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1. Ströbel P, Bargou R, Wolff A, Spitzer D, Manegold C, Dimitrakopoulou-Strauss A, Strauss L, Sauer C, Mayer F, Hohenberger P, Marx A: Sunitinib in metastatic thymic carcinomas: laboratory findings and initial clinical experience. Br J Cancer; 2010 Jul 13;103(2):196-200
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  • [Title] Sunitinib in metastatic thymic carcinomas: laboratory findings and initial clinical experience.
  • BACKGROUND: Thymic carcinoma (TC) is a rare aggressive tumour.
  • Median survival with current treatments is only 2 years.
  • METHODS: Laboratory analyses of snap-frozen tumour tissues were performed to detect activation and genetic mutations of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) in TC samples.
  • On the basis of molecular analyses showing activation of multiple RTKs in their tumour, four patients with metastatic TCs refractory to conventional therapies were treated with sunitinib according to standard protocols.
  • The overall survival with sunitinib treatment ranges from 4 to 40+ months.
  • Withdrawal of the drug in one patient prompted rapid tumour progression that could be controlled by re-administration of sunitinib.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Sunitinib is an active treatment for metastatic TC.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Indoles / therapeutic use. Protein Kinase Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Pyrroles / therapeutic use. Thymoma / drug therapy. Thymus Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Female. Humans. Male. Mutation. Neoplasm Metastasis. Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases / genetics

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  • (PMID = 20571495.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-1827
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Indoles; 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors; 0 / Pyrroles; 0 / sunitinib; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2906735
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2. Bisagni G, Rossi G, Cavazza A, Sartori G, Gardini G, Boni C: Long lasting response to the multikinase inhibitor bay 43-9006 (Sorafenib) in a heavily pretreated metastatic thymic carcinoma. J Thorac Oncol; 2009 Jun;4(6):773-5
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  • [Title] Long lasting response to the multikinase inhibitor bay 43-9006 (Sorafenib) in a heavily pretreated metastatic thymic carcinoma.
  • Metastatic thymic carcinoma is an aggressive neoplasm for which multimodal therapies are often ineffective.
  • Of note, a hitherto unreported c-kit missense mutation on exon 17 (D820E) identified in tumor cells seems to explain the clinical response and highlight the key role of molecular analysis in predicting efficacy of targeted therapies even in thymic neoplasms.
  • [MeSH-major] Benzenesulfonates / therapeutic use. Protein Kinase Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Pyridines / therapeutic use. Thymoma / drug therapy. Thymus Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 19461405.001).
  • [ISSN] 1556-1380
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of thoracic oncology : official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Thorac Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Benzenesulfonates; 0 / Phenylurea Compounds; 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors; 0 / Pyridines; 25X51I8RD4 / Niacinamide; 9ZOQ3TZI87 / sorafenib; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor
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3. Rodrigues TA, Quintela AG, Luz RM, López D: [Thyroid carcinoma with thymus-like differentiation (CASTLE): case report and review of the literature]. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol; 2008 Apr;52(3):550-5
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  • [Title] [Thyroid carcinoma with thymus-like differentiation (CASTLE): case report and review of the literature].
  • [Transliterated title] Carcinoma da tireóide com diferenciação semelhante a timo (CASTLE): relato de caso e revisão da literatura.
  • Carcinoma with thymus-like differentiation (CASTLE) is a rare malignant epithelial tumor which arises on soft tissue of the neck or thyroid gland.
  • It is important to differentiate CASTLE from primary or metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of head and neck, and from squamous cell thyroid carcinoma, because it has a different prognosis.
  • CD5 immunoreactivity might be helpful in CASTLE diagnosis.
  • Treatment includes surgical excision and radiotherapy.
  • Chemotherapy can be offered, although its efficacy is not clear.
  • After radiotherapy and chemotherapy, minimal response was obtained.
  • The authors intend to discuss the differential pathologic diagnosis and the best therapy of this indolent but recurrent neoplasm, that demands strict long term follow-up.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / pathology. Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Thymus Gland / pathology. Thymus Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / pathology. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18506281.001).
  • [ISSN] 1677-9487
  • [Journal-full-title] Arquivos brasileiros de endocrinologia e metabologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol
  • [Language] por
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Number-of-references] 20
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4. Hoshino S, Furukawa M, Aragane K, Horimoto M, Suzuki K, Shiono H, Minami M, Okumura M, Kijima T, Kawase I: Successful multimodal treatment in a patient with thymoma accompanied by hepatic metastasis. J Thorac Oncol; 2008 Jan;3(1):98-100
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  • [Title] Successful multimodal treatment in a patient with thymoma accompanied by hepatic metastasis.
  • Despite a benign histologic appearance, thymomas have metastatic potential.
  • Here we report a case of a patient with a Masaoka stage IVb thymoma who was successfully treated using a multimodal strategy including systemic chemotherapy, radiofrequency ablation, and thoracic surgery.
  • Despite complete remission after treatment, the patient developed myasthenia gravis with ptosis and neck drop symptoms.
  • Hepatic metastasis of thymoma is a relatively rare occurrence and, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first report about the application of radiofrequency ablation to thymoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Liver Neoplasms. Thymoma / drug therapy. Thymoma / pathology. Thymus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Thymus Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / therapeutic use. Biopsy, Needle. Catheter Ablation / methods. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Drug Administration Schedule. Etoposide / therapeutic use. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Middle Aged. Myasthenia Gravis / drug therapy. Myasthenia Gravis / pathology. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging. Positron-Emission Tomography. Thymectomy. Time Factors. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18166848.001).
  • [ISSN] 1556-1380
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of thoracic oncology : official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Thorac Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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5. Thomas PA, Payan-Defais MJ: [Epithelial tumours of the thymus]. Rev Pneumol Clin; 2010 Feb;66(1):41-51
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  • [Title] [Epithelial tumours of the thymus].
  • Epithelial tumours of the thymus include thymomas, thymic carcinomas and neuro-endocrine tumours.
  • However, even patients with an invasive disease may have a long clinical history, explaining that a 10-year or 20-year survival from diagnosis does not imply a definitive cure.
  • In daily practice, both the clinical Masaoka's staging system and the WHO histological classification condition the treatment strategies and allow to anticipate the prognosis.
  • The initial treatment, as well as that of the recurrence, is based mainly on a complete resection.
  • Postoperative radiotherapy is systematically added to the treatment of invasive tumours and/or to those with an aggressive histological subtype.
  • Inoperable or metastatic tumours require a cisplatine and anthracyclin-based chemotherapy, followed by radical surgery and/or radiotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / pathology. Thymoma / pathology. Thymus Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy. Disease Progression. Humans. Myasthenia Gravis / pathology. Myasthenia Gravis / surgery. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Survival Analysis. Thymus Gland / pathology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20207296.001).
  • [ISSN] 0761-8417
  • [Journal-full-title] Revue de pneumologie clinique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Pneumol Clin
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Number-of-references] 44
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6. Valente M, Schinzari G, Ricciotti A, Barone C: Role of chemotherapy in malignant thymoma. Ann Ital Chir; 2007 Sep-Oct;78(5):377-80
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  • [Title] Role of chemotherapy in malignant thymoma.
  • Thymomas and thymic carcinomas, which are rare epithelial tumors arising from the thymus gland, are the most common tumors of the anterior mediastinum.
  • Surgery is the principal treatment and is curative in early stage disease.
  • Radiation therapy, either alone or in combination with chemotherapy, may be an option both in not completely and completely resected disease.
  • Chemotherapy is offered to patients with locally advanced or metastatic thymoma and induces excellent responses race and prolonged survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Thymoma / drug therapy. Thymus Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 18338542.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-469X
  • [Journal-full-title] Annali italiani di chirurgia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Ital Chir
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 26
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7. Koizumi T, Takabayashi Y, Yamagishi S, Tsushima K, Takamizawa A, Tsukadaira A, Yamamoto H, Yamazaki Y, Yamaguchi S, Fujimoto K, Kubo K, Hirose Y, Hirayama J, Saegusa H: Chemotherapy for advanced thymic carcinoma: clinical response to cisplatin, doxorubicin, vincristine, and cyclophosphamide (ADOC chemotherapy). Am J Clin Oncol; 2002 Jun;25(3):266-8
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  • [Title] Chemotherapy for advanced thymic carcinoma: clinical response to cisplatin, doxorubicin, vincristine, and cyclophosphamide (ADOC chemotherapy).
  • The role of systemic chemotherapy and optimal regimen in thymic carcinoma remains uncertain.
  • We evaluated the clinical responsiveness of ADOC (cisplatin, doxorubicin, vincristine, and cyclophosphamide) chemotherapy for advanced thymic carcinoma that have distant metastatic or unresectable lesions.
  • Six patients obtained a partial response after ADOC chemotherapy and the overall clinical response rate was 75%.
  • Cisplatin plus VP-16 chemotherapy (PVP) was performed in three cases before the ADOC regimen, but PVP chemotherapy did not show beneficial effects in two patients.
  • Median survival time was 19 months.
  • ADOC chemotherapy appears to have significant activity against thymic carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Thymus Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Carcinoma / drug therapy. Carcinoma / pathology. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Remission Induction. Survival Rate. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 12040285.001).
  • [ISSN] 0277-3732
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; ADOC protocol
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8. Kimura Y, Okuda H: Resveratrol isolated from Polygonum cuspidatum root prevents tumor growth and metastasis to lung and tumor-induced neovascularization in Lewis lung carcinoma-bearing mice. J Nutr; 2001 Jun;131(6):1844-9
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  • [Title] Resveratrol isolated from Polygonum cuspidatum root prevents tumor growth and metastasis to lung and tumor-induced neovascularization in Lewis lung carcinoma-bearing mice.
  • We found that resveratrol, at doses of 2.5 and 10 mg/kg, significantly reduced the tumor volume (42%), tumor weight (44%) and metastasis to the lung (56%) in mice bearing highly metastatic Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) tumors, but not at a dose of 0.6 mg/kg.
  • Therefore, the inhibitory effects of resveratrol on tumor growth and lung metastasis could not be explained by natural killer or cytotoxic T-lymphocyte activation.
  • Resveratrol inhibited tumor-induced neovascularization at doses of 2.5 and 10 mg/kg in an in vivo model.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiogenesis Inhibitors / pharmacology. Anticarcinogenic Agents / pharmacology. Carcinoma, Lewis Lung / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Polygonaceae / chemistry. Stilbenes / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Apoptosis. Body Weight. CD4-CD8 Ratio. Cell Cycle. DNA / biosynthesis. Disease Models, Animal. Female. Mice. Mice, Inbred C57BL. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neovascularization, Pathologic / prevention & control. Organ Size. Spleen / immunology. Spleen / pathology. Thymus Gland / pathology. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 11385077.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3166
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of nutrition
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Nutr.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Anticarcinogenic Agents; 0 / Stilbenes; 9007-49-2 / DNA; Q369O8926L / resveratrol
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9. Lara PN Jr: Malignant thymoma: current status and future directions. Cancer Treat Rev; 2000 Apr;26(2):127-31
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  • [Title] Malignant thymoma: current status and future directions.
  • Malignant thymomas are rare indolent tumours of the anterior superior mediastinum.
  • Since tumour biopsy may potentially disrupt the thymic capsule, it is often not performed.
  • Patients are therefore diagnosed and staged at the time of definitive surgery.
  • Surgery is the principal treatment and is curative in early stage disease.
  • Radiation therapy, either alone or in combination with chemotherapy, is an option for both incompletely or completely resected disease.
  • Chemotherapy is offered to patients with locally advanced, recurrent, or metastatic thymoma, with excellent responses and prolonged survival.
  • Multicentre co-operative group clinical trials are required to assess novel thymoma therapies to maximize patient resources in this uncommon tumour.
  • [MeSH-major] Thymoma / diagnosis. Thymoma / therapy. Thymus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thymus Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy. Forecasting. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Salvage Therapy

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2000 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.
  • (PMID = 10772969.001).
  • [ISSN] 0305-7372
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer treatment reviews
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Treat. Rev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] ENGLAND
  • [Number-of-references] 37
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10. Talton CC, Hopkins JO, Walley BD, Kincaid EH: Metastatic thymic carcinoid: a case report. Am Surg; 2005 Jul;71(7):578-80
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  • [Title] Metastatic thymic carcinoid: a case report.
  • They have malignant potential, the capacity for distant metastasis, and often present with associated endocrinopathies.
  • This report describes a patient who was diagnosed with thymic carcinoid and Cushing syndrome at age 19 that, despite complete surgical excision of his tumor, developed local recurrence with distant metastases to his brain, lungs, and bone.
  • We discuss the evolution of this patient's illness as well as the therapies used in his care.
  • We also discuss the role of adjuvant therapy, which in our case consisted of chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and several new therapies including an antiangiogenesis agent and a tyrosine kinase inhibitor.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / secondary. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Palliative Care / methods. Thymus Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biopsy, Needle. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Bone Neoplasms / therapy. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Disease Progression. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / therapy. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Thymectomy / methods

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  • (PMID = 16089122.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-1348
  • [Journal-full-title] The American surgeon
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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11. Gripp S, Bölke E, Orth K: [Thymoma]. Wien Klin Wochenschr; 2005 Sep;117(18):620-7
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  • Thymoma is a rare epithelial tumor of the thymus, but the most common malignancy in the anterior mediastinum.
  • According to the WHO classification 6 histologic types of thymic epithelial tumors can be discriminated.
  • Tumor stage according to MASAOKA is the most important prognostic factor.
  • Non-invasive tumors (stage I) are usually completely resected and no further therapy is warranted.
  • For incompletely resected tumors and locally advanced invasive thymomas (stage Ill-IV) postoperative radiotherapy with 50-60 Gy is advisable.
  • Chemotherapy, preferably with Cisplatinum, is indicated with inoperable thymomas or metastatic disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Drug Therapy / methods. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control. Radiotherapy / methods. Thymoma / diagnosis. Thymoma / therapy. Thymus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thymus Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 16416343.001).
  • [ISSN] 0043-5325
  • [Journal-full-title] Wiener klinische Wochenschrift
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Wien. Klin. Wochenschr.
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Austria
  • [Number-of-references] 99
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12. Traficante D, Longo F, Mansueto G, Salerno M, Scirocchi R, De Petris L, Marchei P: [Combined treatment of thymoma. State of the art and our experience]. Recenti Prog Med; 2000 Oct;91(10):513-6
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  • [Title] [Combined treatment of thymoma. State of the art and our experience].
  • Thymoma is the most common neoplasm of the anterior mediastinum and is frequently associated with paraneoplastic syndromes.
  • Surgery is the first therapeutic option, but in advanced disease a multidisciplinary approach is feasible, because of chemosensitivity and radiosensitivity of the disease.
  • Chemotherapy based on cisplatin plus anthracyclines could be performed in advanced and metastatic disease.
  • The optimal sequence of chemotherapy, radiation therapy and surgery is yet to be defined.
  • In our experience, primary chemotherapy seems to give best results in advanced thymoma with good tolerability.
  • [MeSH-major] Thymoma / therapy. Thymus Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Radiotherapy. Thymectomy

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  • (PMID = 11072740.001).
  • [ISSN] 0034-1193
  • [Journal-full-title] Recenti progressi in medicina
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Recenti Prog Med
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] Editorial; English Abstract; Review
  • [Publication-country] ITALY
  • [Number-of-references] 24
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13. Hsu HC, Huang EY, Wang CJ, Sun LM, Chen HC: Postoperative radiotherapy in thymic carcinoma: treatment results and prognostic factors. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2002 Mar 1;52(3):801-5
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  • [Title] Postoperative radiotherapy in thymic carcinoma: treatment results and prognostic factors.
  • PURPOSE: To analyze the treatment results and prognostic factors of patients with primary thymic carcinoma treated by total or subtotal tumor resection followed by radiotherapy alone.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: Between October 1987 and October 1997, 26 patients with thymic carcinoma were treated with complete or incomplete surgical resection and postoperative adjuvant irradiation without chemotherapy.
  • The radiation was delivered with 10-MV X-ray given 5 days per week at 1.8 to 2 Gy per fraction.
  • Total doses ranged from 40 to 70 Gy.
  • RESULTS: The 5-year overall survival rate, local control rate, and distant metastasis-free rate were 77%, 91%, and 57%, respectively.
  • Several prognostic factors, including sex, age, extent of resection (total resection vs. subtotal resection), Masaoka staging (early Stage I + II vs. advanced Stage III + IV), pathology (low-grade vs. high-grade), and postoperative radiation dose (> or =60 Gy vs. <60 Gy), were evaluated in univariate analysis.
  • The Masaoka staging system was the only statistically significant predictor in overall survival rate (p = 0.0482) and distant metastasis-free rate (p = 0.0193).
  • For resectable tumors, surgery and postoperative radiotherapy can achieve good local control, but the distant metastatic rate is still high.
  • Further investigation of more effective chemotherapy is needed.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / radiotherapy. Carcinoma / surgery. Thymus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Thymus Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Analysis of Variance. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 11849804.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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14. Palmieri G, Montella L, Lastoria S: [Thymoma and somatostatin analogs. Biology, diagnostic and clinical practice]. Minerva Endocrinol; 2001 Sep;26(3):193-5
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  • In the presence of locally advanced, metastatic or inoperable disease, combined strategies including chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery are now being evaluated.
  • Scintigraphy with 111In DTPA-D-Phe 1 octreotide was used for the first time in a relevant series of patients with thymic tumour (13 cases) by our research group.
  • The presence of somatostatin receptors (ss-R) assayed in vivo provided the rationale for the use of a treatment based on the octreotide analog in a patient with thymoma and aplasia of the erythroid series (pure red cell aplasia, PRCA) in whom a complete response for the tumour and the remission of anemia was obtained.
  • The efficacy of this treatment was confirmed by our series of patients with chemoresistant thymic tumour and by national and international confirmations.
  • These data, ranging from in vivo diagnosis to treatment and the in vitro study of receptor expression, confirm that somatostatin plays a major role in thymic tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Octreotide / analogs & derivatives. Pentetic Acid / analogs & derivatives. Somatostatin / therapeutic use. Thymoma / drug therapy. Thymus Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Humans. Indium Radioisotopes. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Neoplasm Staging. Prednisone / administration & dosage. Protein Isoforms / analysis. Protein Isoforms / metabolism. Radiopharmaceuticals. Receptors, Somatostatin / analysis. Receptors, Somatostatin / metabolism. Red-Cell Aplasia, Pure / drug therapy. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11753243.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-1977
  • [Journal-full-title] Minerva endocrinologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minerva Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Indium Radioisotopes; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Protein Isoforms; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0 / Receptors, Somatostatin; 142694-57-3 / SDZ 215-811; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin; 7A314HQM0I / Pentetic Acid; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone
  • [Number-of-references] 10
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15. Okamoto T, Sano T, Wakai H, Murano J, Tanaka K, Tazaki H, Kobayashi K, Naito S, Hashimoto H, Fujita K, Aoyama T, Sakamoto H, Hara A, Matsunaga K, Kamata K: [Irradiation for invasive malignant thymoma led a remission of refractory minimal change nephrotic syndrome: a case report]. Nihon Jinzo Gakkai Shi; 2010;52(4):515-22
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  • [Title] [Irradiation for invasive malignant thymoma led a remission of refractory minimal change nephrotic syndrome: a case report].
  • A 46-year-old man was diagnosed as malignant thymoma, and was treated with chemotherapy and radiotherapy in 2003.
  • Intravenous steroid therapy of 500 mg/day for 3 days, following oral administration of 15 mg/day prednisolone and 75 mg cyclosporine twice a day was taken from July 2004.
  • Chest CT and a biopsy specimen from left pleural mass lesion revealed the pleural invasion of malignant thymoma.
  • Sixty Gray radiotherapy diminished the pleural metastatic lesion and also improved proteinuria from 6.6 g/day to 0.4 g/day.
  • Though there have been a few case reports of MCNS concomitant with malignant thymoma, this is the first report that radiotherapy for metastatic malignant thymoma improved NS while diminishing the tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Nephrosis, Lipoid / complications. Nephrosis, Lipoid / radiotherapy. Pleural Neoplasms / pathology. Pleural Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Thymoma / complications. Thymoma / radiotherapy. Thymus Neoplasms / complications. Thymus Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Remission Induction. Syndrome

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  • (PMID = 20560473.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-2385
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Jinzo Gakkai shi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nihon Jinzo Gakkai Shi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Number-of-references] 34
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16. Palmieri G, Merola G, Federico P, Petillo L, Marino M, Lalle M, Milella M, Ceribelli A, Montella L, Merola C, Del Prete S, Bergaglio M, De Placido S, Di Lorenzo G: Preliminary results of phase II study of capecitabine and gemcitabine (CAP-GEM) in patients with metastatic pretreated thymic epithelial tumors (TETs). Ann Oncol; 2010 Jun;21(6):1168-72
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  • [Title] Preliminary results of phase II study of capecitabine and gemcitabine (CAP-GEM) in patients with metastatic pretreated thymic epithelial tumors (TETs).
  • BACKGROUND: No previous prospective trials have been reported with capecitabine and gemcitabine (CAP-GEM) in patients with metastatic thymic epithelial tumors (TETs).
  • The primary end point was objective response rate (RR); secondary end points were toxicity, progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival.

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  • (PMID = 19880439.001).
  • [ISSN] 1569-8041
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; 6804DJ8Z9U / Capecitabine; B76N6SBZ8R / gemcitabine; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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17. Zhi XY, Liu BD, Xu QS, Zhang Y, Su L, Wang RT, Hu M, Liu L: [Surgical treatment of primary thymoma]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi; 2007 Feb 13;87(7):458-60
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  • [Title] [Surgical treatment of primary thymoma].
  • OBJECTIVE: To summarize the clinical and pathologic features of thymoma and assess surgical treatment thereof.
  • METHODS: The clinical data of 66 thymoma patients, 35 males and 31 females, aged 40.8 (30 approximately 59), who underwent surgical treatment in the past 20 years, were analyzed.
  • Fourteen of the 66 patients underwent radical resection, resection of the whole thymus and thymoma, 40 underwent simple resection of thymus, 5 underwent palliative resection of thymoma, and 6 underwent thymectomy exploration.
  • Recurrence of tumor was observed in 4 patients.
  • Postoperative radiotherapy and chemotherapy were performed 24 h after the operation, mainly in the cases of invasive or metastatic thymoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Resection and postoperative radiotherapy or chemotherapy are necessary in treatment of thymoma, particularly complete thymectomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Thymectomy / methods. Thymoma / surgery. Thymus Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Drug Therapy. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Postoperative Care / methods. Radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 17459222.001).
  • [ISSN] 0376-2491
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua yi xue za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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18. Dhall G, Ginsburg HB, Bodenstein L, Fefferman NR, Greco MA, Chang MW, Gardner S: Thymoma in children: report of two cases and review of literature. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2004 Oct;26(10):681-5
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  • Thymoma is an uncommon tumor of childhood.
  • Stage of the tumor is an independent prognostic factor for survival.
  • Surgery is the treatment of choice for stage I and stage II tumors.
  • Chemotherapy is reserved for patients with refractory or metastatic disease.
  • However, radiation therapy is not an attractive option for children due to its side-effects on developing organs.
  • [MeSH-major] Thymectomy. Thymoma / surgery. Thymus Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic. Child. Chromosome Disorders / complications. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 12. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 6. Dyspnea / etiology. Epithelial Cells / pathology. Female. Hamartoma / complications. Humans. Intellectual Disability / complications. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Remission Induction. Skin Diseases / complications. Translocation, Genetic

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  • (PMID = 15454843.001).
  • [ISSN] 1077-4114
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 34
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19. Port JL, Ginsberg RJ: Surgery for thymoma. Chest Surg Clin N Am; 2001 May;11(2):421-37
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  • Although thymoma is an uncommon tumor, it represents the most frequently encountered tumor of the anterior mediastinum.
  • The initial treatment of choice for patients with thymoma that do not present with unresectable local or diffuse metastatic disease is complete surgical resection.
  • With recurrences appearing up to 5 and even 10 years postoperatively, time will tell if these minimally invasive techniques are comparable with current standard approaches.
  • Multiple studies have failed to determine conclusively the role of induction chemotherapy and adjuvant radiation.
  • Prospective multi-institutional trials are required to elucidate further the role of such therapies in these rare tumors.
  • Some promising reports on response to chemotherapy have led them to develop an induction chemotherapy protocol for patients with clinically advanced disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Thymoma / surgery. Thymus Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Thymectomy / methods

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  • (PMID = 11413765.001).
  • [ISSN] 1052-3359
  • [Journal-full-title] Chest surgery clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chest Surg. Clin. N. Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 45
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20. Stefanou D, Goussia AC, Arkoumani E, Metafratzi ZM, Syminelakis S, Arkoumani E, Agnantis NJ: Mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the thymus: a case presentation and a literature review. Pathol Res Pract; 2004;200(7-8):567-73
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  • [Title] Mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the thymus: a case presentation and a literature review.
  • Mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the thymus is an unusual, but well-recognized variant of thymic malignant tumors.
  • Histologic examination of the surgically resected mass showed features of a mucoepidermoid carcinoma with associated infiltration of the pleural tissue.
  • Postoperative radiotherapy and chemotherapy were performed, and the patient died two months after initial diagnosis.
  • In case of the absence of metastatic disease or other common primary neoplasms of the thymus, the diagnosis of a mucoepidermoid thymic carcinoma should be taken into consideration, although this tumor is rare.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Mucoepidermoid / pathology. Thymus Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Pleura / pathology. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 15462505.001).
  • [ISSN] 0344-0338
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology, research and practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Res. Pract.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 11
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21. Hernandez-Ilizaliturri FJ, Tan D, Cipolla D, Connolly G, Debb G, Ramnath N: Multimodality therapy for thymic carcinoma (TCA): results of a 30-year single-institution experience. Am J Clin Oncol; 2004 Feb;27(1):68-72
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  • [Title] Multimodality therapy for thymic carcinoma (TCA): results of a 30-year single-institution experience.
  • SUMMARY: The aim of this study was to correlate the clinicopathologic features and therapeutic approaches with the outcome of patients with thymic carcinoma (TCA), an aggressive, uncommon malignancy of the anterior mediastinum.
  • TCA is morphologically distinct from thymoma, a cytologically bland, often encapsulated, locally invasive, rarely metastatic tumor.
  • The Roswell Park Cancer Institute tumor registry was used to identify patients with TCA or invasive thymic neoplasm of the epithelial type (TNET).
  • Between 1971 and 2001, 22 patients had a pathologic diagnosis of TCA and/or TNET.
  • The mean age at diagnosis was 53 years (range: 19-77), and the male/female ratio was 3:1 (16/6).
  • Postoperative cisplatin-based chemotherapy and radiation was administered to seven patients.
  • Incomplete surgical resection did not preclude long-term survival if multimodality platinum-based therapy was used.
  • [MeSH-major] Thymus Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • [ErratumIn] Am J Clin Oncol. 2004 Apr;27(2):127
  • (PMID = 14758136.001).
  • [ISSN] 1537-453X
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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22. Braun JM, Ko HL, Schierholz JM, Weir D, Blackwell CC, Beuth J: Application of standardized mistletoe extracts augment immune response and down regulates metastatic organ colonization in murine models. Cancer Lett; 2001 Sep 10;170(1):25-31
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  • [Title] Application of standardized mistletoe extracts augment immune response and down regulates metastatic organ colonization in murine models.
  • Regular subcutaneous (s.c.) and intraperitoneal (i.p.) applications (three times per week for 14 consecutive days; 5 and 50 microg per injection and mouse) upregulated thymus weight and peripheral blood leukocyte counts in tumor bearing mice.
  • To check the influence of ME-A and ME-P treatment on growth of experimental metastases, RAW 117 H 10 lymphosarcoma cells and L-1 sarcoma cells were intravenously inoculated into BALB/c-mice to establish liver and lung colonization.
  • ME-A and ME-P were regularly administered starting 24 h after tumor cell challenge.
  • Organ colonization was investigated on day 14 after tumor cell inoculation and demonstrated statistically significant (P<0.05) reductions of experimental liver and lung metastases for ME-A and ME-P treated mice.
  • [MeSH-major] Mistletoe / therapeutic use. Neoplasms, Experimental / drug therapy. Neoplasms, Experimental / pathology. Phytotherapy. Plants, Medicinal
  • [MeSH-minor] Adjuvants, Immunologic / therapeutic use. Animals. Mice. Mice, Inbred BALB C. Neoplasm Metastasis / drug therapy. Neoplasm Metastasis / immunology

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  • (PMID = 11448531.001).
  • [ISSN] 0304-3835
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer letters
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Lett.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adjuvants, Immunologic
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23. Chakrabarti R, Subramaniam V, Abdalla S, Jothy S, Prud'homme GJ: Tranilast inhibits the growth and metastasis of mammary carcinoma. Anticancer Drugs; 2009 Jun;20(5):334-45
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  • [Title] Tranilast inhibits the growth and metastasis of mammary carcinoma.
  • Tranilast (N-[3,4-dimethoxycinnamonyl]-anthranilic acid) is a drug of low toxicity that is orally administered, and has been used clinically in Japan as an antiallergic and antifibrotic agent.
  • Tranilast inhibited the proliferation of several tumor cell lines including mouse mammary carcinoma (4T1), rat mammary carcinoma stem cell (LA7), and human breast carcinoma (MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7).
  • In the highly metastatic 4T1 cell line, tranilast inhibited phospho-Smad2 generation, consistent with a blockade of TGF-beta signaling.
  • Although tranilast only partially inhibited TGF-beta production by 4T1 tumor cells, it potently inhibited the production of TGF-beta, interferon-gamma, IL-6, IL-10, and IL-17 by lymphoid cells, suggesting a general anti-inflammatory activity.
  • Tranilast reduced (>50%) the growth of the primary tumor.
  • However, its effects on metastasis were more striking, with more than 90% reduction of metastases in the lungs and no metastasis in the liver.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Carcinoma / secondary. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental / drug therapy. Neoplasm Proteins / antagonists & inhibitors. Transforming Growth Factor beta / antagonists & inhibitors. ortho-Aminobenzoates / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Line, Tumor / drug effects. Cell Line, Tumor / transplantation. Cell Transdifferentiation / drug effects. Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor. Enzyme Activation / drug effects. Female. Humans. Lymphoma / pathology. Mice. Mice, Inbred BALB C. Mice, Inbred C57BL. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases / antagonists & inhibitors. Organ Specificity. Rats. Rats, Sprague-Dawley. Smad2 Protein / metabolism. Species Specificity. Thymoma / pathology. Thymus Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19322072.001).
  • [ISSN] 1473-5741
  • [Journal-full-title] Anti-cancer drugs
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Drugs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Smad2 Protein; 0 / Smad2 protein, mouse; 0 / Transforming Growth Factor beta; 0 / ortho-Aminobenzoates; EC 2.7.11.24 / Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases; HVF50SMY6E / tranilast
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