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1. Shibata MA, Ambati J, Shibata E, Albuquerque RJ, Morimoto J, Ito Y, Otsuki Y: The endogenous soluble VEGF receptor-2 isoform suppresses lymph node metastasis in a mouse immunocompetent mammary cancer model. BMC Med; 2010;8:69
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The endogenous soluble VEGF receptor-2 isoform suppresses lymph node metastasis in a mouse immunocompetent mammary cancer model.
  • BACKGROUND: Cancer metastasis contributes significantly to cancer mortality and is facilitated by lymphangiogenesis and angiogenesis.
  • To evaluate the antimetastatic potential of esVEGFR-2, gene therapy with vector expressing esVEGFR-2 (pesVEGFR-2) or endostatin (pEndo) as a positive control was conducted on murine metastatic mammary cancer.
  • METHODS: Syngeneic inoculated metastatic mammary cancers received direct intratumoral injection of pesVEGFR-2, pEndo or pVec as control, once a week for six weeks.
  • RESULTS: Deaths from metastasis were much lower in the pesVEGFR-2 and pEndo groups than in those of the pVec.
  • Tumor volume was significantly lower in the pesVEGFR-2 and the pEndo groups throughout the study.
  • Multiplicity of lymph node and lung metastatic nodules was significantly suppressed in the pesVEGFR-2 and pEndo groups.
  • Moreover, the total number of overall metastasis including the other organs was also decreased in these groups.
  • However, pesVEGFR-2 was not able to decrease the number of lungs, ovaries, kidneys and adrenals with metastasis as counted by unilateral or bilateral metastasis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrate that esVEGFR-2 can inhibit mainly lymph node metastasis.
  • The antimetastatic activity of esVEGFR-2 may be of high clinical significance in the treatment of metastatic breast cancer because lymph node involvement is a most important prognostic factor in cancer patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphangiogenesis / drug effects. Lymphatic Metastasis / genetics. Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental / drug therapy. Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental / pathology. Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor / genetics. Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor / therapeutic use. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2 / genetics. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2 / therapeutic use. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Apoptosis / drug effects. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Female. Genetic Therapy. Genetic Vectors. Immunocompetence. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Mice. Mice, Inbred BALB C. Models, Animal. Neoplasm Metastasis. Protein Isoforms. Tumor Burden / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 21047425.001).
  • [ISSN] 1741-7015
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Protein Isoforms; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor; EC 2.7.10.1 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2989928
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2. Karanikiotis C, Tentes AA, Markakidis S, Vafiadis K: Large bilateral adrenal metastases in non-small cell lung cancer. World J Surg Oncol; 2004;2:37

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Large bilateral adrenal metastases in non-small cell lung cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: The adrenal gland is one of the common sites of metastasis from primary lung cancer.
  • Adrenal metastases are usually unilateral however bilateral adrenal metastases are seen in 10% of all lung cancer patients; of these 2-3% occurs at the initial presentation of non-small cell lung cancer.
  • Secondary tumors can disrupt the structure and function of the adrenal.
  • This can lead to adrenal hemorrhage, which constitutes a life threatening hazard for the patient.
  • His initial work-up revealed significant anemia, an invasive process in the right upper lobe of the lung and large masses of heterogeneous texture, with hemorrhagic and necrotic elements in both adrenal glands.
  • The patient developed severe leukocytosis akin to the paraneoplastic syndrome and died suddenly five days after the administration of chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSION: Intratumoral hemorrhage is a rare but life threatening complication of adrenal metastases and should be treated as soon as it has been diagnosed.
  • If adrenalectomy is not feasible, combination chemotherapy should be applied as in metastatic disease.

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  • (PMID = 15541184.001).
  • [ISSN] 1477-7819
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC535544
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3. Chung SD, Wang SM, Lai MK, Huang CY, Liao CH, Huang KH, Pu YS, Chueh SC, Yu HJ: Lymphovascular invasion predicts poor outcome of urothelial carcinoma of renal pelvis after nephroureterectomy. BJU Int; 2009 Apr;103(8):1047-51
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  • Inclusion criteria included nonmetastatic renal pelvic UC with no previous history of bladder cancer, concomitant ureteric lesion, or neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Adrenal metastases from primary renal pelvic UCs were rare.
  • LVI appears to be a better prognostic factor for predicting poor outcome of renal pelvic UC than pT stage or tumour grade when using the current tumour-nodes-metastases staging system.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Kidney Neoplasms / surgery. Nephrectomy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy / mortality. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Epidemiologic Methods. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis

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  • [CommentIn] BJU Int. 2009 Apr;103(8):1143 [19338572.001]
  • (PMID = 19076143.001).
  • [ISSN] 1464-410X
  • [Journal-full-title] BJU international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BJU Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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4. Richtig E, Ludwig R, Kerl H, Smolle J: Organ- and treatment-specific local response rates to systemic and local treatment modalities in stage IV melanoma. Br J Dermatol; 2005 Nov;153(5):925-31
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Organ- and treatment-specific local response rates to systemic and local treatment modalities in stage IV melanoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Metastatic melanoma shows different local response rates in organs to systemic or local treatment modalities.
  • Whereas skin, soft tissue, lymph node and lung metastases seem to have better local response rates, the local response of metastases localized in the liver, brain and bone seems to be low.
  • OBJECTIVES: The organ-specific response rate, local response rate of each therapeutic measure and survival of 68 patients with stage IV disease were evaluated.
  • METHODS: Four hundred and ten treatment periods (1-18 per patient) in 17 different organs of 43 men and 25 women (mean age 55 years, range 19-79) with measurable, widespread, surgically incurable disease were analysed.
  • Chemotherapy was given in 405 of 410 treatment periods with dacarbazine, fotemustine, vindesine, carboplatin and temozolomide in different schedules.
  • Local treatment modalities comprising radiotherapy, gamma knife radiosurgery and local hyperthermia were given in 71 of 410 treatment periods.
  • RESULTS: Local response (complete or partial local remission) was achieved in 52 treatment periods (12.7%).
  • When local treatment modalities, either combined with systemic therapy or not, were compared with systemic therapeutic modalities alone, a local response of 24% was achieved with local measures, compared with 10% in systemic treatment only (P = 0.003).
  • When a spontaneous remission rate of less than 5% is considered, however, local as well as systemic treatments had a significant effect (P < 0.001).
  • Organ-specific response rates to local therapies showed no statistically significant differences between the various organs involved.
  • When systemic treatments without local measures were taken into account, lung metastases, cutaneous/subcutaneous metastases and adrenal metastases performed significantly better than liver metastases.
  • When different treatment modalities were considered, there was no significant difference between the three local measures applied (radiotherapy, gamma knife radiosurgery and hyperthermia).
  • Among the systemic therapies, dacarbazine high dose and carboplatin monochemotherapy were superior to combined regimens using fotemustine.
  • A local response, irrespective of the mode of therapy, was significantly associated with longer survival (median 16 months) compared with no local response or local progressive disease (median 7 months; P < 0.0001).
  • When the first treatment period of each patient was considered, local response was no longer a significant predictor.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The study shows that local therapeutic measures are superior in inducing a local response than systemic therapies alone.
  • Chemotherapy, despite limited local response rates, is still statistically superior to an estimated spontaneous remission rate.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / therapy. Skin Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Logistic Models. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16225601.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0963
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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5. Wada H, Nagano H, Nakamura M, Yoshioka S, Kato H, Noda T, Damdinsuren B, Marubashi S, Miyamoto A, Takeda Y, Umeshita K, Dono K, Monden M: [A successful surgical treatment for solitary pulmonary and adrenal metastases after hepatic resection to hepatocellular carcinoma--a case report]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2005 Oct;32(11):1835-8
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  • [Title] [A successful surgical treatment for solitary pulmonary and adrenal metastases after hepatic resection to hepatocellular carcinoma--a case report].
  • We report a 65-year-old man who received a successful surgical treatment for both pulmonary and adrenal metastases after curative resection to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
  • Thirty-eight months after the first hepatic resection, a metastatic lesion of the right pulmonary lobe was detected by computed tomography (CT).
  • After 6 months of the chemotherapy, a metastatic lesion of lung became decreased in size.
  • However, a metastatic lesion of the right adrenal gland was detected by abdominal CT scan.
  • Eighty one months after the first operation, he died of liver failure due to tumor progression.
  • Surgical resection for metastases from HCC resulted in long-term survival even if there were extrahepatic metastases in two different sites.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / pathology. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / surgery. Hepatectomy. Liver Neoplasms / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / surgery. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy. Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Embolization, Therapeutic. Humans. Pneumonectomy. Tegafur / administration & dosage. Treatment Outcome. Uracil / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 16315956.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 1548R74NSZ / Tegafur; 56HH86ZVCT / Uracil; 1-UFT protocol
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6. Tauchmanovà L, Pensabene M, Capuano I, Spagnoletti I, Zeppa P, Del Vecchio S, Mainenti M, De Rosa G, Colao A, Contegiacomo A: Poorly differentiated small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma localized in three different endocrine glands: response to chemotherapy and octreotide LAR. J Endocrinol Invest; 2005 Apr;28(4):371-8
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  • [Title] Poorly differentiated small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma localized in three different endocrine glands: response to chemotherapy and octreotide LAR.
  • Neuroendocrine tumors represent a heterogeneous category of neoplasm, with conflicting diagnostic and therapeutic demands.
  • In particular, a large ovarian mass, multinodular thyroid goiter, right adrenal mass, cystic liver metastases and anterior mediastinum lymph node metastasis were present.
  • Diagnosis of poorly differentiated metastasized NEC of unknown origin was made on the basis of histological and immunohistochemical findings, and treatment with etoposide (100 mg/m2 in days 1, 2 and 3) and cisplatinum (45 mg/m2 in days 2 and 3) was initiated.
  • Rapid improvement of dyspnea and a reduction of the largest thyroid nodule, liver metastases and adrenal mass by 50% were observed after 3 months of treatment; the dimensions remained stable thereafter, while the pericardial lymph node disappeared.
  • Our patient is alive 18 months after beginning the treatment, reporting good general condition and quality of life over the whole follow-up period.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Small Cell / drug therapy. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / drug therapy. Neuroendocrine Tumors / drug therapy. Octreotide / therapeutic use. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Lymphatic Metastasis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15966513.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-4097
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
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7. Howard EW, Ling MT, Chua CW, Cheung HW, Wang X, Wong YC: Garlic-derived S-allylmercaptocysteine is a novel in vivo antimetastatic agent for androgen-independent prostate cancer. Clin Cancer Res; 2007 Mar 15;13(6):1847-56
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • PURPOSE: There is epidemiologic evidence that high garlic consumption decreases the incidence of prostate cancer, and compounds isolated from garlic have been shown to have cancer-preventive and tumor-suppressive effects.
  • S-allylmercaptocysteine is therefore a potential antimetastatic drug with broad clinical applications that we tested in vivo for the first time in this study.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We used a newly established fluorescent orthotopic androgen-independent prostate cancer mouse model to assess the ability of S-allylmercaptocysteine to inhibit tumor growth and dissemination.
  • RESULTS: We showed that oral S-allylmercaptocysteine not only inhibited the growth of primary tumors by up to 71% (P < 0.001) but also reduced the number of lung and adrenal metastases by as much as 85.5% (P = 0.001) without causing notable toxicity.
  • This metastatic suppression was accompanied by a 91% reduction of viable circulating tumor cells (P = 0.041), suggesting that S-allylmercaptocysteine prevents dissemination by decreasing tumor cell intravasation.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide in vivo evidence supporting the potential use of S-allylmercaptocysteine as an E-cadherin up-regulating antimetastatic agent for the treatment of androgen-independent prostate cancer.
  • This is the first report of the in vivo antimetastatic properties of garlic, which may also apply to other cancer types.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Cysteine / analogs & derivatives. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Garlic / chemistry. Neoplasm Metastasis / prevention & control. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Androgens / pharmacology. Animals. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / pharmacology. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Evaluation, Preclinical. Green Fluorescent Proteins / genetics. Humans. Male. Mice. Mice, SCID. Transfection. Tumor Cells, Cultured. Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays

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  • (PMID = 17363541.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgens; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / S-allylmercaptocysteine; 147336-22-9 / Green Fluorescent Proteins; K848JZ4886 / Cysteine
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8. Muñoz A, López-Vivanco G, Mañé JM, Fernández R, Díaz-Aguirregoitia J, Saiz M, Barceló R: Metastatic non-small-cell lung carcinoma successfully treated with pre-operative chemotherapy and bilateral adrenalectomy. Jpn J Clin Oncol; 2006 Nov;36(11):731-4
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  • [Title] Metastatic non-small-cell lung carcinoma successfully treated with pre-operative chemotherapy and bilateral adrenalectomy.
  • Metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer is a common condition with a dismal prognosis.
  • Although palliative chemotherapy improves survival and quality of life, nearly all patients die of progressive disease.
  • Metastatic involvement of adrenal glands is not rare, but usually reflects widespread dissemination.
  • Selected patients with single adrenal metastasis may be cured with surgery, although the level of evidence comes from single cases reports and short retrospective series.
  • Here we report a patient with bilateral adrenal metastases from previously resected non-small-cell lung cancer, who remains free of disease four years after pre-operative chemotherapy and bilateral adrenalectomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / drug therapy. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenalectomy. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Deoxycytidine / administration & dosage. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Drug Administration Schedule. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Pneumonectomy. Splenectomy

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  • (PMID = 17071712.001).
  • [ISSN] 0368-2811
  • [Journal-full-title] Japanese journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Jpn. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; B76N6SBZ8R / gemcitabine; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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9. Reed E, Zerbe CS, Brawley OW, Bicher A, Steinberg SM: Analysis of autopsy evaluations of ovarian cancer patients treated at the National Cancer Institute, 1972-1988. Am J Clin Oncol; 2000 Apr;23(2):107-16
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  • Between 1972 and 1988, more than 500 women were treated for ovarian cancer at the National Cancer Institute in Bethesda, Maryland on approved experimental treatment protocols.
  • By comparison with the literature, the demographics of the cohort did not differ from previously published reports, other than the extent of chemotherapy received antemortem.
  • The median number of treatments regimens received was two (range, 1-6).
  • Patients who received cisplatin as part of their initial treatment regimen had a higher incidence of metastases to the adrenal glands, thoracic nodes, bladder, and liver parenchyma, which was not explained by differences in survival.
  • Median survival for patients who received cisplatin as part of their initial therapy was 15.6 months, compared with a median of 15.4 months for patients who did not.
  • These data suggest a changing pattern of disease spread in patients with ovarian cancer receiving aggressive chemotherapy.
  • This may be caused by some effect of platinum-based therapy on the metastatic potential of the tumor.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Cohort Studies. Demography. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 10776968.001).
  • [ISSN] 0277-3732
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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10. Porcaro AB, D'Amico A, Novella G, Curti P, Ficarra V, Antoniolli SZ, Martignoni G, Matteo B, Malossini G: Primary lymphoma of the kidney. Report of a case and update of the literature. Arch Ital Urol Androl; 2002 Mar;74(1):44-7
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  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: A 48-year-old woman underwent surgery for the presumed diagnosis of renal cell carcinoma with bilateral adrenal metastases.
  • RESULTS: The neoplasm was assessed as primary renal non-Hodgkin high grade lymphoma, diffuse large B-cell type.
  • Unfortunately, 5 weeks later the patient was lost since missing chemotherapy and follow-up.
  • Several histogenetic theories of the disease have been postulated since the kidney does not normally contain lymphoid tissue.
  • Investigators reported many classes of non-Hodgkin lymphoma which include large, small, intermediate and mixed cell types with high, intermediate or low grade histologies.
  • The disease may present with progressive renal failure of either oliguric or non oliguric type.
  • Imaging studies in diagnosing and staging primary renal lymphomas include ultrasound examination (US) and computed tomography (CT); there are also some reports of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
  • Up to now, there are no standard treatment modalities for this entity since the small number of cases reported.
  • Multidrug chemotherapy is mandatory for high grade lymphoma and when the disease is diagnosed preoperatively.
  • High dose chemotherapy in the future may offer a curative approach in primary bilateral renal disease and without end-stage renal disease.
  • Prognosis may be improved by early detection of disease and by performing systemic chemotherapy.

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  • (PMID = 12053451.001).
  • [ISSN] 1124-3562
  • [Journal-full-title] Archivio italiano di urologia, andrologia : organo ufficiale [di] Societa italiana di ecografia urologica e nefrologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Ital Urol Androl
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone
  • [Number-of-references] 33
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11. Park JS, Yoon DS, Kim KS, Choi JS, Lee WJ, Chi HS, Kim BR: What is the best treatment modality for adrenal metastasis from hepatocellular carcinoma? J Surg Oncol; 2007 Jul 1;96(1):32-6
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  • [Title] What is the best treatment modality for adrenal metastasis from hepatocellular carcinoma?
  • PURPOSE: This study aimed to analyze the effect of each therapeutic modality to clarify the treatment strategy for adrenal metastases from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
  • METHODS: Adrenal metastasis from HCC was observed in 45 patients.
  • Fifteen patients who were determined to have multi-organ metastasis including the adrenal glands were excluded, and the remaining 30 patients were reviewed.
  • RESULTS: The location of adrenal metastasis was right side, left side, and both in 17, 9, and 4 patients, respectively.
  • Treatment for adrenal metastasis consisted of adrenalectomy in 5 patients, non-surgical treatment such as TACE, or chemotherapy and radiotherapy in 19 patients, while 6 patients received no treatment.
  • The median survival duration was 11.05 months in the 30 patients with adrenal metastasis.
  • In the 25 patients with well-controlled intrahepatic lesions, the median survival time of those patients who received adrenalectomy, non-surgical treatment, and no treatment was 21.41, 11.05, and 5.64 months, respectively.
  • The difference in cumulative survival according to mode of treatment of adrenal metastasis in the well-controlled intrahepatic lesion group was statistically significant.
  • CONCLUSION: We envisage increased benefit after adrenalectomy in terms of survival in patients with well controlled intrahepatic lesions at the time of adrenal metastasis and good general medical condition.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy. Adrenalectomy. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / secondary. Chemoembolization, Therapeutic. Liver Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Hepatectomy. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 17345596.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-4790
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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12. Tanaka K, Kumano Y, Kanomata N, Takeda M, Hara I, Fujisawa M, Kawabata G, Kamidono S: Oncocytic adrenocortical carcinoma. Urology; 2004 Aug;64(2):376-7
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  • Computed tomography demonstrated a massive tumor in the right abdomen.
  • Because renal or adrenal cancer was suspected, right adrenalectomy and nephrectomy were performed.
  • Five months postoperatively, multiple metastases had developed and were treated with surgical resection, chemotherapy, vascular embolization, and radiotherapy.
  • At last follow-up, the patient was alive with pulmonary and adrenal metastases and undergoing treatment with mitotane.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bone Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Bone Neoplasms / surgery. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Embolization, Therapeutic. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Liver Neoplasms / therapy. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / surgery. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Mitotane / therapeutic use. Nephrectomy. Ribs / surgery. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 15302503.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-9995
  • [Journal-full-title] Urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
  • [Number-of-references] 7
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13. Einat S, Amir S, Silvia M, Moshe I: Successful laparoscopic removal of a solitary adrenal metastasis from ovarian carcinoma: a case report. Gynecol Oncol; 2002 Apr;85(1):201-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Successful laparoscopic removal of a solitary adrenal metastasis from ovarian carcinoma: a case report.
  • BACKGROUND: The adrenal gland is a site of metastatic spread of some tumors.
  • Usually the presence of adrenal metastasis signals widespread disease; however, isolated adrenal metastases have been reported.
  • The adrenal gland, along with certain other organs, is considered a pharmacological sanctuary.
  • Several reports describe long-term survival after adrenalectomy due to isolated adrenal metastases, in particular from non-small-cell lung cancer.
  • There are several reports of laparoscopic resection of isolated adrenal metastases.
  • CASE: We present a rare case of a laparoscopically resected solitary adrenal metastasis originating from ovarian carcinoma.
  • To the best of our knowledge there was no report in the literature of an isolated adrenal metastasis from ovarian carcinoma.
  • The patient described developed an isolated left adrenal metastasis 11 months after completion of adjuvant chemotherapy for stage III ovarian cancer.
  • CONCLUSION: Isolated adrenal metastasis from ovarian cancer is a rare event, never before described in the literature.
  • This case report describes a laparoscopic resection of an adrenal metastasis from ovarian cancer, and the drop of CA125 levels indicated complete resection of the metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 11925146.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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14. Trabelsi A, Abdelkrim SB, Tebra S, Gharbi O, Jaidane L, Bouaouina N, Abbassi DB, Mokni M: Pure Small Cell Carcinoma of the Bladder: A Case Report. World J Oncol; 2010 Jun;1(3):148-150

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  • Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder is an uncommon tumor that has been described in case reports or small series.
  • Cystoscopy revealed an extensive mass of the bladder and computed tomography scan showed an important thickening of the bladder wall.
  • The patient received pelvic hemostatic radiotherapy and platinium-based chemotherapy.
  • Three months after the diagnosis, he developed bone, renal and adrenal metastases.

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  • (PMID = 29147197.001).
  • [ISSN] 1920-454X
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Oncol
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15. Edelman MJ, Khanwani SL: Advanced non-small cell lung cancer. Curr Treat Options Oncol; 2001 Feb;2(1):51-62
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  • The treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer requires histologic proof of diagnosis, careful staging, and assessment of each patient's performance status and comorbidities.
  • For patients with stage IIIB (pleural effusion) and stage IV disease who have a Cancer and Leukemia Group B performance status (PS) of 0 to 1, appropriate management consists of combination chemotherapy with a platinum (either cisplatin or carboplatin) combined with paclitaxel, gemcitabine, vinorelbine, docetaxel, or CPT-11.
  • For patients who maintain a good performance status after first-line chemotherapy, second-line treatment may be considered.
  • Current evidence supports the use of docetaxel as second-line treatment if the patient has not previously received this drug.
  • Vinorelbine, ifosfamide, and CPT-11 appear to be inactive as second-line therapy for patients who have previously received platinum-based chemotherapy.
  • For patients with a PS of 2, single-agent chemotherapy with vinorelbine, gemcitabine, or a combination of the two should be considered.
  • Patients with poor performance status should be treated with supportive measures designed to relieve pain and acute complications because any tumor-directed therapy has limited benefit.
  • Special situations exist in which curative therapy for metastatic disease is a possibility.
  • Patients who present with solitary sites of metastatic disease, particularly after a long disease-free interval and in the CNS may undergo definitive surgery or radiotherapy with curative intent.
  • Some have also reported favorable outcomes for patients with solitary adrenal or bone metastases as well.
  • Surgical treatment or definitive radiotherapy should not be employed unless a thorough restaging evaluation is performed that includes computed tomography scan of the chest and abdomen through adrenals, brain magnetic resonance imaging, and positron emission tomography scan.
  • A plethora of new agents targeting angiogenesis, tumor invasiveness, the hypoxic environment of tumors, and the cell cycle are currently in development.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Metastasis. Patient Selection. Salvage Therapy. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 12057140.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-2729
  • [Journal-full-title] Current treatment options in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Treat Options Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 47
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16. Fumagalli U, de Carli S, de Pascale S, Rimassa L, Bignardi M, Rosati R: Adrenal metastases from adenocarcinoma of the esophagogastric junction: adrenalectomy and long-term survival. Updates Surg; 2010 Aug;62(1):63-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenal metastases from adenocarcinoma of the esophagogastric junction: adrenalectomy and long-term survival.
  • Treatment of adrenal metastases from cancer of the esophagogastric junction (EGJ) is not defined.
  • The aim of the present work is to analyze retrospectively our experience in treating patients with adrenal metastases from EGJ adenocarcinoma.
  • Five patients were diagnosed an adrenal metastases from EGJ adenocarcinoma, synchronous (s) in one and metachronous (m) in four, in the latter 11 months (mean) after esophagectomy.
  • At diagnosis, three patients had synchronous metastases to mediastinal nodes (1 s and 2 m), 1 (m) had synchronous metastases to bone, and 1 (m) had an isolated adrenal metastasis.
  • Three patients with synchronous node metastasis received chemotherapy followed by adrenalectomy 3, 8 and 16 months (mean 9) after diagnosis; one patient also received postoperative mediastinal radiotherapy.
  • These patients are alive with no evidence of disease 16, 40 and 50 months after diagnosis of adrenal metastasis.
  • The patient with bone metastasis received chemotherapy only and died 12 months after diagnosis of metastatic disease.
  • The patient with isolated metastasis underwent laparoscopic adrenalectomy only, developed early bone metastases and died 15 months after surgery.
  • In conclusion, our experience indicates that patients with adrenal metastases from adenocarcinoma of the EGJ may benefit from adrenalectomy if the gland is the only site of metastasis beyond lymphnodal disease.
  • Chemotherapy should be considered before adrenalectomy to achieve better disease control and identify aggressive disease that would contraindicate adrenalectomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Esophagogastric Junction. Stomach Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 20845103.001).
  • [ISSN] 2038-131X
  • [Journal-full-title] Updates in surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Updates Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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17. Okabe H, Beppu T, Ishiko T, Horino K, Masuda T, Hayashi H, Komori H, Tanaka H, Takamori H, Masahiko H, Baba H: [Multimodal treatment for adrenal metastases from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2007 Nov;34(12):1973-5
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  • [Title] [Multimodal treatment for adrenal metastases from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)].
  • The patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with adrenal metastases are often accompanied with the metastasis from other sites, and their prognosis is poor.
  • After 1999, we examined the prognosis and efficacy of the seven patients with drenal metastases from HCC.
  • Four patients were surgically treated, and three of them received radiation therapy (RT).
  • The mean interval from the initial treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma to the adrenal metastases was 46 months (1-95 months).
  • If there was a good control observed in the intrahepatic lesion with no metastases besides adrenal glands, we selected a surgical resection of the metastatic adrenal glands.
  • The mean overall survival time after the surgical treatment of the adrenal metastases was 23 months (7-54 months), and we considered it as a good prognosis.
  • The mean progression free survival of the adrenal metastases was 15 months (5-30 months).
  • Besides on such a good clinical outcome, we conclude that aggressive multimodal therapy including surgical resection of metastatic foci may be recommended if the patients with hepatocellular carcinoma have no other metastatic sites other than the adrenal gland and liver lesions are well-controlled.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Combined Modality Therapy. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 18219869.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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18. Hawksworth J, Geisinger K, Zagoria R, Kavanagh P, Howerton R, Levine EA, Shen P: Surgical and ablative treatment for metastatic adenocarcinoma to the liver from unknown primary tumor. Am Surg; 2004 Jun;70(6):512-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Surgical and ablative treatment for metastatic adenocarcinoma to the liver from unknown primary tumor.
  • Metastatic adenocarcinoma to the liver from an unknown primary tumor (UPT) carries a poor prognosis, with a median survival of 5 months.
  • Chemotherapy has not significantly improved outcome, and effective treatment is yet to be established in these patients.
  • We examined our experience with surgical resection and ablation of this disease to determine clinico-pathologic characteristics and treatment outcomes.
  • We undertook a retrospective chart review of 157 patients who were treated for metastatic disease to the liver with resection or radiofrequency ablation (RFA) between 1999 and 2003.
  • Evaluation of the seven patients included complete history and physical examination, complete blood count, routine chemistries, stool Hemoccult test, chest radiograph, and computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen and pelvis.
  • Other diagnostic tests, including whole-body positron emission tomography to the measurement of various serum tumor markers, were performed in the majority of the patients.
  • Two patients were treated with adjuvant and three patients with neoadjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • Extrahepatic sites of metastases, adrenal and skeletal, were discovered in 1 patient prior to treatment.
  • Median disease-free-interval following treatment was 6.5 months.
  • To date, optimal treatment for metastatic adenocarcinoma to the liver UPT remains unclear.
  • Localized treatment involving RFA or hepatic resection may be a promising addition to chemotherapy in the management of this disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Adenocarcinoma / therapy. Catheter Ablation. Liver Neoplasms / surgery. Liver Neoplasms / therapy. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / surgery. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15212405.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-1348
  • [Journal-full-title] The American surgeon
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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19. Popescu I, Alexandrescu S, Ciurea S, Brasoveanu V, Hrehoret D, Gangone E, Boros M, Herlea V, Croitoru A: Adrenalectomy for metastases from hepatocellular carcinoma - a single center experience. Langenbecks Arch Surg; 2007 May;392(3):381-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenalectomy for metastases from hepatocellular carcinoma - a single center experience.
  • BACKGROUND: Adrenal metastases (AM) from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are rarely seen in clinical practice.
  • The treatment is not standardized, the indications and efficacy of different therapeutic approaches being still controversial.
  • AM were detected in four patients (2.3%): three of them had HCC and synchronous AM, and the remaining one developed AM 10 months after liver resection.
  • All the patients with AM were treated by adrenalectomy (simultaneously with liver resection in synchronous metastases), followed by systemic chemotherapy.
  • Non-resectable multifocal liver recurrences occurred in two patients, one of them having also a contralateral adrenal metastasis; these two patients are presently alive 26 and 43 months after adrenalectomy, respectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Adrenalectomy for AM from HCC should be performed whenever the primary tumor is well therapeutically controlled and the patient has a good performance status.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / surgery. Liver Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17187285.001).
  • [ISSN] 1435-2443
  • [Journal-full-title] Langenbeck's archives of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Langenbecks Arch Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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20. Kudo M, Ueshima K: Positioning of a molecular-targeted agent, sorafenib, in the treatment algorithm for hepatocellular carcinoma and implication of many complete remission cases in Japan. Oncology; 2010 Jul;78 Suppl 1:154-66
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  • [Title] Positioning of a molecular-targeted agent, sorafenib, in the treatment algorithm for hepatocellular carcinoma and implication of many complete remission cases in Japan.
  • Sorafenib, a molecular-targeted agent that inhibits tumor cell proliferation and angiogenesis by inhibiting RAF serine-threonine kinase and VEGF, PDGF, Flt-3, c-Kit receptor tyrosine kinase, was approved in Europe and North America in 2007 and in Japan on May 20, 2009.
  • In addition to that, transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) or hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy (HAIC) refractory HCC patients with Child-Pugh A liver function are also candidates of sorafenib monotherapy as a second-line treatment option.
  • To date, 15 cases with complete remission (CR) to sorafenib in metastatic advanced HCC patients have been reported in Japan, an event that is rarely reported in other countries.
  • Factors indicating systemic cancer spread, including multiple liver lesions, lymph node metastases, adrenal metastases, lung metastases and vascular invasion, were completely absent in both cases of CR by 2 and 1 year, respectively.
  • Similarly, three tumor markers (AFP, PIVKA-II, and AFP-L3) completely returned to normal values.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Benzenesulfonates / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / drug therapy. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Protein Kinase Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Pyridines / therapeutic use. Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor / antagonists & inhibitors
  • [MeSH-minor] Algorithms. Humans. Niacinamide / analogs & derivatives. Phenylurea Compounds. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 20616599.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0232
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Benzenesulfonates; 0 / Phenylurea Compounds; 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors; 0 / Pyridines; 25X51I8RD4 / Niacinamide; 9ZOQ3TZI87 / sorafenib; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor
  • [Number-of-references] 32
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21. Böttger C, Warth A, Nawroth PP, Isermann B: [Neuroendocrine carcinoma of the lung: a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge]. Med Klin (Munich); 2010 Apr;105(4):237-41
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  • [Title] [Neuroendocrine carcinoma of the lung: a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge].
  • Based on a biopsy of a bronchial tumor, a small cell neuroendocrine tumor of the lung was diagnosed and chemotherapy with etoposide and cisplatin was initiated.
  • As the tumor progressed under chemotherapy, the bronchial biopsy was reevaluated and further biopsies of liver and adrenal metastases were obtained.
  • Under octreotide therapy, the patient remained stable for 1 year, when a discrete progress of the primary tumor in the lung was observed.
  • Treatment with the mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) inhibitor everolimus was then initiated.
  • Based on this case, the diagnostic criteria, prognostic factors and therapeutic options of neuroendocrine bronchial carcinomas are discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma, Bronchogenic / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Bronchogenic / pathology. Carcinoma, Bronchogenic / secondary. Carcinoma, Medullary / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Medullary / pathology. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / secondary. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / pathology. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Bone Neoplasms / diagnosis. Bone Neoplasms / drug therapy. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Calcitonin / metabolism. Cell Division / physiology. Female. Humans. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Liver / pathology. Lung / pathology. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Octreotide / administration & dosage. Paraneoplastic Syndromes / diagnosis. Paraneoplastic Syndromes / drug therapy. Paraneoplastic Syndromes / pathology. Sirolimus / administration & dosage. Thyroid Gland / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20455040.001).
  • [ISSN] 1615-6722
  • [Journal-full-title] Medizinische Klinik (Munich, Germany : 1983)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med. Klin. (Munich)
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 9007-12-9 / Calcitonin; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide; W36ZG6FT64 / Sirolimus
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22. Mokuno Y, Katayama M, Ogura Y, Kimura K, Koh K: Long-term survival after resection of metachronous bilateral adrenal metastases of mucinous gastric carcinoma: report of a case. Surg Today; 2006;36(6):554-8
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  • [Title] Long-term survival after resection of metachronous bilateral adrenal metastases of mucinous gastric carcinoma: report of a case.
  • We report a case of metachronous bilateral adrenal metastases from mucinous adenocarcinoma of the stomach.
  • A 68-year-old man who had undergone surgery for advanced gastric cancer 5 months earlier had a follow-up computed tomography (CT) scan, which showed a right adrenal tumor.
  • A routine follow-up CT scan done 41 months after the right adrenalectomy showed a left adrenal mass.
  • Chemotherapy had no apparent effect, and left adrenalectomy was performed 65 months after the right adrenalectomy.
  • Histopathological examination also revealed a metastasis from gastric cancer.
  • This case suggests that resection of adrenal metastasis from gastric cancer is an effective treatment option that may prolong survival in selected patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / secondary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Stomach Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy. Aged. Humans. Male. Neoplasms, Second Primary / pathology. Neoplasms, Second Primary / surgery. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 16715429.001).
  • [ISSN] 0941-1291
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery today
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Today
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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23. Abdel-Raheem MM, Potti A, Becker WK, Saberi A, Scilley BS, Mehdi SA: Late adrenal metastasis in operable non-small-cell lung carcinoma. Am J Clin Oncol; 2002 Feb;25(1):81-3
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  • [Title] Late adrenal metastasis in operable non-small-cell lung carcinoma.
  • Treatment of early-stage (I, II, and some IIIA) non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is curative resection.
  • Simultaneous isolated adrenal metastasis represents a dilemma.
  • Although many studies addressing the management of adrenal metastasis diagnosed simultaneously with NSCLC have been published, only very few reports of late adrenal metastasis can be found in the literature.
  • Our purpose is to discuss the management of solitary late (metachronous) adrenal metastasis from operable NSCLC based on published experience.
  • We describe a patient with a solitary metachronous adrenal metastasis diagnosed 3 years after resection of NSCLC.
  • Adrenalectomy was done, followed by combination chemotherapy with paclitaxel and carboplatin.
  • The median interval between the diagnosis of NSCLC and development of adrenal metastasis was 11.5 months.
  • Unilateral adrenal metastases were reported in 15 patients, whereas 3 had bilateral metastases.
  • Five patients were treated with adrenalectomy, and eight patients were treated with adrenalectomy and postoperative adjunctive chemotherapy.
  • Chemotherapy alone was used in two patients and two patients underwent palliative radiation therapy.
  • One patient was treated with intraarterial chemotherapy followed by radiation therapy.
  • Solitary metachronous adrenal metastases are rare.
  • There are no standard treatment guidelines for this group of patients.
  • Review of the literature showed that median survival after treatment was 19 months for the group treated with adrenalectomy followed by chemotherapy; 15 months for the chemotherapy group; 14 months for the adrenalectomy group; and 8 months for the group treated with palliative radiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasms, Second Primary / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy. Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Male. Pneumonectomy

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  • (PMID = 11823703.001).
  • [ISSN] 0277-3732
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 21
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24. Penel N, Brichet A, Prevost B, Duhamel A, Assaker R, Dubois F, Lafitte JJ: Pronostic factors of synchronous brain metastases from lung cancer. Lung Cancer; 2001 Aug-Sep;33(2-3):143-54
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  • [Title] Pronostic factors of synchronous brain metastases from lung cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: The prognosis of brain metastases (BM) from lung cancer is poor.
  • This retrospective study attempts to determine their prognostic factors, and to better define the role of different treatments.
  • METHODS: We reviewed the clinical characteristics of 271 consecutive patients with synchronous brain metastases (SBM) from lung cancer (small-cell lung cancers and non-small-cell lung cancers), collected between January 1985 and May 1993.
  • Patients had all undergone heterogeneous treatments.
  • Each physician had chosen the appropriate treatment after collegiate discussion.
  • Treatments included: neurosurgical resection in 56 cases, brain irradiation in 87 cases, and chemotherapy in 126 cases.
  • Median overall survival time from the date of histological diagnosis of SBM was 103 days (range, 1-1699).
  • In multivariate analysis, prognostic factors for longer overall survival times were: absence of adrenal metastases (P=0.007), neurosurgical resection (P=0.028), chemotherapy (P=0.032) and brain irradiation (P=0.008).
  • CONCLUSIONS: These results and others suggest that patients with SBM from lung cancer be considered for carcinologic treatment, and not only for best supportive care.
  • However, further studies are necessary to evaluate quality of life with or without carcinologic treatment.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cranial Irradiation. Female. Humans. Karnofsky Performance Status. Life Tables. Male. Middle Aged. Palliative Care. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11551409.001).
  • [ISSN] 0169-5002
  • [Journal-full-title] Lung cancer (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lung Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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25. de Haas RJ, Rahy Martin AC, Wicherts DA, Azoulay D, Castaing D, Adam R: Long-term outcome in patients with adrenal metastases following resection of colorectal liver metastases. Br J Surg; 2009 Aug;96(8):935-40
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  • [Title] Long-term outcome in patients with adrenal metastases following resection of colorectal liver metastases.
  • BACKGROUND: The prognostic significance of adrenal metastases (AMs) in patients with colorectal liver metastases (CLMs) remains unknown.
  • METHODS: All patients resected for CLMs who developed AMs at a single institution between 1992 and 2006 were included in the study.
  • RESULTS: Hepatectomy was performed in 796 patients, of whom 14 (1.8 per cent) developed AMs, a median of 28 months after initial diagnosis of CLMs; the remaining 782 patients (98.2 per cent) had no AMs.
  • All 14 patients had chemotherapy, and ten went on to adrenalectomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Colorectal Neoplasms. Liver Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy / mortality. Female. Hepatectomy / mortality. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  • [CommentIn] Br J Surg. 2010 Mar;97(3):458; author reply 458 [20140885.001]
  • (PMID = 19591169.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2168
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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26. Mourra N, Hoeffel C, Duvillard P, Guettier C, Flejou JF, Tiret E: Adrenalectomy for clinically isolated metastasis from colorectal carcinoma: report of eight cases. Dis Colon Rectum; 2008 Dec;51(12):1846-9
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  • [Title] Adrenalectomy for clinically isolated metastasis from colorectal carcinoma: report of eight cases.
  • PURPOSE: Metastasis to the adrenal glands is a relatively frequent finding at autopsy.
  • Adrenal metastasis of colorectal carcinoma is rare (14 percent).
  • Isolated adrenal metastasis is even rarer, and presents a therapeutic dilemma.
  • METHODS: Between 1997 and 2006, eight patients (5 men; mean age, 62 years) underwent adrenalectomy for metastasis of colorectal carcinoma.
  • The tumors were Stage D in four cases, Stage B in two cases, and Stage C in the remaining two.
  • Adjuvant chemotherapy was instituted.
  • RESULTS: All patients were asymptomatic, and adrenal metastasis was suspected from an elevated serum level of carcinoembryogenic antigen or discovered by computed tomography.
  • Adrenal metastases were metachronous in seven patients, with median disease-free interval of 3.75 years.
  • At the time of follow-up, one patient remained alive and free of disease 12 months after adrenalectomy, one patient was lost to follow-up after 22 months, and 6 patients have died from malignancy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The rarity of isolated adrenal metastasis of colorectal carcinoma makes a randomized, prospective trial comparing surgery vs. nonsurgical management highly unlikely.
  • Our results provide further support for surgical resection of solitary adrenal metastasis, which may translate into survival benefit.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Carcinoma / secondary. Carcinoma / surgery. Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Disease-Free Survival. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18317842.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0358
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the colon and rectum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Colon Rectum
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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27. Artifon EL, Lucon AM, Sakai P, Gerhardt R, Srougi M, Takagaki T, Ishioka S, Bhutani MS: EUS-guided alcohol ablation of left adrenal metastasis from non-small-cell lung carcinoma. Gastrointest Endosc; 2007 Dec;66(6):1201-5
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  • [Title] EUS-guided alcohol ablation of left adrenal metastasis from non-small-cell lung carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: EUS presents an alternative access to the left adrenal, making it possible to perform echo-guided needle biopsies.
  • OBJECTIVES: We present a case of EUS-guided therapy as alcohol ablation of left adrenal metastases.
  • CT scan revealed an invasive process in the left upper lobe of the lung and a mass in the left adrenal area that was considered highly suspicious for left adrenal metastases from the patient's lung carcinoma.
  • Cytopathologic examination of EUS-guided FNA confirmed the diagnosis of left adrenal metastasis.
  • Because the patient's main clinical symptom was disabling abdominal pain, we considered the possibility of injection of alcohol into the left adrenal metastases under EUS guidance to ablate the metastatic lesion and potentially relieve the abdominal pain.
  • RESULTS AND MAIN OUTCOME MEASUREMENT: On follow-up 3 days after EUS-guided left adrenal ablation, the patient had no abdominal pain.
  • CONCLUSION: EUS-guided alcohol ablation of left adrenal metastases in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer may provide palliation of cancer-related abdominal pain.
  • There may be potential for combining this (minimally invasive and easily performed EUS-guided therapeutic) technique for ablation of solitary adrenal metastasis in patients with lung cancer with other modalities (e.g., surgery, radiation, or chemotherapy) directed toward the primary pulmonary malignancy and adjacent mediastinal disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / pathology. Endosonography / methods. Ethanol / administration & dosage. Lung Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Abdominal Pain / etiology. Abdominal Pain / therapy. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 18061721.001).
  • [ISSN] 0016-5107
  • [Journal-full-title] Gastrointestinal endoscopy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gastrointest. Endosc.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 3K9958V90M / Ethanol
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28. Michigami T, Hiraga T, Williams PJ, Niewolna M, Nishimura R, Mundy GR, Yoneda T: The effect of the bisphosphonate ibandronate on breast cancer metastasis to visceral organs. Breast Cancer Res Treat; 2002 Oct;75(3):249-58
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  • [Title] The effect of the bisphosphonate ibandronate on breast cancer metastasis to visceral organs.
  • Bisphosphonate (BPs), specific inhibitors of osteoclastic bone resorption, are widely used therapeutic agents for bone metastases in breast cancer patients.
  • Nevertheless, the effects of BPs on visceral metastases are controversial.
  • Here we specifically studied the effects of the BP ibandronate on visceral metastases of breast cancer using two animal models.
  • In the first set of experiments, we examined the effects of ibandronate on lung metastasis using 4T1 mouse mammary tumor that developed pulmonary and bone metastases following orthotopic inoculation in syngeneic female Balb/c mice.
  • In the second set of experiments, we examined the effects of ibandronate on adrenal metastasis using a clone of the MDA-MB-231 (MDA-231) human breast cancer (MDA-231AD cells) that developed adrenal and bone metastases following intracardiac inoculation in female nude mice.
  • These breast cancer cells were stably transfected with a firefly luciferase cDNA to facilitate quantification of the metastatic tumor burden in visceral organs.
  • Ibandronate (4 microg/day, sc, daily) was given either after metastases were established (therapeutic administration) or at the time of tumor cell inoculation (preventative administration).
  • In both models with each protocol, ibandronate reproducibly reduced bone metastases, establishing that BPs are effective pharmacological agents for the treatment of bone metastases in breast cancer.
  • In the 4T1 model, neither the preventative nor therapeutic administration of ibandronate caused any effects on lung metastases.
  • In the MDA-231 model, the preventative administration of ibandronate significantly increased adrenal metastases.
  • However, no increase in the adrenal metastases was observed when an anti-cancer agent doxorubicin was co-administered.
  • Therapeutic administration of ibandronate showed no effects on the adrenal metastases.
  • Our results suggest that BPs cause no adverse effects on visceral metastases when administered in the manners that breast cancer patients usually receive.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Diphosphonates / pharmacology. Heart Neoplasms / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Disease Models, Animal. Doxorubicin / pharmacology. Female. Humans. Mice. Mice, Inbred BALB C. Neoplasm Transplantation. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 12353814.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-6806
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer research and treatment
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01-CA40035; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R0-DK45229; United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / R01-AR28149
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Diphosphonates; 114084-78-5 / ibandronic acid; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin
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29. Liu W, Tretiakova M, Kong J, Turkyilmaz M, Li YC, Krausz T: Expression of vitamin D3 receptor in kidney tumors. Hum Pathol; 2006 Oct;37(10):1268-78
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  • Recent studies have shown that vitamin D has important physiologic effects on proliferation and differentiation in a variety of benign and malignant cells.
  • Our preliminary immunohistochemical study showed that vitamin D receptor (VDR) was highly expressed in renal distal tubules and collecting ducts, whereas the renal proximal tubules and glomeruli did not express VDR.
  • Paraffin tissue microarray (TMA) blocks were constructed containing core cylinders from clear cell (52), papillary (35), chromophobe (20), sarcomatoid (20), and metastatic (59) renal cell carcinomas (RCCs).
  • Oncocytomas (20), normal adult kidneys (12), and normal adult adrenals (6) were also included.
  • Furthermore, VDR messenger RNA and protein expression was also quantified using real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis.
  • Vitamin D receptor was weakly positive in sarcomatoid variant RCCs (88% [14/16]) regardless of the type of associated original RCC.
  • The preferential expression of VDR in chromophobe RCCs, oncocytomas, and collecting duct carcinomas is in agreement with the concept that these tumors differentiate toward epithelium lining the distal convoluted tubules and collecting ducts.
  • In addition, the focal and much weaker VDR expression in clear cell RCCs makes VDR valuable in distinguishing clear cell RCC from other types of RCCs.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Gene Expression. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Male. Middle Aged. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Tissue Array Analysis

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  • (PMID = 16949927.001).
  • [ISSN] 0046-8177
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Calcitriol
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30. Tsukada Y, Tauchi K, Nakamura M, Kishimoto H, Yoshifuku S, Otagiri N, Sasahara K: [Complete response achieved in a case of gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumor by administration of imatinib mesilate with concurrent relatively high-dose steroid therapy to control side effects]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2010 Nov;37(11):2181-4
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  • [Title] [Complete response achieved in a case of gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumor by administration of imatinib mesilate with concurrent relatively high-dose steroid therapy to control side effects].
  • We present a 53-year-old man who underwent proximal gastrectomy for gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) in August 2005.
  • Imatinib mesilate (imatinib) 400 mg/day was started in February 2006 for left adrenal metastasis.
  • Tumor size markedly decreased by April 2006, but medication had to be discontinued due to a pruritic rash.
  • A distal pancreatectomy, splenectomy, and left adrenectomy were performed in August for recurrent adrenal metastases.
  • Imatinib 200 mg/day with PDL 40 mg/day was restarted in April due to an increase in tumor size.
  • Treatment continued without obvious side effects, and PDL dosage was tapered to 10 mg/day.
  • The tumor was no longer visible on CT in May 2008, and complete response is being maintained as of August 2009.
  • [MeSH-major] Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors / drug therapy. Piperazines / administration & dosage. Prednisolone / administration & dosage. Pyrimidines / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Benzamides. Drug Eruptions / etiology. Drug Eruptions / prevention & control. Drug Therapy, Combination. Humans. Imatinib Mesylate. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Pruritus / chemically induced. Pruritus / prevention & control. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 21084823.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Benzamides; 0 / Piperazines; 0 / Pyrimidines; 8A1O1M485B / Imatinib Mesylate; 9PHQ9Y1OLM / Prednisolone
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31. Cuesta Alcalá JA, Caballero Martínez MC, Ripa Saldías L, Pascual Piédrola I, Solchaga Martínez A, Aldave Villanueva J, Arrondo Arrondo JL, Grasa Lanau V, Ponz González M, Ipiens Aznar A: [Therapeutic approach in adrenal melanoma. Review of the literature]. Arch Esp Urol; 2001 Sep;54(7):685-90
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  • [Title] [Therapeutic approach in adrenal melanoma. Review of the literature].
  • [Transliterated title] Actitud terapéutica en el melanoma suprarrenal. Revisión de la literatura.
  • OBJECTIVE: To review the treatment strategies for adrenal melanoma and to emphasize the role of curative surgical resection and adjuvant treatment in selected patients with melanoma metastatic to the adrenal gland versus chemotherapy alone in the treatment of patients with advanced malignant melanoma.
  • METHODS: A case of adrenal gland metastasis of a cutaneous melanoma (Clark IV, Breslow 5 mm.) treated by excision one year before that was referred to the Urology Department for Wünderlich syndrome is presented.
  • RESULTS: The analyzed series of programmed adrenalectomy for adrenal metastases from melanoma describe survivals of 26 (3), 36 (9), 59 (3) and 72 (5) months.
  • In our case the patient died at home one month later due to stroke, although concomitant brain metastasis is suspected.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In the differential diagnosis of an incidentaloma, metastatic disease is likely in a patient with a history of malignant disease.
  • The frequency of malignant melanoma among metastatic adrenal disease varies between 1% and 8.6%; the majority are asymptomatic and incidental findings.
  • We believe that in selected patients with advanced malignant melanoma, with no major coexisting morbidity factors who have isolated melanoma metastatic to the adrenal gland or with limited extra-adrenal sites of disease, curative surgical resection and adjuvant treatment may improve their survival.
  • It must be emphasized that all patients should be followed after surgical resection of the primary tumor because it will facilitate staging of the disease and avoid emergency situations of ruptured friable metastases that make complete resection difficult.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Melanoma / surgery

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  • (PMID = 11692432.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-0614
  • [Journal-full-title] Archivos españoles de urología
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Esp. Urol.
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Number-of-references] 10
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32. Bitik B, Kalpakci Y, Altan E, Dogan E, Altundag K: Successful treatment of primary duodenal carcinoma with bilateral adrenal metastases with docetaxel-cisplatin-5-fluorouracil regimen. Ann Oncol; 2009 Feb;20(2):394-5
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  • [Title] Successful treatment of primary duodenal carcinoma with bilateral adrenal metastases with docetaxel-cisplatin-5-fluorouracil regimen.

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  • (PMID = 19211504.001).
  • [ISSN] 1569-8041
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Taxoids; 15H5577CQD / docetaxel; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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