  • PURPOSE: To determine the role of RPLND for residual masses following chemotherapy in patients with non-seminomatous germ cell tumors (NSGCT) stage T1N2 and T1N3 (IIB and IIC).
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: We have preformed retrospective analysis of 11 patients who underwent RPLND for residual masses following chemotherapy in an oncologic reference center between January 1997 and December 2002.
  • All patients harbored either pure nonseminomatous or mixed tumors in the testis tissue and had undergone 4 cycles of primary chemotherapy with bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin.
  • The residual masses were assessed by abdominal computed tomography preoperatively.
  • All patients had tumors in the final pathological report and were referred to other 2 cycles of chemotherapy with the same drugs.
  • The remaining 3 patients had disease progression, 2 of which died 6 and 12 months after surgery, respectively, and one patient missed the follow-up after salvage chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSION: Retroperitoneal lymph node dissection for residual masses after chemotherapy is a high-morbidity procedure, even by experienced surgeons, although it remains an efficient modality of treatment in advanced germ cell carcinoma.
  • The high frequency of tumor found in the RPLFN following chemotherapy might have been caused by the small number of patients in this study.
  • [MeSH-major] Germinoma / drug therapy. Germinoma / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / drug therapy. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Neoplasm, Residual. Retroperitoneal Space. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 15610570.001).
  • [ISSN] 1677-5538
  • [Journal-full-title] International braz j urol : official journal of the Brazilian Society of Urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int Braz J Urol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
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4. Chuang KL, Liaw CC, Ueng SH, Liao SK, Pang ST, Chang YH, Chuang HC, Chuang CK: Mixed germ cell tumor metastatic to the skin: case report and literature review. World J Surg Oncol; 2010;8:21
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  • [Title] Mixed germ cell tumor metastatic to the skin: case report and literature review.
  • BACKGROUND: Testicular cancer is the most common cancer for males aged 15 to approximately 35 years old.
  • CASE PRESENTATION: A 19-year old male was diagnosed testicular mixed germ cell tumor with initial presentation of cutaneous metastasis at scalp and upper abdomen.
  • After radical orchiectomy and four courses of cisplatin-based chemotherapy, the scalp and upper abdominal lesions regressed completely.
  • CONCLUSIONS: For advanced stage testicular cancer, cisplatin-based chemotherapy is still effective to achieve partial response.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / secondary. Orchiectomy. Skin Neoplasms / secondary. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Male. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20331874.001).
  • [ISSN] 1477-7819
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2851696
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5. Bakaris S, Resim S, Tunali N: Testicular mixed germ cell tumor with polyembryoma component in brothers. Pediatr Dev Pathol; 2005 Jan-Feb;8(1):92-7
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  • [Title] Testicular mixed germ cell tumor with polyembryoma component in brothers.
  • We report the case of a 17-year-old male with a testicular tumor and high serum levels of alpha-fetoprotein.
  • The patient was treated with surgery followed by combination chemotherapy with bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin.
  • Histologic examination showed features of a mixed germ cell tumor composed of mature teratoma, immature teratoma, embryonal carcinoma, yolk sac tumor, and polyembryoma.
  • He is currently well, and his serum levels of alpha-fetoprotein have been normal more than 5 months after treatment.
  • His brother, aged 17 years at the time, had a similar tumor removed from the right testicle 5 years previously.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / pathology. Siblings. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Bleomycin / administration & dosage. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. alpha-Fetoproteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 15803215.001).
  • [ISSN] 1093-5266
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric and developmental pathology : the official journal of the Society for Pediatric Pathology and the Paediatric Pathology Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr. Dev. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins; 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; BEP protocol
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6. Allan RW, Algood CB, Shih IeM: Metastatic epithelioid trophoblastic tumor in a male patient with mixed germ-cell tumor of the testis. Am J Surg Pathol; 2009 Dec;33(12):1902-5
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  • [Title] Metastatic epithelioid trophoblastic tumor in a male patient with mixed germ-cell tumor of the testis.
  • This report describes a rare case of a concurrent epithelioid trophoblastic tumor (ETT) and a teratoma in a para-aortic lymph node from a 39-year-old male patient with the initial diagnosis of testicular malignant mixed germ-cell tumor.
  • The metastatic lesion was excised 2 years after orchiectomy and chemotherapy.
  • Microscopically, the metastatic lesion contained a teratoma component and dispersed small nests of cohesive chorionic-type intermediate trophoblastic cells, closely resembling gestational ETT in female patients.
  • The diagnosis of ETT in this case was confirmed by stepwise immunohistochemistry.
  • Demonstration of ETT as one of the histologic manifestations of recurrent testicular germ-cell tumors should encourage pathologists to recognize this unique feature in assessing posttreatment mixed germ-cell neoplasm.
  • Furthermore, this case represents a unique opportunity to understand the pathobiology of trophoblastic neoplasms arising from germ-cell tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Embryonal / secondary. Choriocarcinoma, Non-gestational / secondary. Epithelioid Cells / pathology. Teratoma / secondary. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology. Trophoblastic Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Orchiectomy. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19898219.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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7. Escalera Almendros C, Chiva Robles V, Pascual Mateo C, Rodríguez García N, García Tello A, Berenguer Sánchez A: [Post chemotherapy laparoscopic retroperitoneal lymph node dissection]. Arch Esp Urol; 2006 Jun;59(5):517-23
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  • [Title] [Post chemotherapy laparoscopic retroperitoneal lymph node dissection].
  • OBJECTIVES: To describe the laparoscopic excision of a postchemotherapy retroperitoneal residual mass in a patient with mixed germ cell testicular tumor.
  • METHODS/RESULTS: We report the operative technique of laparoscopic excision of a retroperitoneal mass in a 33 year old patient with mixed germ cell testicular tumor.
  • CONCLUSION: The laparoscopic approach is another option for the surgical treatment of residual masses after chemotherapy in testicular tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Laparoscopy. Lymph Node Excision / methods. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / drug therapy. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / surgery. Testicular Neoplasms / drug therapy. Testicular Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Male. Neoplasm, Residual. Retroperitoneal Space

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  • (PMID = 16903554.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-0614
  • [Journal-full-title] Archivos españoles de urología
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Esp. Urol.
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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8. Angiero F, Stefani M: Metastatic embryonal carcinoma in the maxillary gingiva. Anticancer Res; 2008 Mar-Apr;28(2B):1181-6
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  • The case of a 35-year-old man who presented with a swelling in the left maxillary gingiva, extending from the first premolar to the second molar is reported.
  • This medical history revealed that, 2 years previously, he had been diagnosed with a testicular mixed germ cell tumor (GCTs), for which he had undergone right inguinal orchidectomy and chemotherapy, leading to complete remission.
  • He is currently undergoing chemotherapy and responding well.
  • This case draws attention to the multiple diseases that may present as gingival masses and stresses the difficulty of making a correct diagnosis.
  • It is emphasized that in some mixed cases of testicular GCT it may be the more aggressive component that metastasizes, without being clearly apparent.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Seminoma / diagnosis. Seminoma / pathology. Seminoma / secondary. Testicular Neoplasms / diagnosis. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 18505054.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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9. Lehmann J, Ritz M, Nürnberg N, Romahn E, Bach S, Küppers F, Loch T, Stöckle M, Weichert-Jacobsen K: Retroperitoneal mature teratoma 15 years after initial treatment of testicular mixed germ cell tumor. Eur Urol; 2000 Nov;38(5):644-8
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  • [Title] Retroperitoneal mature teratoma 15 years after initial treatment of testicular mixed germ cell tumor.
  • We present a patient with a retroperitoneal tumor noted 15 years after treatment of a testicular mixed germ cell cancer.
  • An early relapse indicated by increasing tumor markers shortly after retroperitoneal lymph node dissection was successfully treated with five cycles of combined chemotherapy.
  • However, 187 months after completion of chemotherapy, a symptomatic right-sided iliac mass was diagnosed.
  • This represents the longest time interval reported in the literature for a mature teratoma following treatment of a testicular germ cell tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Germinoma / surgery. Neoplasms, Second Primary / diagnosis. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Teratoma / diagnosis. Testicular Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Humans. Male. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 11096252.001).
  • [ISSN] 0302-2838
  • [Journal-full-title] European urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] SWITZERLAND
  • [Number-of-references] 19
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10. Smeets L, De Roover A, Sautois B: [Relapse of testicular mixed germ cell tumor 15 years after initial treatment]. Rev Med Liege; 2006 Oct;61(10):671-4
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  • [Title] [Relapse of testicular mixed germ cell tumor 15 years after initial treatment].
  • [Transliterated title] Le cas clinique du mois. Récidive d'une tumeur testiculaire mixte 15 ans après le traitement initial.
  • We report the case of a patient with a symptomatic retroperitoneal tumor.
  • The patient had undergone, 15 years earlier, an orchiectomy and three cycles of chemotherapy for a testicular mixed germ cell tumor.
  • The 183 month interval between initial treatment and relapse is one of the longest ever reported.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Second Primary / diagnosis. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Teratoma / diagnosis. Teratoma / therapy. Testicular Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Humans. Male. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 17209498.001).
  • [ISSN] 0370-629X
  • [Journal-full-title] Revue médicale de Liège
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Med Liege
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Belgium
  • [Number-of-references] 14
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11. Badawi JK, Kittner T, Manseck A, Wirth MW: Intraluminal tumour thrombus of a mixed non-seminomatous germ cell tumour of testis within the inferior vena cava. Onkologie; 2005 Feb;28(2):98-100
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  • [Title] Intraluminal tumour thrombus of a mixed non-seminomatous germ cell tumour of testis within the inferior vena cava.
  • BACKGROUND: Intracaval tumour thrombus developed per continuitatem from a primary testicular tumour is rare.
  • CASE REPORT: A patient with metastatic mixed non-seminomatous germ cell tumour of the testis extending into the inferior vena cava (IVC) is presented.
  • He belonged to the intermediate-risk group according to the IGCCCG (International Germ Cell Cancer Collaborative Group) classification.
  • Computed tomography revealed the tumour thrombus as filling defect in the IVC extending nearly to the right renal vein.
  • Combination chemotherapy led to regression of pulmonal metastases and the intraluminal tumour thrombus.
  • The thrombus originated from the ostium of the right testicularis vein in the IVC.
  • Histological examination revealed no vital tumour tissue.
  • CONCLUSION: In patients with testicular cancer information about pathological processes of the IVC is important for therapeutic management.
  • Testicular tumours seldom extend up the IVC.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / therapy. Testicular Neoplasms / diagnosis. Testicular Neoplasms / therapy. Vascular Neoplasms / diagnosis. Vascular Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Humans. Lung Neoplasms / complications. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Male. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Treatment Outcome. Vena Cava, Inferior / pathology. Vena Cava, Inferior / radiography. Vena Cava, Inferior / surgery

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  • (PMID = 15665558.001).
  • [ISSN] 0378-584X
  • [Journal-full-title] Onkologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Onkologie
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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12. Terenziani M, Piva L, Spreafico F, Salvioni R, Massimino M, Luksch R, Cefalo G, Casanova M, Ferrari A, Polastri D, Mazza E, Bellani FF, Nicolai N: Clinical stage I nonseminomatous germ cell tumors of the testis in childhood and adolescence: an analysis of 31 cases. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2002 Aug-Sep;24(6):454-8
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  • [Title] Clinical stage I nonseminomatous germ cell tumors of the testis in childhood and adolescence: an analysis of 31 cases.
  • A 20-year single-institution experience of clinical stage I nonseminomatous germ cell tumors of the testis (NSGCTT) in childhood and adolescents was reviewed in relation to clinical characteristics, treatment modalities, and survival.
  • Yolk sac tumors and/or teratomas occurred in the children, whereas mixed histologies, including embryonal carcinoma, were predominant in the adolescents.
  • After orchiectomy, the children were assigned to surveillance and the adolescents to active treatment: 16 underwent retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND) and 1 had adjuvant cisplatin-based chemotherapy because of a high-risk histology.
  • All three children were treated with cisplatin-based chemotherapy with or without surgery.
  • All were treated with cisplatin-based chemotherapy with or without surgery.
  • In particular, almost all the childhood cases had the same yolk sac tumor histology, the children tended to have localized disease, and an increased alpha-fetoprotein level had a very high predictive value, suggesting that follow-up should include AFP measurements.
  • A conservative approach is the best option in children, while adolescent NSGCTT behaves like the adult disease and management must include similar treatment strategies.
  • [MeSH-major] Endodermal Sinus Tumor / pathology. Germinoma / pathology. Teratoma / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Child. Child, Preschool. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infant. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Orchiectomy. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Survival Rate. alpha-Fetoproteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 12218592.001).
  • [ISSN] 1077-4114
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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13. Shariat SF, Duchene D, Kabbani W, Mucher Z, Lotan Y: Gastrointestinal hemorrhage as first manifestation of metastatic testicular tumor. Urology; 2005 Dec;66(6):1319
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  • [Title] Gastrointestinal hemorrhage as first manifestation of metastatic testicular tumor.
  • We report a case of a man with a testicular mixed germ cell tumor in whom the first symptom was severe anemia secondary to upper gastrointestinal bleeding from a metastatic pure choriocarcinoma.
  • He underwent ileal enterectomy, radical orchiectomy, and several cycles of chemotherapy (cisplatin, etoposide, and bleomycin).
  • He died within 41 days of diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Choriocarcinoma / complications. Choriocarcinoma / secondary. Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage / etiology. Intestinal Neoplasms / complications. Intestinal Neoplasms / secondary. Stomach Neoplasms / complications. Stomach Neoplasms / secondary. Testicular Neoplasms / secondary


14. Calaminus G, Schneider DT, Weissbach L, Schönberger S, Okpanyi V, Leuschner I, Poremba C, Göbel U: Survival after an antiangiogenetic therapy and surgery in a wide spread growing teratoma originating from a testicular mixed malignant germ cell tumor. Klin Padiatr; 2009 May-Jun;221(3):136-40
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  • [Title] Survival after an antiangiogenetic therapy and surgery in a wide spread growing teratoma originating from a testicular mixed malignant germ cell tumor.
  • Growing teratoma is still an often unsolved problem especially in male with mixed malignant GCTs of the testis or the mediastinum.
  • This specific situation with progressive tumor growth and simultaneous normalization of tumor markers during or after treatment of malignant GCTs with teratomatous elements is judged as a fatal situation if this situation can not be controlled by extensive surgery, as teratoma are not sensible to chemotherapy or irradiation.
  • Here, we report the case history of a 17-year old male patient with a testicular malignant GCT and wide spread lymph node metastases, who developed a rapidly progressive growing teratoma within the lymph node metastases.
  • Within the molecular profile of the tumor we could find a cytogenetic picture typically found in malignant adult GCTs.
  • In view of the bulky abdominal, thoracic and cervical metastases and the uncontrolled tumor progression, the situation was considered incurable.
  • However, following an individual treatment attempt, this patient was treated with a four-agent combination of drugs with antiangiogenetic potential as well as low-dose cyclic chemotherapy.
  • We therefore would like to highlight this treatment approach in unresectable growing teratoma and would like to stimulate further research and collaboration to come to an optimized treatment suggestion for this group of poor prognostic patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiogenesis Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / drug therapy. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / surgery. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / drug therapy. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / surgery. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / drug therapy. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / surgery. Teratoma / drug therapy. Teratoma / surgery. Testicular Neoplasms / drug therapy. Testicular Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Antibodies, Monoclonal / administration & dosage. Antibodies, Monoclonal / adverse effects. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Bevacizumab. Combined Modality Therapy. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Administration Schedule. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Interferon-alpha / administration & dosage. Interferon-alpha / adverse effects. Lymph Nodes / blood supply. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Neoplasm Staging. Recombinant Proteins. Reoperation. Salvage Therapy. Survival Rate. Thalidomide / administration & dosage. Thalidomide / adverse effects. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Vinblastine / administration & dosage. Vinblastine / adverse effects

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  • [CommentIn] Klin Padiatr. 2009 May-Jun;221(3):134-5 [19437359.001]
  • (PMID = 19437360.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-3824
  • [Journal-full-title] Klinische Pädiatrie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Klin Padiatr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Interferon-alpha; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 2S9ZZM9Q9V / Bevacizumab; 4Z8R6ORS6L / Thalidomide; 5V9KLZ54CY / Vinblastine; 76543-88-9 / interferon alfa-2a
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15. Nakayama M, Saito T, Bando M, Kondo Y, Kawai K, Sugiyama Y, Akaza H, Itoh K: [Case of a testicular germ cell tumor presenting with multiple metastasized pulmonary nodules and masses]. Nihon Kokyuki Gakkai Zasshi; 2010 Dec;48(12):976-9
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  • [Title] [Case of a testicular germ cell tumor presenting with multiple metastasized pulmonary nodules and masses].
  • A 25-year-old man presented with a 2-month history of bloody sputum and unilateral gynecomastia.
  • High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) of his chest showed multiple nodules and masses.
  • On physical examination, no enlargement of the testes was noted, but a tiny calcified lesion in his left testis was detected on a genital CT scan.
  • He was referred to the urology department with a suspected testicular germ cell tumor.
  • An echogram showed a micronodule in his left testis.
  • A testicular mixed germ cell tumor was diagnosed on the basis of the histological features of the tumor removed by high orchiectomy, and systemic chemotherapy with bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin (BEP) was initiated.
  • Testicular germ cell tumor should be considered in the differential diagnosis of multiple pulmonary nodules or masses in young men.
  • Because high orchiectomy is indispensable for the treatment of testicular germ cell tumor, aggressive investigative studies of the testis are essential in patients with pulmonary, mediastinal, and retroperitoneal germ cell tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / secondary. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bleomycin / administration & dosage. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Diagnosis, Differential. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Gynecomastia / etiology. Humans. Male. Orchiectomy. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 21226308.001).
  • [ISSN] 1343-3490
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Kokyūki Gakkai zasshi = the journal of the Japanese Respiratory Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nihon Kokyuki Gakkai Zasshi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; BEP protocol
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16. ElMallah MK, Chernoff AM, Blair NP: Testicular mixed germ-cell tumor metastatic to the choroid. Retin Cases Brief Rep; 2008;2(2):172-4

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Testicular mixed germ-cell tumor metastatic to the choroid.
  • PURPOSE: To describe the fundus findings, ultrasonography, and fluorescein angiography of a testicular mixed germ-cell tumor metastatic to the choroid and to report prompt resolution of the choroidal lesion with systemic chemotherapy.
  • A 21-year-old man presented with a 10-cm testicular tumor.
  • RESULTS: On ophthalmic examination 6 weeks after initiation of chemotherapy, the choroidal lesion had completely resolved, leaving only pigmentary changes.
  • CONCLUSION: Testicular germ-cell tumors have now been well described to metastasize to the choroid.
  • These choroidal metastases can show a prompt, favorable response to chemotherapy.

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  • (PMID = 25389834.001).
  • [ISSN] 1935-1089
  • [Journal-full-title] Retinal cases & brief reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Retin Cases Brief Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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17. Peltier J, Vinchon M, Baroncini M, Kerdraon O, Dhellemmes P: Bifocal mixed germ-cell tumor with growing teratoma syndrome and metachronous mature metastases: case report. J Neurooncol; 2008 Oct;90(1):111-5
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  • [Title] Bifocal mixed germ-cell tumor with growing teratoma syndrome and metachronous mature metastases: case report.
  • The authors report the case of a 16-year-old male who presented with a bifocal diencephalic tumor arising both in the neurohypophysis and the pineal region with hydrocephalus.
  • The histological diagnosis obtained during endoscopic ventriculocisternostomy was germinoma.
  • MRI revealed an increase of the neoplasm during chemotherapy with recurrent obstructive hydrocephalus.
  • Subsequently, this patient developed metachronous cystic metastases in the cerebello-pontine angles, which were resected and identified as mature teratoma, then we observed a lesion of the brachium conjunctivum which stayed stable after 29 consecutive months.
  • The patient is alive and feels well 6 years after the initial diagnosis and 5 years after the first metastasis.
  • Obviously surgical removal is the treatment of reference for teratomas.
  • Metastases of teratoma can be mature and may be amenable to surgery with a favorable outcome.
  • Primary intracranial germ-cell tumors (CGT) arise in the midline of the brain and are located in the diencephalon.
  • Germ cell tumor (CGT) includes germinomas and non-germinomatous tumors, mature and immature teratomas account for 19.6 % [1].
  • Curiously, teratomas are able to grow during the first weeks of chemotherapy while serum markers remain normal.
  • This situation was originally described and designed as "the growing teratoma syndroma" (GTS) in primary testis tumors by Logothetis in 1982 [2].
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Neurosurgical Procedures. Pineal Gland / pathology. Pineal Gland / physiopathology

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  • [CommentIn] J Neurooncol. 2009 Sep;94(3):449-50 [19347253.001]
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  • (PMID = 18574668.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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18. Pohar KS, Rabbani F, Bosl GJ, Motzer RJ, Bajorin D, Sheinfeld J: Results of retroperitoneal lymph node dissection for clinical stage I and II pure embryonal carcinoma of the testis. J Urol; 2003 Oct;170(4 Pt 1):1155-8
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  • [Title] Results of retroperitoneal lymph node dissection for clinical stage I and II pure embryonal carcinoma of the testis.
  • PURPOSE: We determined the pathological findings and clinical outcome of patients with pure embryonal carcinoma (EC) of the testis managed by primary retroperitoneal lymph node dissection.
  • Only 1 of 9 (11%) patients with pN1 treated without adjuvant chemotherapy has had relapse.
  • Of 24 patients with pN2/N3 disease only 3 (12%) have required more than 2 cycles of postoperative chemotherapy for persistent or recurrent disease despite complete resection of the retroperitoneum.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Patients with low stage pure EC of the testis are at high risk for retroperitoneal disease.
  • However these patients do not appear to be at increased risk for high volume (pN2/N3) retroperitoneal disease, systemic relapse in pN0 or pN1 disease managed without adjuvant chemotherapy (although the number of evaluable patients in this subset is somewhat small), or persistent or recurrent disease in completely resected high volume (pN2/N3) retroperitoneal disease compared to patients with mixed nonseminomatous germ cell tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Embryonal / pathology. Carcinoma, Embryonal / surgery. Lymph Node Excision. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Retroperitoneal Space

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  • [CommentIn] J Urol. 2003 Oct;170(4 Pt 1):1168 [14501717.001]
  • (PMID = 14501714.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-5347
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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19. Popadiuk S, Korzon M, Chybicka A, Szmyd K, Balwierz W, Trelinska J, Kowalczyk J, Wisniewska-Slusarz H, Woźniak W, Bilska K, Wachowiak J, Wysocki M, Krawczuk-Rybak M, Szumera M, Sznurkowska K, Renke J: [Analysis of risk factor treatment failures in therapeutic programme for malignant germ cell tumours in children. Multicentre prospective study of Polish Pediatric Group for Solid Tumours 1998--2006]. Med Wieku Rozwoj; 2007 Jul-Sep;11(3 Pt 2):301-6

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Analysis of risk factor treatment failures in therapeutic programme for malignant germ cell tumours in children. Multicentre prospective study of Polish Pediatric Group for Solid Tumours 1998--2006].
  • AIMS: The aim of the study was the analysis of risk factors of therapeutic failures in children with malignant germ cell tumours treated within the multicentre programme of PPGGL from 1999--2006.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: The investigated group included 18 (14.3%) patients, of 123 who have finished the treatment of malignant germ cell tumour, in whom no remission was obtained or relapse occurred.
  • RESULTS: Among 18 patients with therapeutic failures 12 died.
  • Two patients from the high risk group died of complications of the treatment--sepsis during neutropenia after chemotherapy and one after haemorrhage to the central nervous system.
  • 10 (82%) of 12 patients who died had extragonadal location and in 11 (92%) the tumour was in stage III or IV of the disease.
  • The most frequent histology in this group was mixed germ cell tumour with component of yolk sac tumour or carcinoma embrionale.
  • In 3 patients testis was the primary location (I and II stage), in 3 patients the tumour was localized in the sacrococcygeal region (III and IV stage).
  • All the patients are alive in remission after second line therapy, with 78 months (median) of follow-up.
  • The main risk factor for therapeutic failures in malignant germ cell tumours was primary chemoresistance in inoperable tumours of the sacrococcygeal region.
  • 2. The mortality of treatment complications was low.
  • 3. The relapse of cancer was not a risk factor for therapeutic failure due to the high probability of second remission 4.
  • Therapeutic failures are mainly observed in patients with mixed germ cell tumour with components of yolk sac tumour or carcinoma embrionale.
  • 5. Tumour chemoresistance should be considered an essential factor in identifying high risk patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Poland. Risk Factors. Treatment Failure

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  • (PMID = 18663271.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Medycyna wieku rozwojowego
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med Wieku Rozwoj
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; English Abstract; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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20. Valdevenito Sepúlveda JP, Merhe Nieva E, Valdevenito Sepúlveda R, Cuevas Toro M, Gómez Gallo A, Bermúdez Luna H, Contreras Meléndez L, Gallegos Méndez I, Gallardo Escobar J, Palma Ceppi C: [Reduced retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy for clinical stage I non seminomatous germ cell testicular cancer]. Arch Esp Urol; 2007 Apr;60(3):245-54
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  • [Title] [Reduced retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy for clinical stage I non seminomatous germ cell testicular cancer].
  • [Transliterated title] Linfadenectomia retroperitoneal reducida en cancer testicular de celulas germinales no seminomatoso estadio clinico I.
  • OBJECTIVES: The best treatment of clinical stage I non-seminomatous germ cell testicular cancer (NSGCTC) is controversial.
  • The objective of this study is to analyse our experience in the treatment of this patients with radical orchiectomy and reduced retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy (RRL) as the initial treatment.
  • INCLUSION CRITERIA: retroperitoneal staging with computed tomography (CT), normal tumor markers after orchiectomy and testicular and retroperitoneal biopsy informed at our hospital.
  • The following metastatic risk factors in the testicular biopsy were checked: vascular invasion (venous and/or lymphatic), infiltration of tunica albuginea, rete testis, epididymis, and spermatic cord.
  • RESULTS: 36 patients with 37 testicular tumors were analysed (1 bilateral case).
  • Twenty nine mixed tumors (78%); most frequent histology embryonal carcinoma (76%).
  • Average surgery time 2 hr 7 min; average dissected lymph nodes 13.
  • Chemotherapy in 7 patients (19%) a total of 18 cycles.
  • Four cases of contralateral tumor during follow-up (11%).
  • [MeSH-major] Lymph Node Excision / methods. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / pathology. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / surgery. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Retroperitoneal Space. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 17601299.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-0614
  • [Journal-full-title] Archivos españoles de urología
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Esp. Urol.
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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21. Mikuz G: [Testicular tumors. Predictive factors]. Pathologe; 2008 Nov;29 Suppl 2:270-2
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  • [Title] [Testicular tumors. Predictive factors].
  • Patients with germ cell tumors of the testis can be given adjuvant treatment immediately after orchidectomy or put under surveillance with definitive treatment deferred until relapse.
  • Both therapies are equally successful (success rate 98-99%), with surveillance alone, however, only approximately 50% of cases need toxic chemotherapy.
  • In seminomas the strongest predictor of metastases is tumor invasion of the rete testis followed by the size (Ø > or =4 cm) of the tumor.
  • Vascular invasion, the most important predictor in non-seminomatous germ cell tumors, is less important in seminomas.
  • The second most important predictor in mixed tumors is the presence or absence and the amount of embryonal carcinoma.
  • The only reliable predictor of malignancy of the gonadal stromal tumors is the size and tumors with a diameter > or =5 cm are always malignant.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Orchiectomy. Prognosis. Testis / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18712393.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1963
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Pathologe
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathologe
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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22. Rassweiler JJ, Frede T, Lenz E, Seemann O, Alken P: Long-term experience with laparoscopic retroperitoneal lymph node dissection in the management of low-stage testis cancer. Eur Urol; 2000 Mar;37(3):251-60
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Long-term experience with laparoscopic retroperitoneal lymph node dissection in the management of low-stage testis cancer.
  • OBJECTIVES: We describe our experience with laparoscopic retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy (LRLA) in 34 patients with low-stage germ cell tumors treated from 1992 to 1998.
  • All patients had clinical stage-I disease with no clinical evidence (CT scan, ultrasound, tumor markers) of metastases.
  • RESULTS: The procedure could be completed successfully in 30 of 34 patients with stage-I disease.
  • In these cases the mean duration of the procedure was 248 min.
  • One patient developed a delayed ureteral stenosis which required operative repair.
  • One patient with a LRLA on the right side later developed retrograde ejaculation.
  • In 6 of the 33 patients (18%) embryonal carcinoma or mixed carcinoma was found.
  • After a median follow-up of 40 months no regional relapse occurred, but 2 patients developed pulmonary metastases which were treated successfully by three cycles of platinum-based chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our experience suggests that LRLA is a safe and accurate method for low-stage germ cell tumors with minimal invasiveness, but because of its technical difficulty it should be restricted to experienced centers.
  • [MeSH-major] Germinoma / surgery. Laparoscopy. Lymph Node Excision / methods. Testicular Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Postoperative Complications / epidemiology. Retroperitoneal Space. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 10720848.001).
  • [ISSN] 0302-2838
  • [Journal-full-title] European urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] SWITZERLAND
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23. Casey RG, Aktar M, Hegarty P, Butler M, Thornhill JA: A prospective 10 year audit of a single Irish centre's experience of retroperitoneal lymph node dissection for metastatic testis cancer. Surgeon; 2008 Oct;6(5):294-6
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  • [Title] A prospective 10 year audit of a single Irish centre's experience of retroperitoneal lymph node dissection for metastatic testis cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Retro-peritoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND) following chemotherapy is critical in advanced germ cell tumours with residual retro-peritoneal masses.
  • Post-chemotherapy RPLND is more extensive, may require adjacent organ resection and has higher morbidity.
  • METHODS: An RPLND database (1994-2005) was analysed prospectively for demographics, pre/post-RPLND staging, chemotherapy regimen, cure, follow-up and early/late morbidity and mortality.
  • Seventy-one patients received cisplatin-based chemotherapy with partial response (49), minimal response (14), no response (7), disease progression (3) and 13 patients required salvage chemotherapy.
  • RPLND histology was mature teratoma (MT) (37), fibrosis/necrosis (26), NSGCT (6), seminoma (1), mixed NSGCT/teratoma (1), sarcoma (1) and mixed seminoma/teratoma (1).
  • CONCLUSIONS: The decision to perform post-chemotherapy RPLND depends on the possibility of viable tumour or teratoma and surgical morbidity.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymph Node Excision. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Disease Progression. Humans. Ireland. Length of Stay / statistics & numerical data. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Male. Medical Audit. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prospective Studies. Retroperitoneal Space / pathology. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18939377.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-666X
  • [Journal-full-title] The surgeon : journal of the Royal Colleges of Surgeons of Edinburgh and Ireland
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surgeon
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
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24. Idrees MT, Kuhar M, Ulbright TM, Zhang S, Agaram N, Wang M, Grignon DJ, Eble JN, Cheng L: Clonal evidence for the progression of a testicular germ cell tumor to angiosarcoma. Hum Pathol; 2010 Jan;41(1):139-44
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  • [Title] Clonal evidence for the progression of a testicular germ cell tumor to angiosarcoma.
  • Testicular germ cell tumors may have multiple histologic subtypes.
  • An alternative hypothesis for the development of angiosarcoma in a patient with germ cell tumors is secondary to radiation or chemotherapy.
  • We report a patient with a mixed testicular germ cell tumor who presented with retroperitoneal, mediastinal, and pulmonary metastases after chemotherapy.
  • Forty months after his original diagnosis, a mediastinal angiosarcoma was diagnosed.
  • Using tissue microdissection-loss of heterozygosity analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization, we analyzed the clonality of the primary germ cell tumor, angiosarcoma, and metastatic teratoma.
  • Loss of heterozygosity was demonstrated for microsatellite loci of all 3 chromosomes, and completely concordant loss of heterozygosity patterns were observed among primary germ cell tumor components, metastatic teratoma, and angiosarcoma.
  • Isochromosome 12p and 12p overrepresentations were consistently found in the primary germ cell tumor components, metastatic teratoma, and angiosarcoma.
  • The results indicated a clonal origin of the tumors, which supports that angiosarcoma, as well as the teratomas, arose from the testicular germ cell tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemangiosarcoma / pathology. Mediastinal Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasms, Second Primary / pathology. Teratoma / secondary. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Clone Cells. DNA, Neoplasm / analysis. Disease Progression. Disease-Free Survival. Humans. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Loss of Heterozygosity. Male. Microdissection. Microsatellite Repeats / genetics

  • MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Testicular Cancer.
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  • (PMID = 19836053.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8392
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm
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