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1. Geldart TR, Simmonds PD, Mead GM: Orchidectomy after chemotherapy for patients with metastatic testicular germ cell cancer. BJU Int; 2002 Sep;90(4):451-5
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  • [Title] Orchidectomy after chemotherapy for patients with metastatic testicular germ cell cancer.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the contribution of routine orchidectomy in the management of patients who present with advanced, metastatic, testicular germ cell cancer and who are treated with initial chemotherapy.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Sixty consecutive patients presenting with metastatic testicular germ cell cancer and treated with initial chemotherapy followed by orchidectomy were identified.
  • The pathological findings at orchidectomy were compared with the pathological findings from metastatic masses resected after chemotherapy, and are reviewed with the clinical outcome.
  • RESULTS: Of the 60 orchidectomy specimens after chemotherapy, 24 (40%) contained significant histological abnormalities comprising residual invasive germ cell cancer, intratubular germ cell neoplasia and/or mature teratoma.
  • The patients with residual invasive NSGCT present within the testis had evidence of residual invasive NSGCT within extragonadal masses resected after chemotherapy; all three have relapsed and died from chemorefractory progressive disease.
  • CONCLUSION: Orchidectomy after chemotherapy is recommended in all patients undergoing primary chemotherapy, as a significant proportion (40%) are left with histological abnormalities that predispose to subsequent relapse.
  • Persistence of invasive NSGCT at the site of the primary tumour after chemotherapy is associated with persistence of invasive disease at other metastatic sites and is a poor prognostic finding.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Seminoma / drug therapy. Seminoma / secondary. Seminoma / surgery


2. Ehrlich Y, Yossepowitch O, Kedar D, Baniel J: Distribution of nodal metastases after chemotherapy in nonseminomatous testis cancer: a possible indication for limited dissection. BJU Int; 2006 Jun;97(6):1221-4
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  • [Title] Distribution of nodal metastases after chemotherapy in nonseminomatous testis cancer: a possible indication for limited dissection.
  • OBJECTIVE: To assess the clinical and pathological findings of patients treated by bilateral retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND) after chemotherapy, to identify a subset for whom modified template nodal resection might be contemplated, as bilateral RPLND is the treatment of choice in patients with residual retroperitoneal disease after chemotherapy for nonseminomatous germ-cell tumour (GCT).
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: The medical records were reviewed of 50 consecutive patients who had RPLND after chemotherapy between 1996 and 2005.
  • The pathological findings were correlated with the side of the primary lesion and the extent of metastatic disease before chemotherapy.
  • Patients with clinical stage IIC and III, or right-sided primary tumour, had a less predictable metastatic pattern, having crossover metastases to the contralateral template.
  • CONCLUSION: Bilateral RPLND should be considered as the reference standard in patients with metastatic GCT and residual retroperitoneal mass after completing chemotherapy.
  • However, the present data suggest that a modified template dissection might be considered even after chemotherapy in patients with left-sided primary tumours and limited nodal involvement at presentation.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymph Node Excision / methods. Neoplasm, Residual / surgery. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / surgery. Testicular Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Retroperitoneal Space. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16686715.001).
  • [ISSN] 1464-4096
  • [Journal-full-title] BJU international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BJU Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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3. von Schlippe M, Fowler CJ, Harland SJ: Cisplatin neurotoxicity in the treatment of metastatic germ cell tumour: time course and prognosis. Br J Cancer; 2001 Sep 14;85(6):823-6
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  • [Title] Cisplatin neurotoxicity in the treatment of metastatic germ cell tumour: time course and prognosis.
  • In order to ascertain the incidence and prognosis of cisplatin-induced neurotoxicity in testis cancer patients undergoing combination chemotherapy, 29 patients with metastatic disease were studied prospectively.
  • At the end of chemotherapy (3 to 4 cycles) only 3 out of 26 (11%) patients had paraesthesiae, but 3 months later the proportion rose to 65%.
  • None of the 11 patients treated with 3 cycles of chemotherapy had persisting symptoms.
  • Vibration thresholds showed a significant deterioration during chemotherapy (P = 0.032), further deterioration in the 3 months following chemotherapy (P = 0.009) and significant improvement between 3 and 12 months after chemotherapy (P = 0.038).
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects. Brain / drug effects. Brain Diseases / chemically induced. Cisplatin / adverse effects. Germinoma / drug therapy. Reaction Time / drug effects. Testicular Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neural Conduction / drug effects. Paresthesia / chemically induced. Prognosis. Prospective Studies. Sural Nerve / drug effects

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2001 Cancer Research Campaign.
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  • (PMID = 11556831.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0920
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2375074
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4. Oliver RT, Ong J, Berney D, Nargund V, Badenoch D, Shamash J: Testis conserving chemotherapy in germ cell cancer: its potential to increase understanding of the biology and treatment of carcinoma-in-situ. APMIS; 2003 Jan;111(1):86-91; discussion 91-2
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  • [Title] Testis conserving chemotherapy in germ cell cancer: its potential to increase understanding of the biology and treatment of carcinoma-in-situ.
  • Prompted by recognition of the potential of chemotherapy to increase the success of testis conserving surgery in patients with germ cell cancer, background and outcome data are reviewed and their contribution to the ongoing debate about how germ cell cancer develops discussed.
  • The review is based on three previous studies of: a) time trends in tumour size in 578 personal series of all stages of testis cancer treated since 1978;.
  • b) impact of chemotherapy on actuarial risk of tumours in contralateral testis examined on 1221 patients treated in trials through the Anglian Germ Cell Cancer Consortium; and c) testes conservation attempted using chemotherapy in 78 patients.
  • Since 1978 tumour size has decreased from 4.8 to 3.0 cms while cure has gone from 77 to 97%.
  • There was no overall long term reduction in second cancers beyond 10 years in stage 1 patients after orchidectomy alone compared to stage 1 or metastatic disease patients receiving chemotherapy though the incidence was non significantly lower up to 10 years particularly in those patients receiving etoposide based combination.
  • Testis conservation was initially successful in 28 of 78 (36%).
  • In the 28 primary tumours cured by chemotherapy there was a 26% late relapse rate between 5 and 10 years (all cured by orchidectomy) compared to less than 5% in those cured with established metastases.
  • In conclusion, testis conservation with chemotherapy is safe and feasible, though relapse is too frequent for routine service use.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma in Situ / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / drug therapy. Neoplasms, Second Primary. Testicular Neoplasms / drug therapy. Testis / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Bleomycin / administration & dosage. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Metastasis. Orchiectomy. Time Factors. Vinblastine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 12752243.001).
  • [ISSN] 0903-4641
  • [Journal-full-title] APMIS : acta pathologica, microbiologica, et immunologica Scandinavica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] APMIS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Meta-Analysis
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 5V9KLZ54CY / Vinblastine; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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5. Ramani VA, Grey BR, Addla SK, Dunham MP, Sangar VK, Clarke NW: Histological outcome of delayed orchidectomy after primary chemotherapy for metastatic germ cell tumour of the testis. Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol); 2008 Apr;20(3):247-52
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  • [Title] Histological outcome of delayed orchidectomy after primary chemotherapy for metastatic germ cell tumour of the testis.
  • AIMS: To identify the incidence of viable local tumour in the testis of patients undergoing delayed orchidectomy after initial presentation with advanced germ cell tumour (GCT) treated by primary chemotherapy.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Thirty-three patients presenting with advanced metastatic GCT were reviewed.
  • All received chemotherapy without previous orchidectomy.
  • The decision to initiate chemotherapy without orchidectomy was based on a heavy tumour load and the patient's condition at initial presentation.
  • A histological diagnosis was available from a biopsy of metastases in 23 patients; treatment in the remaining 10 patients was initiated after diagnosis based on a combination of elevated serum tumour markers, testicular findings and the presence of a retroperitoneal mass.
  • Bleomycin/etoposide/cisplatin-based chemotherapy was the principle regimen.
  • After initial chemotherapy, all patients with pure SGCT had only scar tissue in the orchidectomy specimen, with no residual tumour.
  • Nine of 17 patients (52.9%) with NSGCT had viable tumour remaining in the orchidectomy specimen.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Thirty-six per cent of patients had residual tumour locally in the testis after primary chemotherapy for metastatic GCT of the testis.
  • However, in the cases with pure seminomatous disease, there was no residual tumour present.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / drug therapy. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / surgery. Orchiectomy. Testicular Neoplasms / drug therapy. Testicular Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Bleomycin / administration & dosage. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Salvage Therapy. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18093814.001).
  • [ISSN] 0936-6555
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical oncology (Royal College of Radiologists (Great Britain))
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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6. Yucel M, Kabay S, Saracoglu U, Yalcinkaya S, Hatipoglu NK, Aras E: Burned-out testis tumour that metastasized to retroperitoneal lymph nodes: a case report. J Med Case Rep; 2009;3:7266

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  • [Title] Burned-out testis tumour that metastasized to retroperitoneal lymph nodes: a case report.
  • INTRODUCTION: Burned-out testicular tumour is a very rare clinical entity.
  • There is no clinical finding in the testicle, because it regresses spontaneously with no treatment, and generally presents with metastases.
  • Abdominal masses in young male patients may sometimes be caused by a metastatic burned-out testicular tumour.
  • We report a patient with a burned-out testicular tumour that metastasized to retroperitoneal lymph nodes.
  • A midabdominal mass, atrophy and minimal induration in the right testis were revealed on physical examination.
  • The final pathological diagnosis was concluded as "burned-out" testicular tumour.
  • Surgical treatment was followed by appropriate chemotherapy and in the follow-up, the abdominal mass was observed to regress.
  • CONCLUSION: For the detection of intratesticular lesions, especially in patients with extragonadal metastatic involvement and normal palpation findings for the testis, scrotal sonography is very important.
  • A burned-out testicular tumour should be considered and testis biopsies should be performed if there is any risk factor of malignancy.

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  • (PMID = 19830158.001).
  • [ISSN] 1752-1947
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medical case reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Case Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2726527
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7. Piccinin MR, Almeida JA Jr, Aydos RD, Nogueira DC, Silva RF: [Choroid metastasis of testicular primary site: case report]. Arq Bras Oftalmol; 2006 Nov-Dec;69(6):949-53
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  • [Title] [Choroid metastasis of testicular primary site: case report].
  • [Transliterated title] Metástases de coróide de origem testicular: relato de caso.
  • Description of a male patient case, 22 years old, presenting visual acuity decrease in the left eye associated with the diagnosis of metastatic testicular tumor to lung and kidney.
  • Evaluation of the evolution of a choroid lesion compatible with ocular metastasis of testis tumor through ophthalmologic and echographic examinations.
  • There was resolution of the intraocular lesion together with lung radiologic improvement after chemotherapy during approximately 4 months of follow-up.
  • In spite of the remission of the ocular lesion, the patient died due to complications of cerebral metastasis.
  • Approached in the literature as rare, no report was found of a case of choroidal metastasis of a testicular site, this being, perhaps, its first description.
  • [MeSH-major] Choroid Neoplasms / secondary. Seminoma / secondary. Testicular Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Male

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  • (PMID = 17273696.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-2749
  • [Journal-full-title] Arquivos brasileiros de oftalmologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arq Bras Oftalmol
  • [Language] por
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
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8. Oottamasathien S, Thomas JC, Adams MC, DeMarco RT, Brock JW 3rd, Pope JC 4th: Testicular tumours in children: a single-institutional experience. BJU Int; 2007 May;99(5):1123-6
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  • OBJECTIVE: To report our experience of testicular and paratesticular tumours in children, as such tumours are rare, and historically yolk sac tumour has been described as the most common lesion in children, but recent reports suggest that benign testicular lesions might be more common.
  • The patients' age, clinical presentation, diagnostic procedures, treatment methods, histopathological findings, and outcome were recorded.
  • Patients aged>144 months and those with non-primary metastatic lesions were excluded.
  • RESULTS: In all, 11 patients met our criteria, with a mean age of 37 months (range 9 days to 144 months).
  • Pathological analysis revealed teratoma in four patients, yolk sac tumour in two, epidermoid cysts in two, extrarenal nephroblastomatosis in one, and paratesticular rhabdomyosarcomas in two.
  • Depending on the clinical presentation and pathology, scrotal ultrasonography, tumour markers (alpha-fetoprotein and beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin), and/or staging computed tomography (CT) were obtained in eight patients.
  • Three patients had elevated tumour markers that normalized after orchidectomy.
  • Chemotherapy was administered to both patients with rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • As both malignant and paratesticular lesions occurred at a significant frequency, we would continue to advocate an initial radical inguinal approach at which time testis-sparing could be considered if the preoperative evaluation was favourable, and frozen-section analysis at the time of surgery confirms a benign lesion.
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Child. Child, Preschool. Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human / metabolism. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Retrospective Studies. Rhabdomyosarcoma / drug therapy. Rhabdomyosarcoma / surgery. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome. alpha-Fetoproteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17437431.001).
  • [ISSN] 1464-4096
  • [Journal-full-title] BJU international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BJU Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human; 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins
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9. Tröbs RB, Friedrich T, Lotz I, Bennek J: Wilms' tumour metastasis to the testis: long-term survival. Pediatr Surg Int; 2002 Sep;18(5-6):541-2
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  • [Title] Wilms' tumour metastasis to the testis: long-term survival.
  • We report the case of a 3-year-old boy with a Wilms' tumour of unfavourable histology with metastatic spread to the right testis.
  • Orchiectomy and chemotherapy led to disease-free survival for more than 8 years.
  • [MeSH-major] Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / secondary. Wilms Tumor / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child, Preschool. Disease-Free Survival. Humans. Male. Nephrectomy. Orchiectomy. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant

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  • (PMID = 12415406.001).
  • [ISSN] 0179-0358
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric surgery international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr. Surg. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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10. Badawi JK, Kittner T, Manseck A, Wirth MW: Intraluminal tumour thrombus of a mixed non-seminomatous germ cell tumour of testis within the inferior vena cava. Onkologie; 2005 Feb;28(2):98-100
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  • [Title] Intraluminal tumour thrombus of a mixed non-seminomatous germ cell tumour of testis within the inferior vena cava.
  • BACKGROUND: Intracaval tumour thrombus developed per continuitatem from a primary testicular tumour is rare.
  • CASE REPORT: A patient with metastatic mixed non-seminomatous germ cell tumour of the testis extending into the inferior vena cava (IVC) is presented.
  • Computed tomography revealed the tumour thrombus as filling defect in the IVC extending nearly to the right renal vein.
  • Combination chemotherapy led to regression of pulmonal metastases and the intraluminal tumour thrombus.
  • Histological examination revealed no vital tumour tissue.
  • CONCLUSION: In patients with testicular cancer information about pathological processes of the IVC is important for therapeutic management.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / therapy. Testicular Neoplasms / diagnosis. Testicular Neoplasms / therapy. Vascular Neoplasms / diagnosis. Vascular Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Humans. Lung Neoplasms / complications. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Male. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Treatment Outcome. Vena Cava, Inferior / pathology. Vena Cava, Inferior / radiography. Vena Cava, Inferior / surgery

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  • (PMID = 15665558.001).
  • [ISSN] 0378-584X
  • [Journal-full-title] Onkologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Onkologie
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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11. Schmoll HJ, Souchon R, Krege S, Albers P, Beyer J, Kollmannsberger C, Fossa SD, Skakkebaek NE, de Wit R, Fizazi K, Droz JP, Pizzocaro G, Daugaard G, de Mulder PH, Horwich A, Oliver T, Huddart R, Rosti G, Paz Ares L, Pont O, Hartmann JT, Aass N, Algaba F, Bamberg M, Bodrogi I, Bokemeyer C, Classen J, Clemm S, Culine S, de Wit M, Derigs HG, Dieckmann KP, Flasshove M, Garcia del Muro X, Gerl A, Germa-Lluch JR, Hartmann M, Heidenreich A, Hoeltl W, Joffe J, Jones W, Kaiser G, Klepp O, Kliesch S, Kisbenedek L, Koehrmann KU, Kuczyk M, Laguna MP, Leiva O, Loy V, Mason MD, Mead GM, Mueller RP, Nicolai N, Oosterhof GO, Pottek T, Rick O, Schmidberger H, Sedlmayer F, Siegert W, Studer U, Tjulandin S, von der Maase H, Walz P, Weinknecht S, Weissbach L, Winter E, Wittekind C, European Germ Cell Cancer Consensus Group: European consensus on diagnosis and treatment of germ cell cancer: a report of the European Germ Cell Cancer Consensus Group (EGCCCG). Ann Oncol; 2004 Sep;15(9):1377-99
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  • [Title] European consensus on diagnosis and treatment of germ cell cancer: a report of the European Germ Cell Cancer Consensus Group (EGCCCG).
  • Germ cell tumour is the most frequent malignant tumour type in young men with a 100% rise in the incidence every 20 years.
  • Despite this, the high sensitivity of germ cell tumours to platinum-based chemotherapy, together with radiation and surgical measures, leads to the high cure rate of > or = 99% in early stages and 90%, 75-80% and 50% in advanced disease with 'good', 'intermediate' and 'poor' prognostic criteria (IGCCCG classification), respectively.
  • The high cure rate in patients with limited metastatic disease allows the reduction of overall treatment load, and therefore less acute and long-term toxicity, e.g. organ sparing surgery for specific cases, reduced dose and treatment volume of irradiation or substitution of node dissection by surveillance or adjuvant chemotherapy according to the presence or absence of vascular invasion.
  • Thus, different treatment options according to prognostic factors including histology, stage and patient factors and possibilities of the treating centre as well may be used to define the treatment strategy which is definitively chosen for an individual patient.
  • However, this strategy of reduction of treatment load as well as the treatment itself require very high expertise of the treating physician with careful management and follow-up and thorough cooperation by the patient as well to maintain the high rate for cure.
  • Treatment decisions must be based on the available evidence which has been the basis for this consensus guideline delivering a clear proposal for diagnostic and treatment measures in each stage of gonadal and extragonadal germ cell tumour and individual clinical situations.

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  • [CommentIn] Ann Oncol. 2005 Jan;16(1):172-3 [15598959.001]
  • (PMID = 15319245.001).
  • [ISSN] 0923-7534
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Consensus Development Conference; Guideline; Journal Article; Practice Guideline; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 244
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12. Heidenreich A, Bokemeyer C, Souchon R: [Stage-specific treatment for testicular germ cell tumours]. Urologe A; 2009 Apr;48(4):377-85
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  • [Title] [Stage-specific treatment for testicular germ cell tumours].
  • [Transliterated title] Stadienspezifische Therapie testikulärer Keimzelltumoren.
  • Testicular germ cell tumours (GCT) represent the most common solid neoplasm of young men aged 20-40 years with an increasing incidence in Western countries during the last 50 years.
  • It is mandatory for all physicians involved in the primary care of testis cancer patients to adhere to the guidelines of stage-specific treatment in order not to impair the high cure rate of about 90% and to prevent long-term toxicities due to inadequate therapy.Risk-adapted therapeutic options in stage I seminoma include active surveillance, retroperitoneal radiation therapy (RT) with 20 Gy or carboplatinum monotherapy depending on the presence of the risk factors tumour size > 4 cm and rete testis invasion.
  • Retroperitoneal RT represents the standard therapeutic approach in stage IIA seminoma, whereas RT and PEB chemotherapy are alternative treatment options in stage IIB tumours.
  • Primary chemotherapy with 3-4 cycles PEB according to the IGCCCG criteria is the treatment of choice in metastatic seminomas >/= stage IIC.
  • In clinical stage I NSGCT active surveillance is the treatment of choice in low-risk patients, and primary chemotherapy with 1-2 cycles PEB is the preferred treatment for high-risk patients.Treatment of metastatic GCT is performed with 3-4 cycles PEB chemotherapy and postchemotherapy retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (PC-RPLND) in cases of residual disease according to the IGCCCG risk classification.
  • PC-RPLND, primary treatment of patients with intermediate and poor prognosis and salvage therapy should be performed in tertiary referral centres only.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / pathology. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / therapy. Orchiectomy / methods. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy / standards. Germany. Humans. Male. Medical Oncology / standards. Neoplasm Staging. Practice Guidelines as Topic. Urology / standards

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  • (PMID = 19252891.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-0563
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Urologe. Ausg. A
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urologe A
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 55
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13. Lo Curto M, D'Angelo P, Cecchetto G, Klersy C, Dall'Igna P, Federico A, Siracusa F, Alaggio R, Bernini G, Conte M, De Laurentis T, Di Cataldo A, Inserra A, Santoro N, Tamaro P, Indolfi P: Mature and immature teratomas: results of the first paediatric Italian study. Pediatr Surg Int; 2007 Apr;23(4):315-22
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  • Teratoma is the most common germ cell tumour in childhood; mature (MT) and immature teratomas (IT) are benign tumours, but if they recur, they can be in some cases malignant.
  • The aim of this paper is to evaluate Italian patients with MT and IT enrolled from 1991 to 2001, in a prospective multicentric study.
  • Clinical data, treatment and results were all analysed.
  • Initial evaluation and subsequent follow up included clinical examination, tumour markers and imaging procedures.
  • Chemotherapy (CT) with Vinblastine, D: -actinomycin and cyclophosphamide was indicated for extra-testicular IT grade 2 or 3.
  • MT was diagnosed in 127 patients (93 F and 34 M, age 1-192 months, median 24): 58 patients had gonadic tumour (23 testicular, 35 ovaric), 69 extragonadic (45 sacrococcygeal, 11 mediastinic, 7 retroperitoneal, 6 in other sites).
  • The T grading was 1 in 14 cases, 2 in 26, 3 in 16; 28 had gonadic T (17 ovary, 11 testis), 28 extragonadic (sacrococcygeal 19, mediastinic 3, retroperitoneal 2, other sites 4).
  • CT was administered in eight patients; 15/182 patients relapsed (1 in a metastatic site) and in 5/15 the relapse showed malignant histology.
  • Seven MT (5.5%) relapsed (five sacrococcygeal, one retroperitoneal, one mediastinic): surgery at diagnosis had been complete in five and with residual in two; the relapse was malignant in two patients with sacrococcygeal (sc) tumours, who had a complete resection and a partial resection respectively.
  • A malignant recurrence occurred in two patients with sc tumours (after partial resection in one and after biopsy + CT in one) and in one patient with ovarian IT after a partial resection.
  • All the patients underwent surgical excision of the recurred mass; CT according to Protocol for Malignant GCT was administered to those who had malignant recurrence; 122/126 patients with MT and 53/56 with IT are alive without disease with a follow up of 8-144 months (median 56).
  • Two patients with malignant relapse (one with sc MT, one with sc IT) died because of the progression of the disease.
  • At Cox analysis no significant difference in EFS was found regarding age and site of the primary tumour, while females (P = 0.011), patients with grade 1-3 histology (P = 0.025) and patients with incomplete resection appeared at higher risk of death or relapse (P < 0.001), with a seven, three and eightfold increase in risk, respectively.
  • The number of patients treated with CT is not sufficient to evaluate the efficacy of CT in avoiding malignant relapse.
  • [MeSH-minor] Age Distribution. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Incidence. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Italy / epidemiology. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Prospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 17333214.001).
  • [ISSN] 0179-0358
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric surgery international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr. Surg. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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14. di Pietro A, Vries EG, Gietema JA, Spierings DC, de Jong S: Testicular germ cell tumours: the paradigm of chemo-sensitive solid tumours. Int J Biochem Cell Biol; 2005 Dec;37(12):2437-56
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  • Testicular germ cell tumours (TGCTs) are the most frequent solid malignant tumour in men 20-40 years of age and the most frequent cause of death from solid tumours in this age group.
  • Up to 50% of the patients suffer from metastatic disease at diagnosis.
  • The majority of metastatic testicular cancer patients, in contrast to most other metastatic solid tumours, can be cured with highly effective cisplatin-based chemotherapy.
  • From a genetic point of view, almost all TGCTs in contrast to solid tumours are characterised by the presence of wild type p53.
  • After cisplatin-induced DNA damage, the increasing levels of p53 lead to the trans-activation of a number of genes but not of p21(Waf1/Cip1), preferentially directing TGCT cells into apoptosis or programmed cell death, both via the mitochondrial and the death receptor apoptosis pathways.
  • The sensitivity of TGCTs to chemotherapeutic drugs may lay in the susceptibility of germ cells to apoptosis.
  • Taken together, this provides TGCT as a tumour type model to investigate and understand the molecular determinants of chemotherapy sensitivity of solid tumours.
  • This review aims to summarise the current knowledge on the biological basis of cisplatin-induced apoptosis and response to chemotherapy in TGCTs.
  • [MeSH-major] Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Germinoma / drug therapy. Testicular Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Animals. Apoptosis. Carcinoma in Situ / physiopathology. Cell Cycle / physiology. Cell Line, Tumor. DNA-Binding Proteins / physiology. Genes, Neoplasm. Genes, Tumor Suppressor / physiology. Humans. Male. Membrane Proteins / physiology. Mice. Nuclear Proteins / physiology. Testis / cytology. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Proteins

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  • (PMID = 16099193.001).
  • [ISSN] 1357-2725
  • [Journal-full-title] The international journal of biochemistry & cell biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CKAP4 protein, human; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 0 / tumor suppressor protein p73; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
  • [Number-of-references] 202
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15. Gori S, Porrozzi S, Roila F, Gatta G, De Giorgi U, Marangolo M: Germ cell tumours of the testis. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol; 2005 Feb;53(2):141-64
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  • [Title] Germ cell tumours of the testis.
  • Cancer of the testis is a relatively rare disease, accounting for about 1% of all cancers in men.
  • Cryptorchidism is the only confirmed risk factor for testicular germ cell tumour.
  • Any nodular, hard, or fixed area discovered in the testis, must be considered neoplastic until proved otherwise.
  • The appropriate surgical procedure to make the diagnosis is a radical orchidectomy through an inguinal incision.
  • Many GCT produce tumoural markers (AFP, HCG, LDH), who are useful in the diagnosis and staging of disease; to monitor the therapeutic response and to detect tumour recurrence.
  • In 1997 a prognostic factor-based classification for the metastatic germ cell tumours was developed by the IGCCCG: good, intermediate and poor prognosis, with 5-year survival of 91, 79 and 48%, respectively.
  • GCT of the testis is a highly table, often curable, cancer.
  • Germ cell testicular cancers are divided into seminoma and non-seminoma types for treatment planning because seminomatous testicular cancers are more sensitive to radiotherapy.
  • For patients with non-seminoma tumours, the cure rate is >95% in stages I and II; it is approximately 70% with standard chemotherapy and resection of residual disease, if necessary, in stages III and IV.

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  • (PMID = 15661565.001).
  • [ISSN] 1040-8428
  • [Journal-full-title] Critical reviews in oncology/hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Crit. Rev. Oncol. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Number-of-references] 189
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16. Thijssens K, Vaneerdeweg W, Schrijvers D, Eyskens E, Van Oosterom A: Retroperitoneal lymph node dissection as adjuvant therapy in the treatment of non-seminomatous testicular cancer. Acta Chir Belg; 2003 Nov-Dec;103(6):599-602
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  • [Title] Retroperitoneal lymph node dissection as adjuvant therapy in the treatment of non-seminomatous testicular cancer.
  • OBJECTIVE: To assess the results of retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND) of residual masses in patients with disseminated non-seminomatous germ cell tumour treated with cisplatin-based chemotherapy, both in terms of extension of surgery, morbidity and survival.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Retrospectively, all patients treated for non-seminomatous germ cell tumour at the University Hospital of Antwerp were studied from January 1987 till December 1997.
  • In patients with non-seminomatous testicular cancer more than stage I, the 'wait and see' strategy changed and patients were treated with chemotherapy.
  • Patients were assessed at the end of chemotherapy and if a residual masses persisted, a RPLND was performed.
  • RESULTS: Sixty patients had a non-seminomatous germ cell tumor of the testis and were analysed.
  • Forty-seven patients were treated with cisplatin-based chemotherapy.
  • A complete response was observed in sixteen patients (34%), while 31 patients (66%) achieved a partial response and were treated with a RPLND.
  • In two patients malignant cells or fibrotic tissue were found above the renal trunk and bilateral.
  • In five patients viable tumour cells were found in the region below the renal trunk.
  • Sixteen patients underwent RPLND below the level of the renal trunk, of which nine had a unilateral resection, containing viable tumour in two patients.
  • One patient died six months after RPLND due to metastatic disease.
  • The survival of the patients treated with a RPLND was 97% and in the whole group of patients with a non-seminomatous testicular cancer 98%.
  • CONCLUSION: RPLND has a place in the treatment of patients with non-seminomatous testicular cancer after chemotherapy in case of residual masses.
  • In a limited number of patients there was a need of resection of adherent organs when a resection above the renal trunk was performed.
  • [MeSH-major] Germinoma / secondary. Germinoma / surgery. Lymph Node Excision. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Belgium. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cohort Studies. Disease-Free Survival. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymph Nodes / surgery. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Risk Assessment. Sensitivity and Specificity. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 14743567.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5458
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta chirurgica Belgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Chir. Belg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Belgium
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17. Sarkar S, Kundu AK, Chakrabarti S: Lungs: victim of synchronous double malignancies. J Assoc Physicians India; 2007 Mar;55:235-7
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  • A lump in his left testis was detected during clinical examination.
  • Both FNAC and excisional biopsy of the testicular mass confirmed the diagnosis of immature teratoma with choriocarcinoma, a form of non-seminomatous germ cell tumour (NSGCT).
  • With chemotherapy all metastatic lesions of lung and SVC syndrome disappeared, and the tumour-marker levels decreased.
  • However, the opacity in RUZ progessed to involve right recurrent laryngeal nerve at thoracic inlet, metastasized to the brain, and the patient expired after 4th cycle of chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Humans. Male. Paraneoplastic Syndromes / etiology. Superior Vena Cava Syndrome / etiology

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  • (PMID = 17598338.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-5772
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Assoc Physicians India
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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18. Pectasides D, Glotsos J, Bountouroglou NG, Dadioti PA, Athanassiou AE: Primary carcinoid of the testis with metastases. Case report and review of the literature. J BUON; 2002 Apr-Jun;7(2):153-6

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  • [Title] Primary carcinoid of the testis with metastases. Case report and review of the literature.
  • Primary carcinoid of the testis is an extremely rare neoplasm, making up 0.23% of all testicular neoplasms.
  • Approximately 10% of these tumors will develop metastases.
  • We present a case of a 50-year-old man with a primary testicular carcinoid who developed lymph node and lung metastases 4 months after left inguinal orchidectomy.
  • Vigorous efforts were done postoperatively to exclude the possibility of carcinoid tumor metastatic to the testis.
  • Our patient achieved a mixed response (lung metastases: complete response, lymph node metastases: partial response) with combined therapy that included chemotherapy (cisplatin, etoposide, ifosfamide, epirubicin), octreotide and radiotherapy to the metastatic lymph nodes.
  • We herein review the literature and discuss all the possibilities to explain the origin of carcinoid tumors of the testis.

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  • (PMID = 17577281.001).
  • [ISSN] 1107-0625
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of B.U.ON. : official journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J BUON
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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19. Usanova S, Piée-Staffa A, Sied U, Thomale J, Schneider A, Kaina B, Köberle B: Cisplatin sensitivity of testis tumour cells is due to deficiency in interstrand-crosslink repair and low ERCC1-XPF expression. Mol Cancer; 2010;9:248
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  • [Title] Cisplatin sensitivity of testis tumour cells is due to deficiency in interstrand-crosslink repair and low ERCC1-XPF expression.
  • BACKGROUND: Cisplatin based chemotherapy cures over 80% of metastatic testicular germ cell tumours (TGCT).
  • Earlier findings suggested that a reduced repair capacity might contribute to the cisplatin hypersensitivity of testis tumour cells (TTC), but the critical DNA damage has not been defined.
  • CONCLUSION: Our data indicate for the first time that the exceptional sensitivity of TTC and, therefore, very likely the curability of TGCT rests on their limited ICL repair due to low level of expression of ERCC1-XPF.
  • [MeSH-major] Cisplatin / therapeutic use. DNA Repair / genetics. DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Endonucleases / metabolism. Testicular Neoplasms / drug therapy. Testicular Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Apoptosis / genetics. Apoptosis / physiology. CHO Cells. Cell Line, Tumor. Checkpoint Kinase 2. Cricetinae. Cricetulus. Flow Cytometry. Humans. Immunoblotting. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Phosphorylation / drug effects. Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases / genetics. Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases / metabolism. Protein Kinases / genetics. Protein Kinases / metabolism. Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases / genetics. Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases / metabolism. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / drug therapy. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20846399.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-4598
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / xeroderma pigmentosum group F protein; EC 2.4.2.30 / PARP1 protein, human; EC 2.4.2.30 / Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases; EC 2.7.- / Protein Kinases; EC 2.7.1.11 / Checkpoint Kinase 2; EC 2.7.11.1 / CHEK2 protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Checkpoint kinase 1; EC 2.7.11.1 / Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases; EC 3.1.- / ERCC1 protein, human; EC 3.1.- / Endonucleases; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3098011
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20. Bhutani M, Kumar L, Seth A, Thulkar S, Vijayaraghavan M, Kochupillai V: Germ cell tumours of the testis: clinical features, treatment outcome and prognostic factors. Natl Med J India; 2002 Jan-Feb;15(1):18-21
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  • [Title] Germ cell tumours of the testis: clinical features, treatment outcome and prognostic factors.
  • BACKGROUND: The prognosis of patients with germ cell tumours of the testis has Improved over the past two decades following cisplatinum-based chemotherapy.
  • Currently, staging and risk assessment of the disease is crucial in order to provide curative therapy for patients with poor risk features and not over-treat good risk patients.
  • Their clinical characteristics, staging, treatment outcome and prognostic factors for response and survival were analysed.
  • Sixty-one patients (86%) had a primary testicular tumour while in 10 (14%) the tumour was extragonadal.
  • Twenty-seven patients (62%) had evidence of metastatic disease at the time of diagnosis.
  • On prognostication, non-seminomatous germ cell tumour patients could be divded into good, intemediate and poor prognostic groups comprising 41%, 17% and 40% of patients, respectively.
  • All patients with a seminoma were in the good prognostic subgroup.
  • At a median follow up of 26 months, the 2-year overall and progression-free survival for all patients was 70% and 57%, respectively.
  • Tailoring of chemotherapy In good risk patients to minimize toxicity and Improving results in poor risk patients are areas that need further work.

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  • [CommentIn] Natl Med J India. 2002 Jan-Feb;15(1):4-6 [11859860.001]
  • (PMID = 11855586.001).
  • [ISSN] 0970-258X
  • [Journal-full-title] The National medical journal of India
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Natl Med J India
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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21. Casey RG, Aktar M, Hegarty P, Butler M, Thornhill JA: A prospective 10 year audit of a single Irish centre's experience of retroperitoneal lymph node dissection for metastatic testis cancer. Surgeon; 2008 Oct;6(5):294-6
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  • [Title] A prospective 10 year audit of a single Irish centre's experience of retroperitoneal lymph node dissection for metastatic testis cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Retro-peritoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND) following chemotherapy is critical in advanced germ cell tumours with residual retro-peritoneal masses.
  • Post-chemotherapy RPLND is more extensive, may require adjacent organ resection and has higher morbidity.
  • METHODS: An RPLND database (1994-2005) was analysed prospectively for demographics, pre/post-RPLND staging, chemotherapy regimen, cure, follow-up and early/late morbidity and mortality.
  • Seventy-one patients received cisplatin-based chemotherapy with partial response (49), minimal response (14), no response (7), disease progression (3) and 13 patients required salvage chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The decision to perform post-chemotherapy RPLND depends on the possibility of viable tumour or teratoma and surgical morbidity.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Disease Progression. Humans. Ireland. Length of Stay / statistics & numerical data. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Male. Medical Audit. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prospective Studies. Retroperitoneal Space / pathology. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18939377.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-666X
  • [Journal-full-title] The surgeon : journal of the Royal Colleges of Surgeons of Edinburgh and Ireland
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surgeon
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
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22. Huddart RA, O'Doherty MJ, Padhani A, Rustin GJ, Mead GM, Joffe JK, Vasey P, Harland SJ, Logue J, Daugaard G, Hain SF, Kirk SJ, MacKewn JE, Stenning SP, NCRI Testis Tumour Clinical Study Group: 18fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in the prediction of relapse in patients with high-risk, clinical stage I nonseminomatous germ cell tumors: preliminary report of MRC Trial TE22--the NCRI Testis Tumour Clinical Study Group. J Clin Oncol; 2007 Jul 20;25(21):3090-5
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  • [Title] 18fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in the prediction of relapse in patients with high-risk, clinical stage I nonseminomatous germ cell tumors: preliminary report of MRC Trial TE22--the NCRI Testis Tumour Clinical Study Group.
  • PURPOSE: There are several management options for patients with clinical stage I (CS1) nonseminomatous germ cell tumors (NSGCT); this study examined whether an 18fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18FDG PET) scan could identify patients without occult metastatic disease for whom surveillance is an attractive option.
  • The primary outcome measure was the 2-year relapse-free rate (RFR) in patients with a negative PET scan (the negative predictive value).
  • Of 116 registered patients, 111 underwent PET scans, and 88 (79%) were PET-negative (61% of preorchidectomy marker-negative patients v 88% of marker-positive patients; P = .002); 87 proceeded to surveillance, and one requested adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • With a median follow-up of 12 months, 33 of 87 patients on surveillance relapsed (1-year RFR, 63%; 90% CI, 54% to 72%).
  • CONCLUSION: Though PET identified some patients with disease not detected by computed tomography scan, the relapse rate among PET negative patients remains high.
  • [MeSH-major] Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Germinoma / diagnostic imaging. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnostic imaging. Positron-Emission Tomography. Testicular Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Testicular Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Biopsy, Needle. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Orchiectomy / methods. Predictive Value of Tests. Prognosis. Risk Assessment. Salvage Therapy. Sensitivity and Specificity. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 17634488.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / MC/ U122861331
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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23. Autorino R, Lamendola MG, De Sio M, Di Trolio RA, Ferraraccio F, Di Lorenzo G: A complete response with rituximab in metastatic diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the testis: case report. Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol; 2007 Apr-Jun;20(2):401-3
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  • [Title] A complete response with rituximab in metastatic diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the testis: case report.
  • Primary testicular lymphoma is an uncommon testicular tumour.
  • We present a case of a primary non-Hodgkin lymphoma of the testis, describing its clinical and pathological features and discussing our treatment strategy.
  • Light microscopy demonstrated the classic appearance of a diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.
  • The immunohistochemical study showed tumour cells intensively positive for CD45, Ki67 and CD20.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / pharmacology. Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Lymphoma, B-Cell / drug therapy. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / drug therapy. Testicular Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 17624254.001).
  • [ISSN] 0394-6320
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of immunopathology and pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 4F4X42SYQ6 / Rituximab
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24. Barton SJ, Ashdown DA, Ganta S, Wallace D: An unusual presentation of metastatic testicular tumour. J R Army Med Corps; 2005 Mar;151(1):30-3
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  • [Title] An unusual presentation of metastatic testicular tumour.
  • We report a unique case of metastatic malignant teratoma from an undescended testis which presented with acute pulmonary embolism.
  • After chemotherapy, the undescended right testicle was resected along with a cord of non- obstructing inferior venal caval tumour which extended into the right atrium with tumour floating free within the atrium at the end of the cord of tumour.
  • The presentation, diagnosis and treatment of testicular tumours is described and the literature pertaining to testicular tumours in military personnel reviewed.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Liver Neoplasms / therapy. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / therapy. Male. Military Personnel. Neoplastic Cells, Circulating. Vascular Neoplasms / diagnosis. Vascular Neoplasms / secondary. Vascular Neoplasms / surgery. Vena Cava, Inferior / pathology. Venous Thrombosis / diagnosis. Venous Thrombosis / surgery

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  • (PMID = 15912681.001).
  • [ISSN] 0035-8665
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J R Army Med Corps
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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25. Fabre E, Jira H, Izard V, Ferlicot S, Hammoudi Y, Theodore C, Di Palma M, Benoit G, Droupy S: 'Burned-out' primary testicular cancer. BJU Int; 2004 Jul;94(1):74-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • OBJECTIVE: To report the natural history of 'burned-out' testicular tumour (a testicular tumour that has regressed spontaneously with no treatment and that generally presents at the stage of metastases).
  • RESULTS: The findings in the five patients tended to indicate that metastatic progression appears to induce spontaneous regression of the previous tumour site.
  • Patients explored for extragonadal germ cell tumour present with various clinical features depending on the site of the metastases.
  • CONCLUSION: Despite the controversial hypotheses of the origin of these tumours, extragonadal germ cell tumours should be considered to be metastases of a 'burned-out' primary testicular tumour that must be investigated.
  • When a primary testicular tumour is detected, the testis must be removed, and standard chemotherapy yields good long-term results.
  • The hypothesis of an immunological reaction against the tumour inducing the spontaneous necrosis of the primary tumour and possibly the metastases should be considered.
  • Immunological screening should be proposed in patients to investigate this interesting model of spontaneous tumour regression.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasm Regression, Spontaneous. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / pathology. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology. Testis / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Biopsy / methods. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / pathology. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / radiography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 15217435.001).
  • [ISSN] 1464-4096
  • [Journal-full-title] BJU international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BJU Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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26. Karapetis CS, Strickland AH, Yip D, van der Walt JD, Harper PG: PET and PLAP in suspected testicular cancer relapse: beware sarcoidosis. Ann Oncol; 2001 Oct;12(10):1485-8
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  • A 31-year-old man previously treated with chemotherapy for metastatic testicular cancer presented with new mediastinal lymphadenopathy and peripheral lung opacities.
  • Serum tumour markers were not elevated and a PET (positron emission tomography) scan revealed increased FDG (fluoro-deoxyglucose) uptake in the lungs and mediastinum consistent with testis cancer relapse.
  • A biopsy of a mediastinal lymph node was performed and the pathology was that of sarcoidosis.
  • This immunohistochemical profile raised concerns that the observed pathology represented a sarcoid reaction to micro-metastatic testicular cancer relapse.






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