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1. Takahashi T, Hatao K, Yamashita Y, Tanizawa Y: Ectopic ACTH syndrome due to thymic atypical carcinoid treated with combination chemotherapy of cisplatin and etoposide. Intern Med; 2003 Dec;42(12):1197-201
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  • [Title] Ectopic ACTH syndrome due to thymic atypical carcinoid treated with combination chemotherapy of cisplatin and etoposide.
  • A 21-year-old woman with Cushing's syndrome presented with a mediastinal tumor.
  • Ectopic ACTH syndrome was diagnosed and the tumor was resected.
  • The histopathological diagnosis was thymic atypical carcinoid.
  • Despite all tumor lesions having been resected, the tumor relapsed and multiple metastatic lesions grew aggressively.
  • Combination chemotherapy with cisplatin and etoposide (VP16) was administered to control tumor progression, and achieved marked therapeutic effects.
  • Maintenance chemotherapy with carboplatin and VP16 achieved long-term tumor control.
  • This case indicates that some patients with atypical carcinoid tumor are good responders to chemotherapy with platinum agents and VP16.
  • [MeSH-major] ACTH Syndrome, Ectopic / etiology. Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoid Tumor / drug therapy. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Thymus Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 14714958.001).
  • [ISSN] 0918-2918
  • [Journal-full-title] Internal medicine (Tokyo, Japan)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Intern. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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2. Rodrigues TA, Quintela AG, Luz RM, López D: [Thyroid carcinoma with thymus-like differentiation (CASTLE): case report and review of the literature]. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol; 2008 Apr;52(3):550-5
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  • [Title] [Thyroid carcinoma with thymus-like differentiation (CASTLE): case report and review of the literature].
  • [Transliterated title] Carcinoma da tireóide com diferenciação semelhante a timo (CASTLE): relato de caso e revisão da literatura.
  • Carcinoma with thymus-like differentiation (CASTLE) is a rare malignant epithelial tumor which arises on soft tissue of the neck or thyroid gland.
  • It is important to differentiate CASTLE from primary or metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of head and neck, and from squamous cell thyroid carcinoma, because it has a different prognosis.
  • CD5 immunoreactivity might be helpful in CASTLE diagnosis.
  • Treatment includes surgical excision and radiotherapy.
  • Chemotherapy can be offered, although its efficacy is not clear.
  • After radiotherapy and chemotherapy, minimal response was obtained.
  • The authors intend to discuss the differential pathologic diagnosis and the best therapy of this indolent but recurrent neoplasm, that demands strict long term follow-up.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / pathology. Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Thymus Gland / pathology. Thymus Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / pathology. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18506281.001).
  • [ISSN] 1677-9487
  • [Journal-full-title] Arquivos brasileiros de endocrinologia e metabologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol
  • [Language] por
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Number-of-references] 20
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3. Bisagni G, Rossi G, Cavazza A, Sartori G, Gardini G, Boni C: Long lasting response to the multikinase inhibitor bay 43-9006 (Sorafenib) in a heavily pretreated metastatic thymic carcinoma. J Thorac Oncol; 2009 Jun;4(6):773-5
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  • [Title] Long lasting response to the multikinase inhibitor bay 43-9006 (Sorafenib) in a heavily pretreated metastatic thymic carcinoma.
  • Metastatic thymic carcinoma is an aggressive neoplasm for which multimodal therapies are often ineffective.
  • Of note, a hitherto unreported c-kit missense mutation on exon 17 (D820E) identified in tumor cells seems to explain the clinical response and highlight the key role of molecular analysis in predicting efficacy of targeted therapies even in thymic neoplasms.
  • [MeSH-major] Benzenesulfonates / therapeutic use. Protein Kinase Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Pyridines / therapeutic use. Thymoma / drug therapy. Thymus Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 19461405.001).
  • [ISSN] 1556-1380
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of thoracic oncology : official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Thorac Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Benzenesulfonates; 0 / Phenylurea Compounds; 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors; 0 / Pyridines; 25X51I8RD4 / Niacinamide; 9ZOQ3TZI87 / sorafenib; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor
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4. Kimura Y, Okuda H: Resveratrol isolated from Polygonum cuspidatum root prevents tumor growth and metastasis to lung and tumor-induced neovascularization in Lewis lung carcinoma-bearing mice. J Nutr; 2001 Jun;131(6):1844-9
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  • [Title] Resveratrol isolated from Polygonum cuspidatum root prevents tumor growth and metastasis to lung and tumor-induced neovascularization in Lewis lung carcinoma-bearing mice.
  • We found that resveratrol, at doses of 2.5 and 10 mg/kg, significantly reduced the tumor volume (42%), tumor weight (44%) and metastasis to the lung (56%) in mice bearing highly metastatic Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) tumors, but not at a dose of 0.6 mg/kg.
  • Therefore, the inhibitory effects of resveratrol on tumor growth and lung metastasis could not be explained by natural killer or cytotoxic T-lymphocyte activation.
  • Resveratrol inhibited tumor-induced neovascularization at doses of 2.5 and 10 mg/kg in an in vivo model.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiogenesis Inhibitors / pharmacology. Anticarcinogenic Agents / pharmacology. Carcinoma, Lewis Lung / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Polygonaceae / chemistry. Stilbenes / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Apoptosis. Body Weight. CD4-CD8 Ratio. Cell Cycle. DNA / biosynthesis. Disease Models, Animal. Female. Mice. Mice, Inbred C57BL. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neovascularization, Pathologic / prevention & control. Organ Size. Spleen / immunology. Spleen / pathology. Thymus Gland / pathology. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 11385077.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3166
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of nutrition
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Nutr.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Anticarcinogenic Agents; 0 / Stilbenes; 9007-49-2 / DNA; Q369O8926L / resveratrol
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5. Kaira K, Watanabe R, Takise A, Endou K, Kamiyoshihara M, Mori M: [Thymic cancer effectively treated by combination chemotherapy of carboplatin and etoposide with concurrent radiotherapy]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2005 Nov;32(12):1989-92
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  • [Title] [Thymic cancer effectively treated by combination chemotherapy of carboplatin and etoposide with concurrent radiotherapy].
  • The patient was treated by combination chemotherapy of carboplatin and etoposide with concurrent radiotherapy (44 Gy).
  • After 3 courses of chemotherapy, the mass showed an approximately 81% reduction in tumor size and disappearance of the pericardial effusion.
  • Finally, the thymic cancer and small pulmonary metastatic lesions were all resected.
  • This concurrent chemoradiotherapy can be effective against inoperable squamous cell carcinoma of the thymus.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Thymus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Thymus Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Drug Administration Schedule. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Humans. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / surgery. Male. Middle Aged. Thymectomy

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  • (PMID = 16282742.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin
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6. Gripp S, Bölke E, Orth K: [Thymoma]. Wien Klin Wochenschr; 2005 Sep;117(18):620-7
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  • Thymoma is a rare epithelial tumor of the thymus, but the most common malignancy in the anterior mediastinum.
  • According to the WHO classification 6 histologic types of thymic epithelial tumors can be discriminated.
  • Tumor stage according to MASAOKA is the most important prognostic factor.
  • Non-invasive tumors (stage I) are usually completely resected and no further therapy is warranted.
  • For incompletely resected tumors and locally advanced invasive thymomas (stage Ill-IV) postoperative radiotherapy with 50-60 Gy is advisable.
  • Chemotherapy, preferably with Cisplatinum, is indicated with inoperable thymomas or metastatic disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Drug Therapy / methods. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control. Radiotherapy / methods. Thymoma / diagnosis. Thymoma / therapy. Thymus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thymus Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 16416343.001).
  • [ISSN] 0043-5325
  • [Journal-full-title] Wiener klinische Wochenschrift
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Wien. Klin. Wochenschr.
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Austria
  • [Number-of-references] 99
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7. Zhi XY, Liu BD, Xu QS, Zhang Y, Su L, Wang RT, Hu M, Liu L: [Surgical treatment of primary thymoma]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi; 2007 Feb 13;87(7):458-60
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  • [Title] [Surgical treatment of primary thymoma].
  • OBJECTIVE: To summarize the clinical and pathologic features of thymoma and assess surgical treatment thereof.
  • METHODS: The clinical data of 66 thymoma patients, 35 males and 31 females, aged 40.8 (30 approximately 59), who underwent surgical treatment in the past 20 years, were analyzed.
  • Fourteen of the 66 patients underwent radical resection, resection of the whole thymus and thymoma, 40 underwent simple resection of thymus, 5 underwent palliative resection of thymoma, and 6 underwent thymectomy exploration.
  • Recurrence of tumor was observed in 4 patients.
  • Postoperative radiotherapy and chemotherapy were performed 24 h after the operation, mainly in the cases of invasive or metastatic thymoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Resection and postoperative radiotherapy or chemotherapy are necessary in treatment of thymoma, particularly complete thymectomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Thymectomy / methods. Thymoma / surgery. Thymus Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Drug Therapy. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Postoperative Care / methods. Radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 17459222.001).
  • [ISSN] 0376-2491
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua yi xue za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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8. Stefanou D, Goussia AC, Arkoumani E, Metafratzi ZM, Syminelakis S, Arkoumani E, Agnantis NJ: Mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the thymus: a case presentation and a literature review. Pathol Res Pract; 2004;200(7-8):567-73
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  • [Title] Mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the thymus: a case presentation and a literature review.
  • Mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the thymus is an unusual, but well-recognized variant of thymic malignant tumors.
  • Histologic examination of the surgically resected mass showed features of a mucoepidermoid carcinoma with associated infiltration of the pleural tissue.
  • Postoperative radiotherapy and chemotherapy were performed, and the patient died two months after initial diagnosis.
  • In case of the absence of metastatic disease or other common primary neoplasms of the thymus, the diagnosis of a mucoepidermoid thymic carcinoma should be taken into consideration, although this tumor is rare.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Mucoepidermoid / pathology. Thymus Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Pleura / pathology. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 15462505.001).
  • [ISSN] 0344-0338
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology, research and practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Res. Pract.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 11
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9. Weissberg D, Cohen AJ, Hayat H, Schachner A: Malignant thymoma invading pulmonary artery. Changing treatment options. Ann Ital Chir; 2002 Mar-Apr;73(2):119-22; discussion 122-3
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  • [Title] Malignant thymoma invading pulmonary artery. Changing treatment options.
  • BACKGROUND: Curative treatment of malignant thymoma is resection; however, this may be precluded by invasion of vital organs.
  • Treatment involved a combination of resection, radiotherapy and chemotherapy.
  • RESULTS: One patient survived 9 years, 4 months, but eventually died of metastatic spread; the other one is well and without evidence of disease 30 months after treatment.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Thymoma is a slow-growing tumor.
  • Successful surgical treatment in advanced cases is possible, if aided by radiotherapy and chemotherapy.
  • The adjuvant therapy converts a non-resectable tumor to a resectable one.
  • [MeSH-major] Pulmonary Artery. Thymoma / therapy. Thymus Neoplasms / therapy. Vascular Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Cobalt Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Cyclophosphamide / therapeutic use. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / therapeutic use. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Radiography, Thoracic. Radiotherapy Dosage. Time Factors. Vincristine / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 12197283.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-469X
  • [Journal-full-title] Annali italiani di chirurgia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Ital Chir
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 0 / Cobalt Radioisotopes; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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10. Talton CC, Hopkins JO, Walley BD, Kincaid EH: Metastatic thymic carcinoid: a case report. Am Surg; 2005 Jul;71(7):578-80
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  • [Title] Metastatic thymic carcinoid: a case report.
  • They have malignant potential, the capacity for distant metastasis, and often present with associated endocrinopathies.
  • This report describes a patient who was diagnosed with thymic carcinoid and Cushing syndrome at age 19 that, despite complete surgical excision of his tumor, developed local recurrence with distant metastases to his brain, lungs, and bone.
  • We discuss the evolution of this patient's illness as well as the therapies used in his care.
  • We also discuss the role of adjuvant therapy, which in our case consisted of chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and several new therapies including an antiangiogenesis agent and a tyrosine kinase inhibitor.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / secondary. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Palliative Care / methods. Thymus Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biopsy, Needle. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Bone Neoplasms / therapy. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Disease Progression. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / therapy. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Thymectomy / methods

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  • (PMID = 16089122.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-1348
  • [Journal-full-title] The American surgeon
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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11. Arunasree KM: Anti-proliferative effects of carvacrol on a human metastatic breast cancer cell line, MDA-MB 231. Phytomedicine; 2010 Jul;17(8-9):581-8
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  • [Title] Anti-proliferative effects of carvacrol on a human metastatic breast cancer cell line, MDA-MB 231.
  • PURPOSE: Although the anti-tumor effects of carvacrol have been demonstrated earlier, the exact underlying molecular mechanisms involved in its action have not been defined and in the present study an attempt has been made to identify the mechanism of carvacrol induced cell death in human metastatic breast cancer cells, MDA-MB 231.
  • CONCLUSION: The data in the present study clearly demonstrated anti-tumor effects of carvacrol on human metastatic breast cancer cells, MDA-MB 231, and that the compound could have a potential therapeutic significance in treating cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / therapeutic use. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Monoterpenes / therapeutic use. Phytotherapy. Plant Extracts / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Apoptosis / drug effects. Caspases / metabolism. Cell Line, Tumor. Cytochromes c / metabolism. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Female. Humans. Inhibitory Concentration 50. Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial / drug effects. Mitochondria / physiology. Origanum / chemistry. Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases / metabolism. Thymus Plant / chemistry

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2009 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20096548.001).
  • [ISSN] 1618-095X
  • [Journal-full-title] Phytomedicine : international journal of phytotherapy and phytopharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Phytomedicine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 0 / Monoterpenes; 0 / Plant Extracts; 9007-43-6 / Cytochromes c; 9B1J4V995Q / carvacrol; EC 2.4.2.30 / Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases; EC 3.4.22.- / Caspases
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12. Hsu HC, Huang EY, Wang CJ, Sun LM, Chen HC: Postoperative radiotherapy in thymic carcinoma: treatment results and prognostic factors. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2002 Mar 1;52(3):801-5
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  • [Title] Postoperative radiotherapy in thymic carcinoma: treatment results and prognostic factors.
  • PURPOSE: To analyze the treatment results and prognostic factors of patients with primary thymic carcinoma treated by total or subtotal tumor resection followed by radiotherapy alone.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: Between October 1987 and October 1997, 26 patients with thymic carcinoma were treated with complete or incomplete surgical resection and postoperative adjuvant irradiation without chemotherapy.
  • The radiation was delivered with 10-MV X-ray given 5 days per week at 1.8 to 2 Gy per fraction.
  • Total doses ranged from 40 to 70 Gy.
  • RESULTS: The 5-year overall survival rate, local control rate, and distant metastasis-free rate were 77%, 91%, and 57%, respectively.
  • Several prognostic factors, including sex, age, extent of resection (total resection vs. subtotal resection), Masaoka staging (early Stage I + II vs. advanced Stage III + IV), pathology (low-grade vs. high-grade), and postoperative radiation dose (> or =60 Gy vs. <60 Gy), were evaluated in univariate analysis.
  • The Masaoka staging system was the only statistically significant predictor in overall survival rate (p = 0.0482) and distant metastasis-free rate (p = 0.0193).
  • For resectable tumors, surgery and postoperative radiotherapy can achieve good local control, but the distant metastatic rate is still high.
  • Further investigation of more effective chemotherapy is needed.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / radiotherapy. Carcinoma / surgery. Thymus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Thymus Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Analysis of Variance. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 11849804.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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13. Chakrabarti R, Subramaniam V, Abdalla S, Jothy S, Prud'homme GJ: Tranilast inhibits the growth and metastasis of mammary carcinoma. Anticancer Drugs; 2009 Jun;20(5):334-45
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  • [Title] Tranilast inhibits the growth and metastasis of mammary carcinoma.
  • Tranilast (N-[3,4-dimethoxycinnamonyl]-anthranilic acid) is a drug of low toxicity that is orally administered, and has been used clinically in Japan as an antiallergic and antifibrotic agent.
  • Tranilast inhibited the proliferation of several tumor cell lines including mouse mammary carcinoma (4T1), rat mammary carcinoma stem cell (LA7), and human breast carcinoma (MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7).
  • In the highly metastatic 4T1 cell line, tranilast inhibited phospho-Smad2 generation, consistent with a blockade of TGF-beta signaling.
  • Although tranilast only partially inhibited TGF-beta production by 4T1 tumor cells, it potently inhibited the production of TGF-beta, interferon-gamma, IL-6, IL-10, and IL-17 by lymphoid cells, suggesting a general anti-inflammatory activity.
  • Tranilast reduced (>50%) the growth of the primary tumor.
  • However, its effects on metastasis were more striking, with more than 90% reduction of metastases in the lungs and no metastasis in the liver.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Carcinoma / secondary. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental / drug therapy. Neoplasm Proteins / antagonists & inhibitors. Transforming Growth Factor beta / antagonists & inhibitors. ortho-Aminobenzoates / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Line, Tumor / drug effects. Cell Line, Tumor / transplantation. Cell Transdifferentiation / drug effects. Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor. Enzyme Activation / drug effects. Female. Humans. Lymphoma / pathology. Mice. Mice, Inbred BALB C. Mice, Inbred C57BL. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases / antagonists & inhibitors. Organ Specificity. Rats. Rats, Sprague-Dawley. Smad2 Protein / metabolism. Species Specificity. Thymoma / pathology. Thymus Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19322072.001).
  • [ISSN] 1473-5741
  • [Journal-full-title] Anti-cancer drugs
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Drugs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Smad2 Protein; 0 / Smad2 protein, mouse; 0 / Transforming Growth Factor beta; 0 / ortho-Aminobenzoates; EC 2.7.11.24 / Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases; HVF50SMY6E / tranilast
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14. Estrada-Sánchez G, Ochoa-Carrillo FJ, Altamirano-Ley J: [(18)FDG PET/CT imaging in primary breast lymphoma and breast cancer]. Cir Cir; 2008 Jul-Aug;76(4):279-86
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  • [Transliterated title] (18)FDG PET/CT en linfoma primario de mama y cáncer de mama.
  • SUVmax for the primary tumor was 4.2 +/- 2.6 SD.
  • One patient presented thymic hyperplasia after chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Mean SUVmax for the primary tumor was similar to that reported in the literature.
  • Values for metastatic bone lesions are higher in this study.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Carcinoma / radionuclide imaging. Positron-Emission Tomography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Bone Neoplasms / radiography. Bone Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Brain Neoplasms / radiography. Brain Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Breast Neoplasms, Male / radiography. Breast Neoplasms, Male / radionuclide imaging. Cost-Benefit Analysis. Female. Fluorine Radioisotopes. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Humans. Hyperplasia. Lymphatic Metastasis / radiography. Lymphatic Metastasis / radionuclide imaging. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / radiography. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / radionuclide imaging. Male. Mammography. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / radiography. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / radionuclide imaging. Radiopharmaceuticals. Retrospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity. Thymus Gland / pathology. Thymus Gland / radionuclide imaging

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  • (PMID = 18778536.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-7411
  • [Journal-full-title] Cirugía y cirujanos
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cir Cir
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Mexico
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Fluorine Radioisotopes; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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15. Okamoto T, Sano T, Wakai H, Murano J, Tanaka K, Tazaki H, Kobayashi K, Naito S, Hashimoto H, Fujita K, Aoyama T, Sakamoto H, Hara A, Matsunaga K, Kamata K: [Irradiation for invasive malignant thymoma led a remission of refractory minimal change nephrotic syndrome: a case report]. Nihon Jinzo Gakkai Shi; 2010;52(4):515-22
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  • [Title] [Irradiation for invasive malignant thymoma led a remission of refractory minimal change nephrotic syndrome: a case report].
  • A 46-year-old man was diagnosed as malignant thymoma, and was treated with chemotherapy and radiotherapy in 2003.
  • Intravenous steroid therapy of 500 mg/day for 3 days, following oral administration of 15 mg/day prednisolone and 75 mg cyclosporine twice a day was taken from July 2004.
  • Chest CT and a biopsy specimen from left pleural mass lesion revealed the pleural invasion of malignant thymoma.
  • Sixty Gray radiotherapy diminished the pleural metastatic lesion and also improved proteinuria from 6.6 g/day to 0.4 g/day.
  • Though there have been a few case reports of MCNS concomitant with malignant thymoma, this is the first report that radiotherapy for metastatic malignant thymoma improved NS while diminishing the tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Nephrosis, Lipoid / complications. Nephrosis, Lipoid / radiotherapy. Pleural Neoplasms / pathology. Pleural Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Thymoma / complications. Thymoma / radiotherapy. Thymus Neoplasms / complications. Thymus Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Remission Induction. Syndrome

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  • (PMID = 20560473.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-2385
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Jinzo Gakkai shi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nihon Jinzo Gakkai Shi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Number-of-references] 34
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16. Hammoud K, Kandimala G, Warnack W, Vernino S: Multifocal paraneoplastic cortical encephalitis associated with myasthenia gravis and thymoma. Arch Neurol; 2009 Nov;66(11):1407-9
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  • Myasthenia gravis remained in pharmacological remission.
  • RESULTS: Chest computed tomography showed abnormal pleural thickening of the left lung, which proved to be recurrent metastatic thymoma.
  • She showed partial improvement in response to immunotherapy and chemotherapy but ultimately died 2 months later of tumor complications.
  • Autoimmune encephalitis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with myasthenia gravis or thymoma who develop new cognitive symptoms.
  • [MeSH-major] Myasthenia Gravis / complications. Paraneoplastic Syndromes, Nervous System / complications. Thymoma / complications. Thymus Neoplasms / complications

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  • (PMID = 19901174.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-3687
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Neurol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Autoantibodies; 0 / Autoantigens; 0 / Potassium Channels, Voltage-Gated
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17. De Backer A, Madern GC, Hakvoort-Cammel FG, Oosterhuis JW, Hazebroek FW: Mediastinal germ cell tumors: clinical aspects and outcomes in 7 children. Eur J Pediatr Surg; 2006 Oct;16(5):318-22

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  • This paper reports on the clinical presentations, method(s) of treatment, complications, results and outcomes in a series of children with mediastinal germ cell tumors.
  • METHODS: A retrospective chart review of 7 children treated between 1971 and 2001 for mediastinal germ cell tumor was carried out.
  • Age at diagnosis and symptoms were recorded.
  • Each patient's surgical treatment, peri- and postoperative complications, histological staging and final outcome were analysed.
  • Their sole treatment consisted of complete surgical excision of the tumor and (part of) the thymus using either median sternotomy or left-sided thoracotomy.
  • All four are alive with no evidence of disease, between 2.5 and 29 years after treatment.
  • Malignant tumors were observed in three patients (1 yolk sac tumor, 1 choriocarcinoma and 1 malignant teratoma).
  • Treatment consisted of either biopsy or debulking followed by chemotherapy (and radiotherapy in 1 case).
  • Two of them died from uncontrollable metastatic disease.
  • The patient with yolk sac tumor survived; he is now in remission, 4 years after diagnosis.
  • Children with this type of tumor usually are severely symptomatic.
  • Histologically malignant tumors, on the other hand, have a worse prognosis.
  • However, the use of platinum-based combination chemotherapy has considerably increased the survival rates.
  • [MeSH-major] Mediastinal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Mediastinal Neoplasms / surgery. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Teratoma / diagnosis. Teratoma / surgery. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17160775.001).
  • [ISSN] 0939-7248
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of pediatric surgery : official journal of Austrian Association of Pediatric Surgery ... [et al] = Zeitschrift für Kinderchirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Pediatr Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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18. Dhall G, Ginsburg HB, Bodenstein L, Fefferman NR, Greco MA, Chang MW, Gardner S: Thymoma in children: report of two cases and review of literature. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2004 Oct;26(10):681-5
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  • Thymoma is an uncommon tumor of childhood.
  • Stage of the tumor is an independent prognostic factor for survival.
  • Surgery is the treatment of choice for stage I and stage II tumors.
  • Chemotherapy is reserved for patients with refractory or metastatic disease.
  • However, radiation therapy is not an attractive option for children due to its side-effects on developing organs.
  • [MeSH-major] Thymectomy. Thymoma / surgery. Thymus Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic. Child. Chromosome Disorders / complications. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 12. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 6. Dyspnea / etiology. Epithelial Cells / pathology. Female. Hamartoma / complications. Humans. Intellectual Disability / complications. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Remission Induction. Skin Diseases / complications. Translocation, Genetic

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  • (PMID = 15454843.001).
  • [ISSN] 1077-4114
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 34
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19. Port JL, Ginsberg RJ: Surgery for thymoma. Chest Surg Clin N Am; 2001 May;11(2):421-37
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  • Although thymoma is an uncommon tumor, it represents the most frequently encountered tumor of the anterior mediastinum.
  • The initial treatment of choice for patients with thymoma that do not present with unresectable local or diffuse metastatic disease is complete surgical resection.
  • With recurrences appearing up to 5 and even 10 years postoperatively, time will tell if these minimally invasive techniques are comparable with current standard approaches.
  • Multiple studies have failed to determine conclusively the role of induction chemotherapy and adjuvant radiation.
  • Prospective multi-institutional trials are required to elucidate further the role of such therapies in these rare tumors.
  • Some promising reports on response to chemotherapy have led them to develop an induction chemotherapy protocol for patients with clinically advanced disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Thymoma / surgery. Thymus Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Thymectomy / methods

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  • (PMID = 11413765.001).
  • [ISSN] 1052-3359
  • [Journal-full-title] Chest surgery clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chest Surg. Clin. N. Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 45
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20. Kadota Y, Utsumi T, Inoue M, Sawabata N, Minami M, Okumura M: Radiation-induced osteosarcoma 17 years after mediastinal irradiation following surgical removal of thymoma. Gen Thorac Cardiovasc Surg; 2010 Dec;58(12):651-3
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  • In the chest wall, it is usually secondary to radiotherapy for breast cancer or lymphoma.
  • A 49-year-old woman presented with a sternal tumor 17 years after surgery plus mediastinal irradiation (50 Gy) for a stage III thymoma.
  • On biopsy, this second tumor was diagnosed as a radiation-induced osteosarcoma.
  • Systemic survey revealed additional metastatic spread to vertebrae and pelvis.
  • Despite intensive combination chemotherapy that initially stabilized her disease, the patient died 2 years after the diagnosis was made.
  • Because thymoma patients receiving mediastinal irradiation are thus at additional risk of radiation-induced secondary malignancy, long-term follow-up is advisable.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / etiology. Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced / etiology. Osteosarcoma / etiology. Sternum / radiation effects. Thymectomy. Thymoma / therapy. Thymus Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biopsy. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant / adverse effects. Time Factors. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Cites] Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2006 Sep;450:76-81 [16906097.001]
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  • (PMID = 21170638.001).
  • [ISSN] 1863-6713
  • [Journal-full-title] General thoracic and cardiovascular surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gen Thorac Cardiovasc Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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21. Ikehara Y, Shiuchi N, Kabata-Ikehara S, Nakanishi H, Yokoyama N, Takagi H, Nagata T, Koide Y, Kuzushima K, Takahashi T, Tsujimura K, Kojima N: Effective induction of anti-tumor immune responses with oligomannose-coated liposome targeting to intraperitoneal phagocytic cells. Cancer Lett; 2008 Feb 18;260(1-2):137-45
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  • [Title] Effective induction of anti-tumor immune responses with oligomannose-coated liposome targeting to intraperitoneal phagocytic cells.
  • We recently established a novel drug delivery system (DDS) using oligomannose-coated liposomes (OMLs) which are probably taken up by macrophages (Mvarphi) to carry anti-cancer drugs to milky spots known as preferential metastatic sites of gastric cancers [Y.
  • Nakanishi, A carbohydrate recognition-based drug delivery and controlled release system using intraperitoneal macrophages as a cellular vehicle, Cancer Res.
  • These results indicate that the OMLs can also be used as an effective antigen delivery system for cancer immunotherapy activating both CTL and Th subsets.
  • [MeSH-major] Drug Carriers. Immunotherapy / methods. Macrophages, Peritoneal / immunology. Ovalbumin / immunology. Phagocytosis. Thymoma / therapy. Thymus Neoplasms / therapy. Trisaccharides / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antigen Presentation. Antigens, CD11b / analysis. Antigens, Differentiation / analysis. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Movement. Drug Compounding. Egg Proteins / immunology. Female. H-2 Antigens / genetics. H-2 Antigens / metabolism. Histocompatibility Antigens Class II / genetics. Histocompatibility Antigens Class II / metabolism. Immunodominant Epitopes. Liposomes. Lymphocyte Activation. Mice. Mice, Inbred C57BL. Mice, Transgenic. Peptide Fragments / immunology. T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic / immunology. T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer / immunology. Transfection

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  • (PMID = 18077084.001).
  • [ISSN] 0304-3835
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer letters
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Lett.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD11b; 0 / Antigens, Differentiation; 0 / Drug Carriers; 0 / Egg Proteins; 0 / H-2 Antigens; 0 / H-2A(b) antigen, mouse; 0 / H-2Kb protein, mouse; 0 / Histocompatibility Antigens Class II; 0 / Immunodominant Epitopes; 0 / Liposomes; 0 / OVA 323-339; 0 / OVA-8; 0 / Peptide Fragments; 0 / Trisaccharides; 0 / monocyte-macrophage differentiation antigen; 6817-81-8 / mannotriose; 9006-59-1 / Ovalbumin
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22. Hernandez-Ilizaliturri FJ, Tan D, Cipolla D, Connolly G, Debb G, Ramnath N: Multimodality therapy for thymic carcinoma (TCA): results of a 30-year single-institution experience. Am J Clin Oncol; 2004 Feb;27(1):68-72
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  • [Title] Multimodality therapy for thymic carcinoma (TCA): results of a 30-year single-institution experience.
  • SUMMARY: The aim of this study was to correlate the clinicopathologic features and therapeutic approaches with the outcome of patients with thymic carcinoma (TCA), an aggressive, uncommon malignancy of the anterior mediastinum.
  • TCA is morphologically distinct from thymoma, a cytologically bland, often encapsulated, locally invasive, rarely metastatic tumor.
  • The Roswell Park Cancer Institute tumor registry was used to identify patients with TCA or invasive thymic neoplasm of the epithelial type (TNET).
  • Between 1971 and 2001, 22 patients had a pathologic diagnosis of TCA and/or TNET.
  • The mean age at diagnosis was 53 years (range: 19-77), and the male/female ratio was 3:1 (16/6).
  • Postoperative cisplatin-based chemotherapy and radiation was administered to seven patients.
  • Incomplete surgical resection did not preclude long-term survival if multimodality platinum-based therapy was used.
  • [MeSH-major] Thymus Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • [ErratumIn] Am J Clin Oncol. 2004 Apr;27(2):127
  • (PMID = 14758136.001).
  • [ISSN] 1537-453X
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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23. Braun JM, Ko HL, Schierholz JM, Weir D, Blackwell CC, Beuth J: Application of standardized mistletoe extracts augment immune response and down regulates metastatic organ colonization in murine models. Cancer Lett; 2001 Sep 10;170(1):25-31
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  • [Title] Application of standardized mistletoe extracts augment immune response and down regulates metastatic organ colonization in murine models.
  • Regular subcutaneous (s.c.) and intraperitoneal (i.p.) applications (three times per week for 14 consecutive days; 5 and 50 microg per injection and mouse) upregulated thymus weight and peripheral blood leukocyte counts in tumor bearing mice.
  • To check the influence of ME-A and ME-P treatment on growth of experimental metastases, RAW 117 H 10 lymphosarcoma cells and L-1 sarcoma cells were intravenously inoculated into BALB/c-mice to establish liver and lung colonization.
  • ME-A and ME-P were regularly administered starting 24 h after tumor cell challenge.
  • Organ colonization was investigated on day 14 after tumor cell inoculation and demonstrated statistically significant (P<0.05) reductions of experimental liver and lung metastases for ME-A and ME-P treated mice.
  • [MeSH-major] Mistletoe / therapeutic use. Neoplasms, Experimental / drug therapy. Neoplasms, Experimental / pathology. Phytotherapy. Plants, Medicinal
  • [MeSH-minor] Adjuvants, Immunologic / therapeutic use. Animals. Mice. Mice, Inbred BALB C. Neoplasm Metastasis / drug therapy. Neoplasm Metastasis / immunology

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  • (PMID = 11448531.001).
  • [ISSN] 0304-3835
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer letters
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Lett.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adjuvants, Immunologic
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