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1. Boulanger E, Daniel MT, Agbalika F, Oksenhendler E: Combined chemotherapy including high-dose methotrexate in KSHV/HHV8-associated primary effusion lymphoma. Am J Hematol; 2003 Jul;73(3):143-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Combined chemotherapy including high-dose methotrexate in KSHV/HHV8-associated primary effusion lymphoma.
  • Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is a rare KSHV/HHV8-associated high-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) of B-cell origin, characterized by serous effusions in body cavities.
  • Most patients are HIV-infected homosexual men with severe immunosuppression and other KSHV/HHV8-associated diseases such as Kaposi's sarcoma (KS).
  • High-dose chemotherapy regimens are warranted to improve complete remission rate and survival.
  • Seven patients with AIDS-associated PEL were treated with a combined chemotherapy including high-dose methotrexate followed by leucovorin rescue.
  • Five patients had a pre-existing KS, associated in three cases with multicentric Castleman's disease (MCD).
  • Upon diagnosis, 6 patients received antiretroviral therapy, which was maintained during chemotherapy in 5 of them.
  • At time of analysis, 3 out of 7 patients were in complete remission 18, 26, and 78 months after PEL diagnosis.
  • Three patients died with a progressive PEL at 22, 67, and 153 days after diagnosis, and 1 patient died 9 months after PEL diagnosis with a MCD-associated plasmablastic NHL.
  • Complete remission was obtained in 3 out of 7 patients treated for AIDS-associated PEL with combined chemotherapy containing high-dose methotrexate.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. Herpesviridae Infections / drug therapy. Herpesvirus 8, Human. Methotrexate / therapeutic use. Sarcoma, Kaposi / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antigens, CD / blood. DNA, Viral / isolation & purification. European Continental Ancestry Group. France. HIV Infections / complications. HIV Infections / drug therapy. Homosexuality, Male. Humans. Immunophenotyping. Male. Middle Aged. Pleural Effusion / pathology. Prognosis. RNA, Viral / blood. Treatment Outcome. Viral Load


2. Cairo MS, Krailo MD, Morse M, Hutchinson RJ, Harris RE, Kjeldsberg CR, Kadin ME, Radel E, Steinherz LJ, Morris E, Finlay JL, Meadows AT: Long-term follow-up of short intensive multiagent chemotherapy without high-dose methotrexate ('Orange') in children with advanced non-lymphoblastic non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: a children's cancer group report. Leukemia; 2002 Apr;16(4):594-600
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Long-term follow-up of short intensive multiagent chemotherapy without high-dose methotrexate ('Orange') in children with advanced non-lymphoblastic non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: a children's cancer group report.
  • Despite prolonged therapy (18 months), children with advanced non-lymphoblastic, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) treated on previous Children's Cancer Group (CCG) trials achieved less than a 60% 5-year event-free survival (EFS).
  • In this study we piloted a shorter but more intensive protocol ('Orange') to determine the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of this alternative treatment approach.
  • Patients were stratified to standard-risk (5 months) vs high-risk (7 months) treatment.
  • High risk was defined as either bone marrow disease, CNS disease, mediastinal mass > or = one-third thoracic diameter at T5 and/or LDH > or =2 times institutional upper limits of normal.
  • Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) > or =2 x normal (NL) was associated with significantly poorer outcomes (LDH > or =2 x NL vs. <2 x NL) (5-year EFS: 55 +/- 12% vs. 100%) (P < 0.0004).
  • This CCG hybrid regimen, 'Orange', of short and more intensive therapy resulted in a significant improvement in outcomes compared with the previous CCG trial of more prolonged but less intense therapy.
  • This regimen that deletes high-dose methotrexate, if confirmed in a larger trial, could be considered as an alternative treatment approach in children without high tumor burdens (LDH <2 x NL) and Murphy stage III disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. L-Lactate Dehydrogenase / metabolism. Male. Methotrexate / administration & dosage. Neoplasm Staging. Pilot Projects. Prognosis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11960338.001).
  • [ISSN] 0887-6924
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leukemia
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 13539; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA02649; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA02971; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA03526; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA03750; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA03888; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA05436; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA07306; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA10198; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA10382; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA11796; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA13809; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA14560; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA17829; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA20320; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA26126; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA26270; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA27678; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA28882; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA29013; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA29314; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA42764
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 1.1.1.27 / L-Lactate Dehydrogenase; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate
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3. Miyazaki T, Fujimaki K, Shirasugi Y, Yoshiba F, Ohsaka M, Miyazaki K, Yamazaki E, Sakai R, Tamaru J, Kishi K, Kanamori H, Higashihara M, Hotta T, Ishigatsubo Y: Remission of lymphoma after withdrawal of methotrexate in rheumatoid arthritis: relationship with type of latent Epstein-Barr virus infection. Am J Hematol; 2007 Dec;82(12):1106-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Remission of lymphoma after withdrawal of methotrexate in rheumatoid arthritis: relationship with type of latent Epstein-Barr virus infection.
  • Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is associated with an increased risk of developing lymphoma.
  • We investigated the relationship between EBV latent infection and methotrexate (MTX)-associated lymphoma in RA patients.
  • Nine patients were diagnosed with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) during MTX treatment for RA in a multicenter study.
  • The pathologic findings were consistent with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in 8 patients and peripheral T-cell lymphoma, unspecified in 1.
  • Further examination of the latent EBV infection patterns revealed that 2 patients who obtained a CR had latency Type III, and the other with SD had latency Type II.
  • These results demonstrate that immunodeficiency caused by MTX treatment is associated with the development of EBV-related NHL in RA patients.
  • In patients who were treated by MTX for RA and developed NHL, remission can be observed following MTX withdrawal especially in NHL with latency Type III EBV infection.
  • The analysis of EBV infection, including the latency types, is useful to decide the optimum therapeutic strategy.
  • [MeSH-major] Arthritis, Rheumatoid / complications. Arthritis, Rheumatoid / drug therapy. Epstein-Barr Virus Infections / complications. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / chemically induced. Methotrexate / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Risk Assessment. Treatment Outcome


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4. Kauh J, Baidas SM, Ozdemirli M, Cheson BD: Mantle cell lymphoma: clinicopathologic features and treatments. Oncology (Williston Park); 2003 Jun;17(6):879-91, 896; discussion 896-8
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  • [Title] Mantle cell lymphoma: clinicopathologic features and treatments.
  • Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) accounts for approximately 6% of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas.
  • MCL is an aggressive lymphoma with moderate chemosensitivity, but it remains one of the most difficult therapeutic challenges.
  • Complete response rates to chemotherapy range from 20% to 40%, with median survivals of 2 1/2 to 3 years.
  • More intensive regimens such as hyperCVAD (hyperfractionated cyclophosphamide [Cytoxan, Neosar], vincristine, doxorubicin [Adriamycin], dexamethasone, methotrexate, cytarabine) with either stem cell transplant or rituximab have been associated with promising results.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Lymphoma, Mantle-Cell / drug therapy. Lymphoma, Mantle-Cell / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibodies, Monoclonal / pharmacology. Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived. Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 11 / genetics. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 14 / genetics. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunophenotyping. Prognosis. Rituximab. Survival Analysis. Translocation, Genetic

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  • [ErratumIn] Oncology (Huntingt). 2003 Jul;17(7):922
  • (PMID = 12846128.001).
  • [ISSN] 0890-9091
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology (Williston Park, N.Y.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncology (Williston Park, N.Y.)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 4F4X42SYQ6 / Rituximab
  • [Number-of-references] 79
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5. Sierra del Rio M, Rousseau A, Soussain C, Ricard D, Hoang-Xuan K: Primary CNS lymphoma in immunocompetent patients. Oncologist; 2009 May;14(5):526-39
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  • [Title] Primary CNS lymphoma in immunocompetent patients.
  • Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) constitutes a rare group of extranodal non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHLs), primarily of B cell origin, whose incidence has markedly increased in the last three decades.
  • The addition of i.v. high-dose methotrexate (MTX) chemotherapy to whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT) has considerably improved the prognosis, leading to a threefold longer median survival time compared with WBRT alone and represents the current standard of care.
  • However, this combined treatment exposes the patient, especially the elderly, to a high risk for delayed neurotoxicity.
  • In the older population (>60 years), there is growing evidence that MTX-based chemotherapy alone as initial treatment is the best approach to achieve effective tumor control without compromising patient quality of life.
  • In the younger population, the risk for neurotoxicity is much lower, and this strategy is controversial because it may be associated with higher relapse rates.
  • In this setting, intensive chemotherapy with autologous blood stem cell transplantation was recently demonstrated to be feasible and efficient as salvage therapy and is currently being evaluated as part of primary treatment.
  • This review highlights the recent advances in the pathogenesis and treatment of PCNSL in the immunocompetent population.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Neoplasms / therapy. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived. Cranial Irradiation. Humans. Immunocompetence. Prognosis. Rituximab. Salvage Therapy. Stem Cell Transplantation. Transplantation, Autologous

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  • (PMID = 19433528.001).
  • [ISSN] 1549-490X
  • [Journal-full-title] The oncologist
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncologist
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived; 4F4X42SYQ6 / Rituximab
  • [Number-of-references] 122
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6. Oksenhendler E, Gerard L, Dubreuil ML, Levy Y, Matheron S, Cazals-Hatem D, Chevret S, Clauvel JP: Intensive chemotherapy (LNHIV-91 regimen) and G-CSF for HIV associated non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Leuk Lymphoma; 2000 Sep;39(1-2):87-95
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  • [Title] Intensive chemotherapy (LNHIV-91 regimen) and G-CSF for HIV associated non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
  • The purpose of the study was to evaluate the safety and long-term efficacy of an intensive chemotherapy regimen associated with G-CSF in HIV-associated non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL).
  • Nineteen tumors were of the Burkitt's type, 23 were large cells, 7 immunoblastic, and 3 anaplastic.
  • The induction was followed by three cycles of CVM (cyclophosphamide, etoposide, methotrexate).
  • The Relative Dose-Intensity of the chemotherapy was 85% for doxorubicine and 87% for cyclophosphamide.
  • Achievement of complete remission was strongly associated with survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor / administration & dosage. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / drug therapy. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Actuarial Analysis. Adult. Bleomycin / administration & dosage. Bleomycin / toxicity. CD4 Lymphocyte Count. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Cyclophosphamide / toxicity. Disease-Free Survival. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / toxicity. Drug Evaluation. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Etoposide / toxicity. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Hospitalization. Humans. Male. Methotrexate / administration & dosage. Methotrexate / toxicity. Middle Aged. Prednisone / administration & dosage. Prednisone / toxicity. Recurrence. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome. Vindesine / administration & dosage. Vindesine / toxicity

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  • (PMID = 10975387.001).
  • [ISSN] 1042-8194
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia & lymphoma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Lymphoma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] SWITZERLAND
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 143011-72-7 / Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; RSA8KO39WH / Vindesine; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate; LNH 87 protocol
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7. Moseley AC, Lindsley HB, Skikne BS, Tawfik O: Reversible methotrexate associated lymphoproliferative disease evolving into Hodgkin's disease. J Rheumatol; 2000 Mar;27(3):810-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Reversible methotrexate associated lymphoproliferative disease evolving into Hodgkin's disease.
  • We describe a case of nodular sclerosing Hodgkin's disease (NSHD) developing in a 61-year-old woman with seropositive rheumatoid arthritis treated with oral methotrexate (MTX) 5 to 15 mg/week for 5 years.
  • Computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen revealed splenomegaly and marked abdominal and retroperitoneal lymphadenopathy.
  • Patients with apparently reversible MTX associated lymphoproliferative disorder require periodic monitoring for asymptomatic development of malignant lymphoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antirheumatic Agents / adverse effects. Hodgkin Disease / etiology. Lymphoproliferative Disorders / chemically induced. Lymphoproliferative Disorders / complications. Methotrexate / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Arthritis, Rheumatoid / drug therapy. Disease Progression. Female. Herpesvirus 4, Human / physiology. Humans. Middle Aged. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Virus Activation

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  • (PMID = 10743830.001).
  • [ISSN] 0315-162X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of rheumatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Rheumatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] CANADA
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antirheumatic Agents; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate
  • [Number-of-references] 16
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8. Josting A, Müller H, Borchmann P, Baars JW, Metzner B, Döhner H, Aurer I, Smardova L, Fischer T, Niederwieser D, Schäfer-Eckart K, Schmitz N, Sureda A, Glossmann J, Diehl V, DeJong D, Hansmann ML, Raemaekers J, Engert A: Dose intensity of chemotherapy in patients with relapsed Hodgkin's lymphoma. J Clin Oncol; 2010 Dec 1;28(34):5074-80
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Dose intensity of chemotherapy in patients with relapsed Hodgkin's lymphoma.
  • PURPOSE: High-dose chemotherapy (HDCT) followed by autologous stem-cell transplantation (PBSCT) has become the standard treatment for patients with relapsed Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL).
  • The intensity of treatment needed is unclear.
  • This European intergroup study evaluated the impact of sequential high-dose chemotherapy (SHDCT) before myeloablative therapy.
  • In the standard arm (A), patients received myeloablative therapy with carmustine, BEAM (carmustine, etoposide, cytarabine, and melphalan) followed by PBSCT.
  • Patients in the experimental arm (B) also received sequential cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and etoposide in high-doses before BEAM.
  • Freedom from treatment failure (FFTF) was the primary end point.
  • Remission rates, overall survival (OS), and toxicity of treatment were secondary end points.
  • Patients treated in arm B had longer treatment duration and experienced more toxicity and protocol violations (P < .05).
  • With a median observation time of 42 months, there was no significant difference in terms of FFTF (P = .56) and OS (P = .82) between arms.
  • CONCLUSION: Compared with conventional high-dose chemotherapy, additional SHDCT is associated with more adverse effects and does not improve the prognosis of patients with relapsed HL.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Hodgkin Disease / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Cyclophosphamide / adverse effects. Cytarabine / administration & dosage. Dexamethasone / administration & dosage. Disease-Free Survival. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Etoposide / adverse effects. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Methotrexate / administration & dosage. Methotrexate / adverse effects. Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 20975066.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate
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9. Bessell EM, Graus F, Lopez-Guillermo A, Lewis SA, Villa S, Verger E, Petit J: Primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the CNS treated with CHOD/BVAM or BVAM chemotherapy before radiotherapy: long-term survival and prognostic factors. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2004 Jun 1;59(2):501-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the CNS treated with CHOD/BVAM or BVAM chemotherapy before radiotherapy: long-term survival and prognostic factors.
  • PURPOSE: To assess the long-term survival and prognostic factors associated with the cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and dexamethasone (CHOD)/carmustine, vincristine, methotrexate, and cytarabine (BVAM) and BVAM chemotherapy regimens followed by cranial radiotherapy in the treatment of primary central nervous system (CNS) non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: Since 1986, high-dose methotrexate (1.5 g/m(2)), cytarabine, vincristine, and carmustine have been used in the BVAM chemotherapy regimen for primary CNS non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, with one cycle of CHOD given before BVAM in patients <or=70 years of age from 1990 onward.
  • The complete response rate after chemotherapy was 62% and after additional radiotherapy was 73%.
  • Using a prediction score giving 1 point for each adverse prognostic factor (age >or=60 years, performance status >or=2, and multifocal and/or meningeal disease [advanced stage]), a score of 0 (8 patients) was associated with a median survival of 55 months, a score of 1 (29 patients) of 41 months, a score of 2 (28 patients) of 32 months, and a score of 3 (12 patients) a median survival of 1 month (p <0.001).
  • Patients with primary CNS non-Hodgkin's lymphoma aged <60 years treated with CHOD/BVAM or BVAM followed by radiotherapy have a similar long-term survival to that of patients with large B cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma at other extranodal sites.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / drug therapy. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / drug therapy. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Analysis of Variance. Carmustine / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Cranial Irradiation. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Cytarabine / administration & dosage. Dexamethasone / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Male. Methotrexate / administration & dosage. Middle Aged. Survival Analysis. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • [CommentIn] Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2005 Jan 1;61(1):303-4; author reply 304-5 [15629627.001]
  • (PMID = 15145169.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; U68WG3173Y / Carmustine; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate; BVAM protocol; CVAD protocol
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10. Martí-Carvajal AJ, Cardona AF, Lawrence A: Interventions for previously untreated patients with AIDS-associated non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Cochrane Database Syst Rev; 2009;(3):CD005419
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Interventions for previously untreated patients with AIDS-associated non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is known to be associated with an increased risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL).
  • Treatment of NHL is not standardized.
  • OBJECTIVES: To assess the clinical effectiveness and safety of single agent or combination chemotherapy with or without immunochemotherapy (rituximab) and with or without highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) for previously untreated patients with AIDS-related NHL.
  • SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the effectiveness of systemic treatments for previously untreated AIDS-related NHL.
  • Overall survival did not differ significantly between treatment groups.
  • Disease free survival (DFS) was reported in two of the four RCTs, but it was not statistically significant between treatment groups.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. Bleomycin / administration & dosage. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Dexamethasone / administration & dosage. Disease-Free Survival. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Female. Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor / administration & dosage. Humans. Leucovorin / administration & dosage. Male. Methotrexate / administration & dosage. Prednisolone / administration & dosage. Prednisone / administration & dosage. Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic. Rituximab. Vincristine / administration & dosage. Vindesine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 19588373.001).
  • [ISSN] 1469-493X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Cochrane database of systematic reviews
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cochrane Database Syst Rev
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Meta-Analysis; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived; 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 4F4X42SYQ6 / Rituximab; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 83869-56-1 / Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; 9PHQ9Y1OLM / Prednisolone; Q573I9DVLP / Leucovorin; RSA8KO39WH / Vindesine; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate; LNH 87 protocol; M-BACOD protocol; VAP-cyclo protocol
  • [Number-of-references] 112
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11. Johnston LJ, Stockerl-Goldstein KE, Hu WW, Negrin RS, Hoppe RT, Blume KG, Horning SJ: Toxicity of high-dose sequential chemotherapy and purged autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation precludes its use in refractory/recurrent non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant; 2000;6(5A):555-62
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  • [Title] Toxicity of high-dose sequential chemotherapy and purged autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation precludes its use in refractory/recurrent non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
  • We conducted a pilot study in 20 patients with high-risk or recurrent/refractory non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) using high-dose sequential chemotherapy (HDSC) and autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (AHCT).
  • After cytoreduction with standard salvage therapy, HDSC/AHCT was administered in 4 phases at 2- to 4-week intervals.
  • Phase 2 consisted of methotrexate 8 g/m2 with leucovorin rescue and vincristine 1.4 mg/m2.
  • Treatment-related toxicities in the remaining 11 transplant recipients were cardiomyopathy, hemorrhagic cystitis, persistent cytopenias, acute renal failure, abnormal liver function test results, and infectious complications.
  • There were no treatment-related deaths.
  • We conclude that HDSC/AHCT in refractory/recurrent NHL is associated with considerable acute and chronic toxicities.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Bone Marrow Purging. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Mobilization / adverse effects. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation / adverse effects. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / drug therapy. Transplantation Conditioning / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Kidney Injury / chemically induced. Adult. Bone Marrow Diseases / chemically induced. Cardiomyopathies / chemically induced. Combined Modality Therapy. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Cyclophosphamide / adverse effects. Cystitis / chemically induced. Disease Progression. Disease-Free Survival. Drug Administration Schedule. Drug-Induced Liver Injury / etiology. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Etoposide / adverse effects. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor / therapeutic use. Hemorrhage / chemically induced. Humans. Infection. Leucovorin / administration & dosage. Life Tables. Male. Melphalan / administration & dosage. Melphalan / adverse effects. Methotrexate / administration & dosage. Methotrexate / adverse effects. Middle Aged. Mitoxantrone / administration & dosage. Mitoxantrone / adverse effects. Pilot Projects. Salvage Therapy. Survival Analysis. Survival Rate. Transplantation, Autologous. Treatment Outcome. Vincristine / administration & dosage. Vincristine / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 11071261.001).
  • [ISSN] 1083-8791
  • [Journal-full-title] Biology of blood and marrow transplantation : journal of the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 143011-72-7 / Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; BZ114NVM5P / Mitoxantrone; Q41OR9510P / Melphalan; Q573I9DVLP / Leucovorin; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate
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12. Krugmann J, Sailer-Höck M, Müller T, Gruber J, Allerberger F, Offner FA: Epstein-Barr virus-associated Hodgkin's lymphoma and legionella pneumophila infection complicating treatment of juvenile rheumatoid arthritis with methotrexate and cyclosporine A. Hum Pathol; 2000 Feb;31(2):253-5
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  • [Title] Epstein-Barr virus-associated Hodgkin's lymphoma and legionella pneumophila infection complicating treatment of juvenile rheumatoid arthritis with methotrexate and cyclosporine A.
  • We describe the case of a 53-month-old girl with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA), complicated by the occurrence of Hodgkin's lymphoma and Legionella pneumophila infection during immunosuppressive treatment with methotrexate (MTX) and cyclosporine A (CSA).
  • The girl had received variable anti-inflammatory combination therapy, including MTX for 28 months and CSA for 3 months.
  • Autopsy showed Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated nodular sclerosing Hodgkin's lymphoma.
  • The present case is the second reported to occur in a child, and it lends support to the hypothesis that immunosuppressive treatment may contribute to an increased risk of the development of EBV-associated lymphoproliferative disorders (LPD) in pediatric patients suffering from JRA.
  • [MeSH-major] Arthritis, Rheumatoid / drug therapy. Epstein-Barr Virus Infections / etiology. Hodgkin Disease / virology. Immunosuppressive Agents / adverse effects. Legionnaires' Disease / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cyclosporine / adverse effects. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Infant. Methotrexate / adverse effects


13. Straus DJ: Prognostic factors in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus-associated non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Recent Results Cancer Res; 2002;159:143-8
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  • [Title] Prognostic factors in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus-associated non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
  • Chemotherapy regimens similar to those used for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) not associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection have been used for patients with HIV-associated NHL with less success.
  • In a recent trial, patients with intermediate or high-grade NHL were randomized to either low-dose chemotherapy with methotrexate, bleomycin, doxorubicin, vincristine and dexamethasone (m-BACOD) or to standard-dose m-BACOD with sargramostim (granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, GM-CSF).
  • Myelosuppression was greater with standard-dose chemotherapy.
  • In univariate and multivariate analyses of 21 pretreatment features of patients in this trial, four factors emerged as adversely prognostic with respect to survival: age >35 years, intravenous drug use, CD4 counts < 100/mm3 and stage III/IV disease.
  • The outcome of these patients may be improving with the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), which seems to improve immune function and tolerance of chemotherapy.
  • A recent trial of the AIDS Malignancy Consortium found that low-dose chemotherapy (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone: CHOP) and standard-dose chemotherapy had similar response rates, acceptable toxicity and minimal alterations in cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin and indinavir pharmacokinetics in HIV-associated lymphoma patients also on HAART (stavudine, lamivudine and indinavir).
  • There is a suggestion that Burkitt-type lymphomas may tend to occur in HIV-infected patients with relatively well preserved immune function and CD4 cell counts.
  • Recent results from our institution suggest that similar outcomes are achievable with intensive chemotherapy in patients with Burkitt's lymphomas with or without HIV infection.
  • With improved immune status and improved bone marrow function with the use of HAART, it will probably become more possible to treat many patients with aggressive HIV-associated NHL with more intensive treatment regimens.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / therapy

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  • (PMID = 11785838.001).
  • [ISSN] 0080-0015
  • [Journal-full-title] Recent results in cancer research. Fortschritte der Krebsforschung. Progrès dans les recherches sur le cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Recent Results Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 19
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14. Cortelazzo S, Rambaldi A, Rossi A, Oldani E, Ghielmini M, Benedetti F, Tarella C, Zaglio F, Vitolo U, Di Nicola M, Pogliani E, Cavalli F, Gianni AM, Barbui T: Intensification of salvage treatment with high-dose sequential chemotherapy improves the outcome of patients with refractory or relapsed aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Br J Haematol; 2001 Aug;114(2):333-41
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  • [Title] Intensification of salvage treatment with high-dose sequential chemotherapy improves the outcome of patients with refractory or relapsed aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
  • The aim of the present study was to retrospectively evaluate whether a high-dose sequential chemotherapy programme (HDS: cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, etoposide) administered prior to autologous transplantation could optimize the salvage of patients with refractory or relapsed aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
  • Between 1985 and 1999, 103 patients (median age 43 years, range 16-65) from eight Italian centres and one Swiss centre, with refractory (n = 38) or relapsed (n = 65) diffuse large B-cell and T-cell lymphoma, were treated using HDS followed by high-dose regimens with autologous haematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
  • Treatment-related mortality was 4%.
  • This retrospective study shows that salvage treatment using HDS had relatively low toxicity and was associated with remarkable response rates, allowing further effective therapy with high-dose autograft programmes.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / drug therapy. Salvage Therapy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Disease-Free Survival. Drug Administration Schedule. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Female. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. Humans. Male. Methotrexate / administration & dosage. Middle Aged. Recurrence. Regression Analysis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Transplantation, Autologous

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  • (PMID = 11529852.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-1048
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of haematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Haematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate
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15. Chua SL, Seymour JF, Streater J, Wolf MM, Januszewicz EH, Prince HM: Intrathecal chemotherapy alone is inadequate central nervous system prophylaxis in patients with intermediate-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Leuk Lymphoma; 2002 Sep;43(9):1783-8
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  • [Title] Intrathecal chemotherapy alone is inadequate central nervous system prophylaxis in patients with intermediate-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
  • Central nervous system (CNS) relapse of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) is usually fatal despite therapy and effective prophylaxis is desirable.
  • Anthracycline-based chemotherapy was used in all cases and included high-dose methotrexate +/- ara-C in six patients.
  • The median number of i.t. treatments was 5 (range 1-12) and comprised methotrexate +/- steroid in 15, together with ara-C in 11.
  • Treatment-related variables associated with higher CNS-relapse rates (34-50%) were: delay of > or = 14 days from diagnosis to first i.t. injection, < 5 i.t. treatments, delay of i.t. prophylaxis until after attaining CR and systemic treatment lacking high-dose methotrexate +/- ara-C (each P < or = 0.17). I.t.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Neoplasms / prevention & control. Injections, Spinal. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Male. Methotrexate / therapeutic use. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Risk Factors. Secondary Prevention. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 12685832.001).
  • [ISSN] 1042-8194
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia & lymphoma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Lymphoma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate
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16. Hirose Y, Masaki Y, Okada J, Kim CG, Kawabata H, Ogawa N, Wano Y, Sugai S: Epstein-Barr virus-associated B-cell type non-Hodgkin's lymphoma with concurrent p53 protein expression in a rheumatoid arthritis patient treated with methotrexate. Int J Hematol; 2002 May;75(4):412-5
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  • [Title] Epstein-Barr virus-associated B-cell type non-Hodgkin's lymphoma with concurrent p53 protein expression in a rheumatoid arthritis patient treated with methotrexate.
  • A Japanese male patient received various medications for his long-standing rheumatoid arthritis (stage IV, class II).
  • He developed a mass on the right anterior chest wall after being treated with methotrexate (MTX) for 4 months.
  • A biopsy of the mass showed it to be Epstein Barr virus (EBV)-associated lymphoma of B-cell phenotype stage IE (bulky mass), with positive EBV-encoded small RNAs (EBERs) in situ hybridization, EBV latent membrane protein-1 (LMP-1) negative, EB nuclear antigen-2 (ERNA-2) negative, CD20/L26 (+), CD45RO/UCHL-1 (-).
  • With discontinuation of MTX and administration of chemotherapy, the tumor disappeared but recurred after 3 months.
  • [MeSH-major] Arthritis, Rheumatoid / complications. Epstein-Barr Virus Infections / complications. Immunosuppressive Agents / adverse effects. Lymphoma, B-Cell / virology. Methotrexate / adverse effects. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 12041674.001).
  • [ISSN] 0925-5710
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate
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17. Gerrard M, Cairo MS, Weston C, Auperin A, Pinkerton R, Lambilliote A, Sposto R, McCarthy K, Lacombe MJ, Perkins SL, Patte C, FAB LMB96 International Study Committee: Excellent survival following two courses of COPAD chemotherapy in children and adolescents with resected localized B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: results of the FAB/LMB 96 international study. Br J Haematol; 2008 Jun;141(6):840-7
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  • [Title] Excellent survival following two courses of COPAD chemotherapy in children and adolescents with resected localized B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: results of the FAB/LMB 96 international study.
  • High cure rates are possible in children with localized mature B-cell lymphoma (B NHL) using a variety of chemotherapeutic strategies.
  • To reduce late sequelae, the duration and intensity of chemotherapy has been progressively reduced.
  • Following surgery, two courses of COPAD were given, without intrathecal (IT) chemotherapy.
  • Two of 264 (0.9%) courses were associated with grade IV toxicity (one stomatitis and one infection).
  • Children with resected localized B-NHL can be cured with minimal toxicity following two courses of low intensity treatment without IT chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Lymphoma, B-Cell / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Asparaginase / adverse effects. Asparaginase / therapeutic use. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Cyclophosphamide / adverse effects. Cyclophosphamide / therapeutic use. Cytarabine / adverse effects. Cytarabine / therapeutic use. Doxorubicin / adverse effects. Doxorubicin / therapeutic use. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infant. Male. Methotrexate / adverse effects. Methotrexate / therapeutic use. Neoplasm Staging. Prednisone / adverse effects. Prednisone / therapeutic use. Survival Analysis. Treatment Failure. Treatment Outcome. Vincristine / adverse effects. Vincristine / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 18371107.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2141
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of haematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Haematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; EC 3.5.1.1 / Asparaginase; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate; COPAD protocol
  • [Investigator] Patte C; Brugieres L; Grill J; Hartmann O; Kalifa C; Oberlin O; Pein F; Valteau D; Nelken B; Mazingue F; Behrendt H; Zsiros J; Michon J; Zucker JM; Doz F; Pacquement H; Quintana E; Robert A; Rubie H; Bertozzi AI; Bertrand Y; Pondarré C; Coze C; Gentet JC; Michel G; Mechinaud F; Thomas C; Suarez A; Perel Y; Notz A; Leverger G; Landmann-Parker J; Tabone D; Chastagner D; Schmitt C; Legall E; Edan C; Gandemer V; Margeritte G; Bernard JL; Vilmer E; Rohrlich P; Frapppaz D; Bergeron C; Marrec P; Vannier JP; Sirvens N; Deville A; Soler C; Millot F; Devalck C; Sariban E; Lutz P; Babin Boilletot A; Plantaz D; Baruchel A; Leblanc T; Behar C; Lamagnere JP; Lejars O; Demeocq F; Plouvier E; Laitier V; Boutard P; Minckes O; Pautard B; De Lumley L; Francotte-lempereur N; Michalski A; Chisholm J; Chessells J; Daw S; Webb D; Pritchard J; Stevens M; Grundy R; Mann J; Morland B; Mellor S; Pinkerton R; Pritchard-Jones K; Picton S; Lewis I; Richards R; Anninga J; Bouffet E; Kirby M; Estlin E; Lowis S; Foot A; Breatnach F; O'Meara A; Windebank K; Jenney M; Brennan B; Eden T; Simpson E; Chalmers E; Kohler J; Radford M; Bevan S; Gerrard M; Kilby A; Michelagnoli M; Jenney M; English M; McDowell H; Pizer B; Dempsey S; Mitchell C; Wheeler K; Wallace H; Williams D; Broadbent V; Nicholson J; Kingston J; Shankar A; King D; Hewitt M; Walker D
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18. Svensson AM, Jacobson ER, Ospina D, Tindle BH: Reversible Epstein-Barr virus-negative lymphadenopathy and bone marrow involved by Hodgkin's lymphoma in a rheumatoid arthritis patient undergoing long-term treatment with low-dose methotrexate: a case report and review of the literature. Int J Hematol; 2006 Jan;83(1):47-50
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  • [Title] Reversible Epstein-Barr virus-negative lymphadenopathy and bone marrow involved by Hodgkin's lymphoma in a rheumatoid arthritis patient undergoing long-term treatment with low-dose methotrexate: a case report and review of the literature.
  • We report a case of spontaneous regression of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-negative methotrexate-associated lymphadenopathy occurring with Hodgkin's lymphoma in the bone marrow of a 48-year-old woman with rheumatoid arthritis.
  • Following 10 years of treatment with low-dose methotrexate, the patient developed pancytopenia, hypercalcemia, and elevated levels of liver enzymes over the course of 2 months.
  • A computed tomography scan of the abdomen revealed splenomegaly and enlarged abdominal lymph nodes.
  • A bone marrow biopsy demonstrated cellular marrow with 2 paratrabecular granuloma-like lesions composed of histiocytes, fibroblasts, small lymphocytes, a few plasma cells, and scattered CD30(+)CD15(+) Hodgkin's cells, including a classic Reed-Sternberg cell.
  • Within a month from withdrawal of methotrexate treatment, the patient's symptoms and the abnormalities in the laboratory results had regressed completely.
  • A positron emission tomography scan failed to detect lymphadenopathy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antirheumatic Agents / adverse effects. Arthritis, Rheumatoid / drug therapy. Herpesvirus 4, Human. Hodgkin Disease / chemically induced. Hodgkin Disease / pathology. Methotrexate / adverse effects. Neoplasm Regression, Spontaneous
  • [MeSH-minor] Bone Marrow Cells / pathology. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Reed-Sternberg Cells / pathology. Time Factors


19. Vilchez RA, Kozinetz CA, Jorgensen JL, Kroll MH, Butel JS: AIDS-related systemic non-Hodgkin's lymphoma at a large community program. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses; 2002 Mar 1;18(4):237-42
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  • [Title] AIDS-related systemic non-Hodgkin's lymphoma at a large community program.
  • The introduction of triple antiretroviral therapy has led to reductions in opportunistic diseases in HIV-infected patients.
  • However, little is known of the effect of this therapy on the clinical and pathological features and the outcome of patients with AIDS-related systemic non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL).
  • Three groups of patients diagnosed with systemic NHL were identified according to their history of antiretroviral therapy: treatment naive (n = 20), dual nucleoside (n = 22), and triple antiretroviral drug-treated patients (n = 34).
  • The median duration of antiretroviral therapy before the diagnosis of systemic NHL in the triple antiretroviral and dual nucleoside treatment groups was 12 versus 8 months (p < 0.0004).
  • Thirty-five percent of patients (12 of 34) in the triple treatment group had an HIV RNA viral load of <400 copies/ml and their median CD4+ cell count was 301 cells/mm(3) (range, 46 to 667 cells/mm(3)) at the time of diagnosis of systemic NHL.
  • More patients treated with triple antiretroviral therapy received complete courses of chemotherapy as compared with the other two groups (p = 0.013).
  • These data suggest that AIDS-related systemic NHL continues to occur even in patients treated with triple antiretroviral therapy.
  • In addition, this opportunistic malignancy is associated with significant mortality.
  • [MeSH-major] HIV Infections / drug therapy. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Anti-HIV Agents / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Base Sequence. Bleomycin / administration & dosage. CD4 Lymphocyte Count. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. DNA Primers. Dexamethasone / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Incidence. Leucovorin / administration & dosage. Male. Methotrexate / administration & dosage. Middle Aged. Prednisone / administration & dosage. Texas / epidemiology. Treatment Outcome. Vincristine / administration & dosage. Viral Load

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  • (PMID = 11860669.001).
  • [ISSN] 0889-2229
  • [Journal-full-title] AIDS research and human retroviruses
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / AI36211
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-HIV Agents; 0 / DNA Primers; 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; Q573I9DVLP / Leucovorin; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate; CHOP protocol; M-BACOD protocol
  • [Keywords] NASA ; Non-programmatic
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20. Gustavsson A, Osterman B, Cavallin-Ståhl E: A systematic overview of radiation therapy effects in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Acta Oncol; 2003;42(5-6):605-19
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A systematic overview of radiation therapy effects in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
  • A systematic review of radiation therapy trials in several tumour types was performed by The Swedish Council of Technology Assessment in Health Care (SBU).
  • This synthesis of the literature on radiation therapy for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) is based on data from seven randomized trials.
  • Data indicate that one-third to one-half of patients with indolent lymphoma in stage I are cured by radiotherapy (follow-up more than 15 years).
  • Addition of chemotherapy to radiotherapy does not indicate any improvement in overall outcome.
  • Although randomized and non-randomized studies favour combined modality treatment with chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy instead of radiotherapy or chemotherapy alone in localized disease, no firm conclusions can be drawn.
  • Optimal dose for radiation alone or after chemotherapy has not been established.
  • The value of TBI for treatment of NHL has not been proven.
  • There is no proof that fractionated TBI in conjunction with high-dose chemotherapy is superior to chemotherapy regimens alone.
  • Data show that radiotherapy induces a response of short duration and is associated with major neurotoxicity, especially in elderly patients.
  • High-dose methotrexate therapy seems to lead to longer survival than radiotherapy alone.
  • There is fairly good support for primary chemotherapy including high-dose methotrexate followed by radiotherapy in patients below 60 years.
  • To minimize the risk of neurotoxicity of combined modality treatment it has been proposed to use chemotherapy alone and delay radiotherapy for relapse, especially in patients above 60 years, or use it in chemotherapy-resistant disease.
  • Optimal chemotherapy regimen is not defined and the role of radiotherapy remains to be determined.
  • There is some support for combined modality treatment with chemotherapy and radiotherapy for aggressive lymphomas in Waldeyer's ring with limited disease.
  • Radioimmunotherapy is a new treatment modality with systemic radiation for patients with advanced NHL, where conventional external beam radiotherapy plays only a minor role.
  • One randomized clinical trial is published, showing superior therapy results with radiolabelled antibody compared with the corresponding unlabelled antibody.
  • [MeSH-major] Brachytherapy / methods. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / mortality. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Radiotherapy Dosage. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic. Risk Assessment. Survival Analysis. Sweden. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 14596518.001).
  • [ISSN] 0284-186X
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta oncologica (Stockholm, Sweden)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Norway
  • [Number-of-references] 82
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21. Oguchi M, Ikeda H, Isobe K, Hirota S, Hasegawa M, Nakamura K, Sasai K, Hayabuchi N: Tumor bulk as a prognostic factor for the management of localized aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: a survey of the Japan Lymphoma Radiation Therapy Group. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2000 Aug 1;48(1):161-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Tumor bulk as a prognostic factor for the management of localized aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: a survey of the Japan Lymphoma Radiation Therapy Group.
  • PURPOSE: To identify the prognostic factors that specifically predict survival rates of patients with localized aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL).
  • The 5-year event-free (EFS) and overall survival rates (OAS) were calculated, and univariate and multivariate analyses were done to identify which of the following factors, namely, gender, age, performance status (PS), serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level, Stage (I vs. II), tumor bulk (maximum diameter), and treatment, were significant from the viewpoint of prognosis.
  • RESULTS: A total of 1141 patients with Stage I and II NHL were treated by the Japanese Lymphoma Radiation Therapy Group between 1988 and 1992.
  • Of them, 787 patients, who were treated using definitive radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy for intermediate- and high-grade lymphomas in working formulation, constituted the core of this study.
  • The factors associated with poorer prognosis were age over 60 years old (p < 0.
  • 0001), radiation therapy alone (p < 0.0001), PS = 2-4 (p = 0.0011), (sex male, p = 0.0078), a bulky tumor more than 6 cm in maximum diameter (p = 0.0088), elevated LDH (p = 0.0117), and stage II (p = 0.0642).
  • A median dose of 42 Gy was delivered mainly to the involved fields.
  • Short-course chemotherapy was provided in 549 (70%) patients.
  • Short course chemotherapy followed by radiation therapy was associated with prolonged survival in patients with localized aggressive NHLs of extranodal origin and 0-1 risk factor.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / pathology. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Analysis of Variance. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bleomycin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Japan / epidemiology. Leucovorin / administration & dosage. Male. Methotrexate / administration & dosage. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prednisone / administration & dosage. Prognosis. Proportional Hazards Models. Radiation Injuries / etiology. Radiotherapy Dosage. Survival Rate. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 10924986.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; Q573I9DVLP / Leucovorin; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate; CHOP protocol; MACOP-B protocol
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22. Gerstner E, Batchelor T: Primary CNS lymphoma. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther; 2007 May;7(5):689-700
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Primary CNS lymphoma.
  • Primary CNS lymphoma, an uncommon form of extranodal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, has increased in incidence and occurs in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent hosts.
  • Primary CNS lymphoma in immunocompetent patients is associated with unique diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic issues and the management of this malignancy is different from other forms of extranodal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
  • Since primary CNS lymphoma may involve the brain, cerebrospinal fluid and eyes, diagnostic evaluation should include assessment of all of these regions as well as screening for the possibility of occult systemic disease.
  • Resection provides no therapeutic benefit and should be reserved for the rare patient with neurological deterioration due to brain herniation.
  • Whole-brain radiation therapy alone is insufficient for durable tumor control and is associated with a high risk of neurotoxicity in patients over 60 years of age.
  • Neurotoxicity is typically associated with significant cognitive, motor and autonomic dysfunction and has a negative impact on quality of life.
  • Chemotherapy and whole-brain radiation therapy together improve tumor response rates and survival compared with whole-brain radiation therapy alone.
  • Methotrexate-based multiagent chemotherapy without whole-brain radiation therapy is associated with similar tumor response rates and survival compared with regimens that include whole-brain radiation therapy, although controlled trials have not been performed.
  • The risk of neurotoxicity is lower in patients treated with chemotherapy alone.
  • The incidence of HIV-related primary CNS lymphoma has decreased in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy.
  • Patients with HIV-associated primary CNS lymphoma have a worse prognosis but may respond to highly active antiretroviral therapy, whole-brain radiation therapy or therapies directed against the Epstein-Barr virus.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / drug therapy. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / drug therapy. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. Combined Modality Therapy. HIV Infections / complications. HIV Infections / drug therapy. Humans. Injections, Spinal. Methotrexate / administration & dosage. Prognosis. Radiotherapy / adverse effects. Stem Cell Transplantation

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  • (PMID = 17492932.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-8328
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert review of anticancer therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Rev Anticancer Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate
  • [Number-of-references] 71
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23. Xia Y, Sun XF, Zhang CQ, Zhen ZJ, Wang ZH, Wang ZQ: [Primary study of relationship between serum level of VEGF and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in children and adolescent patients]. Ai Zheng; 2004 Nov;23(11 Suppl):1448-50
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Primary study of relationship between serum level of VEGF and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in children and adolescent patients].
  • This study was to investigate the serum level of VEGF in children and adolescent patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL).
  • METHODS: The serum levels of VEGF(sVEGF) in 24 pretreated NHL patients were detected by ELISA. sVEGF in 10 of the 24 patients who received complete response after treatment were also detected by ELISA.
  • The average serum VEGF level was 289.54 ng/L (35.11-826.8 ng/L) in 10 of The CR patients, 8 cases of them had a high VEGF level before treatment but a nearly normal level after first CR.
  • From the clinical data, a high serum level was not found associated with stage, gender, PS. score, IPI score, serum LDH and "B" symptoms et al.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / blood. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] 6-Mercaptopurine / administration & dosage. Adolescent. Adult. Asparaginase / administration & dosage. Burkitt Lymphoma / blood. Burkitt Lymphoma / drug therapy. Child. Child, Preschool. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Cytarabine / administration & dosage. Daunorubicin / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / blood. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / drug therapy. Male. Methotrexate / administration & dosage. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / blood. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / drug therapy. Prednisone / administration & dosage. Remission Induction. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 15566654.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Ai zheng = Aizheng = Chinese journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ai Zheng
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; E7WED276I5 / 6-Mercaptopurine; EC 3.5.1.1 / Asparaginase; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate; ZS7284E0ZP / Daunorubicin; AIEOP acute lymphoblastic leukemia protocol
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24. Le Guillou F, Dominique S, Dubruille V, Contentin N, Tilly H, Nouvet G: [Acute respiratory distress syndrome due to pneumonitis following intrathecal methotrexate administration]. Rev Mal Respir; 2003 Apr;20(2 Pt 1):273-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Acute respiratory distress syndrome due to pneumonitis following intrathecal methotrexate administration].
  • INTRODUCTION: Methotrexate, given orally or systemically, is associated with pneumonitis in 7% of cases.
  • CASE REPORT: This case report describes acute respiratory distress syndrome, due to diffuse pneumonitis, in a patient with malignant non-Hodgkin's lymphoma being treated with combination chemotherapy which included doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, bleomycin, vindesin and intrathecal methotrexate with G-CSF (filgrastine- Neupogen).
  • The clinical course, the lack of an identifiable infectious agent and the complete response to corticosteroids suggested a drug-induced cause.
  • After ruling out the other chemotherapy agents, methotrexate was considered to be the causal agent.
  • The unusual feature of this case was that pneumonitis developed after intrathecal administration of methotrexate.
  • CONCLUSION: Methotrexate-associated respiratory complications can occur with whichever route the drug is administered.
  • [MeSH-major] Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / adverse effects. Methotrexate / adverse effects. Pneumonia / chemically induced. Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Adult / chemically induced
  • [MeSH-minor] Anti-Inflammatory Agents / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bleomycin / administration & dosage. Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid / cytology. Bronchoscopy. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Filgrastim. Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor / administration & dosage. Humans. Injections, Spinal. Leukocyte Count. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / drug therapy. Male. Middle Aged. Recombinant Proteins. Steroids. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Vindesine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 12844025.001).
  • [ISSN] 0761-8425
  • [Journal-full-title] Revue des maladies respiratoires
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Mal Respir
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents; 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 0 / Steroids; 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 143011-72-7 / Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; PVI5M0M1GW / Filgrastim; RSA8KO39WH / Vindesine; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate
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25. Sieber M, Tesch H, Pfistner B, Rueffer U, Paulus U, Munker R, Hermann R, Doelken G, Koch P, Oertel J, Roller S, Worst P, Bischof H, Glunz A, Greil R, von Kalle K, Schalk KP, Hasenclever D, Brosteanu O, Duehmke E, Georgii A, Engert A, Loeffler M, Diehl V, Mueller RP, Willich N, Fischer R, Hansmann ML, Stein H, Schober T, Koch B, German Hodgkin's Lymphoma Study Group: Treatment of advanced Hodgkin's disease with COPP/ABV/IMEP versus COPP/ABVD and consolidating radiotherapy: final results of the German Hodgkin's Lymphoma Study Group HD6 trial. Ann Oncol; 2004 Feb;15(2):276-82
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Treatment of advanced Hodgkin's disease with COPP/ABV/IMEP versus COPP/ABVD and consolidating radiotherapy: final results of the German Hodgkin's Lymphoma Study Group HD6 trial.
  • BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of the hybrid chemotherapeutic regimen COPP/ABV/IMEP (cyclophosphamide-vincristine-procarbazine-prednisone-doxorubicin-bleomycin-vinblastine-ifosfamide-methotrexate-etoposide) (CAI) with that of the standard regimen COPP/ABVD (COPP/ABV, dacarbacine) (CA) in the treatment of advanced-stage Hodgkin's disease (HD).
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between January 1988 and January 1993, 588 eligible patients with HD in stages IIIB and IV were randomly assigned to a treatment or control group.
  • The treatment group received four cycles of CAI over a complete cycle duration of 43 days.
  • Complete remission rates, overall survival and freedom from treatment failure at 7 years were similar for the two groups: 77% versus 78%, 73% versus 73% and 54% versus 56% for CAI and CA, respectively.
  • Differences in acute chemotherapy-related toxicity were significant, however.
  • Prognostic factor analysis confirmed the relevance of the International Prognostic Index and revealed that stage IVB, low hemoglobin, low lymphocyte count, high age and male gender were associated with a poor prognosis CONCLUSION: The rapidly alternating hybrid CAI did not give superior results when compared with the standard regimen CA in advanced-stage HD.

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  • (PMID = 14760122.001).
  • [ISSN] 0923-7534
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 35S93Y190K / Procarbazine; 50NP6JJ975 / Glyoxal; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 5V9KLZ54CY / Vinblastine; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; 9403SIO2S8 / Prednimustine; UM20QQM95Y / Ifosfamide; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone
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26. Batchelor T, Loeffler JS: Primary CNS lymphoma. J Clin Oncol; 2006 Mar 10;24(8):1281-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Primary CNS lymphoma.
  • Primary CNS lymphoma (PCNSL), an uncommon form of extranodal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), has increased in incidence during the last three decades and occurs in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent hosts.
  • PCNSL in immunocompetent patients is associated with unique diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic issues, and the management of this malignancy is different from that of other forms of extranodal NHL.
  • Resection provides no therapeutic benefit and should be reserved for the rare patient with neurologic deterioration due to brain herniation.
  • Whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT) alone is insufficient for durable tumor control and is associated with a high risk of neurotoxicity in patients older than age 60.
  • Neurotoxicity typically is associated with significant cognitive, motor, and autonomic dysfunction, and has a negative impact on quality of life.
  • Chemotherapy and WBRT together improve tumor response rates and survival compared with WBRT alone.
  • Methotrexate-based multiagent chemotherapy without WBRT is associated with similar tumor response rates and survival compared with regimens that include WBRT, although controlled trials have not been performed.
  • The risk of neurotoxicity is lower in patients treated with chemotherapy alone.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Neoplasms. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin

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  • (PMID = 16525183.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 51
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27. Laver JH, Kraveka JM, Hutchison RE, Chang M, Kepner J, Schwenn M, Tarbell N, Desai S, Weitzman S, Weinstein HJ, Murphy SB: Advanced-stage large-cell lymphoma in children and adolescents: results of a randomized trial incorporating intermediate-dose methotrexate and high-dose cytarabine in the maintenance phase of the APO regimen: a Pediatric Oncology Group phase III trial. J Clin Oncol; 2005 Jan 20;23(3):541-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Advanced-stage large-cell lymphoma in children and adolescents: results of a randomized trial incorporating intermediate-dose methotrexate and high-dose cytarabine in the maintenance phase of the APO regimen: a Pediatric Oncology Group phase III trial.
  • PURPOSE: The Pediatric Oncology Group adopted a histology-based approach to non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and treated patients with advanced large-cell lymphoma on a separate protocol (doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone, 6-mercaptopurin, and methotrexate; APO regimen).
  • In this study, we assessed the effects of an intense antimetabolite therapy alternating with APO on overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS) and looked into biologic correlates.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: From December 1994 to April 2000, we enrolled 180 eligible pediatric patients with stage III/IV large-cell lymphoma (LCL); 90 patients were randomly assigned to the intermediate-dose methotrexate (IDM) and high-dose cytarabine (HiDAC) arm, 85 patients to the APO arm, and five patients directly to the APO arm by study design due to CNS involvement.
  • Planned therapy duration was 12 months.
  • RESULTS: The 4-year EFS for all patients was 67.4% (SE, 4.2%), and OS was 80.1% (SE, 3.6%) without any significant difference between the two arms.
  • The 4-year EFS and OS were 71.8% (SE, 6.1%) and 88.1% (SE, 4.4%), respectively, for patients with anaplastic large-cell lymphoma, and 63.8% (SE, 10.3%) and 70.3% (SE, 9.0%), respectively, for patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.
  • The IDM/HiDAC arm was associated with more toxicity.
  • CONCLUSION: The efficacy of incorporating IDM/HiDAC in the treatment plan of pediatric and adolescent patients with advanced-stage LCL was inconclusive as to its effect on EFS, regardless of the lymphoma phenotype.
  • It cannot be excluded that with a higher number of patients, one treatment could prove superior and future studies will build on these data.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / drug therapy. Neoplasm Staging
  • [MeSH-minor] 6-Mercaptopurine / administration & dosage. Adolescent. Adult. Age Factors. Child. Child, Preschool. Cytarabine / administration & dosage. Disease-Free Survival. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Infant. Infusions, Intravenous. Injections, Spinal. Male. Methotrexate / administration & dosage. Prednisone / administration & dosage. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 15659500.001).
  • [ISSN] 0732-183X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase III; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; E7WED276I5 / 6-Mercaptopurine; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate; APO combination
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28. Tsurusawa M, Katano N, Asami K, Watanabe A, Koizumi S, Miyake M, Kikuta A, Iwai A, Yamamura Y, Kawano Y, Mugishima H, Sekine I, Matsushita T, Horikoshi Y, Kikuchi M, Anami K, Fujimoto T: [Treatment and prognosis of children with relapsed non-Hodgkin's lymphoma--a report from CCLSG-NHL 890 Study. Children's Cancer and Leukemia Study Group (CCLSG)]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2000 Oct;27(11):1695-702
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Treatment and prognosis of children with relapsed non-Hodgkin's lymphoma--a report from CCLSG-NHL 890 Study. Children's Cancer and Leukemia Study Group (CCLSG)].
  • To address the issue of salvageability in relapsed children with NHL who had all received the same frontline therapy, we retrospectively studied the treatment response and the outcome of 27 children who relapsed following the CCLSG-NHL890 protocol.
  • The reinduction rates and 3-year survival rates (mean +/- SD) were as follows: lymphoblastic lymphoma (LB, n = 9), 44% & 17 +/- 14%; leukemia lymphoma syndrome (LLS, n = 8), 25% & 0%; large cell lymphoma (LC, n = 3) 100% & 67 +/- 27%; Burkitt's lymphoma (B, n = 7) 0% & 0%.
  • Thus, the salvageability of LC lymphoma was good, but the outcome of Burkitt's lymphoma was very poor.
  • CCLSG-NHL960 protocol for LB lymphomas and intensive multiagent regimens for LC lymphomas produced favorable response rates, but the effect of the high-dose Ara-C regimen for Burkitt's lymphoma was not determined.
  • The initial stages of the disease seemed to be associated with the patient outcome: the outcome of the patients in stage IV was inferior to that of patients in stages II or III.
  • Other clinical variables, such as relapse sites, relapse time and BM rescue did not affect the patients' outcome.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / analogs & derivatives. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Humans. Male. Methotrexate / administration & dosage. Prednisolone / administration & dosage. Prognosis. Recurrence. Retrospective Studies. Salvage Therapy. Survival Rate. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 11057320.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] JAPAN
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; 9PHQ9Y1OLM / Prednisolone; D58G680W0G / pirarubicin; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate
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29. Bataille B, Delwail V, Menet E, Vandermarcq P, Ingrand P, Wager M, Guy G, Lapierre F: Primary intracerebral malignant lymphoma: report of 248 cases. J Neurosurg; 2000 Feb;92(2):261-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Primary intracerebral malignant lymphoma: report of 248 cases.
  • OBJECT: The authors present a retrospective analysis of 248 immunocompetent patients with primary intracerebral lymphoma treated at 19 French and Belgian medical centers between January 1980 and December 1995.
  • All tumors available for review were classic diffuse non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, for which the phenotype was determined in 220 patients: 212 (96.4%) were B-cell and eight (3.6%) were T-cell type tumors.
  • A total of 196 tumors were reviewed in 127 patients for whom preoperative computerized tomography and magnetic resonance studies were available.
  • Of the 248 patients studied, 129 (52%) received chemotherapy plus radiation therapy, 60 (24%) received radiation therapy alone, 35 (14%) received chemotherapy alone, and 24 (10%) received no postsurgical treatment.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Using univariate analysis, the authors determined prognostic factors that were significantly associated with a favorable impact on survival including age younger than 60 years, radiation therapy (without evidence of a dose-response relationship), radiation therapy combined with chemotherapy, and chemotherapy consisting of anthracycline.
  • Multivariate analysis was used to confirm the independent prognostic value of radiation therapy, age, chemotherapy consisting of anthracyclines or methotrexate, and partial surgical resection.
  • This European survey provides a reasonable basis for the treatment of primary intracerebral lymphoma with the following sequence: stereotactic biopsy sampling, chemotherapy with a methotrexate- and anthracycline-based regimen, followed by cranial irradiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Brain / pathology. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 10659013.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3085
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurosurg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
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30. Plotkin SR, Batchelor TT: Primary nervous system lymphoma. Curr Treat Options Oncol; 2002 Dec;3(6):525-35
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  • [Title] Primary nervous system lymphoma.
  • Primary nervous system lymphoma (PNSL) is a rare type of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma confined to the nervous system.
  • Although significant progress has been made in the treatment of PNSL over the past decade, patients with this disease are rarely cured.
  • Until recently, whole brain radiation therapy has been the standard treatment for PNSL.
  • However, whole brain radiation therapy is associated with a high relapse rate and late neurotoxicity after chemotherapy, especially in patients older than 60 years of age.
  • Methotrexate-based chemotherapy has become the standard approach to treat patients with newly diagnosed PNSL.
  • The roles of intrathecal chemotherapy and blood-brain barrier disruption are not fully defined.
  • Given the rarity of this tumor, patients with PNSL should be referred to tertiary cancer centers where ongoing clinical trials are underway to identify the optimal treatment of PNSL.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma / therapy. Nervous System Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Neurosurgical Procedures / methods. Radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 12392641.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-2729
  • [Journal-full-title] Current treatment options in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Treat Options Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 43
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31. Mohile NA, Abrey LE: Primary central nervous system lymphoma. Neurol Clin; 2007 Nov;25(4):1193-207, xi
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  • [Title] Primary central nervous system lymphoma.
  • Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is an unusual form of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma that is restricted to the central nervous system.
  • PCNSL is sensitive to corticosteroids, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy.
  • High-dose methotrexate-based regimens form the cornerstone of multimodality therapy and have significantly improved response rates and survival.
  • Prolonged survival can be associated with devastating neurotoxicity to which the elderly are particularly susceptible.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Neoplasms / pathology. Lymphoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Anti-Inflammatory Agents / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Humans. Neurosurgical Procedures / methods. Prognosis. Salvage Therapy

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  • (PMID = 17964031.001).
  • [ISSN] 0733-8619
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurologic clinics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurol Clin
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 65
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32. Pels H, Deckert-Schlüter M, Glasmacher A, Kleinschmidt R, Oehring R, Fischer HP, Bode U, Schlegel U: Primary central nervous system lymphoma: a clinicopathological study of 28 cases. Hematol Oncol; 2000 Mar;18(1):21-32
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Primary central nervous system lymphoma: a clinicopathological study of 28 cases.
  • A group of 28 consecutive patients (mean age 59 years) with primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) was treated with different regimens, including steroids only, radiotherapy (RT), chemotherapy or combinations of all.
  • Lymphoma was classified as high grade malignant B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the diffuse large cell type in each of these cases.
  • RT alone led to tumour remission in more than 70 per cent, survival could be prolonged with additional chemotherapy.
  • Thirteen patients were treated with chemotherapy alone; nine of them received a novel combined intraventricular and systemic polychemotherapy protocol based on high dose methotrexate (MTX) and high dose cytarabine (ara-C).
  • Neurotoxicity, i.e. white matter lesions associated with severe cognitive dysfunction affected both patients surviving RT more than a year and patients treated with combination RT/chemotherapy.
  • Confluent white matter hyperintense lesions were detectable on MRI in three out of 13 patients treated with chemotherapy alone, however, cognitive dysfunction has not been detected in these patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Neoplasms / drug therapy. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Lymphoma / drug therapy. Lymphoma / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Cognition Disorders / etiology. Combined Modality Therapy. Cytarabine / administration & dosage. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Injections, Intraventricular. Male. Methotrexate / administration & dosage. Middle Aged. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / pathology. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / therapy. Survival Analysis. Time Factors

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  • (PMID = 10797527.001).
  • [ISSN] 0278-0232
  • [Journal-full-title] Hematological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hematol Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] ENGLAND
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate
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33. Plotkin SR, Batchelor TT: Advances in the therapy of primary central nervous system lymphoma. Clin Lymphoma; 2001 Mar;1(4):263-75; discussion 276-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Advances in the therapy of primary central nervous system lymphoma.
  • Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is a rare type of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) confined to the nervous system.
  • The management of PCNSL is quite different from the usual treatment of either primary brain tumors or systemic NHL.
  • First-generation chemotherapy regimens used successfully in systemic NHL are ineffective in PCNSL, in large part due to the existence of the blood-brain barrier.
  • Whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT) results in high response rates but rapid relapse, and this treatment is associated with delayed neurotoxicity in patients with PCNSL.
  • The addition of methotrexate-based chemotherapy has improved survival and lessened toxicity for this patient population.
  • Fundamental issues that remain unresolved in PCNSL include identification of the optimal chemotherapy regimen for newly diagnosed and relapsed PCNSL, the role of WBRT and intrathecal chemotherapy in the treatment of PCNSL, and the optimal management of intraocular lymphoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / therapy

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  • (PMID = 11707839.001).
  • [ISSN] 1526-9655
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical lymphoma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Lymphoma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 79
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34. Stern JI, Raizer JJ: Primary central nervous system lymphoma. Expert Rev Neurother; 2005 Nov;5(6 Suppl):S63-70
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Primary central nervous system lymphoma.
  • Primary central nervous system lymphoma is a stage 1E non-Hodgkin's lymphoma confined to the nervous system.
  • It is seen in immunocompetent and immunodeficient populations, the latter group associated with the Epstein-Barr virus.
  • Primary central nervous system lymphoma can affect the brain, leptomeninges, spinal cord or eyes.
  • The institution of high-dose methotrexate-based regimens and whole-brain radiation therapy has significantly increased survival, but neurotoxicity is high in patients over 60 years of age.
  • Recent investigations include the use of rituximab (immunotherapy) and stem-cell transplantation, as well as regimens without whole-brain radiation therapy in the elderly.
  • The optimal treatment regimen is yet to been determined.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Neoplasms / pathology. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / therapy. Lymphoma / pathology. Lymphoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnostic Imaging / methods. Drug Therapy / methods. Expert Testimony. Humans. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related. Prognosis. Radiotherapy / methods. Salvage Therapy / methods. Stem Cell Transplantation / methods. Steroids / therapeutic use

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  • [CommentIn] Expert Rev Neurother. 2005 Nov;5(6 Suppl):1-2 [16274264.001]
  • (PMID = 16274272.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-8360
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert review of neurotherapeutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Rev Neurother
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Steroids
  • [Number-of-references] 76
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35. Ericsson SM, Larsson RL, Nygren HP, Sundström C, Glimelius BL: Assessment of drug activity and proliferation ex vivo for prediction of outcome in aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. Acta Oncol; 2002;41(1):36-43
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Assessment of drug activity and proliferation ex vivo for prediction of outcome in aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphomas.
  • The activity of cytotoxic drugs and tumour cell proliferation rate were assessed ex vivo using the fluorometric microculture cytotoxicity assay (FMCA) and stainings for Ki67 and mitosis in 40 patients with aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL).
  • A drug sensitivity index based on the cell survival for three major drugs in NHL treatment was derived empirically and proliferation was expressed as low-, intermediate- or high.
  • In 5 out of 8 drugs tested, cell survival ex vivo was higher in clinical non-responders than that in responders.
  • Using the median drug sensitivity index as a cut-off, the sensitivity and specificity for tumour response were 58% and 100%, respectively, and was similar for the proliferation index.
  • Intermediate/high proliferation was significantly associated with impaired survival, whereas the drug sensitivity index was not predictive of survival.
  • Thus, ex vivo assessments of drug sensitivity and proliferation seem to provide prognostic information in aggressive NHL.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Asparaginase / administration & dosage. Biopsy. Bleomycin / administration & dosage. Cell Division / drug effects. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Daunorubicin / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Drug Evaluation. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunophenotyping. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Methotrexate / administration & dosage. Mitotic Index. Neoplasm Staging. Prednisone / administration & dosage. Survival Rate. Teniposide / administration & dosage. Treatment Outcome. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 11990516.001).
  • [ISSN] 0284-186X
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta oncologica (Stockholm, Sweden)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Norway
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; 957E6438QA / Teniposide; EC 3.5.1.1 / Asparaginase; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate; ZS7284E0ZP / Daunorubicin; CHOP protocol; CHVmP-VB protocol; PVDA protocol
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36. Van Haarlem SW, Verpalen MC, Van Gorp JM, Hoekstra JB, Van Den Bosch JM: An Epstein-Barr virus-associated pulmonary lymphoproliferative disorder as complication of immunosuppression. Neth J Med; 2000 Oct;57(4):165-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] An Epstein-Barr virus-associated pulmonary lymphoproliferative disorder as complication of immunosuppression.
  • Inherited or acquired immunodeficiencies as well as autoimmune diseases treated with cytotoxic drugs are associated with an increased incidence of lymphoma.
  • Non-Hodgkin's lymphomas that occur in the context of drug-induced immunosuppression, acquired or congenital immunodeficiency, are frequently associated with Epstein-Barr virus infection.
  • This report describes the occurrence of an Epstein-Barr virus associated pulmonary B cell lymphoma in a patient with longstanding rheumatoid arthritis treated with methotrexate.
  • [MeSH-major] Arthritis, Rheumatoid / drug therapy. Epstein-Barr Virus Infections / complications. Immunocompromised Host. Immunosuppressive Agents / adverse effects. Lung Neoplasms / chemically induced. Lung Neoplasms / virology. Lymphoma, B-Cell / chemically induced. Lymphoma, B-Cell / virology. Methotrexate / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Needle. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Risk Factors. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 11006493.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-2977
  • [Journal-full-title] The Netherlands journal of medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neth J Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] NETHERLANDS
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate
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37. Voloschin AD, Betensky R, Wen PY, Hochberg F, Batchelor T: Topotecan as salvage therapy for relapsed or refractory primary central nervous system lymphoma. J Neurooncol; 2008 Jan;86(2):211-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Topotecan as salvage therapy for relapsed or refractory primary central nervous system lymphoma.
  • Treatment for patients with refractory or relapsed primary CNS lymphoma (PCNSL) remains unsatisfactory.
  • Topotecan is an intravenous topoisomerase I inhibitor with good CSF penetration and documented efficacy in patients with relapsed systemic non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
  • All 15 patients had measurable, contrast-enhancing tumor on cranial MRI at the time of relapse.
  • Three patients had stable disease at the end of topotecan treatment.
  • Six patients (40%) had progressive disease during treatment.
  • Six out of 15 patients had grade 3 neutropenia, while 5/15 patients had grade 4 neutropenia, and 13/15 patients received g-CSF at some point during treatment.
  • There were no deaths directly related to treatment toxicity.
  • Our study shows that topotecan, as a salvage therapy in patients with relapsed or refractory PCNSL, is associated with an overall response proportion of 40% and should be considered in patients who have failed prior methotrexate-based chemotherapy and/or whole brain irradiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Salvage Therapy. Topotecan / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Disease-Free Survival. Enzyme Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies. Treatment Outcome


38. Seidemann K, Tiemann M, Lauterbach I, Mann G, Simonitsch I, Stankewitz K, Schrappe M, Zimmermann M, Niemeyer C, Parwaresch R, Riehm H, Reiter A, NHL Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster Group: Primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma with sclerosis in pediatric and adolescent patients: treatment and results from three therapeutic studies of the Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster Group. J Clin Oncol; 2003 May 1;21(9):1782-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma with sclerosis in pediatric and adolescent patients: treatment and results from three therapeutic studies of the Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster Group.
  • PURPOSE: Primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma with sclerosis (PMLBL) is a rare entity of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) arising from thymic mature B cells.
  • Optimal treatment strategies remain to be established, especially in pediatric patients.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: This study analyzes clinical characteristics and treatment outcome of 30 pediatric patients with PMLBL, diagnosed in multicenter therapy NHL-Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster Group (BFM) trials.
  • Treatment was stratified by stage and serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and consisted of four to six 5-day courses of chemotherapy using steroids, oxazaphosphorine alkylating agents, methotrexate, cytarabine, etoposide, and doxorubicin.
  • With a median observation time of 5 years (range, 1 to 12 years), probability of event-free survival (pEFS) at 5 years was 0.70 (SE, 0.08).
  • Two patients erroneously diagnosed as T-cell NHL received non-B-cell therapy and died from progress of disease.
  • Events in 28 patients receiving B-cell therapy included early progress during therapy (n = 1) and relapse (n = 6).
  • Residual mediastinal masses were present in 23 patients after two courses of therapy and in 15 patients after the end of therapy.
  • LDH > or = 500 U/L was associated with increased risk of failure in multivariate analysis.
  • Dose-intense chemotherapy including high-dose methotrexate yields a pEFS at 5 years of 0.70 (SE, 0.08).
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Lymphoma, B-Cell / drug therapy. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adrenal Cortex Hormones / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / administration & dosage. Child. Child, Preschool. Cytarabine / administration & dosage. Disease Progression. Disease-Free Survival. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infant. L-Lactate Dehydrogenase / analysis. Male. Methotrexate / administration & dosage. Prognosis. Sclerosis / etiology. Sclerosis / pathology. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 12721255.001).
  • [ISSN] 0732-183X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; EC 1.1.1.27 / L-Lactate Dehydrogenase; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate
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39. McAllister LD: Primary central nervous system lymphoma: a review. Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep; 2002 May;2(3):210-5
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  • [Title] Primary central nervous system lymphoma: a review.
  • Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is an aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma associated with a poor prognosis without treatment.
  • Tissue diagnosis is accomplished by stereotactic biopsy, CSF cytology, or vitreous aspirate.
  • Corticosteroids may obscure the results of tissue specimens and are best avoided prior to tissue diagnosis.
  • PCNSL has emerged as a treatment- sensitive tumor responsive to corticosteroids, radiotherapy, and methotrexate-based chemotherapy.
  • The most effective treatment program has not yet been identified, but it is clear that regimens containing high-dose methotrexate improve survival over radiotherapy alone.
  • Because combined chemo-radiotherapy has been associated with late neurologic toxicities, especially in patients over the age of 60 years, chemotherapy without radiotherapy is being explored further.
  • Significant progress in the treatment of PCNSL has been made in the past 10 years.
  • Further progress will depend heavily on improved understanding of lymphoma biology, and future trials need to focus on improving survival rates while avoiding late neurologic toxicity.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Neoplasms / pathology. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / therapy. Lymphoma / pathology. Lymphoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. HIV Infections / complications. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / physiopathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / therapy

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  • (PMID = 11936999.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-4042
  • [Journal-full-title] Current neurology and neuroscience reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 37
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40. Vellenga E, van Agthoven M, Croockewit AJ, Verdonck LF, Wijermans PJ, van Oers MH, Volkers CP, van Imhoff GW, Kingma T, Uyl-de Groot CA, Fibbe WE: Autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation in patients with relapsed lymphoma results in accelerated haematopoietic reconstitution, improved quality of life and cost reduction compared with bone marrow transplantation: the Hovon 22 study. Br J Haematol; 2001 Aug;114(2):319-26
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  • [Title] Autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation in patients with relapsed lymphoma results in accelerated haematopoietic reconstitution, improved quality of life and cost reduction compared with bone marrow transplantation: the Hovon 22 study.
  • Relapsing progressive lymphoma patients (n = 204; non-Hodgkin's lymphoma n = 166; Hodgkin's disease n = 38) were, after induction treatment with the DHAP-VIM (cisplatin, cytarabine, dexamethasone, etoposide, ifosfamide, methotrexate) regimen, randomly (2:1) assigned to the harvest of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor-mobilized stem cells after the second DHAP course or autologous bone marrow cells before the second DHAP course.
  • These stem cells were reinfused following high-dose myeloblative chemotherapy.
  • These findings were associated with a significant reduction in the median days of intravenous antibiotics in patients with fever [8.5 (0-30) versus 14 (0-34), P = 0.04] and hospital stay [27 (8-51) versus 34 (24-78), P < 0.05].
  • [MeSH-major] Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. Lymphoma / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bone Marrow Transplantation / economics. Chi-Square Distribution. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Cost-Benefit Analysis. Cytarabine / therapeutic use. Dexamethasone / therapeutic use. Disease-Free Survival. Etoposide / therapeutic use. Female. Hodgkin Disease / drug therapy. Hodgkin Disease / mortality. Hodgkin Disease / surgery. Humans. Ifosfamide / therapeutic use. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / drug therapy. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / mortality. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / surgery. Male. Methotrexate / therapeutic use. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies. Quality of Life. Recurrence. Statistics, Nonparametric. Survival Rate. Transplantation, Autologous

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  • (PMID = 11529850.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-1048
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of haematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Haematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase III; Comparative Study; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; UM20QQM95Y / Ifosfamide; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate; DHAP protocol; IMVP-16 protocol
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41. Filipits M, Jaeger U, Simonitsch I, Chizzali-Bonfadin C, Heinzl H, Pirker R: Clinical relevance of the lung resistance protein in diffuse large B-cell lymphomas. Clin Cancer Res; 2000 Sep;6(9):3417-23
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  • Drug resistance of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas may involve mechanisms of the multidrug resistance phenotype including the lung resistance protein (LRP) and the multidrug resistance protein (MRP1).
  • To determine the clinical relevance of these multidrug resistance factors in previously untreated diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (n = 48), we studied LRP and MRP1 expression in lymphoma cells and their impact on clinical outcome.
  • LRP expression was associated with higher tumor stage (P = 0.03), elevated serum lactate dehydrogenase levels (P = 0.01), and the International Prognostic Index (P = 0.0001).
  • MRP1 expression was independent of clinical and laboratory parameters and had no impact on the outcome of chemotherapy or survival of the patients.
  • These data suggest that LRP expression but not MRP1 expression is an important mechanism of drug resistance associated with worse clinical outcome in previously untreated diffuse large B-cell lymphomas.
  • Thus, the reversal of LRP-mediated drug resistance may improve clinical outcome in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in the future.
  • [MeSH-major] ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters / biosynthesis. Lymphoma, B-Cell / drug therapy. Lymphoma, B-Cell / metabolism. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / drug therapy. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / metabolism. Neoplasm Proteins / biosynthesis. Vault Ribonucleoprotein Particles / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Analysis of Variance. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bleomycin / administration & dosage. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Cytarabine / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Drug Resistance, Multiple. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Lomustine / administration & dosage. Male. Methotrexate / administration & dosage. Middle Aged. Multidrug Resistance-Associated Proteins. Prednimustine / administration & dosage. Prednisone / administration & dosage. Regression Analysis. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 10999723.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters; 0 / Multidrug Resistance-Associated Proteins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Vault Ribonucleoprotein Particles; 0 / major vault protein; 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine; 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 7BRF0Z81KG / Lomustine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; 9403SIO2S8 / Prednimustine; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate; CEP protocol; CHOP protocol; PROMACE-CytaBOM protocol
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42. Tas F, Eralp Y, Basaran M, Sakar B, Alici S, Argon A, Bulutlar G, Camlica H, Aydiner A, Topuz E: Anemia in oncology practice: relation to diseases and their therapies. Am J Clin Oncol; 2002 Aug;25(4):371-9
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  • [Title] Anemia in oncology practice: relation to diseases and their therapies.
  • Anemia is common in patients with cancer and is a frequent complication of myelosuppressive chemotherapy.
  • In this study, we investigated the incidence and severity of chemotherapy-induced anemia caused by the most common chemotherapy regimens, including the new generation of chemotherapeutic agents, used in the treatment of the major nonmyeloid malignancies in adults.
  • Five hundred fifty-two patients with histologically proven carcinoma originating from breast (n = 165), lung (n = 128), colon (n = 75), ovary (n = 84), and malignant lymphoma (n = 100) were included in this study.
  • Hemoglobin levels for each patient were measured with an automatic counter during both pretreatment and before each chemotherapy cycle during therapy.
  • Before chemotherapy, 44% of patients with breast carcinoma had anemia.
  • There was a 16% increase in the incidence of anemia after chemotherapy.
  • No difference was found in the incidence of anemia between the fluorouracil, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide (FAC) and cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, fluorouracil (CMF) regimens used in the adjuvant setting.
  • However, single-agent chemotherapy with newer generation caused more anemia when compared with the FAC regimen (p < 0.005).
  • Chemotherapy resulted in a significant decrease in hemoglobin levels when compared with pretreatment values in patients with lung cancer (p < 0.001).
  • During treatment, the increase in the incidence of grade II anemia was associated with a parallel decrease in the incidence of grade I anemia.
  • Seventy-one percent of patients with colon cancer had anemia before initiation of chemotherapy.
  • Chemotherapy resulted in a prominent increase in incidence of anemia, which increased to 91.5%.
  • Less than 10% of patients developed severe anemia.
  • Showing a high incidence of anemia (82%) at presentation, hemoglobin levels in patients with malignant lymphoma were unaltered with chemotherapy.
  • There was a higher incidence of anemia in patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma receiving the cyclophosphamide, epirubicin, vincristine, prednisone (CEOP) regimen in contrast to patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma treated with the doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, dacarbazine (ABVD) combination.
  • In this study, we have observed equivalent rates of treatment-related anemia when compared with previous data in patients with specific tumor types.
  • [MeSH-major] Anemia / chemically induced. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Colonic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Female. Humans. Incidence. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lymphoma / drug therapy. Male. Middle Aged. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 12151968.001).
  • [ISSN] 0277-3732
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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43. Snanoudj R, Durrbach A, Leblond V, Caillard S, Hurault De Ligny B, Noel C, Rondeau E, Moulin B, Mamzer-Bruneel MF, Lacroix C, Charpentier B: Primary brain lymphomas after kidney transplantation: presentation and outcome. Transplantation; 2003 Sep 27;76(6):930-7
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  • BACKGROUND: Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma is the second most frequent neoplasia following solid-organ transplantation.
  • Median overall delay between transplantation and lymphoma was 18 months (4-264).
  • Six of 10 patients with late posttransplantation brain lymphomas (PTBL) occurrence (>3 years) had been recently switched from azathioprine to mycophenolate mofetil (median switch lymphoma delay 14 months).
  • Cerebral computed tomography (CT) scans and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed multifocal lesions (n=18), with a ring contrast enhancement (n=20) similar to cerebral abscesses, as observed in HIV-related brain lymphomas.
  • Histology showed large B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in 87.5% of cases; Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) was detected in 95%.
  • After lymphoma diagnosis, immunosuppressive treatment was reduced in all patients, and all but one received complementary treatment by surgery (n=2), anti-CD21 antibodies (n=2), chemotherapy including high-dose intravenous methotrexate (n=7), encephalic radiotherapy (n=5), or chemotherapy plus radiotherapy (n=8).
  • Treatment by radiotherapy is associated with better survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / epidemiology. Kidney Transplantation / adverse effects. Lymphoma / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antilymphocyte Serum / therapeutic use. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use. Intracranial Hypertension / epidemiology. Male. Middle Aged. Nervous System Diseases / epidemiology. Postoperative Complications. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 14508356.001).
  • [ISSN] 0041-1337
  • [Journal-full-title] Transplantation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Transplantation
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antilymphocyte Serum; 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents
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44. Bertz H, Illerhaus G, Veelken H, Finke J: Allogeneic hematopoetic stem-cell transplantation for patients with relapsed or refractory lymphomas: comparison of high-dose conventional conditioning versus fludarabine-based reduced-intensity regimens. Ann Oncol; 2002 Jan;13(1):135-9
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  • BACKGROUND: Allogeneic hematopoetic stem-cell transplantation (alloHSCT) has curative potential for poor risk lymphoma patients due to the graft-versus-lymphoma effect.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between 1992 and 1999, 25 patients [median age 37 (20-60) years] with relapsed or refractory non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL, n = 20) or Hodgkin's disease (HD, n = 5) received an alloHSCT in our institution.
  • NHL histological subtypes were lymphoblastic (6), high grade B/T-cell lymphomas (5), follicular (3), mantle cell (2) and CLL, immunocytic, composite lymphoma and panniculitic T-NHL in one patient each.
  • Patients had received a median of four (range three to six) different therapies before alloHSCT, and 10 patients had relapsed after high-dose chemotherapy and autologous (9) or allogeneic (1) HSCT.
  • Conventional myeloablative conditioning (cc) regimens contained total body irradiation 12 Gy (5), busulfan 16 mg/kg (7) or BCNU/VP16 (1).
  • Graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis consisted of cyclosporin A +/- prednisone or methotrexate.
  • CONCLUSIONS: AlloHSCT induces high rates of complete remission in advanced lymphoma patients, even when the tumor had relapsed after autologous HSCT.
  • It should be considered earlier as part of the therapeutic options in poor risk patients to avoid non-relapse mortality associated with extensive pretreatment.

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  • [CommentIn] Ann Oncol. 2002 Sep;13(9):1507 [12196382.001]
  • (PMID = 11863095.001).
  • [ISSN] 0923-7534
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] FA2DM6879K / Vidarabine; P2K93U8740 / fludarabine
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45. Krieger G, Kreysing E, Kneba M: [Long-term results with MACOP-B and radiation therapy for aggressive lymphomas]. Onkologie; 2001 Feb;24 Suppl 1:49-58
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  • [Title] [Long-term results with MACOP-B and radiation therapy for aggressive lymphomas].
  • [Transliterated title] Langzeitergebnisse mit MACOP-B und Strahlentherapie bei aggressiven Non-Hodgkin-Lymphomen.
  • BACKGROUND: Long-term results are needed to evaluate chemotherapy regimens and prognostic factors in non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL).
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between 1985 and 1991, 71 patients with aggressive NHL were treated in a single institution with MACOP-B and adjuvant radiotherapy as first-line therapy.
  • Late relapses (>2 years after therapy) did occur in these patients but had a good prognosis after second remission.
  • Risk factors for therapy-related death were age and pulmonary toxicity.
  • Most patients suffered from chemotherapy-associated mucositis.
  • Patients with IPI >2 or with centrocytic or secondary centroblastic B-cell or non-anaplastic T-cell lymphomas need more intensive therapy or novel approaches.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Lymphoma, B-Cell / drug therapy. Lymphoma, T-Cell / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Bleomycin / administration & dosage. Bleomycin / adverse effects. Combined Modality Therapy. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Cyclophosphamide / adverse effects. Disease-Free Survival. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / adverse effects. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Leucovorin / administration & dosage. Leucovorin / adverse effects. Male. Methotrexate / administration & dosage. Methotrexate / adverse effects. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prednisone / administration & dosage. Prednisone / adverse effects. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Vincristine / administration & dosage. Vincristine / adverse effects

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2001 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg
  • (PMID = 11441311.001).
  • [ISSN] 0378-584X
  • [Journal-full-title] Onkologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Onkologie
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; Q573I9DVLP / Leucovorin; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate; MACOP-B protocol
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46. Lakatos PL: Is there a benefit from the concomitant use of immunosupression with anti-TNF in Crohn's disease; heads or tails? Rev Recent Clin Trials; 2009 Sep;4(3):152-8
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  • Emerging new data however indicate that combination therapy with infliximab-azathioprine appears to have added benefit in inducing steroid-free remission and mucosal healing than either infliximab or azathioprine alone in azathioprine-naïve patients with early disease.
  • In contrast, there seems to be no synergism between methotrexate and infliximab.
  • It is also less clear whether it is beneficial to use short or long-term infliximab-azathioprine combination in patients who previously failed therapy with azathioprine.
  • In contrast, combination may potentially be associated with increased risk for infection and cancer.
  • In case control-studies, especially the combination of steroids and anti-TNF and older age increased the risk for infectious complications, while scattered case reports point to the potentially increased risk of a rare form of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (Hepatosplenic T cell lymphoma) with the use of azathioprine-anti-TNF combination.
  • The aim of this review is to summarize the benefits and risks for the use combination therapy with TNF-alpha inhibitors in the treatment of Crohn's disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-Inflammatory Agents / therapeutic use. Crohn Disease / drug therapy. Gastrointestinal Agents / therapeutic use. Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / antagonists & inhibitors
  • [MeSH-minor] Adalimumab. Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Azathioprine / therapeutic use. Certolizumab Pegol. Clinical Trials as Topic. Drug Therapy, Combination. Humans. Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments / therapeutic use. Infliximab. Methotrexate / therapeutic use. Polyethylene Glycols / therapeutic use. Steroids / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 20028325.001).
  • [ISSN] 1876-1038
  • [Journal-full-title] Reviews on recent clinical trials
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Recent Clin Trials
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United Arab Emirates
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Gastrointestinal Agents; 0 / Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments; 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 0 / Steroids; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; 30IQX730WE / Polyethylene Glycols; B72HH48FLU / Infliximab; FYS6T7F842 / Adalimumab; MRK240IY2L / Azathioprine; UMD07X179E / Certolizumab Pegol; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate
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47. Rodriguez J, Romaguera JE, Manning J, Ordonez N, Ha C, Ravandi F, Cabanillas F: Nasal-type T/NK lymphomas: a clinicopathologic study of 13 cases. Leuk Lymphoma; 2000 Sep;39(1-2):139-44
NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program. NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Nasal-type T/NK lymphomas: a clinicopathologic study of 13 cases.
  • Natural Killer (NK) cell lymphomas, which include the nasal and the "nasal type" varieties, are defined as angiocentric lymphomas in the revised European American Lymphoma (R.E.A.L.) classification.
  • It is associated with the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and its response to treatment and prognosis are usually very poor.
  • Thirteen patients with a diagnosis of nasal NK cell lymphoma were treated at UTMDACC from 1987 to 1999.
  • Eleven patients were treated initially with doxorubicin based chemotherapy with or without radiotherapy.
  • One patient received interferon (IFN)-alpha and vitamin A and another methotrexate, vincristine, L-Asparaginase, and radiotherapy.
  • Eight patients (62%) responded to therapy; six (46%) with complete response (CR) and two (16%) with partial response (PR).
  • Five patients (38%) were alive, four with no evidence of disease (NED) at 1, 2, 3, and 9 years after treatment, and one patient was alive with disease (AWD) at the time of publication.
  • In conclusion, the response to doxorubicin-containing regimens is inferior to that of patients with other non-Hodgkin's lymphomas and similar prognostic factors.
  • Because the disease is associated with EBV virus in 90%-100% of the cases and the prognosis is poor, innovative therapies should be tried including immunotherapy that targets the expression of EBV by the tumor with or without myeloablative procedures.
  • [MeSH-major] Killer Cells, Natural. Lymphoma, T-Cell / therapy. Nose Neoplasms / therapy. Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / toxicity. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Recurrence. Remission Induction. Salvage Therapy. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 10975392.001).
  • [ISSN] 1042-8194
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia & lymphoma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Lymphoma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] SWITZERLAND
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48. Lebrun C, Bourg V, Tieulie N, Thomas P: Successful treatment of refractory generalized myasthenia gravis with rituximab. Eur J Neurol; 2009 Feb;16(2):246-50
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  • [Title] Successful treatment of refractory generalized myasthenia gravis with rituximab.
  • OBJECTIVE: Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune neuromuscular disorder for which current therapies carry a high risk of side-effects and may be insufficient in stabilizing the clinical status.
  • Many therapeutic options can be ruled, such as thymectomy, corticosteroids, azathioprine, cyclophosphamide, mycophenolate mofetil, methotrexate, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) or less frequently plasmapheresis must be ruled.
  • METHODS: We followed prospectively six patients with MG who presented with a poor response to two or three lines of immunosuppressive conventional drugs associated with oral corticosteroids.
  • CONCLUSION: Rituximab, a chimeric IgG k monoclonal antibody that target CD20 is used for the treatment of relapsing/refractory CD20 positive low-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and other autoimmune neuromuscular diseases.
  • Four previous short reports have described a good response of MG associated with lymphoma with rituximab.
  • It appears to be a promising and effective drug for the treatment of MG without lymphoma, with a substantial benefit to the clinical status and good tolerability.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Immunologic Factors / therapeutic use. Myasthenia Gravis / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived. Cholinesterase Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Immunoglobulins, Intravenous / therapeutic use. Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use. Middle Aged. Rituximab

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  • (PMID = 19146644.001).
  • [ISSN] 1468-1331
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Neurol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived; 0 / Cholinesterase Inhibitors; 0 / Immunoglobulins, Intravenous; 0 / Immunologic Factors; 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 4F4X42SYQ6 / Rituximab
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49. Boulanger E, Brière J, Gaulard P, Droz D, Oksenhendler E: HHV8-related non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the spermatic cord in a patient with HIV-associated multicentric Castleman disease. Am J Hematol; 2003 Jan;72(1):70-1
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  • [Title] HHV8-related non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the spermatic cord in a patient with HIV-associated multicentric Castleman disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Genital Neoplasms, Male / virology. Herpesviridae Infections / virology. Herpesvirus 8, Human / isolation & purification. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / virology. Spermatic Cord. Tumor Virus Infections / virology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. Cohort Studies. Combined Modality Therapy. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Etoposide / therapeutic use. Giant Lymph Node Hyperplasia / complications. Giant Lymph Node Hyperplasia / drug therapy. Giant Lymph Node Hyperplasia / surgery. Humans. Male. Methotrexate / administration & dosage. Middle Aged. Orchiectomy. Prednisone / administration & dosage. Remission Induction. Sarcoma, Kaposi / complications. Skin Neoplasms / complications. Splenectomy. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 12508272.001).
  • [ISSN] 0361-8609
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate; CHOP protocol
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