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1. Boukriche Y, Bouccara D, Cyna-Gorse F, Dehais C, Felce-Dachez M, Masson C: [Sudden bilateral hearing loss disclosing meningeal carcinomatosis]. Rev Neurol (Paris); 2002 Jul;158(6-7):728-30
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  • Four years before, a bladder carcinoma was resected and a chemotherapy was started.
  • Cerebrospinal fluid analysis showed malignant cells consistent with the initial bladder cancer.
  • Meningeal metastases from bladder carcinoma are extremely rare.
  • Systemic chemotherapy and its low meningeal diffusion may enhance the incidence of this complication.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / complications. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Hearing Loss, Bilateral / etiology. Meningeal Neoplasms / complications. Meningeal Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Cochlear Nerve / pathology. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / cerebrospinal fluid. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / drug therapy. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 12486903.001).
  • [ISSN] 0035-3787
  • [Journal-full-title] Revue neurologique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev. Neurol. (Paris)
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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2. Lekas A, Papathomas TG, Papatsoris AG, Deliveliotis C, Lazaris AC: Novel therapeutics in metastatic bladder cancer. Expert Opin Investig Drugs; 2008 Dec;17(12):1889-99
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  • [Title] Novel therapeutics in metastatic bladder cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Albeit transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder is a chemosensitive neoplasm, metastatic disease is related with poor prognosis and short-term survival data.
  • OBJECTIVE: Cisplatin-based combination chemotherapy is recognised as the golden standard therapy for patients with inoperable locally advanced or metastatic bladder cancer.
  • However, owing to treatment-related toxicities and short-response durations, novel treatment options or agents, with both enhanced efficacy and tolerability, have been sought.
  • METHODS: Reviewing the current status and addressing the future of novel anticancer therapeutics in metastatic urinary bladder cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / drug therapy. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Humans. Neoplasm Metastasis / drug therapy. Neoplasm Metastasis / genetics. Neoplasm Metastasis / pathology. Platinum Compounds / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 19012504.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-7658
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert opinion on investigational drugs
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Opin Investig Drugs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Platinum Compounds
  • [Number-of-references] 120
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3. Sun HZ, Wu SF, Tu ZH: Blockage of IGF-1R signaling sensitizes urinary bladder cancer cells to mitomycin-mediated cytotoxicity. Cell Res; 2001 Jun;11(2):107-15
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  • [Title] Blockage of IGF-1R signaling sensitizes urinary bladder cancer cells to mitomycin-mediated cytotoxicity.
  • A major problem which is poorly understood in the management of bladder cancer is low sensitivity to chemotherapy and high recurrence after transurethral resection.
  • Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) signaling plays a very important role in progression, invasion and metastasis of bladder cancer cells.
  • In this study, we investigated whether IGF-1R was involved in the growth stimulating activity and drug resistance of bladder cancer cells.
  • These results suggested that blockage of IGF-IR signaling might potentially contribute to the treatment of bladder cancer cells which are insensitive to chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / agonists. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / metabolism. Cytotoxins / agonists. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm / physiology. Mitomycin / agonists. Receptor, IGF Type 1 / biosynthesis. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Apoptosis / drug effects. Apoptosis / genetics. Autocrine Communication / drug effects. Autocrine Communication / genetics. Cell Division / drug effects. Cell Division / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / drug effects. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / physiology. Gene Targeting. Humans. Insulin-Like Growth Factor I / genetics. Insulin-Like Growth Factor I / pharmacology. Insulin-Like Growth Factor II / genetics. Microscopy, Electron. Oligodeoxyribonucleotides, Antisense / pharmacology. Protein Synthesis Inhibitors / pharmacology. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Signal Transduction / drug effects. Signal Transduction / genetics. Tumor Cells, Cultured / drug effects. Tumor Cells, Cultured / metabolism. Tumor Cells, Cultured / ultrastructure

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  • (PMID = 11453542.001).
  • [ISSN] 1001-0602
  • [Journal-full-title] Cell research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cell Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 0 / Cytotoxins; 0 / Oligodeoxyribonucleotides, Antisense; 0 / Protein Synthesis Inhibitors; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; 67763-96-6 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor I; 67763-97-7 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor II; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, IGF Type 1
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4. Hatano K, Kawashima A, Arai Y, Inoue H, Miyagawa Y, Takaha N, Nishimura K, Miyake O, Okuyama A: [Pelvic lymph node metastasis from bladder cancer markedly responsive to methotrexate vinblastine doxorubicin and cisplatin (M-VAC) therapy followed by radiotherapy: a case report]. Hinyokika Kiyo; 2006 Oct;52(10):801-3
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  • [Title] [Pelvic lymph node metastasis from bladder cancer markedly responsive to methotrexate vinblastine doxorubicin and cisplatin (M-VAC) therapy followed by radiotherapy: a case report].
  • We report a case of bladder cancer with pelvic lymph node metastasis effectively treated by chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy.
  • After 31 months, computerized tomography (CT) revealed a bulky tumor (7.0 x 5.6 cm) along the left pelvic wall, indicating pelvic lymph node metastasis.
  • Five courses of chemotherapy consisting of M-VAC (methotrexate, vinblastine, doxorubicin and cisplatin) was performed.
  • The size of the tumor was reduced to 1.5 x 1.0 cm.
  • Then, external beam radiotherapy (50 Gy) was added to the residual tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / radiotherapy. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / drug therapy. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Methotrexate / administration & dosage. Pelvis. Radiotherapy Dosage. Vinblastine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 17131872.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-1994
  • [Journal-full-title] Hinyokika kiyo. Acta urologica Japonica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hinyokika Kiyo
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5V9KLZ54CY / Vinblastine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate; M-VAC protocol
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5. Nishimoto K, Oyama M, Ando T, Nakajima Y, Kiguchi H: [Inguinal lymph node metastasis of bladder carcinoma ten years after cystourethrectomy: a case report]. Hinyokika Kiyo; 2005 Nov;51(11):759-61
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  • [Title] [Inguinal lymph node metastasis of bladder carcinoma ten years after cystourethrectomy: a case report].
  • A 79-year-old man had undergone radical cystourethrectomy for bladder carcinoma in January, 1989.
  • Ten years later, follow-up computed tomography (CT) revealed swollen left inguinal lymph node in October 1998 and lymph node dissection was performed in January, 2000.
  • Left inguinal lymph node metastases appeared again in January, 2001.
  • Chest X-ray films showed multiple lung metastases in March, 2001.
  • Three couses of MVAC (methotrexate, vinblastine, doxorubicin cisplatinum) chemotherapy had been performed since September, 2001 but were in effective.
  • Papillary tumor was observed at external urethral meatus in September, 2002 and the biopsied specimens showed TCC, G1 > G2, pathologically.
  • It is suggested that the recurrent TCC tumor in the urethral remnants might metastasize into the inguinal lymph nodes.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / surgery. Cystectomy. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Urethra / surgery. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Humans. Inguinal Canal. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 16363710.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-1994
  • [Journal-full-title] Hinyokika kiyo. Acta urologica Japonica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hinyokika Kiyo
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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6. Senovilla Pérez JL, Resel Estévez L, Moreno Sierra J, Fernández Pérez C, González Larriba JL, Blanco Jiménez E, Silmi Moyano A: [Neoadjuvant chemotherapy MVAC in the treatment of infiltrating bladder carcinoma]. Actas Urol Esp; 2000 Jul-Aug;24(7):536-41
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  • [Title] [Neoadjuvant chemotherapy MVAC in the treatment of infiltrating bladder carcinoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Quimioterapia neoadyuvante MVAC en el tratamiento del carcinoma vesical infiltrante.
  • INTRODUCTION: Aiming to preserve the bladder in patients with infiltrative carcinoma of the bladder and to offer patients improved quality of life with no detriment for survival, a therapeutical protocol was set up.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Between August 1988 and January 1997 63 patients with stage T2 and T3a infiltrative carcinoma of the bladder, with no metastasis or node extension detectable with imaging techniques were treated in our unit.
  • 45 of these patients met all protocol criteria and were given 3 neoadjuvant chemotherapy courses with MVAC (methotrexate, vincristine, adriamycin, cisplatin).
  • Following chemotherapy, re-assessment was performed through lab tests, chest X-rays, abdomino-pelvic CT, bone scanning, cystoscopy, multiple randomized biopsies, tumoral bed scar resection and resection of relapsed urothelioma.
  • 20% received other therapies after rejecting both cystectomy or radiotherapy.
  • With regards to grading, 66.7% patients had lower grading at relapse if tumour was initially grade 2.
  • For those with initial tumour grade 3, only 20% had a lower grade.
  • CONCLUSION: 64.4% patients retained their bladder.
  • In 26.7% there was demonstrable metastatic disease.
  • No differences were seen in the distribution or survival time based on the different treatment given after chemotherapy (p = 0.22).
  • Patients with complete remission after chemotherapy have greater actuarial survival which is statistically significant (p = 0.04).
  • [MeSH-major] Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Doxorubicin / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Male. Methotrexate / therapeutic use. Middle Aged. Survival Rate. Vinblastine / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 11011443.001).
  • [ISSN] 0210-4806
  • [Journal-full-title] Actas urologicas espanolas
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Actas Urol Esp
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5V9KLZ54CY / Vinblastine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate; M-VAC protocol
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7. Walvekar RR, Pantvaidya GH, Desai SB, Chaukar DA, D'Cruz AK: Urinary bladder metastasis--an unusual presentation of distant spread from a primary pyriform sinus cancer: a case report. Auris Nasus Larynx; 2006 Dec;33(4):493-5
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  • [Title] Urinary bladder metastasis--an unusual presentation of distant spread from a primary pyriform sinus cancer: a case report.
  • Hypopharyngeal cancers have a high propensity to distant metastasis.
  • However, metastasis to the urinary bladder as an initial presentation of distant spread has not been reported in literature.
  • We present a report of a patient with a treated and controlled pyriform sinus cancer who presented with complaints of dysuria, 8 months after completion of treatment.
  • Cystoscopy revealed a bladder mass and biopsy confirmed it to be a metastatic squamous cell carcinoma.
  • On further investigation, the patient was found to have disseminated disease for which chemotherapy was instituted.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Hypopharyngeal Neoplasms / pathology. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Cystoscopy. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Male. Neck Dissection. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant


8. Zaghloul MS, Boutrus R, El-Hossieny H, Kader YA, El-Attar I, Nazmy M: A prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of zoledronic acid in bony metastatic bladder cancer. Int J Clin Oncol; 2010 Aug;15(4):382-9
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  • [Title] A prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of zoledronic acid in bony metastatic bladder cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Zoledronic acid treatment reduces the incidence of skeletal-related events (SREs) in patients with bone metastases from breast, lung, and urologic cancers including prostate and renal cancer.
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of zoledronic acid on SREs in patients with bone metastases from bladder cancer.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with bone metastases from bladder cancer who were receiving palliative radiotherapy were randomized to placebo or zoledronic acid (4 mg intravenous monthly) for 6 months.
  • RESULTS: The patients (n = 40) were evenly distributed between the two treatment groups, and the baseline demographics of the two groups were similar.
  • Zoledronic acid also prolonged the median time to first SRE compared with the placebo (16 vs. 8 weeks, respectively).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Zoledronic acid therapy decreased the incidence of SREs and improved the 1-year survival rate of patients with bone metastases from bladder cancer, potentially through its anticancer activity.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Bone Density Conservation Agents / administration & dosage. Bone Neoplasms / drug therapy. Diphosphonates / administration & dosage. Imidazoles / administration & dosage. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Drug Administration Schedule. Egypt. Female. Fractures, Bone / etiology. Fractures, Bone / prevention & control. Humans. Hypercalcemia / etiology. Hypercalcemia / prevention & control. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Male. Middle Aged. Pain / etiology. Pain / prevention & control. Placebo Effect. Prospective Studies. Risk Assessment. Risk Factors. Spinal Cord Compression / etiology. Spinal Cord Compression / prevention & control. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20354750.001).
  • [ISSN] 1437-7772
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Bone Density Conservation Agents; 0 / Diphosphonates; 0 / Imidazoles; 6XC1PAD3KF / zoledronic acid
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9. Fink W, Zimpfer A, Ugurel S: Mucosal metastases in malignant melanoma. Onkologie; 2003 Jun;26(3):249-51
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  • [Title] Mucosal metastases in malignant melanoma.
  • BACKGROUND: We present the case of a patient with malignant melanoma stage IV according to the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) classification and an unusual pattern of metastasis to the mucosa of the esophagus, the stomach, the bladder and the palatine tonsil.
  • CASE REPORT: A 38-year-old male patient with metastatic malignant melanoma of stage III (AJCC) was admitted for initiation of adjuvant therapy.
  • 4 months earlier a primary melanoma of the left upper leg had been excised and 2 months later the patient had undergone a left inguinal lymph node dissection revealing 2 metastatic lymph nodes.
  • He underwent a tonsillectomy and a lymphadenectomy which both revealed melanoma metastases.
  • Two cycles of dacarbazine (DTIC) chemotherapy were performed during which the patient developed cutaneous metastases, dyspepsia, and mild hematemesis.
  • Gastroscopy revealed bleeding from mucosal metastases of the esophagus and stomach.
  • A few weeks later the patient developed macroscopic hematuria.
  • A cystoscopy was performed and showed metastases to the mucosa of the bladder.
  • Nutrient vessels of these bladder metastases were embolized in order to control bleeding.
  • RESULTS: This case presents common and uncommon sites of metastatic melanoma to the mucosa with the typical clinical manifestations in a single patient.
  • [MeSH-major] Esophageal Neoplasms / secondary. Melanoma / secondary. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Stomach Neoplasms / secondary. Tonsillar Neoplasms / secondary. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Gastric Mucosa / pathology. Humans. Male. Mucous Membrane / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. Tomography, Emission-Computed


10. Zennami K, Yamada Y, Nakamura K, Aoki S, Taki T, Honda N: Solitary brain metastasis from pT1, G3 bladder cancer. Int J Urol; 2008 Jan;15(1):96-8
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  • [Title] Solitary brain metastasis from pT1, G3 bladder cancer.
  • Brain metastasis from bladder cancer occurs rarely.
  • Particularly, solitary brain metastasis is very rare in patients who have never received systemic chemotherapy.
  • We encountered a patient who underwent transurethral resection of bladder tumor and bacillus Calmette-Guérin bladder instillation for pT1, G3 bladder cancer accompanied by carcinoma in situ, and subsequently revealed solitary brain metastasis after 34 months while neither cystoscopy nor urine cytology revealed abnormalities during this period.
  • To our knowledge, our experience of solitary brain metastasis from pT1 bladder cancer is the second case in the world.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Parietal Lobe. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / pathology


11. Shen CH, Shee JJ, Wu JY, Lin YW, Wu JD, Liu YW: Combretastatin A-4 inhibits cell growth and metastasis in bladder cancer cells and retards tumour growth in a murine orthotopic bladder tumour model. Br J Pharmacol; 2010 Aug;160(8):2008-27
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  • [Title] Combretastatin A-4 inhibits cell growth and metastasis in bladder cancer cells and retards tumour growth in a murine orthotopic bladder tumour model.
  • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Bladder cancer is a highly recurrent cancer after intravesical therapy, so new drugs are needed to treat this cancer.
  • Hence, we investigated the anti-cancer activity of combretastatin A-4 (CA-4), an anti-tubulin agent, in human bladder cancer cells and in a murine orthotopic bladder tumour model.
  • The effect of intravesical CA-4 therapy on the development of tumours was studied in the murine orthotopic bladder tumour model.
  • Cytotoxic IC(50) values of CA-4 in human bladder cancer cells were below 4 nM.
  • The analyses of apoptosis showed that CA-4 induced caspase-3 activation and decreased BubR1 and Bub3 in cancer cells.
  • Importantly, the in vivo study revealed that intravesical CA-4 therapy retarded the development of murine bladder tumours.
  • CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: These data demonstrate that CA-4 kills bladder cancer cells by inducing apoptosis and mitotic catastrophe.
  • It inhibited cell migration in vitro and tumour growth in vivo.
  • Hence, CA-4 intravesical therapy could provide another strategy for treating superficial bladder cancers.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / pharmacology. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Stilbenes / pharmacology. Tubulin Modulators / pharmacology. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Apoptosis / drug effects. Cell Cycle / drug effects. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Movement / drug effects. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Female. Humans. Inhibitory Concentration 50. Mice. Mice, Inbred C57BL. Microtubules / drug effects. Microtubules / metabolism. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Phosphorylation. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt / metabolism. Time Factors. Tumor Burden / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 20649598.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-5381
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 0 / Stilbenes; 0 / Tubulin Modulators; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt; I5590ES2QZ / fosbretabulin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2958646
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12. Nakatani T, Sugimura K, Naganuma T, Kamikawa S, Sugimoto T: Metastatic urinary bladder tumor from extragonadal germ cell tumor: a case report. Oncol Rep; 2002 Nov-Dec;9(6):1209-11
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  • [Title] Metastatic urinary bladder tumor from extragonadal germ cell tumor: a case report.
  • Investigations revealed a retroperitoneal tumor and left-sided cervical lymphadenopathy without abnormal findings in both testicles.
  • The diagnosis of extragonadal germ cell tumor was made based on a lymph node biopsy.
  • Following chemotherapy and retroperitoneal lymphoadenectomy, at outpatient follow-up, beta-HCG elevated again.
  • He complained of gross hematuria, cystoscopy showed a bladder tumor, and abdominal MRI scan showed a right ureteral tumor.
  • Total cystectomy and right nephroureterectomy were performed, which revealed that the bladder and ureteral tumors were metastatic germ cell tumors.
  • Six months later, the patient developed hepatic and mesenteric lymph node metastases that failed to respond to treatment, and died.
  • Germ cell tumors metastasizing to the urinary tract are extremely uncommon, and this is the first report of bladder metastases, other than through direct invasion, from an extratesticular germ cell tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Germinoma / secondary. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human / blood. Combined Modality Therapy. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / blood. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Radiography, Abdominal. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / blood. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / secondary. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 12375021.001).
  • [ISSN] 1021-335X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncol. Rep.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human
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13. Kaneko G, Kikuchi E, Hasegawa M, Miyajima A, Nakagawa K, Kameyama K, Oya M: Non-muscle invasive bladder cancer with concomitant vaginal urothelial carcinoma: a case report and review of the literature. Int J Clin Oncol; 2010 Dec;15(6):626-30
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  • [Title] Non-muscle invasive bladder cancer with concomitant vaginal urothelial carcinoma: a case report and review of the literature.
  • A 74-year-old female was referred to our hospital for non-muscle invasive bladder tumors initially treated at another hospital.
  • Preoperatively, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated non-muscle invasive bladder tumors and a vaginal tumor.
  • A second transurethral resection of the bladder tumors, transvaginal tumor resection, and systemic chemotherapy were performed.
  • The pathogenesis of the vaginal UC was considered to be the primary UC or metastasis from the bladder UC.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / secondary. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / pathology. Vaginal Neoplasms / secondary


14. Hadzi-Djokić J, Pejcić T, Aćimović M, Andrejević V, Radosavljević R: Penile metastasis from invasive bladder cancer. Acta Chir Iugosl; 2009;56(2):101-3
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  • [Title] Penile metastasis from invasive bladder cancer.
  • OBJECTIVE: To present the rare case of penile metastasis from bladder cancer.
  • PATIENT REPORT: A 68-year-old man with invasive bladder cancer disseminated in penile shaft and the pelvic lymph nodes is presented.
  • The patient underwent cystoprostatectomy, total penectomy and adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSION: Despite the fact that secondary penile tumors usually require palliative therapy, in selected cases surgical treatment of primary tumor and penectomy, followed with chemotherapy, can improve survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / secondary. Penile Neoplasms / secondary. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Pelvis

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  • (PMID = 19780339.001).
  • [ISSN] 0354-950X
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta chirurgica Iugoslavica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Chir Iugosl
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Serbia
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15. Inoue K, Slaton JW, Karashima T, Yoshikawa C, Shuin T, Sweeney P, Millikan R, Dinney CP: The prognostic value of angiogenesis factor expression for predicting recurrence and metastasis of bladder cancer after neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radical cystectomy. Clin Cancer Res; 2000 Dec;6(12):4866-73
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  • [Title] The prognostic value of angiogenesis factor expression for predicting recurrence and metastasis of bladder cancer after neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radical cystectomy.
  • To determine the prognostic value of angiogenesis factor expression for patients with muscle-invasive transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the bladder treated with neoadjuvant methotrexate, vinblastine, doxorubicin, and cisplatin (M-VAC) chemotherapy and radical cystectomy, we evaluated the expression of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and interleukin 8 (IL-8) by in situ hybridization, and we determined microvessel density (MVD) by immunohistochemistry.
  • These factors were evaluated in 55 biopsy specimens prior to therapy and in the cystectomy specimens of 51 patients after completion of therapy.
  • Pathological stage, bFGF expression, and MVD in the cystectomy specimens after therapy were all independent prognostic factors for disease recurrence.
  • The results of this exploratory study indicate that the expression levels of VEGF and bFGF as indicated by in situ hybridization and MVD as indicated by immunohistochemistry identify patients with muscle-invasive TCC who are at high risk of developing metastasis after aggressive therapy with systemic M-VAC chemotherapy and radical cystectomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiogenesis Inducing Agents / biosynthesis. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / metabolism. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / diagnosis. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biopsy. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Cystectomy. Disease-Free Survival. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Endothelial Growth Factors / biosynthesis. Female. Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 / biosynthesis. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. In Situ Hybridization. Interleukin-8 / biosynthesis. Lymphokines / biosynthesis. Male. Methotrexate / administration & dosage. Microcirculation. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Muscle Neoplasms / secondary. Neoplasm Metastasis. Prognosis. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Recurrence. Time Factors. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors. Vinblastine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 11156246.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 16672; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 67914; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 71861
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inducing Agents; 0 / Endothelial Growth Factors; 0 / Interleukin-8; 0 / Lymphokines; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors; 103107-01-3 / Fibroblast Growth Factor 2; 5V9KLZ54CY / Vinblastine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate; M-VAC protocol
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16. Ide H, Nakajima Y, Horinaga M, Shinojima T, Ozu C, Hatakeyama N, Kiguchi H: [Bladder carcinoma metastases presenting as intraperitoneal dissemination without local recurrence: a case report]. Nihon Hinyokika Gakkai Zasshi; 2004 Nov;95(7):813-6
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  • [Title] [Bladder carcinoma metastases presenting as intraperitoneal dissemination without local recurrence: a case report].
  • Cystoscopy showed broad-based papillary tumors on the left bladder wall.
  • TUR-BT was performed and pathological diagnosis was grade 3 transitional cell carcinoma of pT1a.
  • Although no intravesical tumor recurrence had been observed, a solid palpable mass was noted in the lower abdomen nine months after TUR-BT, and computed tomography suggested a large ovarian tumor.
  • Subsequently performed was the operation at Gynecology, which revealed a large tumor involving the whole major omentum.
  • Frozen sections of the tumor were diagnosed as transitional cell carcinoma metastases of the bladder cancer, and the final pathological report was the same.
  • Although receiving 4 courses of M-VAC systemic chemotherapy after the operation, she died 14 months later.
  • Autopsy disclosed intraperitoneal cancer dissemination and metastases without any intravesical nor left perivesical tumor recurrence, and it was suggested that the bladder tumor metastases occurred not by direct invasion but by either lymphatic or vascular mechanism in this case.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / secondary. Neoplastic Cells, Circulating / pathology. Peritoneal Neoplasms / secondary. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15624492.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-5287
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Hinyōkika Gakkai zasshi. The japanese journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Hinyokika Gakkai Zasshi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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17. Inoue T, Ohyama C, Horikawa Y, Togashi H, Matsuura S, Tsuchiya N, Satoh S, Sato K, Habuchi T, Saito S, Hoshi S, Arai Y, Kato T: [Active chemotherapy with gemcitabine, carboplatin and docetaxel for three patients with MVAC-resistant liver metastasis of urothelial carcinoma]. Hinyokika Kiyo; 2004 Apr;50(4):273-7
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  • [Title] [Active chemotherapy with gemcitabine, carboplatin and docetaxel for three patients with MVAC-resistant liver metastasis of urothelial carcinoma].
  • We report three cases with methotrexate-vinblastin-adriamycin-cisplatin (MVAC) resistant multiple liver metastases of urothelial carcinoma that responded to combination chemotherapy consisting of gemcitabine plus carboplatin (GC) with additional docetaxel (GCD) as salvage chemotherapy.
  • Case 1: A 55-year-old man underwent left nephroureterectomy for ureteral cancer (TCC, G3, pT3pN1M0).
  • Three courses of GC followed by three courses of GCD were given via intra-hepatic arterial infusion for multiple liver metastases, which appeared after adjuvant high-dose MVAC therapy.
  • Case 2: A 46-year-old man underwent radical cystectomy for locally advanced bladder cancer (TCC G3 + adenocarcinoma. pT3pN0M0).
  • Two courses of GC followed by 2 courses of GCD systemic therapies were performed for multiple liver metastases, which appeared after adjuvant high-dose MVAC therapy.
  • Case 3: A 66-year-old man received three courses of MVAC for multiple metastases of the bladder cancer (TCC, G3, > pT2), which resulted in disease progression.
  • Although the response duration was still short, GC and GCD may be promising salvage chemotherapeutic regimens for the patients with MVAC-resistant liver metastases of urothelial carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / drug therapy. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Drug Administration Schedule. Humans. Kidney Neoplasms / drug therapy. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Male. Methotrexate / administration & dosage. Middle Aged. Taxoids / administration & dosage. Vinblastine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 15188623.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-1994
  • [Journal-full-title] Hinyokika kiyo. Acta urologica Japonica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hinyokika Kiyo
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Taxoids; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; 15H5577CQD / docetaxel; 5V9KLZ54CY / Vinblastine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; B76N6SBZ8R / gemcitabine; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate; M-VAC protocol
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18. Nabi G, Gupta NP, Gandhi D: Skeletal muscle metastasis from transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder: clinicoradiological features. Clin Radiol; 2003 Nov;58(11):883-5
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  • [Title] Skeletal muscle metastasis from transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder: clinicoradiological features.
  • AIM: To define the clinicoradiological characteristics of skeletal muscle metastasis from transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective review of all patients with skeletal muscle metastasis was undertaken between January 1999 to December 2001.
  • Patients suspected of having a metastasis on radiological examinations, and subsequently proven to have metastatic disease on histological examination were included in study.
  • The clinical presentation and radiological features of five patients with skeletal muscle metastasis from bladder tumours were reviewed from hospital records.
  • RESULTS: Twenty-four patients had skeletal muscle metastasis from various primaries.
  • Of these five patients had previous or concurrent primary tumours in the bladder.
  • Four patients had radical cystectomy with urinary diversion (two ileal conduit and two orthotopic sigmoid neobladder).
  • One patient presented with bladder tumour and concomitant muscular metastasis.
  • All patients underwent helical computed tomography (CT) before confirmation of diagnosis by fine-needle aspiration (FNA) or biopsy.
  • The typical appearance of low-density enhancing lesions on CT was mistaken for abscess in two patients and failure to respond to conservative treatment led to suspicion of metastasis.
  • Diagnosis was proven histologically in all patients (FNA in three and biopsy in two).
  • All patients had palliative chemotherapy (Mitomycin, Vincristine, Adriamycin and Cyclophosphamide).
  • CONCLUSION: Muscular metastasis from urothelial tumours typically presents with persistent localized pain with or without swelling.
  • The characteristic low-density, ring-enhancing lesions on CT in a patient with previous or concomitant urothelial tumours should raise the suspicion of metastasis until proven otherwise.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / secondary. Muscle Neoplasms / secondary. Muscle, Skeletal. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / radiography
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biopsy / methods. Combined Modality Therapy / methods. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Palliative Care / methods. Retrospective Studies. Time Factors. Tomography, Spiral Computed / methods

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  • (PMID = 14581013.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-9260
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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19. Sugawara Y, Kajihara M, Semba T, Ochi T, Fujii T, Mochizuki T: Healing focal "flare" phenomenon after radiotherapy in a bone metastasis from bladder cancer. Clin Nucl Med; 2005 Oct;30(10):672-3
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  • [Title] Healing focal "flare" phenomenon after radiotherapy in a bone metastasis from bladder cancer.
  • "Flare" phenomenon has been primarily reported as a transient increase in the number or intensity of lesions on bone scans in patients receiving hormonal or chemotherapy.
  • It has been well documented in patients with metastatic breast or prostate carcinoma, and recently reported in those with lung cancer.
  • We present a case of bone metastasis from bladder carcinoma, in which healing flare phenomenon was observed after radiotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / etiology. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma / etiology. Carcinoma / secondary. Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced / etiology. Radiotherapy / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Humans. Male. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / surgery


20. Quek ML, Flanigan RC: The role of lymph node density in bladder cancer prognostication. World J Urol; 2009 Feb;27(1):27-32
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  • [Title] The role of lymph node density in bladder cancer prognostication.
  • Pelvic lymph node metastases from bladder cancer occur in about 25% of patients undergoing radical cystectomy.
  • While the majority of patients with lymph node metastases will develop progressive disease, some patients do exhibit long-term survival with and without adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • The concept of lymph node density has been proposed as a means to stratify patient prognosis since it takes into account two important factors-the number of positive nodes (tumor burden) and the total number of nodes removed/examined (extent of dissection).
  • Due to the lack of agreement on the extent of lymphadenectomy, lymph node density facilitates standardization of lymph node staging, thus allowing for adjuvant therapies and clinical trials to be more uniformly applied.
  • We review the literature regarding the role of lymph node density in the prognostic stratification of node-positive bladder cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 19020882.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-8726
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Urol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 35
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21. Nabi G, Seth A, Dogra PN, Hemal AK, Gupta NP: Impact of primary tumour characteristics on the survival of patients with lymph node metastases in bladder cancer following radical cystectomy. Int Urol Nephrol; 2003;35(1):25-8
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  • [Title] Impact of primary tumour characteristics on the survival of patients with lymph node metastases in bladder cancer following radical cystectomy.
  • BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Patients with carcinoma urinary bladder with metastasis to the lymph nodes have been believed to have a poor prognosis.
  • 38 of these were found to have metastasis in the regional lymph nodes (i.e. stage D).
  • Patients were studied for age, sex, morphology of tumour (papillary or nodular), grade of tumour, local extent of the disease (T1 T3A OR T3B), lymph nodal involvement, chemotherapy (whether received or not) and no. of TUR resection before radical cystectomy.
  • The benefits of adjuvant chemotherapy (methotrexate and cisplatin) could not be assessed as most of the patients received chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSION: Patients with positive lymph nodes for metastases have fairly good survival with radical cystectomy especially those who have a lower T stage (organ confined), papillary morphology and N1 disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Cystectomy. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / mortality. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 14620278.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-1623
  • [Journal-full-title] International urology and nephrology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int Urol Nephrol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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22. Kato S, Ito Y, Nishino Y, Ban Y, Deguchi T: [Urethral recurrence and distant metastases of bladder cancer 9 years after cystectomy and neobladder]. Hinyokika Kiyo; 2005 Mar;51(3):195-7
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  • [Title] [Urethral recurrence and distant metastases of bladder cancer 9 years after cystectomy and neobladder].
  • We report a 79-year-old female with urethral recurrence and distant metastases of urothelial bladder cancer.
  • Chemotherapy was not performed and the patient died 5 months later.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / surgery. Cystectomy. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Urethral Neoplasms / secondary. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / surgery. Urinary Diversion
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Lymphatic Metastasis

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  • (PMID = 15852676.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-1994
  • [Journal-full-title] Hinyokika kiyo. Acta urologica Japonica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hinyokika Kiyo
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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23. Nanaura H, Yamada Y, Fukatsu H: [A case of subcutaneous metastases from bladder cancer after radical cystouretherectomy]. Hinyokika Kiyo; 2002 Mar;48(3):179-81
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  • [Title] [A case of subcutaneous metastases from bladder cancer after radical cystouretherectomy].
  • A case of transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the bladder metastasizing subcutaneously to the right lower abdomen and to the left back approximately 2 years after radical cystouretherectomy is reported.
  • A 65-year-old male underwent radical cystouretherectomy with the creation of ileal couduit after preoperative intraarterial chemotherapy and radiotherapy.
  • At the out patient clinic two years postoperatively, a subcutaneous tumor was palpated in the right lower abdomen and the left back.
  • The tumors were removed and histopathologically diagnosed as subcutaneous metastases of TCC.
  • The patient received three courses of postoperative systemic chemotherapy.
  • At 15 months after the last chemotherapy, the patient remains free of metastases and relapse.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / secondary. Skin Neoplasms / secondary. Urethra / surgery. Urinary Bladder / surgery. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / pathology. Urologic Surgical Procedures / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 11993215.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-1994
  • [Journal-full-title] Hinyokika kiyo. Acta urologica Japonica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hinyokika Kiyo
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Number-of-references] 9
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25. Takayanagi N, Chiba H, Sagawa T, Hirayama Y, Tsuji Y, Sakamaki S: [A case of undifferentiated bladder carcinoma with axilla lymph node metastasis successfully treated with gemcitabine and cisplatin]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2003 Dec;30(13):2137-40
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  • [Title] [A case of undifferentiated bladder carcinoma with axilla lymph node metastasis successfully treated with gemcitabine and cisplatin].
  • A 68-year-old man diagnosed with undifferentiated bladder carcinoma underwent radical cystectomy in another hospital.
  • He was referred to our hospital, and diagnosed with axilla lymph node metastasis of bladder carcinoma based on test results.
  • Four cycles of GEM and CDDP chemotherapy were performed.
  • After the chemotherapy, the metastatic focus disappeared completely from the CT scan, and the case was considered to be CR.
  • It is suggested that this combination therapy may be useful for bladder carcinoma in advanced or metastatic stages.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma / drug therapy. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / drug therapy. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Axilla. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Cystectomy. Drug Administration Schedule. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male

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  • (PMID = 14712779.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; B76N6SBZ8R / gemcitabine; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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26. Morgan K, Srinivas S, Freiha F: Synchronous solitary metastasis of transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder to the testis. Urology; 2004 Oct;64(4):808-9
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  • [Title] Synchronous solitary metastasis of transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder to the testis.
  • Metastasis from bladder cancer to the testis is extremely rare, occurs with advanced and metastatic disease, and is usually a finding at autopsy.
  • We report a rare, and probably the first, case of solitary and synchronous metastatic transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder to the testis, discovered on the preoperative workup.
  • An incidentally discovered testicular mass in a man with high-grade, invasive bladder cancer should be considered a metastatic lesion until proven otherwise.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / secondary. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Testicular Neoplasms / secondary. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / radiotherapy. Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Cystectomy. Cystitis / complications. Cystitis / diagnosis. Hematuria / etiology. Humans. Incidental Findings. Male. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Neoplasms, Second Primary. Orchiectomy. Positron-Emission Tomography. Prostatectomy. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Prostatic Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Prostatic Neoplasms / secondary. Radiation Injuries / complications. Radiation Injuries / diagnosis. Transurethral Resection of Prostate. Urinary Diversion


27. Singh AV, Franke AA, Blackburn GL, Zhou JR: Soy phytochemicals prevent orthotopic growth and metastasis of bladder cancer in mice by alterations of cancer cell proliferation and apoptosis and tumor angiogenesis. Cancer Res; 2006 Feb 1;66(3):1851-8
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  • [Title] Soy phytochemicals prevent orthotopic growth and metastasis of bladder cancer in mice by alterations of cancer cell proliferation and apoptosis and tumor angiogenesis.
  • A role of dietary bioactive components in bladder cancer prevention is biologically plausible because most substances or metabolites are excreted through the urinary tract and are consequently in direct contact with the mucosa of the bladder.
  • We first determined antigrowth activity of genistein against poorly differentiated 253J B-V human bladder cancer cells in vitro.
  • Genistein inhibited the cell growth in a time- and dose-dependent manner via G(2)-M arrest, down-regulation of nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB), and induction of apoptosis.
  • We also evaluated both genistin, which is a natural form of genistein, and the isoflavone-rich soy phytochemical concentrate (SPC) on the growth and metastasis of 253J B-V tumors in an orthotopic tumor model.
  • Mice treated with genistin and SPC had reduced final tumor weights by 56% (P < 0.05) and 52% (P < 0.05), respectively, associated with induction of tumor cell apoptosis and inhibition of tumor angiogenesis in vivo.
  • In addition, SPC treatment, but not genistin treatment, significantly inhibited lung metastases by 95% (P < 0.01) associated with significant down-regulation of NF-kappaB expression in tumor tissues and reduction of circulating insulin-like growth factor-I levels, suggesting that SPC may contain other bioactive ingredients that have antimetastatic activity.
  • The results from our studies suggest that further clinical investigation should be warranted to apply soy phytochemicals, such as SPC, as a potent prevention regimen for bladder cancer progression.
  • This orthotopic human bladder tumor model also provides a clinically relevant experimental tool for assessing potential preventive activity of other dietary components against bladder tumor growth and metastasis.

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  • (PMID = 16452247.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-5472
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / P30 DK040561; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA092546; None / None / / P30 DK040561-11; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R03 CA112640-01; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / P30 DK040561-11; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA112640-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA 92546; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R03 CA112640; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA092546-01A2; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA092546-01A2; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R03 CA 112640
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 3; 0 / Isoflavones; 0 / NF-kappa B; 103107-01-3 / Fibroblast Growth Factor 2; 67763-96-6 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor I; DH2M523P0H / Genistein
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS109672; NLM/ PMC2683370
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28. Simms MS, Mann G, Kockelbergh RC, Mellon JK: The management of lymph node metastasis from bladder cancer. Eur J Surg Oncol; 2005 May;31(4):348-56
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  • [Title] The management of lymph node metastasis from bladder cancer.
  • AIM: The presence of pelvic lymph node metastasis from bladder cancer has traditionally been associated with a very poor prognosis.
  • The aim of this paper is to review the literature with regard to the management of patients with nodal disease, particularly gross nodal metastasis and suggest a strategy for management of these patients.
  • METHODS: We performed a literature search in the PubMed database and the reference lists of relevant papers describing the management of locally advanced bladder cancer.
  • FINDINGS: There are no randomised studies relating specifically to the management of nodal metastasis in bladder cancer.
  • In patients with gross nodal disease detected pre-operatively or at the time of surgery, a multimodality approach consisting of surgery, chemotherapy and possibly radiotherapy seems appropriate.
  • The prognosis of such patients relates to the pathological stage of the primary tumour and the degree of lymph node involvement.
  • In addition a good response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy may identify patients who are likely to survive longer.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The prognosis for patients with gross nodal disease from bladder cancer is poor although cure may be possible in a small number of patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphatic Metastasis. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / pathology. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Neoplasm Staging. Pelvis. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 15837038.001).
  • [ISSN] 0748-7983
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of surgical oncology : the journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 60
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29. Segawa N, Azuma H, Takahara K, Hamada S, Kotake Y, Tsuji M, Katsuokai Y: [Port-site metastasis after retroperitoneoscopy-assisted nephroureterectomy and cystectomy for bladder cancer invading the ureter: a case report]. Hinyokika Kiyo; 2008 Jan;54(1):13-6
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  • [Title] [Port-site metastasis after retroperitoneoscopy-assisted nephroureterectomy and cystectomy for bladder cancer invading the ureter: a case report].
  • We report a case of port-site metastasis of bladder cancer after left retroperitoneoscopy-assisted nephroureterectomy and cystectomy.
  • The diagnosis was invasive bladder cancer with bone metastasis.
  • He received two courses of chemotherapy (methotrexate, vinblastine, adriamycin, cisplatin), and this resulted in resolution of the bone metastases.
  • Two months later, abdominal and pelvic computed tomography showed a bladder tumor invading the left lower ureter with hydronephrosis.
  • The patient was unable to undergo systemic chemotherapy because of renal dysfunction.
  • Four months later, a lateral abdominal wall tumor was found at a port-site, and needle biopsy confirmed this to be metastatic urothelial carcinoma.
  • Clinicians need to be aware of port-site metastasis, particularly in patients with UC, and take steps to prevent it during laparoscopic procedures.
  • [MeSH-major] Abdominal Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma / surgery. Cystectomy. Endoscopy. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Seeding. Nephrectomy. Ureter / surgery. Ureteral Neoplasms / surgery. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 18260354.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-1994
  • [Journal-full-title] Hinyokika kiyo. Acta urologica Japonica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hinyokika Kiyo
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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30. Masue T, Taniguchi M, Takeuchi T, Sakai S: [A case report of sarcomatoid carcinoma of the bladder with metastasis to small intestine]. Nihon Hinyokika Gakkai Zasshi; 2005 Sep;96(6):640-3
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  • [Title] [A case report of sarcomatoid carcinoma of the bladder with metastasis to small intestine].
  • Cystoscopic examination revealed a broad-based tumor of 2.5 cm in diameter on the lateral side of the right ureteral orifice.
  • Under the clinical diagnosis of TCC G2 > G3, T3bNOM0, radical cystectomy with orthotopic bladder substitution was performed.
  • Pathological diagnosis was TCC G3 with sarcomatoid carcinoma, pT2pR0pL1 pVlpN0.
  • Adjuvant chemotherapy was not performed because of his transient poor conditions.
  • Lung metastasis was observed 6 months postoperatively.
  • Despite of M-VAC therapy and radiation therapy, additional metastases to brain and liver were observed.
  • To our knowledge, this is the first case of sarcomatoid carcinoma of the bladder with metastasis to small intestine, although 6 cases of transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder with metastasis to small intestine has been reported in Japan.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / secondary. Carcinosarcoma / secondary. Ileal Neoplasms / secondary. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16218407.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-5287
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Hinyōkika Gakkai zasshi. The japanese journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Hinyokika Gakkai Zasshi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Number-of-references] 11
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31. Rübben H, Otto T: [Locally advanced or metastatic bladder carcinoma. Current aspects of therapy]. Urologe A; 2001 Nov;40(6):464-7
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  • [Title] [Locally advanced or metastatic bladder carcinoma. Current aspects of therapy].
  • [Transliterated title] Lokal fortgeschrittenes oder metastasiertes Harnblasenkarzinom. Aktuelle Aspekte in der Therapie.
  • The prognostic factors for infiltrating tumors established by the TNM system in 1997 include: Depth of infiltration, degree of differentiation, status of lymph nodes distant metastases.
  • Of the additional factors investigated, only tumor size and hydronephrosis appear to be of prognostic significance.
  • In cases of carcinoma of the urinary bladder without metastases (T2-4,N0,M0), radical cystectomy is the therapy of choice.
  • A preceding neoadjuvant systemic regimen of chemotherapy with three cycles of M-VAC (methotrexate, vinblastine, adriamycin, cisplatin) significantly improves the survival rate.
  • In patients with locally advanced urinary bladder carcinoma, however, adjuvant systemic chemotherapy with M-VAC after cystectomy and lymphadenectomy offers no advantages for survival.
  • Quality of life in patients with metastatic bladder cancer disease is improved by new cytotoxic drugs, i.e. gemcitabine or taxanes.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / surgery. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Cystectomy. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Methotrexate / administration & dosage. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic. Survival Rate. Vinblastine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 11760352.001).
  • [ISSN] 0340-2592
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Urologe. Ausg. A
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urologe A
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5V9KLZ54CY / Vinblastine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate; M-VAC protocol
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32. Yumura Y, Chiba K, Okada Y, Hirokawa M: [Brain metastasis of bladder carcinoma after total cystectomy: a case report]. Hinyokika Kiyo; 2000 Nov;46(11):807-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Brain metastasis of bladder carcinoma after total cystectomy: a case report].
  • A 74-year-old woman underwent total cystectomy with ureterostomy on March 1993 on a diagnosis of advanced bladder cancer.
  • The pathological diagnosis was transitional carcinoma grade 3, pT3a pN0 pV1, pL2.
  • Two courses of adjuvant chemotherapy with CDDP and MTX were added.
  • Brain MRI examination revealed a solid tumor, 4 x 4 x 3 cm in size, in the right frontal lobe of the cerebrum.
  • No other metastatic lesions were found.
  • She underwent surgical resection of the tumor and subsequent irradiation to right frontal lobe in the cerebrum.
  • Pathological examination confirmed its origin of bladder cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / secondary. Cystectomy. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Methotrexate / administration & dosage. Treatment Outcome. Ureterostomy

  • MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Bladder Cancer.
  • MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Brain Tumors.
  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. CIS-DIAMINEDICHLOROPLATINUM .
  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. METHOTREXATE .
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  • (PMID = 11193302.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-1994
  • [Journal-full-title] Hinyokika kiyo. Acta urologica Japonica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hinyokika Kiyo
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate
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