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1. Osei DA, Alvandi F, Brooks JS, Ogilvie CM: PEComa of the Upper Extremity: A Unique Case and Description of an Initial Response to Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy. Sarcoma; 2007;2007:53056
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  • [Title] PEComa of the Upper Extremity: A Unique Case and Description of an Initial Response to Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy.
  • Purpose. Tumors of the perivascular epithelial cell tumor (PEComa), first described in 1992, represent a rare soft tissue neoplasm of varying malignant potential.
  • Cases of PEComa have been previously described in a few somatic and visceral sites, most notably in the gastrointestinal tract, genitourinary tract, and one extremity case in the thigh.
  • To date, most malignant cases of PEComa have been resistant to chemotherapy, and as such, an appropriate therapy is not known.
  • Open biopsy revealed a high-grade malignant lesion, and the patient subsequently underwent both neoadjuvant therapy with doxorubicin, ifosfamide and mensa, and radiation therapy prior to wide surgical resection.
  • After six cycles of chemotherapy, the tumor underwent an 80% reduction in size.
  • Subsequent neoadjuvant radiation therapy of 5000 cGy did not further reduce the size of the tumor.
  • Following limb sparing radical resection, pathology showed 20% necrosis within a high-grade malignant lesion.
  • Twenty one months after beginning treatment, the patient shows no sign of local recurrence, but metastatic disease was confirmed after resection of a lung nodule.
  • Conclusion. Given the favorable albeit partial response seen in this patient, the course of therapy outlined here may represent a good starting point for neoadjuvant treatment in a tumor with a historically bleak prognosis.
  • In addition, the diagnosis of PEComa must now be entertained in the differential diagnosis of upper extremity soft tissue sarcoma.

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  • (PMID = 18274609.001).
  • [ISSN] 1357-714X
  • [Journal-full-title] Sarcoma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Sarcoma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Egypt
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2225462
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2. Rossi G, Marchioni A, Romagnani E, Bertolini F, Longo L, Cavazza A, Barbieri F: Primary lung cancer presenting with gastrointestinal tract involvement: clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical features in a series of 18 consecutive cases. J Thorac Oncol; 2007 Feb;2(2):115-20
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  • [Title] Primary lung cancer presenting with gastrointestinal tract involvement: clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical features in a series of 18 consecutive cases.
  • BACKGROUND: Lung cancer initially manifesting as gastrointestinal (GI)-tract metastasis is exceedingly rare, representing a diagnostic challenge and a late-stage disease sign.
  • The clinicopathologic characteristics of the largest series of lung carcinomas initially presenting with GI involvement were described, focusing on differential diagnosis and therapeutic options.
  • METHODS: Eighteen consecutive cases of lung cancer (11 surgical specimens and 7 biopsies) initially diagnosed on GI histologic samples were identified during routine pathologist practice.
  • The small bowel was the most common GI involved site (12 cases), followed by the stomach (four) and large intestine (two).
  • Only half of cases were correctly diagnosed on GI biopsies.
  • Fourteen patients died shortly from disease (mean follow-up, 3 months); two are still alive with multiple metastases, and two patients with the GI tract as the unique site of metastasis underwent pulmonary lobectomy and chemotherapy and are alive without evidence of disease.
  • CONCLUSION: Lung cancer presenting as GI-tract metastasis is probably more frequent than expected, and pathologists should always keep in mind this possibility when dealing with undifferentiated GI carcinoma.
  • Although GI metastasis from lung cancer is associated with dismal outcomes, pulmonary resection coupled with chemotherapy might represent a therapeutic option in selected patients with a solitary GI-tract metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Lung Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17410025.001).
  • [ISSN] 1556-1380
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of thoracic oncology : official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Thorac Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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3. Pectasides D, Psyrri A, Pliarchopoulou K, Floros T, Papaxoinis G, Skondra M, Papatsibas G, Macheras A, Athanasas G, Arapantoni-Datioti P, Economopoulos T: Gastric metastases originating from breast cancer: report of 8 cases and review of the literature. Anticancer Res; 2009 Nov;29(11):4759-63
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  • [Title] Gastric metastases originating from breast cancer: report of 8 cases and review of the literature.
  • BACKGROUND: Breast cancer metastasis to the stomach is rare.
  • It is very important to distinguish a breast cancer metastasis to the stomach from a primary gastric cancer on the basis of clinical, endoscopic, radiological and histopathological features, in order to administer the appropriate treatment.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eight patients with breast cancer metastasis to the stomach were identified in our database between 1995 and 2008.
  • RESULTS: The median age at initial breast cancer diagnosis was 59.5 years (range 44-75 years), while the median interval between the primary breast cancer and the gastric involvement was 41 months (range 2-82 months).
  • All the patients received chemotherapy and two of them were also treated with hormonal treatment.
  • Two patients underwent surgical intervention, while one patient who had gastric involvement as the only metastatic site will proceed to surgical resection of the stomach.
  • The response rate to chemotherapy was 50% (1 complete response [CR], 3 partial responses [PR]), and the median survival was 11 months (range, 1-44+ months).
  • CONCLUSION: Breast cancer metastasis to the stomach can be differentiated from primary gastric cancer by comparing the biopsies from the gastric metastasis with the original histological slides from the primary breast tumor.
  • Appropriate systemic treatment for metastatic breast carcinoma is the preferred treatment, whereas surgical intervention should be reserved for palliation or may be indicated in cases of solitary resectable gastrointestinal tract metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Stomach Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Carcinoma, Lobular / pathology. Carcinoma, Lobular / secondary. Female. Humans. Middle Aged


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4. Yang GC, Wang J, Yee HT: Interwoven dendritic processes of follicular dendritic cell sarcoma demonstrated on ultrafast papanicolaou-stained smears: a case report. Acta Cytol; 2006 Sep-Oct;50(5):534-8
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  • CASE: We observed novel cytologic features of FDC sarcoma in a liver fine needle aspirate of a 46-year-old man status post surgery and chemotherapy for FDC sarcoma, originating in the gastrointestinal tract with metastases to the liver, pancreas and spleen.
  • CONCLUSION: The ultrastructural features of a web of interwoven, dendritic, cytoplasmic processes of FDC tumor was demonstrated for the first time on cytology.
  • Observation of this feature may allow the diagnosis to be made on cytology prior to histology, immunohistochemistry or electron microscopy.
  • [MeSH-major] Dendritic Cells, Follicular / pathology. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis. Sarcoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Antigens, Surface / analysis. Antigens, Surface / immunology. Antigens, Surface / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / immunology. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Biopsy, Needle. Cell Shape. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Liver / pathology. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Papanicolaou Test / methods. Papanicolaou Test / standards. Predictive Value of Tests

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  • (PMID = 17017440.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Surface; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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5. Marin JJ, Romero MR, Blazquez AG, Herraez E, Keck E, Briz O: Importance and limitations of chemotherapy among the available treatments for gastrointestinal tumours. Anticancer Agents Med Chem; 2009 Feb;9(2):162-84

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  • [Title] Importance and limitations of chemotherapy among the available treatments for gastrointestinal tumours.
  • Gastrointestinal tumours constitute one of the worldwide leading causes of death.
  • One important limitation in the battle against these types of cancer is their lack of sensitivity to currently available chemotherapy and the development of drug resistance during treatment.
  • The mechanisms responsible for this refractivity include a reduction in drug uptake, enhanced drug export, intracellular inactivation of the effective agent, alteration of the molecular target, an increase in the activity of the target route to be inhibited or the appearance or stimulation of alternative routes, enhanced repair of drug-induced modification in the target molecules, and activation/inhibition of intracellular signalling pathways, which leads to a negative balance between apoptosis/survival of tumour cells.
  • A better understanding of these mechanisms is needed in order to develop both accurate tests to predict the lack of response to chemotherapy and novel approaches aimed to overcome the drug resistance of gastrointestinal tumours.
  • The complexity of this issue is further increased owing to the existence of marked differences among the types of primary malignant gastrointestinal tumours and the diversity of tissues from which metastatic cells can access the gut.
  • The present article reviews anti-cancer agents used either alone or, more frequently, combined in regimens, as neoadjuvant or postsurgical adjuvant chemotherapy within the context of the available curative and palliative therapeutic options used to treat the most common types of cancer of the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / pharmacology. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Apoptosis / drug effects. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor. Humans

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  • (PMID = 19199863.001).
  • [ISSN] 1875-5992
  • [Journal-full-title] Anti-cancer agents in medicinal chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Agents Med Chem
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Number-of-references] 315
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6. Schmidbauer S, Ladurner R, Jückstock H, Trupka AW, Mussack T, Hallfeldt KK: [Surgical and adjuvant therapy of neuroendocrine tumors of the gastrointestinal tract and their metastases. A retrospective analysis of personal patient group]. Chirurg; 2001 Aug;72(8):945-52
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  • [Title] [Surgical and adjuvant therapy of neuroendocrine tumors of the gastrointestinal tract and their metastases. A retrospective analysis of personal patient group].
  • [Transliterated title] Die operative und adjuvante Therapie neuroendokriner Tumoren des Gastrointestinaltrakts und ihrer Metastasen. Eine retrospektive Analyse des eigenen Patientenguts.
  • INTRODUCTION: Carcinoid tumors are the most common neuroendocrine tumors of the gastrointestinal tract.
  • Surgical treatment and prognosis depend on the location of the tumor.
  • METHOD: Between 01.01.1985 and 31.12.1999 25 patients with neuroendocrine tumors of the gastrointestinal tract or their metastases were treated in our institution.
  • RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The most frequent primary sites were the ileum and jejunum (36%), appendix (36%), stomach (12%), pancreas (8%), colon (4%) and bronchus with hepatic metastasis (4%).
  • A malignant carcinoid syndrome was present in 8 patients.
  • Some patients with advanced disease needed some surgery for tumor debulking and resection of metastases.
  • In non-resectable liver metastases hepatic arterial chemotherapy and chemoembolization after implantation of port catheters seem to be very beneficial therapeutic options.
  • A fixed part of the therapeutic regime in progressive disease is adjuvant chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil and streptozotocin and symptomatic therapy with octreotide.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / surgery. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Neuroendocrine Tumors / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Chemoembolization, Therapeutic. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Fluorouracil / adverse effects. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Malignant Carcinoid Syndrome / drug therapy. Malignant Carcinoid Syndrome / surgery. Middle Aged. Octreotide / administration & dosage. Octreotide / adverse effects. Retrospective Studies. Streptozocin / administration & dosage. Streptozocin / adverse effects. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11554141.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-4722
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Chirurg; Zeitschrift für alle Gebiete der operativen Medizen
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chirurg
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 5W494URQ81 / Streptozocin; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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7. Hoshi A, Tokunaga M, Usui Y, Yamashita H, Sasaki H, Kobayashi Y, Shima M, Miyakita H, Terachi T: [Metastatic small intestinal tumor associated with transitional cell carcinoma: a report of 2 cases and review of cases in Japan]. Hinyokika Kiyo; 2005 Jan;51(1):41-4
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  • [Title] [Metastatic small intestinal tumor associated with transitional cell carcinoma: a report of 2 cases and review of cases in Japan].
  • However, metastasis to the gastrointestinal tract is rare.
  • Case 1: A 87-year-old man had a history of bladder tumor (TCC, grade 3, pT2bN0M0) and has transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TUR-BT) three times.
  • As computed tomography (CT) showed abdominal free air, our diagnosis was perforation of gastrointestinal tract.
  • We found the elastic hard tumor in the ileum on the perforated lesion, which showed metastatic TCC in the ileum pathologicaly.
  • CT showed a bladder tumor invaded into the prostate (pT4aN1M0), we performed total cyctectomy and ileal conduit after neo-adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / secondary. Ileal Neoplasms / secondary. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cystectomy. Humans. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 15732341.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-1994
  • [Journal-full-title] Hinyokika kiyo. Acta urologica Japonica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hinyokika Kiyo
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Number-of-references] 15
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8. Ji YI, Jung MH: Gastrointestinal bleeding caused by ileal metastasis of a tubal complete mole: a case report. J Womens Health (Larchmt); 2010 Jun;19(6):1217-20
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  • [Title] Gastrointestinal bleeding caused by ileal metastasis of a tubal complete mole: a case report.
  • BACKGROUND: Tubal hydatidiform mole is known to be an extremely rare disease, moreover, gastrointestinal metastasis from an ectopic complete mole has never been reported.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: A 33-year-old woman presented with gastrointestinal bleeding.
  • The patient received nine cycles of adjuvant methotrexate chemotherapy after small bowel resection and anastomosis.
  • She was been without recurrence 20 months after therapy.
  • DISCUSSION: Gestational trophoblastic diseases in ectopic pregnancy are rare and gastrointestinal tract metastasis is very infrequent.
  • There have been a few case reports of choriocarcinoma presenting gastrointestinal tract metastasis.
  • To our knowledge, this is the first report of molar pregnancy in a Fallopian tube with ileal metastasis.
  • CONCLUSION: Ectopic molar pregnancy with gastrointestinal metastasis carries a high risk of intestinal perforation and uncontrollable gastrointestinal bleeding.
  • Despite its rarity, gastrointestinal metastasis should nevertheless be considered a possible cause for gastrointestinal bleeding in ectopic molar pregnancy patients after elimination of the more common etiologies.
  • [MeSH-major] Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage / etiology. Hydatidiform Mole / secondary. Ileal Neoplasms / secondary. Pregnancy, Tubal

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  • (PMID = 20392142.001).
  • [ISSN] 1931-843X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of women's health (2002)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Womens Health (Larchmt)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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9. Vithayasai N, Ningsanond V, Niramis R: Wilms' tumor with metastasis to duodenum - the first reported case in Thailand. J Med Assoc Thai; 2000 Sep;83(9):1116-9
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  • [Title] Wilms' tumor with metastasis to duodenum - the first reported case in Thailand.
  • A case of Wilms' tumor with gastrointestinal tract metastasis of the duodenum was documented in a 22 month - old - child.
  • She had been diagnosed with Wilms' tumor stage III, treated surgically and by radiation and chemotherapy about 1 year previously.
  • While she was still on chemotherapy, she developed hematemesis and clinical signs of partial gut obstruction.
  • Gastroscopy and upper gastrointestinal series showed an intraluminal vascular mass in the duodenal bulb and histologically proved to be Wilms' tumor.
  • We believe this is the first report in the world of Wilms' tumor with gastrointestinal tract metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Duodenal Neoplasms / secondary. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Wilms Tumor / secondary

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  • (PMID = 11075982.001).
  • [ISSN] 0125-2208
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand = Chotmaihet thangphaet
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Assoc Thai
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] THAILAND
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10. Seo JB, Im JG, Goo JM, Chung MJ, Kim MY: Atypical pulmonary metastases: spectrum of radiologic findings. Radiographics; 2001 Mar-Apr;21(2):403-17
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  • [Title] Atypical pulmonary metastases: spectrum of radiologic findings.
  • Typical radiologic findings of a pulmonary metastasis include multiple round variable-sized nodules and diffuse thickening of interstitium.
  • In daily practice, however, atypical radiologic features of metastases are often encountered that make distinction of metastases from other nonmalignant pulmonary diseases difficult.
  • A detailed knowledge of the atypical radiologic features of a pulmonary metastasis with a good understanding of the histopathologic background is essential for correct diagnosis.
  • Squamous cell carcinoma is regarded as the most common cell type of a cavitating metastasis, but metastatic nodules from adenocarcinomas and sarcomas also cavitate occasionally.
  • Calcification can occur in a metastatic sarcoma or adenocarcinoma, which makes differentiation from a benign granuloma or hamartoma difficult.
  • Pneumothorax commonly occurs in metastases from an osteosarcoma.
  • Air-space consolidation is often seen in cases of metastases from gastrointestinal tract malignancies.
  • Even though tumor emboli in pulmonary arteries can be seen at computed tomography, diagnosis is difficult because they are located in small or medium arteries.
  • A common radiologic appearance of an endobronchial metastasis is an atelectasis.
  • In cases of an endobronchial or a solitary pulmonary metastasis, differentiation between bronchogenic carcinoma and metastasis is difficult.
  • Dilated vascular structures within the mass can be seen in metastatic sarcomas.
  • A sterilized metastasis after chemotherapy is radiologically indistinguishable from a residual viable tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Calcinosis / pathology. Calcinosis / radiography. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Lung / pathology. Lung / radiography. Pneumothorax / pathology. Pneumothorax / radiography

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  • (PMID = 11259704.001).
  • [ISSN] 0271-5333
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiographics : a review publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiographics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 57
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11. Hacker U, Lenz G, Brehm G, Müller-Höcker J, Schalhorn A, Hiddemann W: Metastasis of a rectal adenocarcinoma to the thyroid gland: diagnostic and therapeutic implications. Anticancer Res; 2003 Nov-Dec;23(6D):4973-6
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  • [Title] Metastasis of a rectal adenocarcinoma to the thyroid gland: diagnostic and therapeutic implications.
  • BACKGROUND: Overt metastasis from solid tumors to the thyroid gland is a rare finding.
  • Only single cases of metastasis from the gastrointestinal tract have been reported.
  • We describe a rare case of metastasis to the thyroid gland from a rectal adenocarcinoma which had been treated by rectum extirpation and a combined radiochemotherapy seven years earlier.
  • Fine-needle aspiration biopsy is the appropriate diagnostic procedure to define the histological diagnosis.
  • Potentially curative resection should be performed if metastasis to the thyroid gland is the only tumor manifestation.
  • Palliative chemotherapy should be considered if additional tumor manifestations are detected.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Rectal Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 14981954.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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12. Tsilimparis N, Menenakos C, Rogalla P, Braumann C, Hartmann J: Malignant melanoma metastasis as a cause of small-bowel perforation. Onkologie; 2009 Jun;32(6):356-8
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  • [Title] Malignant melanoma metastasis as a cause of small-bowel perforation.
  • BACKGROUND: Malignant melanoma is a disease with an increasing rate of incidence, currently at 10 cases per 100,000.
  • In most cases, malignant melanoma metastasizes over the lymph vessels to parenchymal organs.
  • Symptomatic metastases are found in the gastrointestinal tract in only about 2% of the patients.
  • CASE REPORT: A 43-year-old patient with a known metastasized malignant melanoma (brain, liver, bones) was admitted to the department of dermatology due to fatigue, headache and unspecified abdominal symptoms.
  • Because of persistent abdominal symptoms, a computed tomography (CT) scan of the abdomen was performed, showing a perforation of the ileum with an abscess on the basis of multiple small-bowel metastases.
  • The postoperative course of the patient was complicated by a subcutaneous wound infection and a prolonged period of convalescence (due to multiple brain metastases).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Novel therapy concepts and medication in the treatment of patients with malignant melanoma have improved life expectancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Intestinal Neoplasms / complications. Intestinal Neoplasms / secondary. Intestinal Perforation / diagnosis. Intestinal Perforation / etiology. Intestine, Small / injuries. Melanoma / diagnosis. Melanoma / secondary. Skin Neoplasms / complications. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 19521125.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0240
  • [Journal-full-title] Onkologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Onkologie
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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13. Reiman T, Butts CA: Upper gastrointestinal bleeding as a metastatic manifestation of breast cancer: a case report and review of the literature. Can J Gastroenterol; 2001 Jan;15(1):67-71
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  • [Title] Upper gastrointestinal bleeding as a metastatic manifestation of breast cancer: a case report and review of the literature.
  • CASE PRESENTATION: A 64-year-old woman with known metastatic lobular breast cancer presented with fever, epigastric pain, hematemesis, and melena.
  • A bleeding, ulcerated gastric metastasis was found and was treated with endoscopic therapy, omeprazole, and hormonal therapy.
  • The bleeding was probably precipitated by necrosis of the lesion during chemotherapy.
  • DISCUSSION: Gastrointestinal tract metastases from primary breast carcinoma are present in 14% to 35% of cases in autopsy series, with gastric involvement in 6% to 18% of cases.
  • Recognized much less commonly during life than in autopsy studies, they can occur anywhere in the gut and can mimic virtually any gastrointestinal disorder.
  • Endoscopy and barium studies facilitate diagnosis.
  • Reported cases of bleeding gastric metastases have been treated successfully with various local and systemic modalities.
  • The median survival time of reviewed cases was four months from presentation (with a range of zero to 24 months).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Gastrointestinal metastasis is an underdiagnosed complication of breast cancer.
  • Gastrointestinal bleeding from metastatic breast cancer is an uncommon presentation that is readily diagnosed and that can be treated successfully by endoscopic hemostatic therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Lobular / secondary. Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage / etiology. Stomach Neoplasms / secondary


14. Bucher P, Villiger P, Egger JF, Buhler LH, Morel P: Management of gastrointestinal stromal tumors: from diagnosis to treatment. Swiss Med Wkly; 2004 Mar 20;134(11-12):145-53
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  • [Title] Management of gastrointestinal stromal tumors: from diagnosis to treatment.
  • Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GIST) are the most common mesenchymal tumours of the digestive tract.
  • Most gastrointestinal soft tissue neoplasms, previously classified as leiomyomas, schwannomas, leiomyoblastomas or leiomyosarcomas, are today classified as GIST on the basis of molecular and immunohistological features.
  • They originate from gastrointestinal pacemaker cells and are characterised by over-expression of the tyrosine kinase receptor KIT.
  • However, these tumours span a wide clinical spectrum from benign to highly malignant.
  • At present, surgery is the standard treatment for primary resectable GIST.
  • Benign GIST have an excellent prognosis after primary surgical treatment, with over 90% 5-year survival.
  • While recurrent or malignant GIST, which are resistant to radiotherapy and chemotherapy, had until recently an extremely poor prognosis even after surgical resection, with median survival of 12 months.
  • The development of a tyrosine kinase inhibitor has changed the management of unresectable malignant cases.
  • This new tyrosine kinase inhibitor, imatinib mesylate, which inhibits the c-kit receptor, has proved highly effective against GIST and has improved survival in metastatic GIST.
  • This paper reviews the literature and our experience of GIST, including: diagnosis, pathology, treatment and prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Gastrointestinal Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Algorithms. Antineoplastic Agents. Benzamides. Humans. Imatinib Mesylate. Immunohistochemistry. Lymphatic Metastasis. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Piperazines / therapeutic use. Prognosis. Protein-Tyrosine Kinases / antagonists & inhibitors. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit / genetics. Pyrimidines / therapeutic use. Stromal Cells / pathology. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15106018.001).
  • [ISSN] 1424-7860
  • [Journal-full-title] Swiss medical weekly
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Swiss Med Wkly
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Benzamides; 0 / Piperazines; 0 / Pyrimidines; 8A1O1M485B / Imatinib Mesylate; EC 2.7.10.1 / Protein-Tyrosine Kinases; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit
  • [Number-of-references] 84
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15. Hornick JL, Jaffe ES, Fletcher CD: Extranodal histiocytic sarcoma: clinicopathologic analysis of 14 cases of a rare epithelioid malignancy. Am J Surg Pathol; 2004 Sep;28(9):1133-44
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  • Histiocytic sarcoma is a rare malignant neoplasm that occurs in lymph nodes, skin, and the gastrointestinal tract.
  • Seven tumors arose in soft tissue (6 lower limb; 1 upper limb), 5 in the gastrointestinal tract (1 involving both stomach and colon, 1 ileum, 2 rectum, 1 anus), 1 in the nasal cavity, and 1 in the lung.
  • Three gastrointestinal tract tumors also involved regional lymph nodes, and 1 involved the liver.
  • Gastrointestinal tract cases were negative for c-kit and desmin.
  • Six patients were treated with postoperative radiation and 7 with chemotherapy (CHOP or ProMACE-MOPP).
  • Two tumors recurred locally, and 5 patients developed distant spread: 3 to lymph nodes, 1 to lung, and 1 to bone.
  • At the last follow-up, 2 patients have died of disseminated disease, 4 and 5 months following initial diagnosis.
  • Histiocytic sarcoma may arise primarily in soft tissue and shows reproducible histologic features, including abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm and a prominent inflammatory infiltrate.
  • Metastatic carcinoma, metastatic melanoma, and large cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas should be excluded by immunohistochemistry.

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  • (PMID = 15316312.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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16. Miyake M, Takeda Y, Hasuike Y, Kashiwazaki M, Mishima H, Ikenaga M, Mano M, Takada Y, Hirota S, Tsujinaka T: [A case of metastatic gastrointestinal stromal tumor developing a resistance to STI571 (imatinib mesylate)]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2004 Oct;31(11):1791-4
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  • [Title] [A case of metastatic gastrointestinal stromal tumor developing a resistance to STI571 (imatinib mesylate)].
  • Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are rare mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract characterized by the expression of a receptor that activates tyrosine kinase called c-kit.
  • Since malignant GISTs are resistant to conventional radiation therapy and chemotherapy, recurrent or malignant GIST has an extremely poor prognosis even after surgical resection.
  • The development of a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, STI571 (imatinib mesylate, Glivec, Gleevec), which inhibits the BCR-ABL, PDGF-R alpha and c-kit receptors, has changed the management of unresectable malignant GIST and has improved the survival of patients with metastatic disease.
  • We report a patient with GIST and diffused peritoneal metastases, whose tumor initially responded to STI571 and eventually became resistant.
  • A 45-year-old woman underwent partial jejunostomy on September 3, 1998, under a diagnosis of submucosal tumor of the jejunum.
  • A treatment with STI571 (400 mg/day) was initiated on October 15, 2001, and she was free from peritoneal masses for 8 months after the fourth operation.
  • However, the patient herself suspended the STI571 therapy for one month and multiple peritoneal metastases developed.
  • Although the treatment with STI571 was restarted at 400 mg/day, the peritoneal masses did not respond this time.
  • She died of liver, lung, and peritoneal metastases after the seventh cytoreductive operation on February 11, 2004.
  • Her tumors showed mutations in exons 9 or 11 of KIT, which had longer event-free and overall survival times than those tumors that had mutations of exons 13 or 17.
  • After the interruption of the treatment, an additional point mutation arose in exon 13 that caused a resistance to STI571.
  • Currently STI571 is the first-line therapy for non-resectable GISTs, but a single-agent therapy often leads to tumor resistance.
  • It is our hope that we will be able to design an alternative treatment to overcome such resistance.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors / drug therapy. Piperazines / therapeutic use. Pyrimidines / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Benzamides. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Exons / genetics. Female. Humans. Imatinib Mesylate. Middle Aged. Peritoneal Neoplasms / secondary. Protein-Tyrosine Kinases / analysis. Protein-Tyrosine Kinases / antagonists & inhibitors

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  • (PMID = 15553717.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Benzamides; 0 / Piperazines; 0 / Pyrimidines; 8A1O1M485B / Imatinib Mesylate; EC 2.7.10.1 / Protein-Tyrosine Kinases
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17. de la Roza G, Naqvi A, Clark K: Gastrointestinal stromal tumors presenting as a prostatic mass. Can J Urol; 2009 Feb;16(1):4502-6
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  • [Title] Gastrointestinal stromal tumors presenting as a prostatic mass.
  • Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are a rare and heterogeneous group of spindle cell neoplasms that have also been reported outside of gastrointestinal (GI) tract.
  • These tumors are characterized by somatic mutations of c-KIT (CD117), a proto-oncogene that encodes a receptor tyrosine kinase normally expressed in the interstitial cell of Cajal that control the GI smooth muscle peristalsis, and an exquisite sensitivity to the action of the tyrokinase inhibitor imatinib mesylate (STI571; Gleevec).
  • We report two cases of gastrointestinal stromal tumor identified on prostatic biopsies, where a primary prostatic sarcoma was considered in the differential diagnosis.
  • In one of the cases, there was extensive local disease involving prostate, rectum, and pelvic wall, as well as metastatic disease that quickly lead to the patient's death despite aggressive treatment with imatinib mesylate and conventional chemotherapy.
  • In both cases, tissue samples from prostate and the rectum showed a malignant spindle cell neoplasm, which was positive for CD117 (c-kit).
  • Given their unique clinical management, gastrointestinal stromal tumors should be considered in the differential diagnosis of spindle cell lesions on prostatic needle biopsies and CD117 should be added to the immunohistochemical panel in the work-up of such lesions to avoid misinterpreting them as primary prostatic neoplasms.
  • [MeSH-major] Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19222892.001).
  • [ISSN] 1195-9479
  • [Journal-full-title] The Canadian journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Can J Urol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Canada
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18. Demetri GD: Targeting c-kit mutations in solid tumors: scientific rationale and novel therapeutic options. Semin Oncol; 2001 Oct;28(5 Suppl 17):19-26
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Targeting c-kit mutations in solid tumors: scientific rationale and novel therapeutic options.
  • Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are the most common mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract.
  • These tumors span a wide clinical spectrum from benign to malignant and have long been recognized for their nearly absolute resistance to chemotherapy and radiation treatment.
  • Surgery is the primary treatment modality for GISTs, but GISTs represent an incurable malignancy for patients with metastatic or unresectable disease.
  • Thus, novel approaches to the treatment of GISTs were desperately needed.
  • Gastrointestinal stromal tumors are characterized by expression of the transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinase KIT, which is defined by the CD117 antigen and is the product of the c-kit proto-oncogene.
  • These results provided the rationale to move forward with clinical testing of imatinib mesylate as an anticancer therapy for GIST.
  • In early 2000, a dramatic clinical and radiographic response to imatinib mesylate was shown in a single patient with advanced, chemotherapy-resistant GIST.
  • The powerful scientific rationale for this proof-of-concept study, together with the durable and significant response observed in this first GIST patient treated with imatinib mesylate, have provided the driving force for rapid clinical development of this targeted therapy in this solid tumor indication.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Enzyme Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / genetics. Piperazines / therapeutic use. Protein-Tyrosine Kinases / antagonists & inhibitors. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit / genetics. Pyrimidines / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Benzamides. Clinical Trials as Topic. Drug Evaluation, Preclinical. Humans. Imatinib Mesylate. Mesoderm. Mutation. Neoplasm Metastasis. Prognosis

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2001 by W.B. Saunders Company.
  • (PMID = 11740803.001).
  • [ISSN] 0093-7754
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Benzamides; 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / Piperazines; 0 / Pyrimidines; 8A1O1M485B / Imatinib Mesylate; EC 2.7.10.1 / Protein-Tyrosine Kinases; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit
  • [Number-of-references] 41
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19. Demetri GD: Identification and treatment of chemoresistant inoperable or metastatic GIST: experience with the selective tyrosine kinase inhibitor imatinib mesylate (STI571). Eur J Cancer; 2002 Sep;38 Suppl 5:S52-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Identification and treatment of chemoresistant inoperable or metastatic GIST: experience with the selective tyrosine kinase inhibitor imatinib mesylate (STI571).
  • Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are the most common mesenchymal neoplasms of the gastrointestinal tract.
  • Historically, malignant GIST has been highly refractory to conventional cytotoxic therapy.
  • Signal transduction inhibition as cancer therapy was first tested successfully with imatinib mesylate (formerly known as STI571), a selective small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor, with the initial target being blockade of Bcr-Abl, the oncogene with tyrosine kinase activity responsible for the pathogenesis of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML).
  • The first GIST patient to receive imatinib exhibited dramatic benefit despite far-advanced metastatic disease that was previously refractory to all chemotherapy.
  • The results from these studies have established imatinib as an effective new therapeutic alternative for the majority of patients with advanced GIST, a solid tumor for which no prior chemotherapy has ever shown antitumor efficacy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Enzyme Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Neoplasms, Connective Tissue / drug therapy. Piperazines / therapeutic use. Pyrimidines / therapeutic use. Stromal Cells
  • [MeSH-minor] Benzamides. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Humans. Imatinib Mesylate. Neoplasm Proteins / antagonists & inhibitors. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control. Protein-Tyrosine Kinases / antagonists & inhibitors. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit. Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases. Tomography, Emission-Computed

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  • (PMID = 12528773.001).
  • [ISSN] 0959-8049
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of cancer (Oxford, England : 1990)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Benzamides; 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Piperazines; 0 / Pyrimidines; 8A1O1M485B / Imatinib Mesylate; EC 2.7.10.1 / Protein-Tyrosine Kinases; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases
  • [Number-of-references] 28
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20. Schnadig ID, Blanke CD: Gastrointestinal stromal tumors: imatinib and beyond. Curr Treat Options Oncol; 2006 Nov;7(6):427-37
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  • [Title] Gastrointestinal stromal tumors: imatinib and beyond.
  • Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are the most common mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract.
  • Clinicians previously classified GISTs as "benign" or "malignant," but now place resected tumors in risk categories that are based on size and mitotic rate.
  • Historically, GIST patients were managed with surgery alone, as chemotherapy and radiotherapy have minimal activity in this disease.
  • In the pre-imatinib era, patients with recurrent or metastatic disease generally did very poorly.
  • GIST therapy was revolutionized following the discovery of oncogenic mutations in the c-kit gene, as well as in the platelet-derived growth factor receptor.
  • Subsequently, it has been confirmed that the KIT receptor tyrosine kinase is both a diagnostic marker and a useful therapeutic target in GIST.
  • Imatinib, a potent inhibitor of KIT activity, is now standard front-line therapy for advanced GIST.
  • With the introduction of imatinib, there have been dramatic improvements in response rates, time to progression, and survival.
  • Unfortunately, many patients eventually recur or progress during imatinib therapy.
  • With the identification of other downstream pathways, several other promising therapies are under current investigation either alone or in combination with imatinib and surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors / drug therapy. Indoles / therapeutic use. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Piperazines / therapeutic use. Protein-Tyrosine Kinases / antagonists & inhibitors. Pyrimidines / therapeutic use. Pyrroles / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Benzamides. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Imatinib Mesylate. Neoplasm Metastasis

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  • (PMID = 17032555.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-2729
  • [Journal-full-title] Current treatment options in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Treat Options Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Benzamides; 0 / Indoles; 0 / Piperazines; 0 / Pyrimidines; 0 / Pyrroles; 8A1O1M485B / Imatinib Mesylate; EC 2.7.10.1 / Protein-Tyrosine Kinases; V99T50803M / sunitinib
  • [Number-of-references] 48
  •  go-up   go-down


21. Prenen H, Dumez H, Stefan C, Hoeben A, Wouters C, Van Lierde MA, Sciot R, van Oosterom AT, Peeters M, Polus M, Duck L, Gil T, Schöffski P: Imatinib for the treatment of patients with unresectable or metastatic malignant KIT-positive gastrointestinal stromal tumours: an open-label Belgian trial. Acta Gastroenterol Belg; 2006 Oct-Dec;69(4):367-71
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  • [Title] Imatinib for the treatment of patients with unresectable or metastatic malignant KIT-positive gastrointestinal stromal tumours: an open-label Belgian trial.
  • BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GIST) are the most common mesenchymal tumours of the gastrointestinal tract.
  • The only effective treatment for malignant GIST was surgery until 2000.
  • Imatinib mesylate (STI571, Glivec) has shown substantial anticancer activity in patients with metastatic or unresectable GIST.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: 57 patients who were diagnosed with unresectable or metastatic malignant GIST were entered into this study.
  • Daily treatment was interrupted or dose was decreased only in the case of limiting toxicities.
  • We evaluated the tumour response and the safety of the drug.
  • RESULTS: 85% of GIST patients showed a partial response or stable disease after 8 weeks of treatment with imatinib.
  • CONCLUSION: This study confirms that imatinib is an active agent against malignant GIST with manageable toxicities.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors / drug therapy. Piperazines / therapeutic use. Pyrimidines / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Belgium. Benzamides. Female. Humans. Imatinib Mesylate. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit / analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17343077.001).
  • [ISSN] 1784-3227
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta gastro-enterologica Belgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Gastroenterol. Belg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Belgium
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Benzamides; 0 / Piperazines; 0 / Pyrimidines; 8A1O1M485B / Imatinib Mesylate; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit
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22. Ayantunde AA, Agrawal A, Parsons SL, Welch NT: Esophagogastric cancers secondary to a breast primary tumor do not require resection. World J Surg; 2007 Aug;31(8):1597-601
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  • [Title] Esophagogastric cancers secondary to a breast primary tumor do not require resection.
  • BACKGROUND: Breast cancer metastasis to the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) is rare.
  • When it does occur, the upper GIT is more frequently involved, and lobular infiltrating carcinoma apparently has a greater apparent predilection for the GIT than the ductal type does.
  • This study reviewed the clinicopathological features of esophagogastric secondary tumors from breast cancer.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with breast cancer metastases to the upper GIT referred to us for treatment of either esophageal or gastric cancers between November 1997 and November 2004 were identified from our database.
  • RESULTS: Nine patients with mean age of 71 (range: 57-90) years had median time of 6.5 (2.8-32.8) years between primary breast cancer diagnosis and upper GI metastasis.
  • The sites of metastatic lesions included the lower esophagus (2 patients), gastroesophageal junction (1 patient), gastric body (3 patients), and pylorus (3 patients).
  • Treatment included hormonal therapy and stent in 3 patients, hormonal therapy alone in 1 patient, chemotherapy alone in 1 patient, chemotherapy and gastrojejunostomy in 1 patient, dilatation and stent in 1 patient, and palliative care only in 2 patients.
  • The median survival following treatment of these metastases was 20 (range: 2.1-96.6) months.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The onset of nonspecific GIT symptoms in patients with a history of breast carcinoma should prompt the clinician to rule out the possibility of upper GIT metastasis even many years after the original breast cancer.
  • The use of systemic therapy for breast cancer may result in longer survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / secondary. Carcinoma, Lobular / secondary. Esophageal Neoplasms / secondary. Stomach Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 17578645.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2313
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 20
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23. De Chiara A, De Rosa V, Lastoria S, Franco R, Botti G, Iaffaioli VR, Apice G: Primary gastrointestinal stromal tumor of the liver with lung metastases successfully treated with STI-571 (imatinib mesylate). Front Biosci; 2006;11:498-501
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. IMATINIB MESYLATE .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Primary gastrointestinal stromal tumor of the liver with lung metastases successfully treated with STI-571 (imatinib mesylate).
  • We report a case of a primary malignant GIST of the liver metastatic to the lung in a 37 years-old man.
  • One year after the resection of the liver mass, the patient developed multiple small lung metastases which completely disappeared with STI-571 (imatinib mesylate--Gleevec) therapy. C.T. or PET did not show any mass in the abdomen.
  • These findings suggest that the liver mass was a primary rather than a metastatic tumour.
  • They also support the hypothesis that GIST could originate from undifferentiated mesenchymal cells capable to differentiate toward a pacemaker cell phenotype, which are present in sites other than the G.I. tract.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors / drug therapy. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Liver Neoplasms / pathology. Piperazines / therapeutic use. Pyrimidines / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Benzamides. Cell Differentiation. Humans. Imatinib Mesylate. Male. Neoplasm Metastasis. Phenotype. Positron-Emission Tomography. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit / biosynthesis. Tissue Distribution. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome. Vimentin / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 16146747.001).
  • [ISSN] 1093-9946
  • [Journal-full-title] Frontiers in bioscience : a journal and virtual library
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Front. Biosci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Benzamides; 0 / Piperazines; 0 / Pyrimidines; 0 / Vimentin; 8A1O1M485B / Imatinib Mesylate; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit
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24. Panagiotou I, Brountzos EN, Bafaloukos D, Stoupis C, Brestas P, Kelekis DA: Malignant melanoma metastatic to the gastrointestinal tract. Melanoma Res; 2002 Apr;12(2):169-73
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Malignant melanoma metastatic to the gastrointestinal tract.
  • A retrospective study of 385 melanoma patients was performed, with the goal of evaluating the clinical characteristics, the role of imaging and the impact of treatment on patients with gastrointestinal (GI) metastases.
  • Eighteen patients (4.7%) had GI tract metastases.
  • Eight patients underwent curative surgery, two received no treatment, while the remaining eight patients had chemotherapy or immunochemotherapy.
  • GI tract metastases were more common in patients with nodular melanoma of the lower extremities.
  • To our knowledge, this is the first study correlating the primary lesion's characteristics with the development of GI tract metastases.
  • Imaging is effective in the diagnosis of GI tract involvement.
  • Melanoma patients with GI tract metastases can benefit from palliation by surgical resection.
  • [MeSH-major] Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / secondary. Melanoma / secondary. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Child. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 11930114.001).
  • [ISSN] 0960-8931
  • [Journal-full-title] Melanoma research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Melanoma Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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25. Croom KF, Perry CM: Imatinib mesylate: in the treatment of gastrointestinal stromal tumours. Drugs; 2003;63(5):513-22; discussion 523-4
The Lens. Cited by Patents in .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Imatinib mesylate: in the treatment of gastrointestinal stromal tumours.
  • The KIT tyrosine kinase is abnormally expressed in gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST), a rare neoplasm for which there has been no effective systemic therapy.
  • Similar response rates were reported in a smaller, dose-escalation study, in which objective tumour response was a secondary endpoint.
  • Severe or serious adverse events occurred in 21% of patients in the larger study, and included gastrointestinal or tumour haemorrhage.
  • A major focus of cancer research in recent years has been to identify oncogenic molecules and the signal transduction pathways in which they are involved, in order to develop specifically targeted drugs.
  • One such drug is imatinib mesylate (imatinib, Glivic/Gleevec), an orally administered 2-phenylaminopyrimidine derivative that is a competitive inhibitor of the tyrosine kinases associated with platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptors, the Abelson (ABL) protein and the KIT protein (also known as stem cell factor [SCF] receptor).
  • Imatinib was initially evaluated for the treatment of chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) [reviewed previously in Drugs].
  • More recently, imatinib has been approved for the treatment of patients with advanced gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST), in which KIT, a tyrosine kinase receptor, is abnormally expressed.
  • GISTs are soft tissue gastrointestinal sarcomas probably arising from mesenchymal cells.
  • GISTs occur throughout the gastrointestinal tract but the stomach and small intestine are the most common sites.
  • Symptoms depend on the site and size of the tumour, and may include abdominal pain, gastrointestinal bleeding or signs of obstruction; small tumours may be asymptomatic.
  • The diagnosis of GIST is made by immunohistochemical staining for CD117, a cell surface antigen on the extracellular domain of KIT, in conjunction with pathological examination of tissue with light microscopy.
  • All GISTs may have some degree of malignant potential.
  • They are unresponsive to standard chemotherapy and to radiotherapy, and the mainstay of treatment in the past has been surgery.
  • However, recurrence rates are high, and there has been no effective systemic treatment for unresectable GIST or metastatic disease.
  • For patients in whom complete resection is not possible, or in patients with metastatic or recurrent disease, the median duration of survival is 9-12 months, and 10-19 months, respectively.
  • Subsequent to initial evidence of the clinical efficacy of imatinib in a single patient with progressive, metastatic, CD117-positive GIST, formal studies of imatinib in this new indication were initiated.
  • This article summarises the pharmacology, efficacy and tolerability profile of imatinib in the treatment of patients with advanced GIST.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Piperazines. Pyrimidines. Stromal Cells / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Benzamides. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Enzyme Inhibitors / pharmacokinetics. Enzyme Inhibitors / pharmacology. Enzyme Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Humans. Imatinib Mesylate. Multicenter Studies as Topic. Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 12600228.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-6667
  • [Journal-full-title] Drugs
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Drugs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Review
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Benzamides; 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / Piperazines; 0 / Pyrimidines; 8A1O1M485B / Imatinib Mesylate
  • [Number-of-references] 45
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26. Catani M, De Milito R, Simi M: [New orientations in the management of advanced, metastatic gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST): combination of surgery and systemic therapy with imatinib in a case of primary gastric location]. Chir Ital; 2005 Jan-Feb;57(1):127-33
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [New orientations in the management of advanced, metastatic gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST): combination of surgery and systemic therapy with imatinib in a case of primary gastric location].
  • [Transliterated title] Nuovi orientamenti nella cura dei tumori stromali gastroenterici (GIST) avanzati e metastatici: trattamento combinato intervento chirurgico-terapia sistemica con imatinib in un caso a localizzazione primitiva gastrica.
  • Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GIST) are rare neoplasms originating from connective tissue in the digestive tract with an incidence of less than 1% and account for most non-epithelial primitive digestive tumours.
  • Metastasis diagnosed at the time of disease discovery confirms GIST malignancy.
  • Resistance to conventional chemotherapy is commonly shown by malignant GIST.
  • Most patients with advanced malignant GIST achieve clinical benefit with imatinib mesilate, an orally administered selective inhibitor of the tyrosine kinase receptor.
  • At the time of the first operation the patient had lost 10 kg body weight over the previous months and was seriously cachectic.
  • The liver presented no less than 5 large metastases distributed in both the left and right lobes.
  • There was also a pulmonary metastasis.
  • Considering the action mechanism of imatinib and the extent of the lesion we decided to perform a total gastrectomy procedure.
  • At the time of the operation the stomach seemed to have a modified volume and shape: it appeared to be divided into two sacs, the larger and deeper of which was the original gastric cavity, while the superficial, smaller one seemed to be a protrusion of the organ.
  • The stomach was indistinguishable from the spleen, the transverse colon and the distal pancreatic tract.
  • The neoplasm was directly linked to the left liver and to the inferior diaphragmatic surface.
  • The patient was discharged on postoperative day 8 and commenced imatinib therapy 30 days after the operation with 4 tablets per day.
  • One year after the operation the outcome appears to be lasting and the patient has tolerated the drug treatment well.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Gastrectomy. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors / therapy. Piperazines / therapeutic use. Pyrimidines / therapeutic use. Stomach Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Benzamides. Humans. Imatinib Mesylate. Male. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15832750.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-4773
  • [Journal-full-title] Chirurgia italiana
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chir Ital
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Benzamides; 0 / Piperazines; 0 / Pyrimidines; 8A1O1M485B / Imatinib Mesylate
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27. Sauter A, Soulsby H, Hormann K, Naim R: Sulindac sulfone induces a decrease of beta-catenin in HNSCC. Anticancer Res; 2010 Feb;30(2):339-43
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: The most common neoplasm arising in the upper gastrointestinal tract is head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC).
  • Among these factors, beta-catenin is considered to be the most important for reducing cell-cell adhesions in malignant tissue.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Immunohistochemical and Western blot analyses were performed after treatment of the UMSCC 11A cell line with different concentrations of sulindac sulfone (100, 200, 400, 600 and 800 microMol) for 48 hours.
  • It is presumed that reduction of cell-cell adhesion, which is predominately affected by beta-catenin, is an essential step in the progression from localized malignancy to stromal and vascular invasion and ultimately metastatic disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Down-Regulation / drug effects. Head and Neck Neoplasms / drug therapy. Sulindac / analogs & derivatives. beta Catenin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20332437.001).
  • [ISSN] 1791-7530
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / beta Catenin; 184SNS8VUH / Sulindac; K619IIG2R9 / sulindac sulfone
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28. Eisenberg BL, Judson I: Surgery and imatinib in the management of GIST: emerging approaches to adjuvant and neoadjuvant therapy. Ann Surg Oncol; 2004 May;11(5):465-75
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. IMATINIB MESYLATE .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Surgery and imatinib in the management of GIST: emerging approaches to adjuvant and neoadjuvant therapy.
  • Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) is a neoplasm of the gastrointestinal tract, mesentery, or omentum that expresses the protein-tyrosine kinase KIT (CD117) and is the most common mesenchymal tumor arising at these sites.
  • Surgical resection is the first-line intervention for operable GISTs, particularly localized primary tumors, and it was historically the only effective treatment.
  • However, more than half of all GIST patients present with locally advanced, recurrent, or metastatic disease.
  • A total of 40% to 90% of all GIST surgical patients subsequently have postoperative recurrence or metastasis.
  • Imatinib is a potent, specific inhibitor of KIT that has demonstrated significant activity and tolerability in the treatment of malignant unresectable or metastatic GIST, inducing tumor shrinkage of 50% or more or stabilizing disease in most patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / surgery. Neoplasm Metastasis. Piperazines / therapeutic use. Pyrimidines / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Benzamides. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Imatinib Mesylate. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Patient Selection. Prognosis. Risk Assessment. Stromal Cells. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 15123459.001).
  • [ISSN] 1068-9265
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Benzamides; 0 / Piperazines; 0 / Pyrimidines; 8A1O1M485B / Imatinib Mesylate
  • [Number-of-references] 88
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