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1. Luchman HA, Benediktsson H, Villemaire ML, Peterson AC, Jirik FR: The pace of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia development is determined by the timing of Pten tumor suppressor gene excision. PLoS One; 2008;3(12):e3940
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  • Given that the prostate undergoes rapid androgen-dependent growth at puberty, and that Pten excisions during this time might be especially tumorigenic, we hypothesized that delaying prostate-specific Pten deletions until immediately after puberty might alter the pace of tumorigenesis.
  • Despite evidence of increased Akt/mTOR/S6K axis activity at early time points in Pten-deficient epithelial cells, excisions induced in the post-pubertal (6 wk-old) prostate yielded gradual acquisition of a range of lesions.
  • These progressed from pre-malignant changes (nuclear atypia, focal hyperplasia) and low grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) at 16-20 wks post-tamoxifen exposure, to overtly malignant lesions by approximately 1 yr of age, characterized by high-grade PIN and microinvasive carcinoma.
  • In contrast, when Pten excisions were triggered in the pre-pubertal (2 week-old) prostate, neoplasia evolved over a more abbreviated time-frame, with a spectrum of premalignant lesions, as well as overt PIN and microinvasive carcinoma by 10-12 wks post-tamoxifen exposure.
  • [MeSH-minor] Androgen-Binding Protein / genetics. Animals. Apoptosis. Arrestins / metabolism. Cell Proliferation. Crosses, Genetic. Disease Progression. Epithelium / enzymology. Epithelium / pathology. Female. Humans. Integrases / metabolism. Male. Mice. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases / metabolism. Precancerous Conditions / drug therapy. Precancerous Conditions / enzymology. Precancerous Conditions / genetics. Precancerous Conditions / pathology. Rats. Ribosomal Protein S6 / metabolism. Tamoxifen / analogs & derivatives. Tamoxifen / therapeutic use. Time Factors. Up-Regulation

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  • (PMID = 19081794.001).
  • [ISSN] 1932-6203
  • [Journal-full-title] PloS one
  • [ISO-abbreviation] PLoS ONE
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgen-Binding Protein; 0 / Arrestins; 0 / Ribosomal Protein S6; 0 / beta-arrestin; 094ZI81Y45 / Tamoxifen; 17197F0KYM / afimoxifene; EC 2.7.1.- / Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases; EC 2.7.7.- / Cre recombinase; EC 2.7.7.- / Integrases; EC 3.1.3.48 / Pten protein, mouse; EC 3.1.3.67 / PTEN Phosphohydrolase
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2597775
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2. Kladney RD, Cardiff RD, Kwiatkowski DJ, Chiang GG, Weber JD, Arbeit JM, Lu ZH: Tuberous sclerosis complex 1: an epithelial tumor suppressor essential to prevent spontaneous prostate cancer in aged mice. Cancer Res; 2010 Nov 1;70(21):8937-47
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  • Epithelial inactivation was not immediately tumorigenic, but Tsc1-deficient mice developed prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (mPIN) in lateral and anterior prostates by 6 months of age, with increasing disease penetrance over time.
  • Lateral prostate lesions in 16- to 22-month-old mutant mice progressed to two types of more advanced lesions, adenomatous gland forming lesion (Type 1) and atypical glands embedded in massively expanded reactive stroma (Type 2).
  • Both Type 1 and Type 2 lesions contained multiple foci of microinvasive carcinoma.
  • Epithelial neoplastic and atypical stromal lesions persisted despite 4 weeks of RAD001 chemotherapy.
  • Thus, TSC1 inactivation distal to PI3K and AKT activation is sufficient to activate a molecular signaling cascade producing prostatic neoplasia and focal carcinogenesis.

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  • [Copyright] ©2010 AACR.
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  • (PMID = 20940396.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7445
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA093373; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA120964-01A1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA101012-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA120436-04; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA120436; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA120964; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA101012-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA120964-01A1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA120436-04; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA101012; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 1P01CA120964-01A1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA10101
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Homeodomain Proteins; 0 / Multiprotein Complexes; 0 / Nkx3-1 protein, mouse; 0 / Proteins; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 0 / mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1; 0 / tuberous sclerosis complex 1 protein; EC 2.7.1.1 / TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases; EC 2.7.1.137 / Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt; EC 2.7.11.24 / Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS277034; NLM/ PMC3064856
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3. Nahas SC, Nahas CS, Silva Filho EV, Levi JE, Atui FC, Marques CF: Perianal squamous cell carcinoma with high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia in an HIV-positive patient using highly active antiretroviral therapy: case report. Sao Paulo Med J; 2007 Sep 6;125(5):292-4
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  • [Title] Perianal squamous cell carcinoma with high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia in an HIV-positive patient using highly active antiretroviral therapy: case report.
  • CONTEXT: Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has turned human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection into a chronic condition, and this has led to increased incidence of anal dysplasia among HIV-positive patients.
  • Routine anal evaluation including the anal canal and perianal area is recommended for this population, especially for patients infected by oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) types.
  • HPV DNA testing of the anus detected the presence of HPV-16 type.
  • Histological analysis on the excised tissue revealed high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion with one focus of microinvasive squamous cell cancer measuring 1 mm.
  • However no invasive squamous cell carcinoma recurrence has been detected so far.
  • [MeSH-major] Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active / adverse effects. Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. HIV Seropositivity / drug therapy. Human papillomavirus 16 / isolation & purification. Papillomavirus Infections / pathology


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4. Lilic V, Lilic G, Filipovic S, Milosevic J, Tasic M, Stojiljkovic M: Modern treatment of invasive carcinoma of the uterine cervix. J BUON; 2009 Oct-Dec;14(4):587-92
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  • [Title] Modern treatment of invasive carcinoma of the uterine cervix.
  • Treatment of invasive cervical carcinoma is determined by the clinical disease stage.
  • Microinvasive carcinoma of the uterine cervix, due to its limited metastatic potential, is usually curable with non-radical treatment.
  • There are no standard approaches to the treatment of stage Ib-IIa carcinoma of the uterine cervix.
  • Some oncologic centres prefer primary surgery with postoperative radiotherapy, with or without chemotherapy, while others prefer primary chemoradiotherapy.
  • Moreover, as a possible alternative, neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by radical surgery is recommended for stage Ib2 disease.
  • The treatment of recurrent carcinoma depends on the type of previous treatment, site and extent of recurrent disease, and on the disease-free period and general health of the patient.
  • In conclusion, the decision on the treatment approach for invasive carcinoma of the uterine cervix should be individualized, based on numerous factors, such as disease stage, general health of the patient, cancer-related factors, in order to choose the best approach with minimal complications.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Hysterectomy. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 20148447.001).
  • [ISSN] 1107-0625
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of B.U.ON. : official journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J BUON
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 28
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5. Sundar S, Horne A, Kehoe S: Cervical cancer. BMJ Clin Evid; 2008;2008
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  • We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA).
  • CONCLUSIONS: In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: HPV vaccine for preventing cervical cancer and conisation of the cervix for microinvasive carcinoma (stage Ia1), neoadjuvant chemotherapy, radiotherapy, chemoradiotherapy, or different types of surgery for treating early stage and bulky early stage cervical cancer.
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemoradiotherapy. Disease-Free Survival. Humans. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Radiotherapy Dosage. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 19450324.001).
  • [ISSN] 1752-8526
  • [Journal-full-title] BMJ clinical evidence
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMJ Clin Evid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
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6. Loewen GM, Pandey R, Bellnier D, Henderson B, Dougherty T: Endobronchial photodynamic therapy for lung cancer. Lasers Surg Med; 2006 Jun;38(5):364-70
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  • [Title] Endobronchial photodynamic therapy for lung cancer.
  • BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Endobronchial photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a minimally invasive technique for the palliation of major airway obstruction from lung cancer, and for the treatment of endobronchial microinvasive lung cancer.
  • HPPH (2-[1-hexyloxyethyl]-2 devinyl pyropheophorbide) is an example of a second-generation photosensitize that shows promise in the treatment of lung cancer, and appears to be free from significant skin photosensitivity.
  • CONCLUSION: PDT is an effective tool for the palliation of endobronchial lung cancers which obstruct the central airways and is also effective for the treatment of central microinvasive carcinoma and carcinoma in situ of the central airways.
  • [MeSH-major] Airway Obstruction / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Photochemotherapy. Photosensitizing Agents / therapeutic use

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 16788932.001).
  • [ISSN] 0196-8092
  • [Journal-full-title] Lasers in surgery and medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lasers Surg Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Photosensitizing Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 52
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7. Cody HS 3rd: Clinical aspects of sentinel node biopsy. Breast Cancer Res; 2001;3(2):104-8
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  • A combination of isotope and dye to map the SLN is probably superior to either method used alone, yet a wide variety of technical variations in the procedure have produced a striking similarity of results.
  • SLN biopsy will play a growing role in patients having prophylactic mastectomy, and in those with 'high-risk' duct carcinoma in situ, microinvasive cancers, T3 disease, and neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
  • SLN biopsy for the first time makes enhanced pathologic analysis of lymph nodes logistically feasible, at once allowing greater staging accuracy and less morbidity than standard methods.
  • Retrospective data suggest that micrometastases identified in this way are prognostically significant, and prospective clinical trials now accruing promise a definitive answer to this issue.

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  • (PMID = 11250755.001).
  • [ISSN] 1465-5411
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer research : BCR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 66
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC139440
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8. Prasad ML, Osborne MP, Giri DD, Hoda SA: Microinvasive carcinoma (T1mic) of the breast: clinicopathologic profile of 21 cases. Am J Surg Pathol; 2000 Mar;24(3):422-8
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  • [Title] Microinvasive carcinoma (T1mic) of the breast: clinicopathologic profile of 21 cases.
  • Clinicopathologic data on microinvasive carcinoma of the breast (MICB) as defined by the 1997 TNM criteria (T1mic < or = 1 mm) is scarce.
  • MICB was ductal in 18 patients, including one tubular carcinoma, and was lobular in three patients.
  • The accompanying duct carcinoma in situ had high-grade nuclei and necrosis in 16 of 18 patients (89%), 13 of which (72%) were comedo-type.
  • Eleven patients underwent mastectomy, nine received radiation therapy, one received chemotherapy, and two underwent lumpectomy only.
  • One patient had a chest wall recurrence of infiltrating duct carcinoma and another recurred with duct carcinoma in situ.

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  • (PMID = 10716157.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
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9. Gonçalves BF, Zanetoni C, Scarano WR, Góes RM, Vilamaior PS, Taboga SR, Campos SG: Prostate carcinogenesis induced by N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (mnu) in gerbils: histopathological diagnosis and potential invasiveness mediated by extracellular matrix components. Exp Mol Pathol; 2010 Feb;88(1):96-106
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  • Fibrillar elements of the extracellular matrix associated with microinvasive sites were also investigated.
  • MNU plus androgen contributed to the development of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, microinvasive carcinoma and adenocarcinoma in gerbil prostate.
  • However, these lesions occurred earlier in time in groups that received MNU and androgen compared to control animals as they over time also developed to a high extent microinvasive lesions.
  • The disruption of the basement membrane was proven at malignant sites by ultrastructural analysis and type IV collagen and laminin degradation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Alkylating Agents / toxicity. Extracellular Matrix / drug effects. Methylnitrosourea / toxicity. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cell Proliferation. Collagen / drug effects. Collagen / metabolism. Disease Models, Animal. Drug Therapy, Combination. Epithelial Cells / drug effects. Epithelial Cells / pathology. Gerbillinae. Inflammation / chemically induced. Inflammation / pathology. Male. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Prostatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia / chemically induced. Prostatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia / pathology. Racemases and Epimerases / metabolism. Reticulin / drug effects. Reticulin / metabolism. Testosterone / pharmacology. Time Factors

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  • [Copyright] Published by Elsevier Inc.
  • (PMID = 19818764.001).
  • [ISSN] 1096-0945
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental and molecular pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Mol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Alkylating Agents; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Reticulin; 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone; 684-93-5 / Methylnitrosourea; 9007-34-5 / Collagen; EC 5.1.- / Racemases and Epimerases; EC 5.1.99.4 / alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase
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10. Kesic V: Management of cervical cancer. Eur J Surg Oncol; 2006 Oct;32(8):832-7
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  • RESULTS: Treatment of invasive cervical cancer is affected by the stage of the disease, which is based on clinical evaluation.
  • Microinvasive carcinoma of the cervix has limited metastatic potential and therefore is most likely curable by non-radical treatment.
  • There is no standard management of stage Ib-IIa cervical carcinoma.
  • There is lot of conflicting published work regarding the treatment of bulky stage Ib-IIa cervical cancer.
  • While some centers are performing primary surgery as for Ib1 disease followed by tailored postoperative radiation with or without chemotherapy, the others are in favor of primary chemo-radiation therapy.
  • Neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by radical surgery has emerged as a possible alternative, which may improve a survival in patients with stage Ib2 disease.
  • Concomitant chemoradiation is becoming a new standard in treatment of advanced disease, because it has been clearly shown to improve disease-free, progression-free and overall survival.
  • Management of recurrent disease depends on previous treatment, site and extent of recurrence, disease-free interval and patient's performance status.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Treatment decisions should be individualized and based on multiple factors including the stage of the disease, age, medical condition of the patient, tumor-related factors and treatment preferences, to yield the best cure with minimum complications.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Hysterectomy / methods. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16698223.001).
  • [ISSN] 0748-7983
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of surgical oncology : the journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 42
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11. Di Vagno G, Cormio G, Pignata S, Scambia G, Di Stefano MG, Tambaro R, Trerotoli P, Serio G, Garganese G, Selvaggi L: Cisplatin and vinorelbine as neoadjuvant chemotherapy in locally advanced cervical cancer: a phase II study. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2003 May-Jun;13(3):308-12
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  • [Title] Cisplatin and vinorelbine as neoadjuvant chemotherapy in locally advanced cervical cancer: a phase II study.
  • Fifty eight consecutive untreated patients with locally advanced cervical carcinoma (LACC) received neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) with cisplatin (CDDP) 80 mg/sqm (day 1) + vinorelbine (VRL) 25 mg/sqm (day 1 and 8).
  • Three cycles of chemotherapy were planned every 21 days.
  • Within 28 days from the completion of chemotherapy patients in complete or partial response were submitted to radical hysterectomy with pelvic lymphadenectomy.
  • Forty-seven patients (81%) were submitted to radical surgery; eight (14%) patients were deemed ineligible for surgery because of poor response to treatment, two (3%) for anesthesia contraindications and one (2%) refused surgery.
  • At pathologic examination 12 patients (25%) had a complete response, one (2%) in-situ carcinoma, six (13%) residual microinvasive disease, and 28 (60%) a partial response.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Hysterectomy / methods. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / drug therapy. Vinblastine / analogs & derivatives
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Prospective Studies. Treatment Outcome


12. Hatfield P, Cooper R, Sebag-Montefiore D: Involved-field, low-dose chemoradiotherapy for early-stage anal carcinoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2008 Feb 1;70(2):419-24
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  • [Title] Involved-field, low-dose chemoradiotherapy for early-stage anal carcinoma.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: Between June 2000 and June 2006, 21 patients were treated with external beam radiotherapy (30 Gy in 15 fractions within 3 weeks) and concurrent chemotherapy (bolus mitomycin-C 12 mg/m(2) on Day 1 to a maximum of 20 mg followed by infusion 5-fluorouracil 1,000 mg/m(2)/24 h on Days 1-4).
  • Of the 21 patients, 17 had had lesions that were excised with close (<1 mm) or involved margins, 1 had had microinvasive disease on biopsy, and 3 had had macroscopic tumor <2 cm in diameter (T1).
  • Only 1 patient could not complete treatment (because of Grade 3 gastrointestinal toxicity).
  • CONCLUSION: The results of our study have shown that for patients with anal carcinoma who have residual microscopic or very-small-volume disease, a policy of low-dose, reduced-volume, involved-field chemoradiotherapy produces excellent local control and disease-free survival, with low rates of acute and late toxicity.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Combined Modality Therapy / methods. Dose Fractionation. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Mitomycin / administration & dosage. Neoplasm Staging. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17919842.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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13. Maneo A, Chiari S, Bonazzi C, Mangioni C: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy and conservative surgery for stage IB1 cervical cancer. Gynecol Oncol; 2008 Dec;111(3):438-43
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  • [Title] Neoadjuvant chemotherapy and conservative surgery for stage IB1 cervical cancer.
  • OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of chemo-surgical conservative therapy for stage IB1 cervical tumors in patients desiring to preserve fertility.
  • Following neoadjuvant treatment, pathological complete response was observed in 5 cases, in situ or microinvasive residue in 12 and stromal invasion >3 mm in 4.
  • Four women deemed ineligible for conservative surgery after chemotherapy and one refusing to preserve her genital apparatus underwent radical hysterectomy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The high rate of pathological response confirms the effectiveness of the preoperative treatment for reducing the tumor volume allowing the removal only of a cervical cone instead of the entire cervix with cardinal ligaments as needed by radical trachelectomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / drug therapy. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Adult. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Cisplatin / adverse effects. Conization. Epirubicin / administration & dosage. Epirubicin / adverse effects. Female. Humans. Hysterectomy. Ifosfamide / administration & dosage. Ifosfamide / adverse effects. Lymph Node Excision. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Neoplasm Staging. Paclitaxel / administration & dosage. Paclitaxel / adverse effects. Young Adult


14. Pendas S, Dauway E, Giuliano R, Ku N, Cox CE, Reintgen DS: Sentinel node biopsy in ductal carcinoma in situ patients. Ann Surg Oncol; 2000 Jan-Feb;7(1):15-20
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  • [Title] Sentinel node biopsy in ductal carcinoma in situ patients.
  • METHODS: At Moffitt Cancer Center, 87 patients with newly diagnosed pure ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) lesions were evaluated by using CK IHC staining of the SLN.
  • Patients with any focus of microinvasive disease, detected on diagnostic breast biopsy by routine H&E, were excluded from this study.
  • Therefore, routine H&E staining missed microinvasive disease in three of five DCIS patients with positive SLNs.
  • Of interest, four of the five node-positive patients had comedo carcinoma associated with the DCIS lesion, and one patient had a large 9.5-cm low grade cribriform and micropapillary type of DCIS.
  • This procedure can be performed with minimal morbidity, because only one or two SLNs, which are at highest risk for containing metastatic disease, are removed.
  • Because most patients with DCIS lesions detected by routine H&E stains do not have regional lymph node metastases, these patients can safely avoid the complications associated with a complete axillary lymph node dissection and systemic chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Lymph Nodes / pathology

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  • [CommentIn] Ann Surg Oncol. 2001 Sep;8(8):617-9 [11569773.001]
  • (PMID = 10674443.001).
  • [ISSN] 1068-9265
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
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15. Nowak-Markwitz E, Spaczyński M: [Carcinoma of the uterine cervix during pregnancy]. Ginekol Pol; 2007 Sep;78(9):727-32
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  • [Title] [Carcinoma of the uterine cervix during pregnancy].
  • The only indication for conization during pregnancy is to rule out or confirm microinvasive or invasive cancer, provided such diagnose can change the time and the way of delivery.
  • The decision is easier in the early stage of cancer, because it has been proven that six- to twelve-week delay of the beginning of the therapy does not deteriorate the cancer outcome but it enables the fetus to acquire sufficient lung maturity.
  • Advanced carcinoma of the cervix forces us to take prompt therapeutic decisions.
  • Both, the continuation of the pregnancy and the administration of neoadjuvant chemotherapy are still possible.
  • [MeSH-major] Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / pathology. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / therapy. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / pathology. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / therapy. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Cervix Uteri / pathology. Colposcopy / methods. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Pregnancy. Prognosis. Women's Health

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  • (PMID = 18159829.001).
  • [ISSN] 0017-0011
  • [Journal-full-title] Ginekologia polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ginekol. Pol.
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Number-of-references] 53
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16. Calzavara-Pinton PG, Venturini M, Sala R, Capezzera R, Parrinello G, Specchia C, Zane C: Methylaminolaevulinate-based photodynamic therapy of Bowen's disease and squamous cell carcinoma. Br J Dermatol; 2008 Jul;159(1):137-44
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  • [Title] Methylaminolaevulinate-based photodynamic therapy of Bowen's disease and squamous cell carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) with methylaminolaevulinate (MAL) is an approved noninvasive treatment option for actinic keratosis and Bowen's disease (BD), two precursors of invasive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC).
  • OBJECTIVES: To assess efficacy, prognostic features, tolerability and cosmetic outcome of MAL-PDT for the treatment of BD and SCC.
  • Complete response rate at 3 months after the last treatment, recurrence rate at the 24-month follow-up, and cosmetic outcome were recorded.
  • A multivariate logistic regression model, with robust variance estimation, showed that cell atypia was the only statistically significant independent predictor of the treatment outcome at 3 months.
  • CONCLUSIONS: MAL-PDT may represent a valuable, effective and well tolerated treatment option with good cosmetic outcome for superficial, well-differentiated (Broders' scores I and II) BD and microinvasive SCC.
  • In contrast, its use for superficial SCCs with a microinvasive histological pattern and for nodular, invasive lesions, particularly if poorly differentiated keratinocytes are present (Broders' scores III and IV), should be avoided.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminolevulinic Acid / therapeutic use. Bowen's Disease / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Photochemotherapy / methods. Photosensitizing Agents / therapeutic use. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18489606.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2133
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 88755TAZ87 / Aminolevulinic Acid
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17. Hwang YY, Moon H, Cho SH, Kim KT, Moon YJ, Kim SR, Kim DS: Ten-year survival of patients with locally advanced, stage ib-iib cervical cancer after neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radical hysterectomy. Gynecol Oncol; 2001 Jul;82(1):88-93
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  • [Title] Ten-year survival of patients with locally advanced, stage ib-iib cervical cancer after neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radical hysterectomy.
  • OBJECTIVE(S): The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radical hysterectomy on long-term survival in stage IB-IIB locally advanced cervical cancer by conducting a 10-year follow-up.
  • METHODS: Between August 1983 and May 1990, 80 locally advanced, stage IB-IIB cervical cancer patients with tumor diameter greater than or equal to 4 cm were treated with neoadjuvant VBP chemotherapy (cisplatin, vinblastine, and bleomycin) followed by radical hysterectomy with pelvic lymphadenectomy.
  • After this therapeutic modality, patients were followed for more than 10 years.
  • Ten-year survival rates and factors affecting recurrence after this therapy were evaluated.
  • RESULTS: Of 80 patients, 75 (93.7%) showed a reduction in tumor size after neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
  • At pathologic examination, stage reduction was noted in 53 (66.2%) patients and 20 patients (25%) showed no residual or microinvasive cervical tumor.
  • Clinical stage, initial tumor size, clinical response, and residual tumor size were not risk factors for recurrence after this therapy.
  • CONCLUSION(S): Neoadjuvant VBP chemotherapy followed by radical hysterectomy in locally advanced, stage IB-IIB cervical cancer patients seemed to improve the long-term survival rate for these patients compared to that of conventional therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / therapy. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bleomycin / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Hysterectomy. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / therapy. Vinblastine / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Staging. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2001 Academic Press.
  • (PMID = 11426967.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 5V9KLZ54CY / Vinblastine; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; PVB protocol
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18. Kölbl H: [Operative standard therapy of micro- and macro-invasive carcinoma of the cervix]. Zentralbl Gynakol; 2001 May;123(5):237-44
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  • [Title] [Operative standard therapy of micro- and macro-invasive carcinoma of the cervix].
  • [Transliterated title] Die operative Standardtherapie des mikround makroinvasiven Karzinoms der Zervix.
  • Radical hysterectomy with bilateral lymphonodectomy represents one of the most important strategies in the treatment of cervical cancer, especially in early stage disease with small tumor volume.
  • Ovary preserving management in cervical cancer is justified in early stage disease and younger women (< 45 years), and regarded as standard treatment.
  • Therapy of microinvasive cervical cancer (Stage Ia1 und Ia2) depends on depth of invasion, superficial spread of lesion, and other prognostic criteria.
  • Exact work-up of the cone is the basis for successful treatment.
  • Assessment of lymph node status is mandatory for individual treatment.
  • Pelvic lymphonodectomy represents standard treatment at radical hysterectomy, and if positive, paraaortic lymphonodectomy is indicated.
  • Today, there is an increasing competition between different therapy strategies in cervical cancer such as primary irradiation, chemoradiation, neoadjuvant chemotherapy, laparoscopic radical hysterectomy, vaginal radical hysterectomy combined with laparoscopic surgical staging.
  • All these treatment modalities have to be compared with the "golden standard" comprising survival and recurrence rates functional results, morbidity, mortality and quality of life.

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  • (PMID = 11449615.001).
  • [ISSN] 0044-4197
  • [Journal-full-title] Zentralblatt für Gynäkologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zentralbl Gynakol
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 32
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19. Fai D, Arpaia N, Romano I, Vestita M, Cassano N, Vena GA: Methyl-aminolevulinate photodynamic therapy for the treatment of actinic keratoses and non-melanoma skin cancers: a retrospective analysis of response in 462 patients. G Ital Dermatol Venereol; 2009 Jun;144(3):281-5
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  • [Title] Methyl-aminolevulinate photodynamic therapy for the treatment of actinic keratoses and non-melanoma skin cancers: a retrospective analysis of response in 462 patients.
  • AIM: Topical photodynamic therapy (PDT) with methyl-aminolevulinate (MAL) is widely used for the management of actinic keratoses (AK) and non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSCs).
  • METHODS: The medical records selected concerned all patients who completed the MAL-PDT regimen (one single session for AK and two sessions one week apart for NMSCs) and who underwent post-treatment assessments over a follow-up period of at least 12 months.
  • RESULTS: Present case series included a total of 462 patients: 210 patients with AK, 228 subjects with 348 basal cell carcinomas (BCCs), 213 of nodular type (nBCC) and 135 of superficial type (sBCC), 17 patients with Bowen's disease and seven with squamous cell carcinoma.
  • As concerns BCCs, regardless of the clinical type, a complete response was observed in 71% of lesions at three months, with a rate of recurrence at 12 months of 15%.
  • The risk of both initial treatment failure and recurrence was higher for nBCCs than sBCCs.
  • Our results, even if obtained in very few cases, indicate that Bowen's disease is very responsive to MAL-PDT, unlike microinvasive or invasive SCC.
  • Treatment was generally well tolerated.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminolevulinic Acid / analogs & derivatives. Keratosis, Actinic / drug therapy. Photochemotherapy. Photosensitizing Agents / therapeutic use. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Bowen's Disease / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Drug Evaluation. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / drug therapy. Pain / etiology. Retrospective Studies. Salvage Therapy. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19528909.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-0488
  • [Journal-full-title] Giornale italiano di dermatologia e venereologia : organo ufficiale, Società italiana di dermatologia e sifilografia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] G Ital Dermatol Venereol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 0 / methyl 5-aminolevulinate; 88755TAZ87 / Aminolevulinic Acid
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20. Kiatpongsan S, Niruthisard S, Mutirangura A, Trivijitsilp P, Vasuratna A, Chaithongwongwatthana S, Lertkhachonsuk R: Role of human papillomavirus DNA testing in management of women with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2006 Jan-Feb;16(1):262-5
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  • Of the 90 ASC-US cases enrolled, the pathologic results were normal in 30.0%, squamous metaplasia in 16.7%, CIN 1 in 37.8%, CIN 2 in 1.1%, CIN 3 in 11.1%, and microinvasive cervical carcinoma in 3.3%.
  • The prevalence of HSILs and the prevalence of high-risk HPV detection were 15.6% and 38.9%, respectively.
  • High-risk group HPV detection can be used as an additional triage test to detect HSILs in women having ASC-US with high sensitivity and negative predictive value.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / virology. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / virology. DNA, Viral / analysis. Papillomaviridae / isolation & purification. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / virology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Biopsy, Needle. Cohort Studies. DNA Probes, HPV. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Papillomavirus Infections / diagnosis. Papillomavirus Infections / drug therapy. Risk Assessment. Sensitivity and Specificity. Thailand. Triage

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  • (PMID = 16445642.001).
  • [ISSN] 1048-891X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA Probes, HPV; 0 / DNA, Viral
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21. Prasad ML, Busam KJ, Patel SG, Hoshaw-Woodard S, Shah JP, Huvos AG: Clinicopathologic differences in malignant melanoma arising in oral squamous and sinonasal respiratory mucosa of the upper aerodigestive tract. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2003 Aug;127(8):997-1002
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  • The oral melanomas were more likely to be detected in the early in situ or microinvasive stage (4 cases vs none, P =.008) and were more frequently amelanotic (14 vs 12, P =.049) than sinonasal melanomas.
  • Sinonasal melanoma showed vascular and deep tissue invasion more frequently than oral melanoma; however, no significant difference in disease-specific survival was noted (median survival, 2.8 years vs 3.0 years; 5-year survival, 37% vs 35%, respectively).
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Maxillary Sinus Neoplasms / pathology. Melanoma / pathology. Mouth Mucosa / pathology. Mouth Neoplasms / pathology. Nose Neoplasms / pathology. Respiratory Mucosa / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Nasal Mucosa / drug effects. Nasal Mucosa / pathology. Nasal Mucosa / surgery. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms / mortality. Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms / pathology. Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms / surgery


22. Kwong A, Hancock SL, Bloom JR, Pal S, Birdwell RL, Mariscal C, Ikeda DM: Mammographic screening in women at increased risk of breast cancer after treatment of Hodgkin's disease. Breast J; 2008 Jan-Feb;14(1):39-48
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  • [Title] Mammographic screening in women at increased risk of breast cancer after treatment of Hodgkin's disease.
  • Treatment regimens for Hodgkin's disease (HD) that have included radiation to lymph node regions in the thorax have contributed to high rates of long-term disease-free survival.
  • However, incidental radiation exposure of breast tissue in young women has significantly increased the risk of breast cancer compared to expected rates in the general population.
  • After informing patients about risks associated with previous treatment of HD, we studied screening mammograms and call-back rates in women at increased risk for developing breast cancer at a younger age.
  • We contacted by mail a cohort of 291 women between 25 and 55 years of age who had received thoracic irradiation before 35 years of age for HD with or without chemotherapy.
  • Subjects were offered information about risks identified after HD therapy with questionnaires to assess response to this information.
  • Patients were studied an average of 16.9 years after HD treatment (Range: 4.5-32.5 years) at an average of 41 years of age (range 25-55 years).
  • High density breast tissue was identified in 60% (60/99).
  • This was more common in women with heterogeneously dense breast tissue.
  • Seven of those recalled (41%) were advised to undergo biopsies that identified ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) in one and benign findings in the others.
  • The four in situ or microinvasive cancers were diagnosed in the study participants at 25-40 years of age and from 5 to 23 years after HD therapy.
  • As expected in younger women, high density breast tissue was common on mammography, and the recall and biopsy rates were unusually high.


23. Graham BD, Jetmore AB, Foote JE, Arnold LK: Topical 5-fluorouracil in the management of extensive anal Bowen's disease: a preferred approach. Dis Colon Rectum; 2005 Mar;48(3):444-50
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  • Before therapy all patients underwent anal mapping biopsy and colonoscopy.
  • For one-half circumferential disease or greater, patients underwent topical 5 percent 5-fluorouacil therapy for 16 weeks.
  • All patients underwent anal mapping biopsy one year after completion of therapy.
  • RESULTS: Of 11 patients, 8 (5 male) received 16 weeks of topical 5 percent 5-fluorouacil therapy.
  • All but one patient, who was HIV positive, were free of Bowen's disease one year after completion of therapy.
  • One patient underwent total excision of a residual microinvasive squamous carcinoma after circumferential Bowen's disease had resolved.
  • One patient received eight additional weeks of topical 5-fluorouacil therapy for incomplete resolution.
  • CONCLUSION: Topical 5 percent 5-fluorouacil therapy is a safe and effective method to treat anal Bowen's disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Bowen's Disease / drug therapy. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Fluorouracil / therapeutic use. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Topical. Adult. Aged. Biopsy. Colonoscopy. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15747068.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-3706
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the colon and rectum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Colon Rectum
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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24. Cutuli B, Borel C, Dhermain F, Magrini SM, Wasserman TH, Bogart JA, Provencio M, de Lafontan B, de la Rochefordiere A, Cellai E, Graic Y, Kerbrat P, Alzieu C, Teissier E, Dilhuydy JM, Mignotte H, Velten M: Breast cancer occurred after treatment for Hodgkin's disease: analysis of 133 cases. Radiother Oncol; 2001 Jun;59(3):247-55
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Breast cancer occurred after treatment for Hodgkin's disease: analysis of 133 cases.
  • PURPOSE: To assess the clinical and histological characteristics of breast cancer (BC) occurring after Hodgkin's disease (HD) and give possible therapies and prevention methods.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a retrospective multicentric analysis, 117 women and two men treated for HD subsequently developed 133 BCs.
  • Radiotherapy (RT) was used alone in 74 patients (63%) and combined modalities with chemotherapy (CT) was used in 43 patients (37%).
  • Ductal infiltrating carcinoma and ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) represented 81.2 and 11.3% of the cases, respectively.
  • Among the infiltrating carcinoma, the axillary involvement rate was 50%.
  • Sixteen patients (12%) developed isolated local recurrence.
  • Thirty-nine patients (31.7%) developed metastases and 34 died; 38 are in complete remission whereas five died of intercurrent disease.
  • These secondary BC are of two types: a large number of aggressive tumours with a very unfavourable prognosis (especially in the case of pN>3 and/or T3T4), and many tumours with a 'slow spreading' such as DCIS and microinvasive lesions.
  • These lesions developed especially in patients treated exclusively by RT.
  • Subsequent mammographies should be performed every 2 years or each year, depending on the characteristics of the breast tissue (e.g. density) and especially in the case of an association with other BC risk factors.
  • This screening seems of importance due to excellent prognosis in our T(1S)T(1) groups, and the possibility of offering these young women a conservative treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms / etiology. Breast Neoplasms, Male / etiology. Hodgkin Disease / complications. Hodgkin Disease / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Confidence Intervals. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Italy / epidemiology. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / etiology. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Spain / epidemiology. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome. United States / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 11369065.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-8140
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiotherapy and oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiother Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Comparative Study; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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