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1. Yoshikawa H, Nakamoto Y, Ozawa T, Dickinson RM: A dog with osteosarcoma which metastasized to the eye months before metastasis to other organs. J Vet Med Sci; 2008 Aug;70(8):825-8
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  • [Title] A dog with osteosarcoma which metastasized to the eye months before metastasis to other organs.
  • A 9-year-old male Shih Tzu with osteosarcoma had a forelimb amputation and underwent chemotherapy.
  • During chemotherapy, the right eye was enucleated due to refractory glaucoma, and was diagnosed as anterior uveal malignant melanoma.
  • The dog lived for 4 months after the enucleation without treatment.
  • After the dog died, the mass in the eye was re-evaluated immunohistochemically, and it was diagnosed as metastasis of appendicular osteosarcoma.
  • Metastasis of appendicular osteosarcoma to the anterior chamber is quite rare, and the clinical course which showed clinically detectable metastases to the eye before systemic multi-organ metastases was quite unique.

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  • (PMID = 18772558.001).
  • [ISSN] 0916-7250
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of veterinary medical science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Vet. Med. Sci.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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2. Liu J, Liu G, Xu G, Chen L, Liang Y: [Concomitant whole brain radiotherapy and FUDR+VM-26+DDP chemotherapy in brain metastasis of non-small cell lung cancer: a report of short term efficacy]. Zhongguo Fei Ai Za Zhi; 2003 Oct 20;6(5):371-4

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  • [Title] [Concomitant whole brain radiotherapy and FUDR+VM-26+DDP chemotherapy in brain metastasis of non-small cell lung cancer: a report of short term efficacy].
  • BACKGROUND: To evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of concomitant chemoradiotherapy in patients with brain metastases from non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
  • METHODS: Thirty patients suffering from NSCLC with brain metastasis were prospectively included in this study.
  • Treatment consisted of concomitant whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) with a dose of 30 Gy in 15 fractions, followed by a local boosted dose of 20 Gy in 10 fractions for those that the number of the remained lesions were less than 3, or by WBRT with a total dose of 50 Gy for those that the number of the remained lesions were more than 3.
  • Concomitant chemotherapy of FVP regimen with floxuridine 600 mg/(m²*d), teniposide 60 mg/(m²*d), cisplatin 20 mg/(m²*d) on d1 to d5,repeating every 3 or 4 weeks.
  • The response was evaluated by brain CT or MRI after WBRT and 2 cycles of chemotherapy being completed.
  • RESULTS: All the patients completed WBRT and concomitant chemotherapy including 68 cycles (2 to 4 cycles for each patient).
  • Other specific evaluation of metastases included 1 PR patient in 6 patients with lung metastases, 3 CR patients and 4 PR patients in 17 patients with lymph node metastases, 1 PR patient with liver metastases, and 1 PR patient with eye metastasis.
  • Dehydration therapy was needed at 2 weeks after WBRT in all patients.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Concomitant WBRT plus FUDR+VM-26+DDP chemotherapy is tolerable in NSCLC patients with brain metastases and the short term response is comparable to the results of others.

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  • (PMID = 21306682.001).
  • [ISSN] 1009-3419
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhongguo fei ai za zhi = Chinese journal of lung cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhongguo Fei Ai Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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3. Pérez-Fidalgo JA, Vila Arteaga J, Chirivella González I, Martínez Belda R, Bermejo de Lasheras B, Roselló Keranën S, Fons Moreno A, Lluch Hernández A: [Breast cancer metastases in the iris: does treatment modifies natural history of the illness?]. An Med Interna; 2008 Apr;25(4):178-80
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  • [Title] [Breast cancer metastases in the iris: does treatment modifies natural history of the illness?].
  • [Transliterated title] Metástasis en iris de un carcinoma de mama: ¿modifica el tratamiento la historia natural de la enfermedad?
  • The 4-5% of the breast cancer patients have metastases in the eye.
  • Six months after primary radical treatment she had a systemic relapse with multiples metastatic sites, so several treatment with trastuzumab in combination with chemotherapy were started.
  • After 4 years patient presented multiple white-coloured micronodules in the iris of the right eye.
  • Only a 3-7.8% of ocular metastases are located in the iris.
  • With mantenaince therapy with trastuzumab natural history of the illness has changed.
  • Several studies had analyzed if metastases in the brain during treatment with trastuzumab have increased in comparison with the pretrastuzumab era.
  • The infrequent presentation of metastases in the anterior uveal makes difficult to establish if it is an spontaneous fact or if it is favoured by trastuzumab treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / secondary. Iris Neoplasms / secondary


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4. Papageorgiou KI, Sinha A, Ioannidis AS, Davidson NG: Ocular metastases from HER2 positive breast carcinoma and the response to combination therapy with Paclitaxel and Trastuzumab: a case report. Cases J; 2009;2:9143
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  • [Title] Ocular metastases from HER2 positive breast carcinoma and the response to combination therapy with Paclitaxel and Trastuzumab: a case report.
  • The mean survival period after diagnosis of metastasis to the eye, ranges from 10 to 32 months.
  • However, recent advances in therapy including the use of monoclonal antibody therapy, will hopefully improve treatment outcomes and prolong survival rates.
  • METHODS: We report a case of a 45 year old woman with a HER2 positive breast cancer, who developed two metastatic lesions in the left choroid, and the left optic nerve sheath.
  • She underwent treatment with a combination of chemotherapy (Paclitaxel) and anti-HER2 monoclonal antibodies (Trastuzumab).
  • RESULTS: Nine months after treatment, a B-scan showed resolution of the superior choroidal focus, as well as absence of blood flow within the optic nerve sheath.
  • CONCLUSION: The patient underwent a combined treatment of chemotherapy and Trastuzumab to increase the response rate.
  • Nine months following the therapy her vision was stable, whilst one focus of the tumour in the affected eye, had regressed.
  • The favourable response highlights the significant impact of this new therapy, as an alternative to external beam radiotherapy in patients with ocular metastasis from HER2 (+) breast cancer.

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  • (PMID = 20062660.001).
  • [ISSN] 1757-1626
  • [Journal-full-title] Cases journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cases J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2803940
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5. Schmidt-Hieber M, Schmittel A, Thiel E, Keilholz U: A phase II study of bendamustine chemotherapy as second-line treatment in metastatic uveal melanoma. Melanoma Res; 2004 Dec;14(6):439-42
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  • [Title] A phase II study of bendamustine chemotherapy as second-line treatment in metastatic uveal melanoma.
  • Uveal melanoma is the most frequent primary malignant neoplasm of the eye and has a poor prognosis in metastatic stage.
  • Fotemustine or a combination of gemcitabine and treosulfan has demonstrated some efficacy in metastatic disease.
  • Inclusion criteria were a Karnofsky performance status of > or = 60% and progressive disease during or after first-line chemotherapy.
  • The secondary endpoint was toxicity.
  • We conclude that bendamustine is ineffective as second-line chemotherapy for metastatic uveal melanoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Melanoma / drug therapy. Nitrogen Mustard Compounds / therapeutic use. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy. Uveal Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Bendamustine Hydrochloride. Female. Humans. Infusions, Intravenous. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Salvage Therapy. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15577312.001).
  • [ISSN] 0960-8931
  • [Journal-full-title] Melanoma research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Melanoma Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Nitrogen Mustard Compounds; 981Y8SX18M / Bendamustine Hydrochloride
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6. Kurli M, Finger PT: Topical mitomycin chemotherapy for conjunctival malignant melanoma and primary acquired melanosis with atypia: 12 years' experience. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol; 2005 Nov;243(11):1108-14
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  • [Title] Topical mitomycin chemotherapy for conjunctival malignant melanoma and primary acquired melanosis with atypia: 12 years' experience.
  • PURPOSE: To report 12-year follow-up experience with topical mitomycin chemotherapy for diffuse and multifocal primary acquired melanosis (PAM) with atypia and conjunctival melanoma.
  • Mitomycin was a primary treatment for residual epithelial disease in ten patients (eight with PAM with atypia and two with conjunctival melanoma) and as an adjuvant to excision and cryotherapy in six with conjunctival malignant melanoma.
  • Primary treatments consisted of mitomycin 0.04% qid for 28 days (two 14-day cycles) and for 7 consecutive days as adjuvant therapy.
  • Patients were followed for both local recurrence and metastatic disease.
  • RESULTS: Sixteen patients were followed for a mean 81 months (range 13-144 months) after treatment.
  • All tumors responded to chemotherapy.
  • Recurrence was noted in eight (three adjuvant and five primary treatment patients).
  • The mean time to recurrence was 36.9 months.
  • Three patients died, one of metastatic conjunctival melanoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Conjunctival melanoma and PAM responded to mitomycin 0.04% topical chemotherapy; subepithelial nests appeared resistant to treatment.
  • Treatment-related complications were acceptable.
  • In this series, as primary and adjuvant therapy, topical mitomycin yielded an overall recurrence rate of 50%.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Conjunctival Neoplasms / drug therapy. Melanoma / drug therapy. Melanosis / drug therapy. Mitomycin / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Topical. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15940485.001).
  • [ISSN] 0721-832X
  • [Journal-full-title] Graefe's archive for clinical and experimental ophthalmology = Albrecht von Graefes Archiv fur klinische und experimentelle Ophthalmologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin
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7. Talwar V, Vaid AK, Doval DC, Bhatia K, Jena A, Anand AK: Isolated intraorbital metastasis in breast carcinoma. J Assoc Physicians India; 2007 Jun;55:451-2
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  • [Title] Isolated intraorbital metastasis in breast carcinoma.
  • We report a case of metastases to the eye, in a 30 year old lady with carcinoma breast leading to isolated metastatic involvement of the lateral rectus muscle with no evidence of metastases at any other site in the body after a follow up of one year after completion of chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Orbital Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 17879503.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-5772
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Assoc Physicians India
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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8. Coutts MA, Borthwick NJ, Hungerford JL, Cree IA: Post-menopausal bleeding: a rare presentation of metastatic uveal melanoma. Pathol Oncol Res; 2006;12(3):184-7
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  • [Title] Post-menopausal bleeding: a rare presentation of metastatic uveal melanoma.
  • Uveal melanoma differs from cutaneous melanoma in many ways, including its pattern of metastasis, and exhibits latency with clinical evidence of metastasis sometimes appearing many years after primary diagnosis.
  • Most patients develop metastasis within the liver, but some may present with metastasis to other sites.
  • We report a case of uveal melanoma that presented with post-menopausal bleeding due to metastasis.
  • Further investigation revealed widespread metastatic disease and the patient was not fit for chemotherapy.
  • She died two months after presentation: autopsy revealed metastases in many sites, including the uterus, right ovarian fibroma, kidney, mesentery, liver, lung, thyroid, bone marrow and skin.
  • The immediate cause of death was cardiac tamponade due to a malignant effusion secondary to cardiac metastasis.
  • This case illustrates the widespread metastatic potential of uveal melanoma and highlights the potential for unusual presentation of metastatic disease from this eye tumor.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Endometrial Neoplasms / secondary. Female. Heart Neoplasms / secondary. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Neoplasm Metastasis. Postmenopause

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  • (PMID = 16998600.001).
  • [ISSN] 1219-4956
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology oncology research : POR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Oncol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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9. Ozturk B, Buyukberber S, Coskun U, Yaman E, Yildiz R, Kaya AO, Oner Y, Benekli M: Solitary iris metastasis from breast cancer with dramatic course: case report. Med Oncol; 2007;24(4):463-5
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  • [Title] Solitary iris metastasis from breast cancer with dramatic course: case report.
  • Intraocular metastases are the most common malignancy of eye.
  • Breast cancer is more frequently a cause of intraocular metastases.
  • As a first metastatic site, iris and ciliary body are relatively rare.
  • We report a case of a 52-year-old woman, operated for breast cancer 16 months ago and diagnosed multiple brain metastases 1 month ago.
  • After first course of chemotherapy she was admitted to hospital with the complaints of eye pain and she recognized a solid mass on iris.
  • Iris and ciliary metastases were diagnosed by ophthalmological examination.
  • Because of the patient's poor general condition, diagnostic aspiration from eye metastasis could not be performed.
  • Ciliary body and iris metastases of breast cancer must be considered as a manifestation of aggressive clinical course and poor prognosis.
  • The eye metastases of breast cancer are a part of systemic illness and must be treated by systemic chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Iris Neoplasms / diagnosis. Iris Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 17917101.001).
  • [ISSN] 1357-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Medical oncology (Northwood, London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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10. Feun LG, Savaraj N, Hurley J, Marini A, Lai S: A clinical trial of intravenous vinorelbine tartrate plus tamoxifen in the treatment of patients with advanced malignant melanoma. Cancer; 2000 Feb 1;88(3):584-8
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  • [Title] A clinical trial of intravenous vinorelbine tartrate plus tamoxifen in the treatment of patients with advanced malignant melanoma.
  • BACKGROUND: The aim of the current trial was to assess the efficacy and toxicity of weekly intravenous vinorelbine tartrate with daily oral tamoxifen in the treatment of patients with advanced or metastatic malignant melanoma.
  • Tamoxifen, 10 mg orally, twice a day was administered daily starting on Day 1 of chemotherapy with vinorelbine tartrate.
  • Thirty patients had cutaneous melanoma with metastases and 1 patient had ocular melanoma with metastases.
  • Eight patients had received prior chemotherapy.
  • Major sites of response include the adrenal gland, lung, tonsil, and cutaneous/subcutaneous tissues.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Weekly intravenous vinorelbine tartrate plus daily oral tamoxifen appears to be active in the treatment of patients with malignant melanoma.
  • Further clinical trials in malignant melanoma patients treated with vinorelbine tartrate and tamoxifen appear warranted.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Melanoma / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy. Tamoxifen / administration & dosage. Vinblastine / analogs & derivatives
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Adult. Aged. Confidence Intervals. Disease Progression. Eye Neoplasms / drug therapy. Eye Neoplasms / pathology. Fatigue / chemically induced. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infusions, Intravenous / adverse effects. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Pain / chemically induced. Paresthesia / chemically induced. Remission Induction

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2000 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 10649251.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 094ZI81Y45 / Tamoxifen; 5V9KLZ54CY / Vinblastine; Q6C979R91Y / vinorelbine
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11. Busch C, Geisler J, Lillehaug JR, Lønning PE: MGMT expression levels predict disease stabilisation, progression-free and overall survival in patients with advanced melanomas treated with DTIC. Eur J Cancer; 2010 Jul;46(11):2127-33
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  • Metastatic melanoma responds poorly to systemic treatment.
  • We report the results of a prospective single institution study evaluating O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) status as a potential predictive and/or prognostic marker among patients treated with dacarbazine (DTIC) 800-1000 mg/m(2) monotherapy administered as a 3-weekly schedule for advanced malignant melanomas.
  • Surgical biopsies from metastatic or loco-regional deposits obtained prior to DTIC treatment were snap-frozen immediately upon removal and stored in liquid nitrogen up to processing.
  • Median time from enrolment to end of follow-up was 67 months.
  • MGMT expression levels evaluated by qRT-PCR correlated significantly to DTIC benefit (CR/PR/SD; p=0.005), time to progression (TTP) (p=0.005) and overall survival (OS) (p=0.003).
  • While MGMT promoter hypermethylation correlated to MGMT expression, MGMT promoter hypermethylation did not correlate to treatment benefit, TTP or OS, suggesting that other factors may be critical in determining MGMT expression levels in melanomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / therapeutic use. DNA Modification Methylases / metabolism. DNA Repair Enzymes / metabolism. Dacarbazine / therapeutic use. Eye Neoplasms / drug therapy. Melanoma / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. DNA Methylation. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / metabolism. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / mortality. Prognosis. Prospective Studies

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20541396.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-0852
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of cancer (Oxford, England : 1990)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; EC 2.1.1.- / DNA Modification Methylases; EC 2.1.1.63 / MGMT protein, human; EC 6.5.1.- / DNA Repair Enzymes
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12. Lewis KD, Gibbs P, O'Day S, Richards J, Weber J, Anderson C, Zeng C, Baron A, Russ P, Gonzalez R: A phase II study of biochemotherapy for advanced melanoma incorporating temozolomide, decrescendo interleukin-2 and GM-CSF. Cancer Invest; 2005;23(4):303-8
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  • Metastatic malignant melanoma remains a very difficult disease to treat.
  • Previous phase II studies using biochemotherapy (combination of platinum-containing chemotherapy with IL-2 and IFNalpha) have shown response rates of about 50%.
  • We report the results of a phase II study using a novel biochemotherapy regimen containing temozolomide, cisplatin, decrescendo IL-2, IFNalpha, and GM-CSF in the treatment of stage IV melanoma.
  • Seventy-one patients with histologically confirmed metastatic melanoma were enrolled between June 1998 and October 1999.
  • Prior chemotherapy or IL-2 was not permitted.
  • Twenty-one patients (30%) had a history of treated brain metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Melanoma / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / administration & dosage. Brain Neoplasms / mortality. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Dacarbazine / administration & dosage. Dacarbazine / analogs & derivatives. Eye Neoplasms / drug therapy. Eye Neoplasms / mortality. Eye Neoplasms / pathology. Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor / administration & dosage. Humans. Interleukin-2 / administration & dosage. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Reproducibility of Results. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / mortality. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 16100942.001).
  • [ISSN] 0735-7907
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA46934
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 0 / Interleukin-2; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 83869-56-1 / Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor; 85622-93-1 / temozolomide
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13. Sandinha T, Russell H, Kemp E, Roberts F: Malignant melanoma of the conjunctiva with intraocular extension: a clinicopathological study of three cases. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol; 2007 Mar;245(3):431-6
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  • [Title] Malignant melanoma of the conjunctiva with intraocular extension: a clinicopathological study of three cases.
  • BACKGROUND: Malignant melanoma of the conjunctiva is a rare tumour with an unpredictable behaviour, characterised by the high risk of local recurrence and metastatic spread.
  • Despite adequate primary local excision and adjuvant chemotherapy, all three patients experienced several recurrences, requiring further surgery.
  • In addition to local recurrence and metastases, limbal melanomas may rarely show intraocular extension, particularly if surgery to excise the tumour requires the removal of Bowman's membrane.
  • [MeSH-major] Conjunctival Neoplasms / pathology. Melanoma / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Eye Enucleation. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness

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14. Hasturk S, Soylu M, Zeren EH, Hanta I: Basaloid large cell lung carcinoma presenting concurrently with metastatic uveal tumor. Lung Cancer; 2001 Apr;32(1):95-101
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  • [Title] Basaloid large cell lung carcinoma presenting concurrently with metastatic uveal tumor.
  • In his ophtalmological examination, there was total retinal detachment in the left eye.
  • Ultrasonographic examination and orbital magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were reported as choroidal metastasis.
  • A computed tomography (CT) confirmed the mass in the left hilum and multiple mass lesions consistent with metastasis in the liver and in the body of 12th thoracic vertebra.
  • He died after 4 months with rapid progression of the disease in spite of combined chemotherapy.
  • Although primary lung cancer with concurrent eye metastasis is an uncommon entity, it should always be kept in mind for patients with ocular symptoms.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Large Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Large Cell / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Uveal Neoplasms / pathology. Uveal Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Carboplatin / therapeutic use. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Paclitaxel / therapeutic use. Pleural Effusion, Malignant / pathology. Smoking / adverse effects. Tomography

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  • (PMID = 11282434.001).
  • [ISSN] 0169-5002
  • [Journal-full-title] Lung cancer (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lung Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
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15. Mimeault M, Batra SK: Targeting of cancer stem/progenitor cells plus stem cell-based therapies: the ultimate hope for treating and curing aggressive and recurrent cancers. Panminerva Med; 2008 Mar;50(1):3-18
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  • [Title] Targeting of cancer stem/progenitor cells plus stem cell-based therapies: the ultimate hope for treating and curing aggressive and recurrent cancers.
  • The rapid progression from aggressive primary cancers into locally advanced and invasive and/or metastatic diseases remains a big obstacle for an early diagnosis and curative therapeutic intervention for cancer patients.
  • The late-stage leukemias and disseminated and metastatic sarcomas, melanomas, brain tumors and epithelial cancers are the devastating diseases associated with a high rate of recurrence after treatment with the conventional clinical therapies including surgery, ionizing radiation, hormonal therapy and systemic chemotherapy, which generally lead to the death of patients.
  • Therefore, the establishment of the molecular events underlying cancer initiation and progression into locally invasive and metastatic diseases is of major interest in basic cancer research as well as for the development of new effective clinical therapeutic options against the recurrent and lethal cancers.
  • Recent advances have led to the identification of specific oncogenic products that are implicated in the malignant transformation of adult stem/progenitor cells into leukemic or tumorigenic and migrating cancer stem/progenitor cells during cancer progression.
  • Of therapeutic interest, the molecular targeting of deregulated signaling elements in cancer stem/progenitor cells and their local microenvironment represents a new potential strategy for the development of more effective clinical treatments against aggressive cancers.
  • Particularly, the combined use of chemotherapeutic drugs to eradicate cancer-initiating cells with hematopoietic stem cell or genetically-modified stem cell transplant is emerging as potential cancer treatments that hold great promise in the area of clinical cancer research.
  • These targeting and stem cell-based therapies may offer the ultimate hope for treating and even curing the patients diagnosed with locally advanced cancers at high risk of recurrence, metastatic and/or relapsed cancers in the clinics.

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  • (PMID = 18427384.001).
  • [ISSN] 0031-0808
  • [Journal-full-title] Panminerva medica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Panminerva Med
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA078590; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA111294; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA111294; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA78590
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 210
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS526856; NLM/ PMC3828640
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16. Lee CW, Bélanger K, Rao SC, Petrella TM, Tozer RG, Wood L, Savage KJ, Eisenhauer EA, Synold TW, Wainman N, Seymour L: A phase II study of ispinesib (SB-715992) in patients with metastatic or recurrent malignant melanoma: a National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group trial. Invest New Drugs; 2008 Jun;26(3):249-55
The Lens. Cited by Patents in .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A phase II study of ispinesib (SB-715992) in patients with metastatic or recurrent malignant melanoma: a National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group trial.
  • To assess the response rate and toxicity of the kinesin spindle protein (KSP) inhibitor, ispinesib, in malignant melanoma.
  • KSP immunoreactivity was seen in 14 of 16 available archival tissue samples (88%).
  • No objective responses were observed, and further development of single-agent ispinesib in malignant melanoma is not recommended.
  • Although KSP expression appears to be common in melanoma, KSP may not be a suitable target for its treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Benzamides / therapeutic use. Eye Neoplasms / drug therapy. Melanoma / drug therapy. Quinazolines / therapeutic use. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Disease Progression. Drug Delivery Systems. Female. Humans. Kinesin / antagonists & inhibitors. Male. Middle Aged. Mucous Membrane / drug effects. Mucous Membrane / pathology. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Treatment Outcome


17. Süveges I: [Intraocular tumours]. Magy Onkol; 2005;49(1):9-13
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Intraocular tumours may be benign or malignant.
  • The more malignant growths are those which are situated closer to the posterior pole.
  • Histologically the epitheloid cell-type of melanoma is more malignant than those containing only spindle cells.
  • Their treatment depends on the size: in the case of large tumours enucleation is required, while for the smaller ones, radiation therapy can be applied.
  • Sixty-seven percent of the inherited-type cases are bilateral.
  • A white tissue mass growing into the vitreous is seen on the fundus.
  • Histologically the tumour contains malignant neuroepithelial cells, which may form a rosette.
  • In the case of large tumours the treatment is enucleation; in bilateral processes the bulbus with the larger mass is removed and the other eye is treated with radiation therapy.
  • In both cases chemotherapy is used according to a prescribed schedule.
  • Metastases to the eye occur most frequently from carcinomas of the breast, lungs or gastrointestinal tract.
  • These are treated with radiotherapy, chemotherapy and hormone therapy.
  • Some benign tumours are found by chance on routine eye examinations, others due to subjective and objective symptoms.
  • [MeSH-major] Eye Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Lymphoma / diagnosis. Lymphoma / therapy. Melanoma / diagnosis. Melanoma / therapy. Retinal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Retinal Neoplasms / therapy. Retinoblastoma / diagnosis. Retinoblastoma / therapy

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  • (PMID = 15902327.001).
  • [ISSN] 0025-0244
  • [Journal-full-title] Magyar onkologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Magy Onkol
  • [Language] hun
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Hungary
  • [Number-of-references] 2
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18. Margaryan NV, Strizzi L, Abbott DE, Seftor EA, Rao MS, Hendrix MJ, Hess AR: EphA2 as a promoter of melanoma tumorigenicity. Cancer Biol Ther; 2009 Feb;8(3):279-88
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The greatest health threat from malignant melanoma is death due to metastatic disease.
  • Consequently, the identification of markers predictive of metastatic disease is essential for identifying new therapeutic targets.
  • EphA2, a protein tyrosine kinase receptor commonly expressed in epithelial cells, has been found to be overexpressed and constitutively active in melanoma tumor cells having a metastatic phenotype as characterized by increased invasion, proliferation and vasculogenic mimicry (VM).
  • Based on this observation, we hypothesized that increased expression of EphA2 by melanoma tumor cells could promote these characteristics of a metastatic phenotype in addition to promoting tumorigenicity as a whole.
  • We analyzed a panel of human melanoma tumor cell lines derived from patient tissues classified as primary (either radial growth phase or vertical growth phase) and/or metastatic for the expression of EphA2 and found a correlation between increased EphA2 expression and metastatic potential.
  • Experiments using the most metastatic of the human melanoma cell lines demonstrated that downregulation of EphA2 results in a significant decrease in invasion, proliferation, clonogenicity and VM in vitro, in addition to suppressed tumorigenicity in an orthotopic mouse model.
  • To the best of our knowledge these results provide the first direct in vivo evidence demonstrating a role for EphA2 in promoting melanoma tumorigenicity and suggest EphA2 as a significant molecular target for the therapeutic intervention of malignant melanoma.

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  • (PMID = 19223760.001).
  • [ISSN] 1555-8576
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer biology & therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Biol. Ther.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA059702; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R37 CA059702; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA59702
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, EphA2
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS415531; NLM/ PMC3491659
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19. Abe R, Fujita Y, Yamagishi S: Angiogenesis and metastasis inhibitors for the treatment of malignant melanoma. Mini Rev Med Chem; 2007 Jun;7(6):649-61
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Angiogenesis and metastasis inhibitors for the treatment of malignant melanoma.
  • Malignant melanoma is one of the most highly invasive and metastatic tumors.
  • Surgical resection and systemic chemotherapy are the main therapeutic strategies for the treatment of malignant melanoma.
  • Tumor vessels are genetically stable, and less likely to accumulate mutations that allow them to develop drug resistance in a rapid manner.
  • Therefore, targeting vasculatures that support tumor growth, rather than cancer cells, is considered the most promising approach to malignant melanoma therapy.
  • Now, novel anti-angiogenic agents with tolerable side effects is actually desired for the treatment of patients with malignant melanoma.
  • In this paper, we review the current understanding of anti-angiogenic therapy for malignant melanoma, especially focusing on pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF), which was recently identified as the most potent endogenous inhibitor of angiogenesis in the mammalian eye.
  • We also discuss here the involvement of a receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) in angiogenesis, melanoma growth and metastasis, and the therapeutic implications of the blockers of RAGE in this devastating disorder.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiogenesis Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Melanoma / drug therapy. Neoplasm Metastasis / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Humans. Neovascularization, Pathologic / complications. Neovascularization, Pathologic / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 17584162.001).
  • [ISSN] 1389-5575
  • [Journal-full-title] Mini reviews in medicinal chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mini Rev Med Chem
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors
  • [Number-of-references] 206
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20. Parmeggiani F, Costagliola C, D'Angelo S, Incorvaia C, Perri P, Sebastiani A: Clear cell renal cell carcinoma associated with bilateral atypical acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy. Oncology; 2004;66(6):502-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CCRCC) is a malignant neoplasm frequently associated with an increase in circulating immune complexes (CIC).
  • Acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy (APMPPE) is a disease involving the chorioretinal structures of the eye, and it is commonly observed in association with several immunogenic disorders.
  • CASE REPORT: A 52-year-old white male affected by metastatic CCRCC is described.
  • RESULTS: The patient underwent total left nephrectomy (May 1997) and total left pneumonectomy (March 2001) for the presence of stage III CCRCC and CCRCC lung metastasis, respectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Long-standing tumorous disease, through a pathogenic mechanism triggered by CIC spreading, can be responsible, over time, for a progressive choroidal occlusive microangiopathy (atypical APMPPE pattern), associated with a high risk of poor visual outcome.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / pathology. Choroidal Neovascularization / etiology. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Pigment Epithelium of Eye / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Angiogenesis Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Humans. Interferon-alpha / therapeutic use. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / surgery. Male. Middle Aged. Nephrectomy. Pneumonectomy. Vision Disorders / etiology


21. Chastagner P: [Malignant extraconal tumors of the orbit in childhood]. Neurochirurgie; 2010 Apr-Jun;56(2-3):281-6

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Malignant extraconal tumors of the orbit in childhood].
  • Malignant extraconal orbital tumors are very rare during childhood and must be referred as soon as possible to a highly specialized center to be managed by a multidisciplinary team.
  • Both diagnosis and treatment must be undertaken as soon as possible.
  • The course of these malignant tumors can be acute and can jeopardize the function of the eye or be life-threatening, especially in the event of metastatic locations.
  • Sometimes diagnosis should be clear with the association of an orbital tumor and deterioration of the general health status favoring metastatic disease.
  • Most metastatic neuroblastomas present such clinical symptoms in young children.
  • Today both CT and MRI are highly valuable in assessing the diagnosis and starting the management of these tumors.
  • Biopsy is mandatory to confirm the diagnosis.
  • Among the primitive tumors, soft tissue sarcomas, especially rhabdomyosarcomas, are the most frequent.
  • The diagnosis is suggested when the onset of the disease is acute and the course is rapid.
  • Most respond to neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
  • In the event of a residual tumor, local treatment is indicated so that surgery and/or radiotherapy are used as second-line treatment.
  • It can be satisfactory (Langerhans' cell histiocytosis, lymphoma, meningioma, infantile fibrosarcoma) or poor (metastatic tumor, rhabdoid tumor).
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Exophthalmos / etiology. France. Humans. Incidence. Infant. Male. Neoplasm Metastasis. Prognosis. Rhabdomyosarcoma / epidemiology. Rhabdomyosarcoma / surgery. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20303550.001).
  • [ISSN] 1773-0619
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro-Chirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurochirurgie
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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22. Parmar DN, Rose GE: Management of lacrimal sac tumours. Eye (Lond); 2003 Jul;17(5):599-606
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The commonest tumour was non-Hodgkins B-cell lymphoma (five cases), followed by two cases each of squamous cell carcinoma and transitional cell carcinoma, one case of benign transitional papilloma, haemangiopericytoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma, mucoepidermoid carcinoma, mixed (squamous/transitional) carcinoma, and a highly malignant undifferentiated tumour.
  • Treatment modalities included surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy and, with a median follow-up of 30 months (range 2 months to 17 years), two patients had died from metastatic disease but nine patients remained without evidence of recurrent tumour.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Primary lacrimal sac tumours are extremely rare, require long-term follow-up for recurrence and metastasis, and can be fatal.
  • [MeSH-major] Eye Neoplasms / therapy. Lacrimal Apparatus Diseases / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Algorithms. Fatal Outcome. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 12855966.001).
  • [ISSN] 0950-222X
  • [Journal-full-title] Eye (London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eye (Lond)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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