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1. Sirotnak FM: Studies with ZD1839 in preclinical models. Semin Oncol; 2003 Feb;30(1 Suppl 1):12-20
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  • ZD1839 (Iressa; AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals LP, Wilmington, DE) is an orally active, selective inhibitor of epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase (EGFR-TK) that blocks signaling pathways responsible for driving proliferation, invasion, and survival of cancer cells.
  • In preclinical studies of cell lines and human tumor xenografts, ZD1839 as single-agent therapy produced growth inhibition in a wide variety of common solid tumor types including lung, prostate, breast, colon, and ovarian cancers.
  • The A431 vulvar carcinoma model, which expresses abnormally high levels of EGFR, was particularly sensitive to ZD1839 treatment, leading to tumor regression.
  • When ZD1839 was coadministered with cytotoxic chemotherapy agents or radiotherapy, additive or even synergistic antitumor activity was achieved.
  • The inhibition observed with ZD1839 treatment was not restricted to advanced metastatic tumors, but also extended to early lesions such as breast xenografts of human ductal carcinoma in situ.
  • The diverse and profound antitumor activities attained with ZD1839 treatment in tumor cells and in xenograft tumor models provided the rationale for clinical development of ZD1839.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor. Humans. Tumor Cells, Cultured. Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2003, Elsevier Science (USA)
  • (PMID = 12644980.001).
  • [ISSN] 0093-7754
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA08748; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA56517
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / Quinazolines; EC 2.7.10.1 / Protein-Tyrosine Kinases; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; S65743JHBS / gefitinib
  • [Number-of-references] 50
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2. Piura B, Rabinovich A, Huleihel M: [Matrix metalloproteinases and their tissue inhibitors in malignancies of the female genital tract]. Harefuah; 2003 Nov;142(11):786-91, 804
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  • [Title] [Matrix metalloproteinases and their tissue inhibitors in malignancies of the female genital tract].
  • Their proteolytic activity depends on their binding to metal Zinc and is controlled by tissue inhibitors of MMP (TIMPs).
  • Degradation of the extracellular matrix and basement membrane is an important component of the process of tumor invasiveness, progression, angiogenesis and metastatic spread.
  • Since MMPs may serve as markers of tumor behavior and as predictors of survival and since synthetic inhibitors of MMP may have a place in the treatment of cancer, researching MMPs and their tissue inhibitors in malignant diseases has attracted growing attention.
  • Studies on MMPs and their tissue inhibitors in malignancies of the female genital tract have shown the following:.
  • 1) In ovarian carcinoma and cervical carcinoma, over-expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 is associated with invasiveness, metastatic spread and poor prognosis;.
  • 2) In endometrial carcinoma, MMP-7 (matrilysin) is the main MMP associated with invasiveness, metastatic spread and poor prognosis;.
  • In vulvar squamous cell carcinoma, over-expression of MMP-13 is associated with invasiveness, metastatic spread and poor prognosis.
  • It is speculated that using synthetic drugs that inhibit MMPs in combination with conventional chemotherapy may contribute to the improvement of treatment results in cancer patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Genital Neoplasms, Female / enzymology. Genital Neoplasms, Female / pathology. Matrix Metalloproteinases / metabolism. Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinases / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 14631913.001).
  • [ISSN] 0017-7768
  • [Journal-full-title] Harefuah
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Harefuah
  • [Language] heb
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Israel
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinases; EC 3.4.24.- / Matrix Metalloproteinases
  • [Number-of-references] 32
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3. Vázquez JP, Cobo SL, Antón FM, Asado AC, Vidart JA, Coronado P, Díaz-Rubio E: Brain metastasis and carcinomatous meningitis from vulvar squamous cell carcinoma: case report. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2007;28(2):152-4
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  • [Title] Brain metastasis and carcinomatous meningitis from vulvar squamous cell carcinoma: case report.
  • BACKGROUND: Brain metastasis and carcinomatous meningitis from gynecological tumors are an uncommon event, usually related to choriocarcinoma, ovarian and cervical cancer.
  • CASE: A 74-year-old woman was diagnosed with locally advanced vulvar squamous carcinoma.
  • Initial therapy consisted of multiagent chemotherapy and vulvar, pelvis and groin irradiation.
  • The patient subsequently developed widely spread metastatic disease including brain and meningeal metastases.
  • CONCLUSION: The rising incidence of central nervous system metastasis in the last two decades is probably associated with treatment-related improvement in life expectancy.
  • To our knowledge, this is the first case reported of brain metastases and meningeal carcinomatosis associated with vulvar squamous cell carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / secondary. Meningeal Neoplasms / secondary. Vulvar Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 17479684.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-2936
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gynaecological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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4. Tanaka H, Umekawa T, Nagao K, Ishihara A, Toyoda N: Adenocarcinoma of mammary-like glands in the vulva successfully treated by weekly paclitaxel. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2005 May-Jun;15(3):568-71
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  • [Title] Adenocarcinoma of mammary-like glands in the vulva successfully treated by weekly paclitaxel.
  • Histologic examination showed the same morphologic findings as scirrhus type of primary breast carcinoma.
  • This disease was diagnosed as an adenocarcinoma arising in mammary-like glands of the vulva.
  • Bone scan showed multiple foci in the sternum, costa, and vertebrae, consistent with metastatic disease.
  • We administered five courses of weekly paclitaxel chemotherapy, which achieved a partial response.
  • In our case, the fine-needle aspiration cytology was a rapid and minimally invasive method of diagnosis, and the findings were extremely similar to those of the scirrhus type of primary breast carcinoma.
  • Weekly paclitaxel chemotherapy may be one of the safe and effective treatments for this disease with distant metastases, even in extremely aged patients (over 80 years).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / therapeutic use. Paclitaxel / therapeutic use. Vulvar Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 15882189.001).
  • [ISSN] 1048-891X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
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5. Montana GS, Thomas GM, Moore DH, Saxer A, Mangan CE, Lentz SS, Averette HE: Preoperative chemo-radiation for carcinoma of the vulva with N2/N3 nodes: a gynecologic oncology group study. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2000 Nov 1;48(4):1007-13
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  • [Title] Preoperative chemo-radiation for carcinoma of the vulva with N2/N3 nodes: a gynecologic oncology group study.
  • PURPOSE: To determine if patients with carcinoma of the vulva, with N2/N3 lymph nodes, could undergo resection of the lymph nodes and primary tumor following preoperative chemo-radiation.
  • Patients underwent a split course of radiation, 4760 cGy to the primary and lymph nodes, with concurrent chemotherapy, cisplatin/5-FU, followed by surgery.
  • RESULTS: Four patients did not complete the chemo-radiation, because three expired and one refused to complete the treatment.
  • Four patients who completed chemo-radiation did not undergo surgery, because two of them died of non-cancer-related causes, and in the other two patients, the nodes remained unresectable.
  • Nineteen patients developed recurrent and/or metastatic disease.
  • Two patients died of treatment-related complications.
  • CONCLUSION: High resectability and local control rates of the lymph nodes were obtained in patients with carcinoma of the vulva with N2/N3 nodes treated preoperatively with chemo-radiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / drug therapy. Carcinoma / radiotherapy. Lymph Node Excision. Vulvar Neoplasms / drug therapy. Vulvar Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Groin. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Treatment Failure

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  • (PMID = 11072157.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 37517; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA27469
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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6. Seward SM, Richardson DL, Leon ME, Zhao W, Cohn DE, Hitchcock CL: Metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva to the lung confirmed with allelotyping. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2009 Sep;28(5):497-501
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  • [Title] Metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva to the lung confirmed with allelotyping.
  • A squamous-cell carcinoma (SCC) of the lung can be indistinguishable from metastatic SCC of gynecologic origin using common histopathologic techniques; however, establishing tumor origin can be clinically relevant.
  • Allelotyping for loss of heterozygosity established the pulmonary lesion as a rare event of vulvar pulmonary metastasis.
  • The patient received palliative chemotherapy instead of curative treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / genetics. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / genetics. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Vulvar Neoplasms / genetics. Vulvar Neoplasms / pathology


7. Richard SD, Krivak TC, Beriwal S, Zorn KK: Recurrent metastatic vulvar carcinoma treated with cisplatin plus cetuximab. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2008 Sep-Oct;18(5):1132-5
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  • [Title] Recurrent metastatic vulvar carcinoma treated with cisplatin plus cetuximab.
  • Recurrent vulvar carcinoma with metastasis has few effective treatment options, which are mainly directed toward palliation of symptoms.
  • A 70-year-old woman was originally treated in 1999 for vulvar squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) with radical vulvectomy and bilateral inguinofemoral groin dissection.
  • Although treatment of this area included surgical resection and chemoradiation, she recurred 3 months later.
  • Despite radical surgical resection with an anal perineal resection, she presented 2 months later with widely metastatic disease.
  • She was treated with palliative radiation therapy (RT) and a cetuximab plus cisplatin chemotherapy protocol.
  • Few treatment options exist for recurrent metastatic vulvar carcinoma.
  • The combination of the EGFR antagonist cetuximab with cisplatin has shown modest success in other metastatic SCCs.
  • The partial response experienced in our patient suggests its potential use in women with recurrent or metastatic vulvar carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Vulvar Neoplasms / drug therapy. Vulvar Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Cetuximab. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Metastasis / drug therapy. Neoplasm Metastasis / pathology. Neoplasm Metastasis / radiography. Recurrence. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18021214.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-1438
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; PQX0D8J21J / Cetuximab; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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8. Brummer O, Stegner HE, Böhmer G, Kühnle H, Petry KU: HER-2/neu expression in Paget disease of the vulva and the female breast. Gynecol Oncol; 2004 Nov;95(2):336-40
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  • [Title] HER-2/neu expression in Paget disease of the vulva and the female breast.
  • OBJECTIVES: Paget disease of the vulva is a rare lesion that accounts for <1% of vulva neoplasms.
  • A 12% prevalence of invasive Paget carcinoma and a 4% prevalence of associated adenocarcinomas are described.
  • Furthermore, a high recurrence rate of 30% after surgical therapy is observed.
  • This study aims to search for therapeutic strategies for recurrent Paget disease, which are less mutilating and less aggressive than reexcision, x-ray therapy, or chemotherapy.
  • FDA for the treatment of patients with HER-2/neu-positive metastatic breast carcinomas.
  • METHODS: Using HercepTest, we analyzed HER-2/neu overexpression in seven noninvasive Paget lesions, two invasive lesions, and one Paget disease of the vulva with underlying adenocarcinoma.
  • CONCLUSION: Using HercepTest as a standardized detection system, overexpression of HER-2/neu can be demonstrated in a majority of both noninvasive and invasive Paget disease of the vulva.
  • The use of Trastuzumab should be considered for the treatment of patients with recurrent Paget disease of the vulva with overexpression of HER-2/neu.
  • [MeSH-major] Paget Disease, Extramammary / metabolism. Paget's Disease, Mammary / metabolism. Receptor, ErbB-2 / biosynthesis. Vulvar Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma in Situ / metabolism. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal / metabolism. Carcinoma, Ductal / pathology. Female. Humans. Paraffin Embedding


9. Yen TC, Lai CH: Positron emission tomography in gynecologic cancer. Semin Nucl Med; 2006 Jan;36(1):93-104
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  • [Title] Positron emission tomography in gynecologic cancer.
  • Most positron emission tomography (PET) imaging studies in gynecologic cancer are performed using (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG).
  • It contributes valuable information in primary staging of untreated advanced cervical cancer, in the post-treatment surveillance with unexplained tumor marker (such as squamous cell carcinoma antigen [SCC-Ag]) elevation or suspicious of recurrence, and restaging of potentially curable recurrent cervical cancer.
  • Its value in early-stage resectable cervical cancer is questionable.
  • In ovarian cancer, FDG-PET provides benefits for those with plateaued or increasing abnormal serum CA 125 (>35 U/mL), computed tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging (CT-MRI) defined localized recurrence feasible for local destructive procedures (such as surgery, radiotherapy, or radiofrequency ablation), and clinically suspected recurrent or persistent cancer for which CT-guide biopsy cannot be performed.
  • The role of FDG-PET in endometrial cancer is relatively less defined because of the lack of data in the literature.
  • In our prospective study, FDG-PET coupled with MRI-CT may facilitate optimal management of endometrial cancer in well-selected cases.
  • The clinical impact was positive in 29 (48.3%) of the 60 scans, 22.2% for primary staging, 73.1% for post-therapy surveillance, and 57.1% after salvage therapy, respectively.
  • Scant studies have been reported in the management of vulvar cancer using FDG-PET.
  • Our preliminary results suggest that FDG-PET is potentially useful in selected gestational trophoblastic neoplasia by providing a precise metastatic mapping of tumor extent up front, monitoring response, and localizing viable tumors after chemotherapy.
  • The evaluation of a diagnostic tool, such as PET, is usually via comparing the diagnostic efficacy (sensitivity, specificity, etc), by using a more sophisticated receiver operating curve method, or the proportion of treatment been modified.
  • [MeSH-major] Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Genital Neoplasms, Female / radionuclide imaging. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods

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  • (PMID = 16356798.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-2998
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
  • [Number-of-references] 136
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10. Yamamoto R, Sakuragi N, Shirato H, Shimizu M, Fujimoto S: Radiotherapy with concurrent chemotherapy for vulvar adenocarcinoma associated with extramammary Paget's disease. Gynecol Oncol; 2001 Feb;80(2):267-71
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  • [Title] Radiotherapy with concurrent chemotherapy for vulvar adenocarcinoma associated with extramammary Paget's disease.
  • BACKGROUND: There have been no reports of the efficacy of primary radiotherapy with concurrent chemotherapy for vulvar adenocarcinoma associated with extramammary Paget's disease.
  • In this report we discuss the differential diagnosis and efficacy of treatment for this rare tumor.
  • CASE: The patient was diagnosed as having vulvar carcinoma stage IVb.
  • A dose of 40 Gy in 20 fractions was administered to the vulva, including the tumor mass, and the inguinal-femoral lymph nodes with concurrent systemic chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSION: Within the radiated field, the efficacy was brought about by either radiotherapy only or by radiotherapy together with the sensitizing effects of chemotherapy.
  • As for the chemotherapy itself, it was not effective in this case.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma / radiotherapy. Paget Disease, Extramammary / drug therapy. Paget Disease, Extramammary / radiotherapy. Vulvar Neoplasms / drug therapy. Vulvar Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 11161871.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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11. Stehman FB, Look KY: Carcinoma of the vulva. Obstet Gynecol; 2006 Mar;107(3):719-33
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  • [Title] Carcinoma of the vulva.
  • The objective of this review is to summarize the published data about squamous carcinoma of the vulva and to identify promising areas for future investigation.
  • Rather than the routine use of complete radical vulvectomy, a radical wide excision of the vulvar lesion to achieve at least a 1-cm gross margin appears sufficient to treat the primary lesion.
  • All the nodal tissue medial to the vessels and above the fascia should be removed.
  • Patients with positive inguinal nodes at groin dissection should receive radiation therapy to the ipsilateral groin and hemipelvis.
  • Chemotherapy for recurrent or metastatic disease has not been proven to be of value.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. Vulvar Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 16507947.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-233X
  • [Journal-full-title] Obstetrics and gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Obstet Gynecol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 168
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12. Khouchani M, Benchakroun N, Tahri A, Tawfiq N, Jouhadi H, Acharki A, Sahraoui S, Belaabidia B, Benider A: [Breast metastasis from vulvar carcinoma: case report and review of literature]. Cancer Radiother; 2008 Mar;12(2):120-5
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  • [Title] [Breast metastasis from vulvar carcinoma: case report and review of literature].
  • [Transliterated title] Métastase intramammaire d'un cancer vulvaire: à propos d'un cas avec revue de la littérature.
  • The breast metastases resulting of vulvar carcinoma are very rare, and represent exceptionally the first manifestation of the disease.
  • We report the case of a 42 year-old patient who underwent a treatment because of vulvar epidermoid carcinoma, right away metastatic at the level of the inguinal ganglia.
  • The treatment consisted in a total vulvectomy with bilateral ganglial curretage, followed by external radiotherapy about the perineum and the inguinal ganglia.
  • Three months after the end of her treatment, the patient presented with a nodula on the left outer breast with features of malignancy noticed by clinic and mammographic examination.
  • The histologic study of the mammary biopsy showed epidermoid carcinoma of likely metastatic origin.
  • A left Patey has been realized and confirmed the metastatic localization of epidermoid carcinoma with axillary ganglial metastasis (2N+/-7).
  • Besides, this patient presented a right cervical ganglial parcel that the biopsy showed a metastatic localization of a vulvar carcinoma.
  • A palliative chemotherapy type cyclophosphamid, adriblastin, cisplatine (CAP) has been admistrated during three cycles spaced out three weeks.
  • We present this case because its rarety and to show the possibility of metastasis at the level of breast due to vulvar cancer.
  • The clinicians must remember this possible tropism of the vulvar cancer for the breast, not only during the supervision and the complete examination as regards the disease spreading but also when the affection revealed unknown primary tumor.
  • In this stage, the treatment is unfortunately palliative, the survival until a year is not more than 20%.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / secondary. Vulvar Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18343704.001).
  • [ISSN] 1278-3218
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer radiothérapie : journal de la Société française de radiothérapie oncologique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Radiother
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Number-of-references] 31
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13. Gadducci A, Cionini L, Romanini A, Fanucchi A, Genazzani AR: Old and new perspectives in the management of high-risk, locally advanced or recurrent, and metastatic vulvar cancer. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol; 2006 Dec;60(3):227-41
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  • [Title] Old and new perspectives in the management of high-risk, locally advanced or recurrent, and metastatic vulvar cancer.
  • During the last decades there has been a continuing evolution in the surgical approach of squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva that has been traditionally treated with radical vulvectomy and bilateral inguinal-femoral lymphadenectomy.
  • Patients with T1 tumour are usually treated with radical local excision, if the lesion is unifocal and the remainder of the vulva is normal.
  • Modifications of the surgical technique of deep femoral lymphadenectomy and the mapping of sentinel node can offer new interesting therapeutic perspectives.
  • Locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva has been long surgically treated with en-block radical vulvectomy and bilateral inguinal-femoral lymphadenectomy plus partial resection of urethra, vagina or anum, or by exenteration, with severe postsurgical complications, poor quality of life, and unsatisfactory survival rates.
  • 5-Fluorouracil [5-FU] or 5-FU- and cisplatin-based chemotherapy concurrent with irradiation followed by tailored surgery represents an attractive therapeutic option for advanced disease, planned to avoid such ultra-radical surgical procedures and, hopefully, to improve patient outcome.
  • Chemotherapy has also been used in neoadjuvant setting, with contrasting and generally unsatisfactory results, and in palliative treatment of patients with distant metastases.
  • Surgery is the primary treatment also for vulvar malignancies other than squamous cell carcinoma, whereas the clinical usefulness of adjuvant irradiation or chemotherapy is still to be defined.
  • Primary chemoradiation can be also used for advanced carcinoma of the Bartholin gland or for advanced adenocarcinoma associated with extramammary Paget's disease.
  • The drugs used for chemotherapy of metastatic melanomas or sarcomas of the vulva are the same employed for the melanomas or sarcomas developed in other sites.
  • [MeSH-major] Vulvar Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Metastasis. Recurrence

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  • (PMID = 16945551.001).
  • [ISSN] 1040-8428
  • [Journal-full-title] Critical reviews in oncology/hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Crit. Rev. Oncol. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Number-of-references] 167
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14. Kahmann L, Beyer U, Mehlhorn G, Thiel FC, Strnad V, Fasching PA, Lux MP: Mitomycin C in patients with gynecological malignancies. Onkologie; 2010;33(10):547-57
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Mitomycin C (MMC) is an effective cytostatic agent used in the treatment of patients with gynecological malignancies and breast carcinoma.
  • This review presents and discusses the current treatment options with MMC in patients with breast, cervical, and vulvar carcinomas, as well as rarer gynecological malignancies.
  • Consequently, also for the next years a MMC-containing chemotherapy continues to be a relevant part of an individualized therapy despite numerous innovative new drugs, especially for the salvage therapy of metastatic breast cancer and the simultaneous radiochemotherapy of other gynecological malignancies.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Genital Neoplasms, Female / drug therapy. Mitomycin / therapeutic use. Salvage Therapy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Cytostatic Agents / therapeutic use. Female. Humans

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 20926904.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0240
  • [Journal-full-title] Onkologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Onkologie
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cytostatic Agents; 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin
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15. Blake P: Radiotherapy and chemoradiotherapy for carcinoma of the vulva. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol; 2003 Aug;17(4):649-61
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Radiotherapy and chemoradiotherapy for carcinoma of the vulva.
  • Radiotherapy may be used in the treatment of vulval cancer as an alternative to surgery in unfit patients, as an adjuvant to surgery in patients with poor prognosis tumours and for the treatment of inoperable, recurrent and metastatic disease.
  • This chapter presents the historical development of radiotherapy for vulval cancer, the role of radiotherapy in the treatment of the primary tumour and also the loco-regional nodes, both for prophylaxis and for proven node metastasis.
  • Techniques for delivering radiotherapy are then discussed and are followed by protocols detailing radiotherapy and chemotherapy doses for different clinical situations.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Vulvar Neoplasms / drug therapy. Vulvar Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Brachytherapy. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Humans. Inguinal Canal. Lymphatic Metastasis. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Radiotherapy, High-Energy

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  • (PMID = 12965137.001).
  • [ISSN] 1521-6934
  • [Journal-full-title] Best practice & research. Clinical obstetrics & gynaecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 25
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16. Ferrandina G, Testa AC, Zannoni GF, Poerio A, Scambia G: Skull metastasis in primary vulvar adenocarcinoma of the Bartholin's gland: a case report. Gynecol Oncol; 2005 Aug;98(2):322-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Skull metastasis in primary vulvar adenocarcinoma of the Bartholin's gland: a case report.
  • BACKGROUND: Metastatic bone involvement in vulvar squamous carcinoma is very rare.
  • CASE: A 74-year-old woman was referred with a diagnosis of primary vulvar adenocarcinoma of the right labium minus.
  • A right hemivulvectomy was performed with ipsilateral inguinofemoral lymphadenectomy, revealing a primary adenocarcinoma of the Bartholin's gland and metastatic involvement in 6 out of 13 lymphnodes.
  • During chemotherapy administration, the patient started complaining of a worsening of right hypoacousis.
  • CT scan and MRI of the brain showed the presence of a metastatic lesion on the right side of the skullbone.
  • The diagnosis was metastatic poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma.
  • CONCLUSION: In adenocarcinoma of the Bartholin's gland at an advanced stage of disease, a bone scan or survey in the preoperative as well as follow up staging procedures could be useful.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Bartholin's Glands / pathology. Skull Neoplasms / secondary. Vulvar Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15936060.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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