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1. Blakeley J, Grossman S: Anaplastic oligodendroglioma. Curr Treat Options Neurol; 2008 Jul;10(4):295-307
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  • [Title] Anaplastic oligodendroglioma.
  • Although uncommon, anaplastic oligodendrogliomas (AODs) are important to recognize, as they have unique molecular, histologic, and clinical features.
  • Patients with new seizures or new focal neurologic deficits should be referred for brain MRI with contrast.
  • If the MRI suggests a malignant glioma, maximal feasible tumor resection is advised for accurate diagnosis and for relief of tumor-related neurologic symptoms.
  • Radiation therapy (XRT) is the most commonly prescribed postsurgical therapy for patients with AODs.
  • The role and timing of adjuvant chemotherapy are less clear.
  • Tumors with intermediate oligodendroglial features or mixed astrocytic features should be referred for 1p19q assessment.
  • Identification of 1p19q status is also required in clinical trials for patients with AOD, given the association of 1p19q codeletion with improved response to therapies and overall prognosis.
  • There are not yet sufficient data to guide individual treatment planning based on 1p19q status, but several planned and ongoing trials will address this issue.
  • Unfortunately, AOD remains a terminal brain cancer even with maximal therapies.
  • As more therapeutic options become available and the full significance of molecular markers is understood, 1p19q and other markers are expected to help guide optimal antitumor therapies, and it is hoped that survival and function will improve for all patients with AOD.

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  • (PMID = 18579016.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-8480
  • [Journal-full-title] Current treatment options in neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Treat Options Neurol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA006973
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS567597; NLM/ PMC3994534
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2. Levin VA, Lamborn K, Wara W, Davis R, Edwards M, Rabbitt J, Malec M, Prados MD: Phase II study of 6-thioguanine, procarbazine, dibromodulcitol, lomustine, and vincristine chemotherapy with radiotherapy for treating malignant glioma in children. Neuro Oncol; 2000 01;2(1):22-8
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  • [Title] Phase II study of 6-thioguanine, procarbazine, dibromodulcitol, lomustine, and vincristine chemotherapy with radiotherapy for treating malignant glioma in children.
  • We conducted a single-arm phase II study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of radiotherapy combined with 6-thioguanine, procarbazine, dibromodulcitol, lomustine, and vincristine (TPDCV) chemotherapy for treating malignant astrocytoma in children and anaplastic ependymoma in patients of all ages.
  • Between 1984 and 1992, 42 patients who had malignant astrocytomas (glioblastomas multiforme, anaplastic astrocytomas, or mixed anaplastic oligoastrocytomas) were treated with TPDCV chemotherapy and radiation therapy.
  • Cranial radiation averaged 58 Gy.
  • TPDCV chemotherapy was given for 1 year or until progression.
  • Between 1989 and 1991, 17 patients with malignant ependymoma were treated with TPDCV chemotherapy and craniospinal radiation.
  • Radiation was given at an average dose of 54 Gy to the tumor, 28 Gy to the whole brain, and 31 Gy to the spinal axis.
  • TPDCV chemotherapy was given for 1 year or until tumor progressed.
  • Of the patients with glioblastoma multiforme, 13 of 17 died; the median time to progression was 49 weeks, and median survival was 85 weeks.
  • Of the patients with nonglioblastoma malignant astrocytoma, 14 of 25 died; the median time to progression was 224 weeks.
  • For the patients with ependymoma, 11 of 17 died with a median time to progression of 141 weeks.
  • The combination of TPDCV and radiotherapy has activity against childhood anaplastic astrocytoma, glioblastoma multiforme, and anaplastic ependymoma.
  • The results of this study for children with glioblastoma were comparable to results in the literature, while the results for children with anaplastic astrocytoma appeared better than most reports.
  • The combination of TPDCV chemotherapy and radiation therapy for anaplastic ependymomas appears to be active and at least as good as published reports using radiation therapy alone.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Brain Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Glioma / drug therapy. Glioma / radiotherapy. Lomustine / therapeutic use. Mitolactol / therapeutic use. Procarbazine / therapeutic use. Thioguanine / therapeutic use. Vincristine / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Male. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11302250.001).
  • [ISSN] 1522-8517
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuro-oncology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA13525
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 35S93Y190K / Procarbazine; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 7BRF0Z81KG / Lomustine; FTK8U1GZNX / Thioguanine; LJ2P1SIK8Y / Mitolactol; TPDCV protocol
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1920700
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3. Chang SM, Prados MD, Yung WK, Fine H, Junck L, Greenberg H, Robins HI, Mehta M, Fink KL, Jaeckle KA, Kuhn J, Hess K, Schold C: Phase II study of neoadjuvant 1, 3-bis (2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea and temozolomide for newly diagnosed anaplastic glioma: a North American Brain Tumor Consortium Trial. Cancer; 2004 Apr 15;100(8):1712-6
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  • [Title] Phase II study of neoadjuvant 1, 3-bis (2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea and temozolomide for newly diagnosed anaplastic glioma: a North American Brain Tumor Consortium Trial.
  • BACKGROUND: Temozolomide (TMZ) and 1, 3-bis (2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea (BCNU) are reported to be active agents in anaplastic glioma (AG).
  • The histology was 81% anaplastic astrocytoma, 12% anaplastic oligodendroglioma, and 7% mixed tumors.
  • Two patients died while receiving therapy, 1 of progressive disease and the other of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia.
  • Seventeen percent developed progressive disease (10% after the first cycle and 7% after the second cycle).
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Carmustine / therapeutic use. Dacarbazine / analogs & derivatives. Dacarbazine / therapeutic use. Glioma / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Disease Progression. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Survival Analysis

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2004 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 15073861.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA62399; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA62405; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA62407; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA62412; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA62421; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA62422; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA62426; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA62455; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / M01-RR00042; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / M01-RR00056; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / M01-RR00079; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / M01-RR00633; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / M01-RR03186
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 85622-93-1 / temozolomide; U68WG3173Y / Carmustine
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4. Raymond E, Brandes AA, Dittrich C, Fumoleau P, Coudert B, Clement PM, Frenay M, Rampling R, Stupp R, Kros JM, Heinrich MC, Gorlia T, Lacombe D, van den Bent MJ, European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Brain Tumor Group Study: Phase II study of imatinib in patients with recurrent gliomas of various histologies: a European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Brain Tumor Group Study. J Clin Oncol; 2008 Oct 1;26(28):4659-65
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  • [Title] Phase II study of imatinib in patients with recurrent gliomas of various histologies: a European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Brain Tumor Group Study.
  • Eligible patients had recurrent glioma after prior radiotherapy with an enhancing lesion on magnetic resonance imaging.
  • Three different histologic groups were studied: glioblastomas (GBM), pure/mixed (anaplastic) oligodendrogliomas (OD), and low-grade or anaplastic astrocytomas (A).
  • Imatinib was started at a dose of 600 mg/d with dose escalation to 800 mg in case of no toxicity; during the trial this dose was increased to 800 mg/d with escalation to 1,000 mg/d.
  • Trial design was one-stage Fleming; both an objective response and 6 months of progression-free survival (PFS) were considered a successful outcome to treatment.
  • The exposure to imatinib was significantly lower in patients using enzyme-inducing antiepileptic drugs.

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  • (PMID = 18824712.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 5U10 CA11488-32; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 5U10 CA11488-33; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 5U10 CA11488-34
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Benzamides; 0 / Piperazines; 0 / Pyrimidines; 8A1O1M485B / Imatinib Mesylate
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2653126
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5. Chan DT, Poon WS, Chan YL, Ng HK: Temozolomide in the treatment of recurrent malignant glioma in Chinese patients. Hong Kong Med J; 2005 Dec;11(6):452-6
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  • [Title] Temozolomide in the treatment of recurrent malignant glioma in Chinese patients.
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine the anti-tumour efficacy and safety profile of temozolomide in local Chinese patients with recurrent malignant glioma.
  • Histology reviewed by a neuropathologist was required to show anaplastic glioma (anaplastic astrocytoma, anaplastic oligodendroglioma, or mixed anaplastic oligoastrocytoma) or glioblastoma multiforme.
  • RESULTS: Twenty-two patients with recurrent malignant glioma were recruited between January 2001 and July 2004.
  • CONCLUSION. Preliminary results showed that temozolomide had an acceptable safety profile and anti-tumour activity in recurrent malignant glioma in local Chinese population.

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  • (PMID = 16340021.001).
  • [ISSN] 1024-2708
  • [Journal-full-title] Hong Kong medical journal = Xianggang yi xue za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hong Kong Med J
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 85622-93-1 / temozolomide
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6. Robins HI, Chang SM, Prados MD, Yung WK, Hess K, Schiff D, Greenberg H, Fink K, Nicolas K, Kuhn JG, Cloughesy T, Junck L, Mehta M: A phase II trial of thymidine and carboplatin for recurrent malignant glioma: a North American Brain Tumor Consortium Study. Neuro Oncol; 2002 Apr;4(2):109-14
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  • [Title] A phase II trial of thymidine and carboplatin for recurrent malignant glioma: a North American Brain Tumor Consortium Study.
  • This phase II study in recurrent high-grade glioma evaluated the response rate, toxicities, and time to treatment failure of high-dose carboplatin modulated by a 24-h infusion of thymidine (75 g/m(2)).
  • 17, 2922-2931, 1999); a phase II recurrent high-grade glioma study was initiated in July of 1998.
  • Treatment cycles were repeated every 4 weeks.
  • Accrual as of September 1999 was 45 patients [4 were unevaluable]: 76% with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), 20% with anaplastic oligodendroglioma, 2% with mixed type, and 2% with anaplastic astrocytoma.
  • Most patients had prior chemotherapy (78%).
  • As observed in the earlier phase I study (in which carboplatin pharmacokinetics were unaltered by thymidine or antiseizure medications), thymidine was myeloprotective, resulting in a minimal need for dose reduction for patients having a >2 grade toxicity (in only 4% of the courses of treatment).
  • Responses included 2 partial (1 oligodendroglioma, 1 GBM; 5%); 3 minor (1 anaplastic astrocytoma, 2 GBM; 7.3%); 6 stable disease (14.6%); and 30 progressive disease (73.2%).
  • These results in GBM were comparable to other phase II GBM trials and thus do not represent a therapeutic advance in the treatment of GBM.
  • Taken collectively, however, results are consistent with continued investigation of thymidine in combination with chemotherapeutic agents for high-grade glioma and other malignant diseases.

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  • (PMID = 11916502.001).
  • [ISSN] 1522-8517
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuro-oncology
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / RR003186-150293; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / RR00633; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / M01 RR003186; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / RR00056; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA62455-08; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA62407; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA62405-07; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA62455; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA62426; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA62422; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / RR03186-11; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA62421; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / M01 RR003186-150293; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / RR00042; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / RR0865; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA62399; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / RR00079
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; VC2W18DGKR / Thymidine
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1920656
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7. Oshiro S, Tsugu H, Komatsu F, Ohmura T, Ohta M, Sakamoto S, Fukushima T, Inoue T: Efficacy of temozolomide treatment in patients with high-grade glioma. Anticancer Res; 2009 Mar;29(3):911-7
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  • [Title] Efficacy of temozolomide treatment in patients with high-grade glioma.
  • BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have reported the clinical efficacy of temozolomide (TMZ) treatment for high-grade glioma, but information on Japanese populations has been limited.
  • This study assessed the safety and early outcomes of TMZ treatment, with or without combination therapy.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: The subjects comprised ten patients with high-grade glioma [glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), n=3, gliosarcoma (GS), n=1, anaplastic oligodendroglioma (AO), n=3, anaplastic mixed oligoastrocytoma (AOA), n=1, and anaplastic ependymoma (AE), n=2].
  • All the patients were initially treated with conventional radiotherapy following surgical resection with or without adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • As second- or third-line chemotherapy, patients received TMZ for recurrence or tumor progression.
  • As combination therapy, the local administration of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and the addition of carboplatin and etoposide were included for three patients during the course of oral TMZ treatment.
  • RESULTS: Partial response (PR) to TMZ therapy was achieved by four out of the ten patients (objective response rate, 40%), while three patients displayed stable disease (SD) and three showed disease progression (PD).
  • One of the patients receiving combination therapy has continued to show shrinkage of the relapsed tumor.
  • Despite prior radio- and chemotherapy, most patients experienced only grade 1-2 hematotoxicity that was well-controlled by conservative therapy.
  • CONCLUSION: TMZ chemotherapy is effective for the treatment of high-grade glioma in some patients without serious toxicity.
  • Assessing the true efficacy of TMZ will require a larger study with comparison of long-term outcomes between other agents or combined therapeutic modalities.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Glioblastoma / drug therapy. Gliosarcoma / drug therapy. Oligodendroglioma / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Dacarbazine / administration & dosage. Dacarbazine / analogs & derivatives. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Treatment Outcome. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 19414327.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 85622-93-1 / temozolomide; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin
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8. Sipos L, Vitanovics D, Afra D: Temozolomide chemotherapy of patients with recurrent anaplastic astrocytomas and glioblastomas. Ideggyogy Sz; 2004 Nov 20;57(11-12):394-9
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  • [Title] Temozolomide chemotherapy of patients with recurrent anaplastic astrocytomas and glioblastomas.
  • INTRODUCTION: Anaplastic astrocytomas and glioblastomas are the most frequent and most malignant hemispherial tumours.
  • In most of the cases of recurrent gliomas chemotherapy is the last choice.
  • The patients received two to 16 courses of chemotherapy.
  • The toxicity, quality of life, response to chemotherapy and survival data were analysed.
  • RESULTS: Out of 75 patients four were excluded following the first treatment due to myelotoxicity, and allergic reactions.
  • The time to progression was 6.8 months and the median survival time 8.75 months for patients with glioblastoma and with malignant astrocytoma or malignant mixed oligoastrocytoma 9.45 and 11.15 months, respectively.
  • The overall survival for patients with originally lower grade glioma was 70.32 and for patients with glioblastoma multiforme 17.43 months.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Temozolomide chemotherapy in patients with recurrent malignant astrocytoma and glioblastoma proved to be efficacious and similar good results were achieved as with a nitrosourea based combined chemotherapy.
  • Even in those patients who received previous chemotherapy temozolomide is well tolerated and a relatively long time to progression was achieved in cases of recurrent malignant gliomas.
  • Temozolomide seems to be a promising drug in the chemotherapy of malignant gliomas and can be applied as a second line chemotherapy, as well.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / therapeutic use. Astrocytoma / drug therapy. Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Dacarbazine / analogs & derivatives. Dacarbazine / therapeutic use. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Disease Progression. Disease-Free Survival. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Glioblastoma / drug therapy. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Survival Analysis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15662767.001).
  • [ISSN] 0019-1442
  • [Journal-full-title] Ideggyógyászati szemle
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ideggyogy Sz
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Hungary
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 85622-93-1 / temozolomide
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9. Perry J, Laperriere N, Zuraw L, Chambers A, Spithoff K, Cairncross JG, Neuro-oncology Disease Site Group, Cancer Care Ontario Program in Evidence-Based Care: Adjuvant chemotherapy for adults with malignant glioma: a systematic review. Can J Neurol Sci; 2007 Nov;34(4):402-10
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  • [Title] Adjuvant chemotherapy for adults with malignant glioma: a systematic review.
  • OBJECTIVE: This systematic review examines the role of chemotherapy following surgery and external beam radiotherapy for adults with newly diagnosed malignant glioma.
  • RESULTS: Two RCTs reported a survival advantage in favour of radiotherapy with concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide compared with radiotherapy alone in patients with anaplastic astrocytoma or glioblastoma.
  • Twenty-six RCTs and two meta-analyses detected either no advantage or a small survival advantage in favour of adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSION: Concomitant temozolomide during radiotherapy and post-radiation adjuvant temozolomide is recommended for all patients ages 18-70 with newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme who are fit for radical therapy (ECOG 0-1).
  • Temozolomide may be considered in other situations (i.e., ECOG 2, biopsy only, age > 70, intermediate grade glioma), but there is no high-level evidence to support this decision.
  • Adjuvant chemotherapy may be an option for younger patients with anaplastic (grade 3) astrocytoma and patients with pure or mixed oligodendroglioma.
  • However, there is no evidence of a survival advantage from adjuvant chemotherapy in these patients, and treatment-related adverse effects and their impact upon quality of life are poorly studied.
  • The combination of procarbazine, lomustine, and vincristine (PCV) is not recommended for patients with anaplastic oligodendroglioma and oligoastrocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Glioma / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Meta-Analysis as Topic. Radiotherapy. Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic

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  • (PMID = 18062446.001).
  • [ISSN] 0317-1671
  • [Journal-full-title] The Canadian journal of neurological sciences. Le journal canadien des sciences neurologiques
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Can J Neurol Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Number-of-references] 37
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10. Bauman GS, Cairncross JG: Multidisciplinary management of adult anaplastic oligodendrogliomas and anaplastic mixed oligo-astrocytomas. Semin Radiat Oncol; 2001 Apr;11(2):170-80
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  • [Title] Multidisciplinary management of adult anaplastic oligodendrogliomas and anaplastic mixed oligo-astrocytomas.
  • In recent years, the histologic criteria for the diagnosis of oligodendroglioma have been broadened to include most small cell, monomorphic glial neoplasms.
  • These refinements have led to an increased recognition of oligodendroglial neoplasms, but uniform definitions of pure versus mixed oligodendroglioma as well as the criteria for high-grade (anaplastic) versus low-grade tumors remain elusive.
  • From a prognostic standpoint, the presence of an oligodendroglial component in a malignant glioma predicts longer survivals times for patients treated with surgery, and radiation therapy with or without chemotherapy.
  • High rates of response to PCV (procarbazine, CCNU and Vincristine) chemotherapy also have been noted among patients with anaplastic oligodendroglial neoplasms.
  • Ongoing prospective trials seek to clarify the role of PCV chemotherapy when added to radiation therapy and surgery.
  • In addition, the role of molecular markers as diagnostic aides and guides to therapy and prognosis are being explored for patients with pure and mixed anaplastic oligodendroglial tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Glioma / therapy. Oligodendroglioma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Lomustine. Neoplasm Staging. Procarbazine. Prognosis. Treatment Outcome. Vincristine

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2001 by W.B. Saunders Company
  • (PMID = 11285555.001).
  • [ISSN] 1053-4296
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in radiation oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin Radiat Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 35S93Y190K / Procarbazine; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 7BRF0Z81KG / Lomustine; PCV protocol
  • [Number-of-references] 56
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11. Hyder DJ, Sung L, Pollack IF, Gilles FH, Yates AJ, Davis RL, Boyett JM, Finlay JL: Anaplastic mixed gliomas and anaplastic oligodendroglioma in children: results from the CCG 945 experience. J Neurooncol; 2007 May;83(1):1-8
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  • [Title] Anaplastic mixed gliomas and anaplastic oligodendroglioma in children: results from the CCG 945 experience.
  • PURPOSE: To review interpathologist diagnosis variability and survival of children treated for either anaplastic mixed glioma (AMG) or anaplastic oligodendroglioma (AO) with surgery, irradiation and chemotherapy.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Two hundred and fifty patients with an institutional diagnosis of malignant glioma were enrolled on Children's Cancer Group CCG-945 between 1985 and 1991, and administered vincristine during involved field radiotherapy, then six cycles of prednisone, lomustine and, vincristine; or two cycles of "eight-drugs-in-one-day" (8-in-1) chemotherapy then involved-field radiotherapy followed by six cycles of 8-in-1 chemotherapy.
  • However, central review established that only nine of 26 children had AMG: either mixed oligoastrocytoma (MOA) or anaplastic mixed oligoastrocytoma (AOA) and only one had AO.
  • CONCLUSION: Diagnosis of these tumors is challenging, with only 35% of institutional diagnoses confirmed for AMG and 25% for AO, and survival among children with these tumors is poor, despite intensive therapy.
  • This suggests reliable diagnostic markers and new therapeutic approaches are needed.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Neoplasms / diagnosis. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / therapy. Glioma / diagnosis. Glioma / therapy. Oligodendroglioma / diagnosis. Oligodendroglioma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Astrocytoma / therapy. Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Child. Child, Preschool. Cohort Studies. Drug Therapy. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Neurosurgical Procedures. Radiotherapy. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / diagnosis. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / therapy. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 17252186.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] United States
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12. Levin VA, Yung WK, Bruner J, Kyritsis A, Leeds N, Gleason MJ, Hess KR, Meyers CA, Ictech SA, Chang E, Maor MH: Phase II study of accelerated fractionation radiation therapy with carboplatin followed by PCV chemotherapy for the treatment of anaplastic gliomas. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2002 May 1;53(1):58-66
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  • [Title] Phase II study of accelerated fractionation radiation therapy with carboplatin followed by PCV chemotherapy for the treatment of anaplastic gliomas.
  • PURPOSE: To conduct a Phase II one-arm study to evaluate the long-term efficacy and safety of accelerated fractionated radiotherapy combined with i.v. carboplatin for patients with previously untreated anaplastic gliomas.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: Between 1988 and 1992, 90 patients received 1.9-2.0-Gy radiation 3 times a day with 2-h infusions of 33 g/m(2) carboplatin for two 5-day cycles separated by 2 weeks.
  • Histologically, 69 had anaplastic astrocytoma; 14, anaplastic oligoastrocytoma; and 7, anaplastic oligodendroglioma.
  • A multivariate analysis showed that a younger age (p = 0.026), Karnofsky performance score (KPS; p = 0.009), and brain necrosis (p = 0.0002) were predictive of a better survival.
  • The median survival (MS) of all anaplastic glioma patients was 28.1 months; for anaplastic astrocytoma patients, MS was 28.7 months and 40.8 months for the combined anaplastic oligodendroglioma/oligoastrocytoma patients.
  • Long-term survival occurred in 25% of anaplastic glioma patients who were alive 8.6 years after treatment was initiated.
  • Treatment-induced necrosis was documented by surgery or autopsy in 19 (21%) patients; 21 (23%) had a mixed pattern of necrosis and tumor; and an additional 13 (14%) patients who did not have surgical or autopsy demonstration of predominant radiation necrosis had magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) evidence of radiation necrosis.
  • Serious clinical neurologic deterioration and/or dementia requiring full-time caregiver attention were observed in 9 (10%) patients.
  • CONCLUSION: When comparable selection criteria are applied, the rate of MS in this study is inferior to results attainable with current radiation and chemotherapy approaches, although the rates of long-term survival are comparable.
  • Theoretically, patients failing therapy and dying earlier than anticipated may be because of excessive central nervous system (CNS) toxicity resulting from the combination of accelerated fractionated irradiation, intensive carboplatin chemotherapy before each radiation fraction, and postirradiation PCV chemotherapy.
  • On the other hand, patients with treatment-induced necrosis survived significantly longer than patients who did not demonstrate MRI or histologic evidence of necrosis (MS, 106 months vs. 18-33 months).
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Astrocytoma / drug therapy. Astrocytoma / radiotherapy. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Brain Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Oligodendroglioma / drug therapy. Oligodendroglioma / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Carboplatin / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Dose Fractionation. Female. Humans. Lomustine / administration & dosage. Male. Middle Aged. Procarbazine / administration & dosage. Survival Analysis. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • [CommentIn] Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2003 Mar 1;55(3):849; author reply 849 [12573773.001]
  • (PMID = 12007942.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 55261
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 35S93Y190K / Procarbazine; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 7BRF0Z81KG / Lomustine; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; PCV protocol
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13. Wick W, Weller M: [Anaplastic glioma. Neuropathology, molecular diagnostics and current study concepts]. Nervenarzt; 2010 Aug;81(8):928-30, 932-5
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  • [Title] [Anaplastic glioma. Neuropathology, molecular diagnostics and current study concepts].
  • According to the current WHO classification anaplastic gliomas comprise pure astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas and mixed tumors.
  • This review summarizes findings, discusses problems and defines new questions from the phase III trials on anaplastic gliomas.
  • The molecular subgroup analyses of the NOA-04 trial identified three molecular parameters, which predict longer progression-free and overall survival independent from the mode of therapy, radiotherapy or alkylating chemotherapy-.
  • Therefore, marker profiles should be included into the next WHO brain tumor classification.
  • The current standard of care for first-line treatment in anaplastic gliomas is radiotherapy or chemotherapy.
  • The next steps, e.g. within the international CATNON trial, are to define the role and optimal sequencing of combined modality treatment focusing on radiotherapy and temozolomide.
  • Furthermore, anaplastic gliomas are an important group of brain tumors for developing future molecular targeted therapies and should therefore be in the main focus of academic and industrial drug development, which aims at improved efficacy and avoiding long-term side-effects.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Oligodendroglioma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / therapeutic use. Brain / pathology. Chromosome Deletion. Clinical Trials as Topic. Clinical Trials, Phase III as Topic. Combined Modality Therapy. Cranial Irradiation. DNA Modification Methylases / genetics. DNA Mutational Analysis. DNA Repair Enzymes / genetics. Disease-Free Survival. Humans. Isocitrate Dehydrogenase / genetics. Promoter Regions, Genetic / genetics. Survival Rate. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics

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  • (PMID = 20635074.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-0407
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Nervenarzt
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nervenarzt
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; EC 1.1.1.41 / Isocitrate Dehydrogenase; EC 1.1.1.42. / IDH1 protein, human; EC 2.1.1.- / DNA Modification Methylases; EC 2.1.1.63 / MGMT protein, human; EC 6.5.1.- / DNA Repair Enzymes
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14. Herholz K, Kracht LW, Heiss WD: Monitoring the effect of chemotherapy in a mixed glioma by C-11-methionine PET. J Neuroimaging; 2003 Jul;13(3):269-71
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  • [Title] Monitoring the effect of chemotherapy in a mixed glioma by C-11-methionine PET.
  • The effect of chemotherapy with procarbazine, CCNU, and vincristine in an anaplastic oligoastrocytoma was monitored by repeated positron emission tomography (PET) with C-11-methionine (C-11-MET).
  • Chemotherapy caused a continuous decline of active tumor volume at a rate of approximately 2.4% per day, resulting in complete remission that persisted until the end of follow-up at 3 years.
  • Thus, the authors conclude that C-11-MET PET may be useful for monitoring chemotherapy in gliomas and deserves further study.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / radionuclide imaging. Brain Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Cerebral Cortex / radionuclide imaging. Drug Monitoring / methods. Tomography, Emission-Computed / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Humans. Methionine. Radiopharmaceuticals. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 12889176.001).
  • [ISSN] 1051-2284
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuroimaging : official journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Neuroimaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 58576-49-1 / carbon-11 methionine; AE28F7PNPL / Methionine
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15. Tatter SB: Recurrent malignant glioma in adults. Curr Treat Options Oncol; 2002 Dec;3(6):509-24
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  • [Title] Recurrent malignant glioma in adults.
  • Meaningful palliation is possible for selected patients with recurrent malignant glioma (glioblastoma multiforme, anaplastic astrocytoma, anaplastic oligodendroglioma, or anaplastic mixed oligoastrocytoma) using aggressive treatment.
  • Surgical resection with the placement of lomustine-releasing wafers is the only therapy proven in randomized trials to be beneficial for recurrent malignant gliomas.
  • Reoperation may make other treatments more effective by removing treatment-resistant hypoxic cells and thereby prolonging high-quality survival.
  • Combination chemotherapy (including procarbazine and a nitrosourea) provides dramatic benefit for many recurrent anaplastic or aggressively behaving oligodendrogliomas and anaplastic mixed oligoastrocytomas.
  • For other recurrent malignant gliomas, single-agent cytotoxic chemotherapy (eg, intravenous lomustine or platinums, oral carmustine, temozolomide, or procarbazine) appears to provide equivalent results and better quality of life at a lower cost than do the combinations of cytotoxic drugs.
  • Because benefits of available cytotoxic chemotherapy for anaplastic astrocytoma and glioblastoma are small, participation in clinical trials is appropriate for most patients.
  • Reirradiation (using stereotactic or three-dimensional conformal techniques with or without concomitant cytotoxic chemotherapy) as radiation sensitization can prolong high-quality survival in selected patients.
  • Specific examples include radiosurgery with the gamma knife or with linear accelerators, intracavitary radiation with the newly US Food and Drug Administration-approved GliaSite (Proxima Therapeutics, Alpharetta, GA) radiation therapy system, low dose rate permanent-seed brachytherapy, and high dose rate stereotactic brachytherapy.
  • Dexamethasone (used for the shortest time in the lowest effective doses) can provide symptomatic benefits.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Glioma / therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Craniotomy. Humans. Neurosurgical Procedures / methods. Radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 12392640.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-2729
  • [Journal-full-title] Current treatment options in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Treat Options Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 47
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16. Narayana A, Yamada J, Hunt M, Shah P, Gutin P, Leibel SA: Intensity modulated radiotherapy in high grade gliomas: Clinical and dosimetric results. J Clin Oncol; 2004 Jul 15;22(14_suppl):1532

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • : 1532 Background: Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy (IMRT) is an emerging treatment for brain tumors, but there is very little clinical or dosimetric data on doses and outcomes from IMRT treatment for malignant gliomas.
  • A dose of 59.4-60Gy using 1.8-2.0 Gy per fraction was delivered.
  • Glioblastoma accounted for 62% of the cases and oligodendroglioma histology (pure or mixed) was seen in 16.7% of the cases.
  • 80% of the patients received adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • The median disease free survival for anaplastic glioma and glioblastoma were 5.6 and 2.5 months.
  • The median overall survival for the anaplastic glioma and glioblastoma histologies were 16.5 and 10.6 months respectively.
  • A comparative dosimetric analysis revealed that regardless of tumor location, IMRT did not improve target coverage compared to conventional 3-dimensional treatment planning.
  • However, the use of IMRT resulted in a decreased dose to spinal cord, optic chiasm and brain stem by 19%, 4.5% and 8% respectively due to its improved dose conformality.
  • Use of IMRT did not result in an increase of the dose received by the normal brain.
  • However, it may result in decreased late toxicities associated with radiation therapy.

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  • (PMID = 28015407.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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17. Taal W, van der Rijt CD, Sillevis Smitt PA, Kros JM, van Heuvel I, Enting RH, van den Bent MJ: [Favourable result for temozolomide in recurrent high-grade glioma]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd; 2005 Jun 18;149(25):1393-9
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  • [Title] [Favourable result for temozolomide in recurrent high-grade glioma].
  • OBJECTIVE: To describe the results of the treatment of recurrent glioma with temozolomide.
  • METHOD: This study evaluated 77 patients with a recurrent high-grade glioma who from August 1997-December 2003 were treated with temozolomide (150-200 mg/m2/day for 5 days per 28-day cycle) following surgery and radiotherapy at the Daniel den Hoed Oncology Centre of the Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, the Netherlands.
  • The patients were divided into 4 groups depending on histology and chemotherapy history.
  • RESULTS: 15 patients received temozolomide for a recurrent anaplastic oligodendroglioma or mixed oligo-astrocytoma.
  • 35 patients underwent second-line chemotherapy with temozolomide after earlier chemotherapy with procarbazine, lomustine and vincristine for recurrent anaplastic oligodendroglioma or mixed oligo-astrocytoma.
  • 14 patients were treated with temozolomide for a recurrent anaplastic astrocytoma with a response of 35% and after 12 months in 8% of these patients there was no disease progression.
  • CONCLUSION. Temozolomide has an acceptable safety profile and may be regarded as the preferred treatment for recurrent anaplastic gliomas after radiotherapy.
  • There is only a limited role for temozolomide in the treatment of recurrent glioblastoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Dacarbazine / analogs & derivatives. Dacarbazine / therapeutic use. Glioma / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • [CommentIn] Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2005 Jun 18;149(25):1376-8 [15997689.001]
  • (PMID = 15997692.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-2162
  • [Journal-full-title] Nederlands tijdschrift voor geneeskunde
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd
  • [Language] dut
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 85622-93-1 / temozolomide
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18. Chansriwong P, Sirisinha T: Clinical features, management and outcomes of high-grade glioma patients in Ramathibodi Hospital. J Med Assoc Thai; 2010 Feb;93 Suppl 2:S68-73
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  • [Title] Clinical features, management and outcomes of high-grade glioma patients in Ramathibodi Hospital.
  • OBJECTIVE: To identify prognostic factors for survival and evaluate the effect of treatment on survival of patients with high-grade glioma treated at Ramathibodi Hospital.
  • MATERIAL AND METHOD: Medical records of patients with diagnosis of high-grade glioma registered in Ramathibodi cancer registry were reviewed.
  • Mean age of diagnosis was 41.86 years (range 18-71 years).
  • Histological findings were anaplastic glioma (22.20%), glioblastoma multiforme (63.90%) and mixed glioma (13.90%).
  • Nine patients also received chemotherapy (6 temozolomide and 3 BCNU).
  • Median follow-up time was 413.2 days.
  • An overall survival time was 604.04 days and median disease free survival time was 402.45 days.
  • In univariated analysis, the following favorable prognostic factors were identified: histological findings of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and mixed glioma, received radiotherapy.
  • CONCLUSION: Adult high-grade glioma had poor prognosis despite aggressive treatment.
  • Radiotherapy significantly improved survival while surgical tumor removal and chemotherapy did not.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Carmustine / therapeutic use. Dacarbazine / analogs & derivatives. Glioma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Hospitals. Humans. Incidence. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Proportional Hazards Models. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 21299082.001).
  • [ISSN] 0125-2208
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand = Chotmaihet thangphaet
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Assoc Thai
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Thailand
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 85622-93-1 / temozolomide; U68WG3173Y / Carmustine
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19. Jaeckle KA, Hess KR, Yung WK, Greenberg H, Fine H, Schiff D, Pollack IF, Kuhn J, Fink K, Mehta M, Cloughesy T, Nicholas MK, Chang S, Prados M, North American Brain Tumor Consortium: Phase II evaluation of temozolomide and 13-cis-retinoic acid for the treatment of recurrent and progressive malignant glioma: a North American Brain Tumor Consortium study. J Clin Oncol; 2003 Jun 15;21(12):2305-11
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  • [Title] Phase II evaluation of temozolomide and 13-cis-retinoic acid for the treatment of recurrent and progressive malignant glioma: a North American Brain Tumor Consortium study.
  • This phase II trial evaluated efficacy and toxicity of combination temozolomide and cRA treatment in recurrent MG.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Adults with recurrent supratentorial MG for whom surgery, radiation, and/or chemotherapy failed were eligible.
  • Treatment included oral TMZ 150 or 200 mg/m2/d, days 1 through 5, and cRA 100 mg/m2/d, days 1 to 21, every 28 days.
  • RESULTS: Eighty-eight eligible patients (glioblastoma multiforme [n = 40]; anaplastic gliomas [n = 48; astrocytoma, 28; oligodendroglioma, 14; mixed glioma, six]) received treatment.
  • Among 499 treatment cycles, the most common grade 3/4 events included granulocytopenia (1.8%), thrombocytopenia (1.4%), and hypertriglyceridemia (1.2%).
  • CONCLUSION: TMZ and cRA were active, exceeding our 20% thresholds for PFS 6 success, assuming 20% improvement over our previously reported database (glioblastoma multiforme: expected, 30%; observed, 32%; anaplastic glioma: expected, 40%; observed, 50%).
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Dacarbazine / analogs & derivatives. Glioma / drug therapy. Supratentorial Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / administration & dosage. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Isotretinoin / administration & dosage. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 12805331.001).
  • [ISSN] 0732-183X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA16672; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA62399; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA62412; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA62422; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA62426; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA62455; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / M01-RR00042; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / M01-RR00633; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / M01-RR03186; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / M01-RR0865; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / MO1-RR00056; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / UO1CA62399; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / UO1CA62405; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / UO1CA62407-08; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / UO1CA62421
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 85622-93-1 / temozolomide; EH28UP18IF / Isotretinoin
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20. Chang HT, Cuison RV, Gera R, Saah E, Scott-Emuakpor A, Abood C: 6-year-old girl with hydrocephalus. Brain Pathol; 2009 Oct;19(4):725-6
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  • We report a case of a tectal glioma in a 6-years-old girl with histological features of anaplastic mixed oligoastrocytoma that continues to progress despite chemotherapy and radiation therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Stem Neoplasms / diagnosis. Glioma / diagnosis. Hydrocephalus / etiology

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  • (PMID = 19744043.001).
  • [ISSN] 1750-3639
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain pathology (Zurich, Switzerland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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21. Burton EC, Prados MD: Malignant gliomas. Curr Treat Options Oncol; 2000 Dec;1(5):459-68
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  • In adults, the most frequently encountered of these are high-grade or malignant neoplasms of astrocytic and oligodendrocytic lineage, ie, anaplastic astrocytoma (AA), glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), and anaplastic oligodendroglioma (AO), respectively.
  • Tumors of mixed lineage are also seen, the most common of which is designated anaplastic oligoastrocytoma (AOA).
  • Standard treatment for these tumors is typically surgery, followed by radiation then chemotherapy.
  • Surgery is required for a definitive histopathologic diagnosis, which in turn will dictate subsequent therapy options.
  • In almost all cases, surgery is followed by radiation therapy.
  • Postsurgical irradiation is the most effective treatment currently available for improving survival.
  • There is also mounting evidence to suggest that additional radiation, given in the form of brachytherapy or radiosurgery, at initial diagnosis as a "boost" to standard radiation or at tumor recurrence, may provide added improvement in survival outcome.
  • Radiosurgery and brachytherapy are therapies often used to treat eligible patients at this institution.
  • Adjuvant chemotherapy, conventionally given after radiation, may offer a modest survival benefit in some patients with GBM.
  • Bischloroethylnitrosourea (BCNU) is the typical first-line agent used, but chemotherapy seems to be most beneficial in young patients, with little if any impact on survival for patients over 60 years old.
  • At this institution, we often defer treatment with adjuvant chemotherapy for elderly patients with GBM due to lack of efficacy and the attendant risk with chemotherapy.
  • For anaplastic astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas, and oligoastrocytomas, a commonly accepted standard is adjuvant chemotherapy following irradiation with the three-drug regimen--procarbazine, CCNU, and vincristine (PCV).
  • However, recent data suggest that treatment with either PCV or BCNU may be appropriate.
  • Both regimens now appear to have equal efficacy for anaplastic gliomas in light of a more recent analysis done with larger numbers of patients.
  • Patients with this molecular pattern have an exceptional responsiveness to PCV chemotherapy and have prolonged survival.
  • Currently, trials are being conducted to confirm this finding and to determine the best treatment regimen for these patients, with particular regard to the timing of radiation and chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Glioma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Clinical Trials as Topic. Female. Humans. Radiotherapy. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 12057153.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-2729
  • [Journal-full-title] Current treatment options in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Treat Options Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA09291; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA13525
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 31
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22. Narayana A, Yamada J, Berry S, Shah P, Hunt M, Gutin PH, Leibel SA: Intensity-modulated radiotherapy in high-grade gliomas: clinical and dosimetric results. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2006 Mar 1;64(3):892-7
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  • A dose of 59.4-60 Gy at 1.8-2.0 Gy per fraction was delivered.
  • Glioblastoma accounted for 70% of the cases, and anaplastic oligodendroglioma histology (pure or mixed) was seen in 15% of the cases.
  • Surgery consisted of biopsy only in 26% of the patients, and 80% received adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • The median progression-free survival time for anaplastic astrocytoma and glioblastoma histology was 5.6 and 2.5 months, respectively.
  • The overall survival time for anaplastic glioma and glioblastoma was 36 and 9 months, respectively.
  • Intensity-modulated radiotherapy delivered with a limited number of beams did not result in an increased dose to the normal brain.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Glioma / radiotherapy. Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Brain / radiation effects. Disease Progression. Female. Glioblastoma / radiotherapy. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Oligodendroglioma / radiotherapy. Radiotherapy Dosage. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 16458777.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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23. Qureshi AI, Suri MF, Khan J, Sharma M, Olson K, Guterman LR, Hopkins LN: Superselective intra-arterial carboplatin for treatment of intracranial neoplasms: experience in 100 procedures. J Neurooncol; 2001 Jan;51(2):151-8
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  • [Title] Superselective intra-arterial carboplatin for treatment of intracranial neoplasms: experience in 100 procedures.
  • In the present report, we review our clinical experience with the 100 intra-arterial infusions of carboplatin in intracranial neoplasms not responsive to other treatment modalities.
  • In a subset of 10 patients, tumor volume was measured by serial magnetic resonance images to assess therapeutic response to therapy.
  • The tumors were classified as glioblastoma multiforme (n = 12), metastatic tumor (n = 1), high-grade astrocytoma (n = 6), and anaplastic mixed glioma (n = 5).
  • Survival beyond 1 year after initiation of intra-arterial carboplatin therapy was documented in 12 of the 23 patients.
  • An increase in tumor mass ranging from 23% to 230% was observed in the other 7 patients over a period ranging from 2.3 to 37.7 months since initiation of carboplatin therapy.
  • The addition of RMP-7 to carboplatin therapy appears to be at least as safe as the administration of carboplatin alone and requires further investigation as a means of chemotherapeutic dose intensification.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Carboplatin / therapeutic use. Glioma / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Astrocytoma / drug therapy. Bradykinin / analogs & derivatives. Bradykinin / therapeutic use. Carotid Arteries. Cerebral Arteries. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infusions, Intra-Arterial. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 11386412.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 159768-75-9 / RMP 7; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; S8TIM42R2W / Bradykinin
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24. Vogelbaum MA, Sampson JH, Kunwar S, Chang SM, Shaffrey M, Asher AL, Lang FF, Croteau D, Parker K, Grahn AY, Sherman JW, Husain SR, Puri RK: Convection-enhanced delivery of cintredekin besudotox (interleukin-13-PE38QQR) followed by radiation therapy with and without temozolomide in newly diagnosed malignant gliomas: phase 1 study of final safety results. Neurosurgery; 2007 Nov;61(5):1031-7; discussion 1037-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Convection-enhanced delivery of cintredekin besudotox (interleukin-13-PE38QQR) followed by radiation therapy with and without temozolomide in newly diagnosed malignant gliomas: phase 1 study of final safety results.
  • This study assessed the safety of CB administered by convection-enhanced delivery followed by standard external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) with or without temozolomide (Temodar; Schering-Plough, Kenilworth, NJ) in patients with newly diagnosed malignant gliomas.
  • Safety was assessed during an 11-week observation period after catheter placement RESULTS: Twenty-two patients (12 men, 10 women; median age, 55 yr; 21 with glioblastoma multiforme and one with an anaplastic mixed oligoastrocytoma) were enrolled.
  • Six patients in the final cohort (0.5 microg/mL CB + EBRT + temozolomide [n = 10]) completed treatment, and one patient experienced a dose-limiting toxicity (Grade 3 aphasia and confusion).
  • Four patients were not considered evaluable for a dose decision and were replaced.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Brain Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Exotoxins / administration & dosage. Exotoxins / adverse effects. Glioma / drug therapy. Glioma / radiotherapy. Interleukin-13 / administration & dosage. Interleukin-13 / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant / methods. Dacarbazine / administration & dosage. Dacarbazine / adverse effects. Dacarbazine / analogs & derivatives. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Delivery Systems / methods. Female. Humans. Infusions, Intralesional / methods. Male. Middle Aged. Nervous System Diseases / chemically induced. Radiotherapy, Conformal. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18091279.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4040
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / 2P50-NS20023; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / K23 RR16065; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA097611
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase I; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Exotoxins; 0 / IL13-PE38QQR; 0 / Interleukin-13; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 85622-93-1 / temozolomide
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