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1. Doddi S, Singhal T, De Silva C, Smedley F, Sinha P, Leslie M: Small cell carcinoma of the anus: a case report. Cases J; 2009;2:9396

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Small cell carcinoma of the anus: a case report.
  • Small cell carcinoma of the anus is a very rare but aggressive tumour.
  • We present a case of a 60-year old lady with small cell carcinoma of the anus.
  • She had no metastatic disease on presentation.
  • She had chemotherapy and radiotherapy but developed distant metastasis after completion of treatment.
  • Chemotherapy remains the mainstay of treatment for small cell carcinoma of the anus with or without metastatic disease.

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  • (PMID = 20076782.001).
  • [ISSN] 1757-1626
  • [Journal-full-title] Cases journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cases J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2806881
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2. Kim KB, Sanguino AM, Hodges C, Papadopoulos NE, Eton O, Camacho LH, Broemeling LD, Johnson MM, Ballo MT, Ross MI, Gershenwald JE, Lee JE, Mansfield PF, Prieto VG, Bedikian AY: Biochemotherapy in patients with metastatic anorectal mucosal melanoma. Cancer; 2004 Apr 1;100(7):1478-83
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Biochemotherapy in patients with metastatic anorectal mucosal melanoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Patients with metastatic anorectal melanoma generally have an unfavorable prognosis, but no effective systemic therapy has been reported.
  • METHODS: The authors retrospectively evaluated the medical records of all patients with metastatic anorectal melanoma treated with biochemotherapy between January 1991 and December 2001 at the University of Texas M. D.
  • Anderson Cancer Center (Houston, TX).
  • Of these patients, 14 had undergone treatment with cisplatin (CDDP), vinblastine (VB), dacarbazine (DTIC), interferon alpha-2b (IFN), and interleukin 2 (IL-2); 2 had undergone treatment with CDDP, VB, DTIC, and IFN; 1 had undergone treatment with CDDP, IFN, and IL-2; and 1 had undergone treatment with CDDP, VB, temozolomide, IFN, and IL-2.
  • All IL-2 treatments were administered intravenously.
  • The median follow-up time was 12.2 months (range, 3.5-43.7 months).
  • Three patients were lost to follow-up evaluation after the completion of treatment.
  • The median time to progression among the 15 remaining patients was 6.2 months.
  • Among 13 patients who received biochemotherapy as first-line systemic therapy, 6 patients (46%) had major responses, including two (15%) CRs.
  • The median time to progression for this group was 6.2 months, and the median overall survival was 12.9 months.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Biochemotherapy had substantial activity against metastatic anorectal melanoma and should be considered for use in the treatment of metastatic disease from primary anorectal melanoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Melanoma / drug therapy. Melanoma / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Interferon-alpha / administration & dosage. Interferon-alpha / therapeutic use. Male. Middle Aged. Recombinant Proteins. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome. Vinblastine / administration & dosage

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2004 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 15042682.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Interferon-alpha; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 5V9KLZ54CY / Vinblastine; 99210-65-8 / interferon alfa-2b; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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3. Meyer A, Bruns F, Richter K, Grünwald V, Karstens JH: Small cell cancer of the anal canal--case report of a rare tumor. Anticancer Res; 2007 Mar-Apr;27(2):1047-50
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  • [Title] Small cell cancer of the anal canal--case report of a rare tumor.
  • BACKGROUND: We report on a rare case of small cell cancer located at the anal canal.
  • CASE REPORT: A 41-year old woman presented with locally advanced small cell anal cancer and simultaneous hepatic and pulmonal deposits.
  • Due to metastatic disease, chemotherapy with etoposide and cisplatin was performed with mixed response after four cycles of chemotherapy.
  • After application of two additional chemotherapy cycles, locally progressive disease occurred causing symptomatic bowel obstruction.
  • Despite adequate local treatment the patient's condition further deteriorated and irradiation was stopped.
  • CONCLUSION: In patients with metastatic small cell anal cancer chemotherapy remains the mainstay of therapy.
  • Careful histopathological examination, together with immunohistochemistry, is needed to determine the therapeutic strategy to be followed.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Small Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Small Cell / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 17465242.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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4. Eng C, Pathak P: Treatment options in metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal. Curr Treat Options Oncol; 2008 Dec;9(4-6):400-7
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  • [Title] Treatment options in metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal.
  • Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal is a rare malignancy that is often cured with the combined modality therapy of chemoradiation.
  • Yet, a minority of patients will develop distant metastatic disease, an area of oncology in which a universally accepted approach has not been determined.
  • Consideration of platinum-based systemic chemotherapy is commonly provided for palliation with the optimal duration of therapy being largely unknown; the role of biologics and/or surgical resection of metastatic disease are anecdotal.
  • Patients with no contraindications to systemic chemotherapy should be treated aggressively with consideration of multidisciplinary management if appropriate.
  • Here, we present a summary of the existing literature in the treatment of metastatic anal carcinoma in the hopes of providing insight and potential treatment alternatives for the practicing physician.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carboplatin / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Fluorouracil / therapeutic use. Humans. Incidence. Male. Mitomycin / therapeutic use. Radiotherapy. Sexually Transmitted Diseases / transmission. United States / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 19479383.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-6277
  • [Journal-full-title] Current treatment options in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Treat Options Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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5. Lukan N, Ströbel P, Willer A, Kripp M, Dinter D, Mai S, Hochhaus A, Hofheinz RD: Cetuximab-based treatment of metastatic anal cancer: correlation of response with KRAS mutational status. Oncology; 2009;77(5):293-9
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  • [Title] Cetuximab-based treatment of metastatic anal cancer: correlation of response with KRAS mutational status.
  • BACKGROUND: No standard chemotherapy regimen can be defined for patients with metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the anus due to the low incidence of this disease and the high cure rate of localized tumors.
  • Anal cancers universally express the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and KRAS mutations have not been reported in anal cancer thus far.
  • METHODS: We report on 7 patients with metastatic anal cancer treated with cetuximab - a chimeric antibody against EGFR - on a compassionate use basis along with the results of KRAS mutational analysis.
  • RESULTS: Marked tumor shrinkage was noted in several patients using cetuximab monotherapy or cetuximab/irinotecan combination as first or subsequent treatment line (usually after failure of cisplatin-based regimens).
  • CONCLUSION: Cetuximab-based treatment appears to be a valuable treatment option for patients with metastatic KRAS wild-type anal cancer after failure of or as an alternative to cisplatin/5-fluorouracil-based therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Mutation. Proto-Oncogene Proteins / genetics. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / antagonists & inhibitors. ras Proteins / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Cetuximab. Compassionate Use Trials. Female. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 19923868.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0232
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / KRAS protein, human; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 3.6.5.2 / ras Proteins; PQX0D8J21J / Cetuximab
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6. Fayaz S, Vasishta S, Motawy M: Case report of long term survivor of metastatic cloacogenic carcinoma of the anal canal with chemotherapy. Gulf J Oncolog; 2007 Jul;(2):65-8
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  • [Title] Case report of long term survivor of metastatic cloacogenic carcinoma of the anal canal with chemotherapy.
  • A fifty-two years old Egyptian lady, case of cloacogenic carcinoma of anal canal with extensive liver metastasis showed complete remission with 5-Fluorouracil (5FU) and Cis-Dichlorodiammineplatinum(CDDP) chemotherapy only and remains disease free five & haf years after therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Survivors
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Humans. Middle Aged. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20084726.001).
  • [ISSN] 2078-2101
  • [Journal-full-title] The Gulf journal of oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gulf J Oncolog
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Kuwait
  • [Chemical-registry-number] Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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7. Moozar KL, Wong CS, Couture J: Anorectal malignant melanoma: treatment with surgery or radiation therapy, or both. Can J Surg; 2003 Oct;46(5):345-9
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  • [Title] Anorectal malignant melanoma: treatment with surgery or radiation therapy, or both.
  • Surgery is the principal treatment, and the role of adjuvant therapy has not been defined.
  • We therefore decided to review the experience of the Princess Margaret Hospital in Toronto, a large tertiary care cancer hospital, with respect to the surgical management of anorectal melanoma.
  • RESULTS: There were 14 patients, all of whom were followed up to the time of death or for a minimum of 28 months for surviving patients.
  • Clinical staging was as follows: local, 10 patients; locoregional, 3 patients and metastatic disease, 1 patient.
  • Local therapy included local resection alone in 7 cases and abdominoperineal resection in 7.
  • Seven patients received pelvic irradiation at some time during their disease, using different doses and fractionation schemes.
  • Three of them had concomitant chemotherapy and radiotherapy with no tumour regression.
  • Six patients were alive 1 year after treatment (median survival 32.5 mo [range from 21-51 mo]).
  • Eleven of the 12 patients who died had metastatic disease.
  • The overall survival was poor regardless of local treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Melanoma / therapy. Rectal Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Colostomy. Combined Modality Therapy. Dose Fractionation. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Palliative Care. Radiotherapy Dosage. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Reoperation. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 14577706.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-428X
  • [Journal-full-title] Canadian journal of surgery. Journal canadien de chirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Can J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3211713
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8. Antonescu CR, Busam KJ, Francone TD, Wong GC, Guo T, Agaram NP, Besmer P, Jungbluth A, Gimbel M, Chen CT, Veach D, Clarkson BD, Paty PB, Weiser MR: L576P KIT mutation in anal melanomas correlates with KIT protein expression and is sensitive to specific kinase inhibition. Int J Cancer; 2007 Jul 15;121(2):257-64
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  • [Title] L576P KIT mutation in anal melanomas correlates with KIT protein expression and is sensitive to specific kinase inhibition.
  • More recently, activating KIT mutations have been described in rare cases of metastatic melanoma, without further reference to their clinical phenotypes.
  • In this study, we investigated a group of anal melanomas for the presence of BRAF, NRAS, KIT and PDGFRA mutations.
  • No BRAF or PDGFRA mutations were identified in either KIT positive or negative anal melanomas.
  • In vitro drug testing of stable transformant Ba/F3 KIT(L576P) mutant cells showed sensitivity for dasatinib (previously known as BMS-354825), a dual SRC/ABL kinase inhibitor, and imatinib.
  • These results suggest that a subset of anal melanomas show activating KIT mutations, which are susceptible for therapy with specific kinase inhibitors.

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 17372901.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-7136
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA047179; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA064593; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA008748; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / HL/DK55748
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors; 0 / Pyrimidines; 0 / Thiazoles; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit; RBZ1571X5H / Dasatinib
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9. Grifaichi F, Padovani A, Romeo F, Trinca C, Moscetti L, Cortesi E: Response of metastatic epidermoid anal cancer to single agent irinotecan: a case report. Tumori; 2001 Jan-Feb;87(1):58-9
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  • [Title] Response of metastatic epidermoid anal cancer to single agent irinotecan: a case report.
  • We report a case of a patient affected by epidermoid anal cancer who had hepatic progression after standard therapy with the Nigro regimen (fluorouracil and mitomycin C plus radiotherapy).
  • In our patient salvage treatment with low dose irinotecan resulted in a partial response.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Camptothecin / analogs & derivatives. Camptothecin / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11669560.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-8916
  • [Journal-full-title] Tumori
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tumori
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 7673326042 / irinotecan; XT3Z54Z28A / Camptothecin
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10. Sueda K, Ikenaga M, Miyazaki M, Yasui M, Mishima H, Tsujie M, Omiya H, Miyamoto A, Hirao M, Takami K, Fujitani K, Nakamori S, Yoshida K, Tsujinaka T: [A case of squamous cell carcinoma of the anal cancer with associated human immunodeficiency virus]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2010 Nov;37(12):2656-8
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  • [Title] [A case of squamous cell carcinoma of the anal cancer with associated human immunodeficiency virus].
  • He presented with an anal tumor with bilateral inguinal nodal metastasis and pain in the anus; the tumor was diagnosed as stage IIIb (cA1N2M0).
  • The patient was administered chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin (5-FU/CDDP) to the metastatic lymph node.
  • However, the treatment response was graded as progressive disease, and the treatment was changed from CDDP to mitomycin C (MMC).
  • The patient developed non-hematologic toxicity and died within 3 years of the diagnosis.
  • We report a case of squamous cell carcinoma of the anus with associated HIV infection.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / complications. Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / complications. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. HIV Seropositivity / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Mitomycin / administration & dosage


11. Crowley C, Winship AZ, Hawkins MA, Morris SL, Leslie MD: Size does matter: can we reduce the radiotherapy field size for selected cases of anal canal cancer undergoing chemoradiation? Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol); 2009 Jun;21(5):376-9
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  • [Title] Size does matter: can we reduce the radiotherapy field size for selected cases of anal canal cancer undergoing chemoradiation?
  • AIMS: Chemoradiation is the standard of care for the treatment of anal canal cancer, with surgery reserved for salvage.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between August 1998 and August 2004, 30 patients with biopsy-proven squamous cell anal canal cancer were treated with chemoradiation using one phase of treatment throughout.
  • Concomitant chemotherapy was delivered with the radiation using mitomycin-C 7-12mg/m(2) on day 1 and protracted venous infusional 5-fluorouracil 200mg/m(2)/day throughout radiotherapy.
  • Four patients relapsed and all were salvaged with surgery; two for local disease requiring abdominoperineal resection, one with an inguinal nodal relapse requiring inguinofemoral block dissection and one for metastatic disease to the liver who underwent liver resection.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This single-centre retrospective study supports the treatment for selected cases of anal canal cancer with smaller than standard radiation fields, avoiding prophylactic inguinal nodal irradiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Lymphatic Irradiation. Radiation Injuries / prevention & control
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Combined Modality Therapy / adverse effects. Female. Humans. Inguinal Canal. Male. Middle Aged. Patient Compliance. Pelvis. Radiation Dosage. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 19282157.001).
  • [ISSN] 0936-6555
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical oncology (Royal College of Radiologists (Great Britain))
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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12. Myint AS: The role of radiotherapy in the palliative treatment of gastrointestinal cancer. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol; 2000 Apr;12(4):381-90
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  • [Title] The role of radiotherapy in the palliative treatment of gastrointestinal cancer.
  • Gastrointestinal malignancy is the second commonest cancer and is associated with a high mortality.
  • Although definitive surgery could be offered for most tumour sites in the gastrointestinal tract, the majority of patients will still develop incurable recurrent or metastatic disease.
  • Radiotherapy has long been recognized as an effective palliative modality in gastrointestinal cancer.
  • It was previously offered in cases where surgical resection was not feasible either due to the advanced nature of the disease or the presence of metastatic disease.
  • The addition of chemotherapy to radiation has been used in most tumour sites in the gastrointestinal tract and has been shown to improve the therapeutic ratio; however, one should be aware of the increased toxicity and careful selection of patients is necessary.
  • This approach has led to improved local control in certain tumour sites, e.g. anal canal and oesophagus.
  • However, with increasing use of multi-modality therapy, increases in toxicity to the patient and in cost to healthcare providers must be taken into account.
  • [MeSH-minor] Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Biliary Tract Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Biliary Tract Neoplasms / therapy. Brachytherapy. Colorectal Neoplasms / physiopathology. Colorectal Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Combined Modality Therapy. Esophageal Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Esophageal Neoplasms / therapy. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Pancreatic Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Pancreatic Neoplasms / therapy. Radiotherapy, High-Energy. Stomach Neoplasms / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 10783989.001).
  • [ISSN] 0954-691X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gastroenterology & hepatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] ENGLAND
  • [Number-of-references] 29
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13. Zampino MG, Magni E, Sonzogni A, Renne G: K-ras status in squamous cell anal carcinoma (SCC): it's time for target-oriented treatment? Cancer Chemother Pharmacol; 2009 Dec;65(1):197-9
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  • [Title] K-ras status in squamous cell anal carcinoma (SCC): it's time for target-oriented treatment?
  • PURPOSE: Squamous cell anal carcinoma (SCC) is an uncommon disease comprising only 1-5% of all intestinal tumours.
  • SCC is now considered the prototype for the successful application of conservative treatment as chemoradiation instead of aggressive surgery.
  • The EGFR status and k-ras mutations in SCC of the anal canal has not been well investigated.
  • METHODS: From June 1999 to December 2008, 32 patients affected by SCC were treated in our institution with chemotherapy containing Fluoropyrimidine and platinum salt concomitant with pelvic radiotherapy.
  • In all cases of our series wild-type K-ras was observed.
  • This observation previously reported in other tumours has supported the effective use of EGFR-inhibitors in recurrent or metastatic disease.
  • This observation could support the role of EGFR-inhibitors in the treatment of SCC.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / genetics. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins / genetics. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / genetics. ras Proteins / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Drug Delivery Systems. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Mutation. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 19727729.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-0843
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer chemotherapy and pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / KRAS protein, human; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 3.6.5.2 / ras Proteins
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14. Jhawer M, Mani S, Lefkopoulou M, Hahn RG, Harris J, Catalano PJ, Haller D: Phase II study of mitomycin-C, adriamycin, cisplatin (MAP) and Bleomycin-CCNU in patients with advanced cancer of the anal canal: An eastern cooperative oncology group study E7282. Invest New Drugs; 2006 Sep;24(5):447-54
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  • [Title] Phase II study of mitomycin-C, adriamycin, cisplatin (MAP) and Bleomycin-CCNU in patients with advanced cancer of the anal canal: An eastern cooperative oncology group study E7282.
  • Metastatic anal cancer is a rare disease in the Western hemisphere and current treatment modalities are not effective.
  • In this study, patients with advanced epithelial cancer of the anal canal received MAP followed by Bleomycin and CCNU upon progression of disease.
  • The median time to progression or death was 8 months (95% CI {4-9 months}).
  • The combination therapy of MAP followed by Bleomycin and CCNU for patients with advanced anal cancer, not amenable to radiotherapy or surgery, results in a moderate objective response but with moderate toxicities.
  • This regimen and sequence is worthy of further study especially in combination with colony stimulating factors, however, its tolerability may be most applicable for patients who have had minimal prior therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 16763788.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-6997
  • [Journal-full-title] Investigational new drugs
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Invest New Drugs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 66636; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA13650; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA14958; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA15488; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA21115; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA23318; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA25988
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; 7BRF0Z81KG / Lomustine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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15. Pawlik TM, Gleisner AL, Bauer TW, Adams RB, Reddy SK, Clary BM, Martin RC, Scoggins CR, Tanabe KK, Michaelson JS, Kooby DA, Staley CA, Schulick RD, Vauthey JN, Abdalla EK, Curley SA, Choti MA, Elias D: Liver-directed surgery for metastatic squamous cell carcinoma to the liver: results of a multi-center analysis. Ann Surg Oncol; 2007 Oct;14(10):2807-16
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  • [Title] Liver-directed surgery for metastatic squamous cell carcinoma to the liver: results of a multi-center analysis.
  • BACKGROUND: The role of hepatic resection for metastatic squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) remains unknown.
  • The current study evaluates the role of hepatic resection in patients with metastatic SCC to the liver.
  • METHODS: Between 1988 and 2006, 52 patients underwent hepatic resection of metastatic SCC at eight major cancer centers.
  • RESULTS: Primary SCC site was anal (n = 27), head/neck (n = 12), lung (n = 4), esophagus (n = 2), and other (n = 7).
  • Treatment of primary SCC was chemotherapy +/- radiotherapy alone (n = 29), chemotherapy +/- radiotherapy + surgery (n = 15), or surgery alone (n = 8).
  • The median time to recurrence was 9.8 months, and 5-year DFS was 18.6%.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / secondary. Electrocoagulation. Esophageal Neoplasms / surgery. Head and Neck Neoplasms / surgery. Hepatectomy. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / mortality. Prognosis. Retreatment. United States


16. Rousseau DL Jr, Petrelli NJ, Kahlenberg MS: Overview of anal cancer for the surgeon. Surg Oncol Clin N Am; 2004 Apr;13(2):249-62
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  • [Title] Overview of anal cancer for the surgeon.
  • Cancers of the anal canal represent a diverse group of pathology and require a multidisciplinary approach for treatment.
  • For the most common anal canal cancer, anal SCC, the primary therapy is CMT with systemic chemotherapy and radiation.
  • The surgeon plays a key role in the diagnosis and follow-up after treatment, with surgical intervention reserved for residual or recurrent disease.
  • For anal adenocarcinoma, aggressive surgical resection remains the mainstay of therapy, with radiation therapy and chemotherapy used to aid in local disease control and for treatment of metastatic disease.
  • The biggest improvements in survival for this disease will come with more effective systemic therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. Combined Modality Therapy. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Melanoma / secondary. Melanoma / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Neoplasm, Residual / surgery. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 15137955.001).
  • [ISSN] 1055-3207
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical oncology clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Oncol. Clin. N. Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 95
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17. Kuga Y, Tanaka T, Arita M, Usui Y, Okanobu H, Numata Y, Miwata T, Yoshimi S, Murakami E, Moriya T, Ohya T, Nishida T: [A case of effective chemoradiotherapy using S-1 and CDDP for left inguinal lymph node metastasis of anal canal carcinoma]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2009 Nov;36(11):1923-5
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  • [Title] [A case of effective chemoradiotherapy using S-1 and CDDP for left inguinal lymph node metastasis of anal canal carcinoma].
  • We report a case of left inguinal lymph node metastasis of anal canal carcinoma, treated effectively with chemotherapy consisting of S-1 and CDDP combined with radiotherapy.
  • In February 2006, a 76-year-old woman underwent resection of a tumor diagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal.
  • The patient refused additional surgical therapy.
  • Biopsy was performed, and specimens were shown to include squamous cell carcinoma cells.
  • The patient was treated using chemotherapy concurrent with radiotherapy.
  • The chemotherapy consisted of oral S-1 (80 mg/body/day; 5 days/week) and intravenous CDDP (5 mg/body/day; 5 days/week), both administered for 4 weeks.
  • Radiotherapy at 2 Gy/day was administered 25 times (total dose 50 Gy).
  • The metastatic tumor in the lymph node responded well to the treatment and decreased remarkably in size by December 2007.
  • The lymph node metastasis had disappeared 1 year after chemoradiotherapy, as determined by computed tomography (CT) and positron emission tomography-CT, representing a complete response.
  • Chemotherapy consisting of S-1 and CDDP concurrent with radiotherapy maybe effective for treating metastatic lymph node metastasis of anal canal carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Aged. Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Drug Combinations. Female. Humans. Inguinal Canal. Injections, Intravenous. Oxonic Acid / administration & dosage. Radiotherapy Dosage. Tegafur / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 19920402.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Drug Combinations; 150863-82-4 / S 1 (combination); 1548R74NSZ / Tegafur; 5VT6420TIG / Oxonic Acid; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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18. Itabashi M, Tada Y, Bamba Y, Takemoto K, Yoshimura Y, Kimura M, Hirosawa T, Ogawa S, Kameoka S: Case of peritoneal dissemination of colon cancer in which PET/CT was useful in determining the indicated surgical procedure. Int Surg; 2009 Jan-Feb;94(1):80-3
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  • [Title] Case of peritoneal dissemination of colon cancer in which PET/CT was useful in determining the indicated surgical procedure.
  • The right half of the colon was resected in a 70-year-old woman in August 2002 for ascending colon cancer.
  • Since tumor markers gradually increased, positron emission tomography (PET)/ computed tomography (CT) revealed peritoneal dissemination.
  • Barium enema findings revealed an ileal constriction approximately 25 cm from the anastomosed site toward the anus.
  • Surgical findings revealed a roughly 2-cm peritoneal metastatic focus and ileal constriction.
  • Postoperative progress was favorable; the patient was discharged and enjoys a favorable quality of life through outpatient adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • PET/CT is suggested to be useful in observing the progress of peritoneal dissemination and may be of assistance in determining the course of treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Colonic Neoplasms / pathology. Colonic Neoplasms / surgery. Peritoneal Neoplasms / secondary. Peritoneal Neoplasms / surgery. Tomography, Emission-Computed. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 20099433.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-8868
  • [Journal-full-title] International surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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19. Cleator S, Fife K, Nelson M, Gazzard B, Phillips R, Bower M: Treatment of HIV-associated invasive anal cancer with combined chemoradiation. Eur J Cancer; 2000 Apr;36(6):754-8
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  • [Title] Treatment of HIV-associated invasive anal cancer with combined chemoradiation.
  • There is an increased frequency of invasive anal cancer in HIV-seropositive men.
  • Early treatment strategies in this patient group employed reduced dosages of chemotherapy or radiotherapy alone to reduce toxicity.
  • Since 1989 we have used combined modality treatment consisting of chemotherapy 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and mitomycin C, and concomitant radical radiotherapy to the pelvis (38-51 Gy in 20-30 fractions), with most patients receiving a perineal boost (10-18 Gy).
  • The median CD4 count at diagnosis of anal cancer was 209 cells/microl (range: 29-380 cells/microl), 5 had prior AIDS defining diagnoses.
  • No patients had metastatic disease.
  • At a median follow-up of 4.8 years (range: 0.4-10 years), 4 patients have died (2 from anal cancer, 1 from treatment-related consequences and 1 from opportunistic infection in remission).
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / complications. Anus Neoplasms / therapy. HIV Infections / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Combined Modality Therapy. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Mitomycin / administration & dosage. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 10762748.001).
  • [ISSN] 0959-8049
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of cancer (Oxford, England : 1990)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] ENGLAND
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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20. Wong S, Gibbs P, Chao M, Jones I, McLaughlin S, Tjandra J, Faragher I, Green M: Carcinoma of the anal canal: a local experience and review of the literature. ANZ J Surg; 2004 Jul;74(7):541-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Carcinoma of the anal canal: a local experience and review of the literature.
  • BACKGROUND: Through the 1970s patients presenting with anal canal carcinoma were managed with a surgical approach--abdomino-perineal resection.
  • Since then, the pioneering work of Nigro et al. and a series of large clinical trials have clearly demonstrated that combined chemotherapy and radiotherapy result in greater local control, colostomy-free survival and increase in overall patient survival.
  • METHODS: All patients with anal cancer treated at three tertiary referral centres over an 11-year period (1991-2001) were identified.
  • Four patients had metastatic disease diagnosed at presentation.
  • Of the 46 patients treated for cure, 38 received a combination of chemotherapy and radiation, with 79% achieving a complete response.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Overall this series demonstrates that combined chemotherapy and radiotherapy has been adopted as standard treatment with outcome data similar to those reported in the randomized clinical trials.
  • Where possible elderly patients should receive combined modality therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 15230786.001).
  • [ISSN] 1445-1433
  • [Journal-full-title] ANZ journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] ANZ J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Number-of-references] 23
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21. Amano K, Ishibashi K, Nakada H, Okada N, Miyazaki T, Gonda T, Ishida H, Takahashi T: [Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal in the elderly showing complete response following radiotherapy--a case report]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2007 Nov;34(12):2025-8
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  • [Title] [Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal in the elderly showing complete response following radiotherapy--a case report].
  • We reported an elderly case of squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal which showed complete response following radiotherapy alone.
  • An 86-year-old man complaining of anal bleeding and pain was admitted.
  • Colonoscopy showed a type 1 tumor just above the dentate line.
  • Biopsy revealed squamous cell carcinoma.
  • Serum SCC Level before treatment was elevated (8.4 ng/mL).
  • Magnetic resonance imaging did not show any metastatic lesions.
  • Since the patient and his family members refused a surgical intervension and chemotherapy, he received an external radiotherapy (total dose: 60 Gy) to the pelvic space and showed complete response after radiotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Colonoscopy. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18219887.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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22. Phan LK, Hoff PM: Evidence of clinical activity for cetuximab combined with irinotecan in a patient with refractory anal canal squamous-cell carcinoma: report of a case. Dis Colon Rectum; 2007 Mar;50(3):395-8
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  • [Title] Evidence of clinical activity for cetuximab combined with irinotecan in a patient with refractory anal canal squamous-cell carcinoma: report of a case.
  • Because of the high cure rate of localized anal cancers from combined modality treatment, there is little that is known for the treatment of patients who progress to have metastatic disease.
  • Treatments currently used are based on activity demonstrated in other cancers with similar histology.
  • Cetuximab, a molecular-targeted therapy, is an antibody directed against epidermal growth factor receptor that has demonstrated anticancer activity in several cancers.
  • We report a female patient with refractory anal cancer who achieved an excellent response to the combination of cetuximab and irinotecan after having failed single-agent irinotecan.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibodies, Monoclonal / administration & dosage. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Camptothecin / administration & dosage. Camptothecin / analogs & derivatives. Cetuximab. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 17252287.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-3706
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the colon and rectum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Colon Rectum
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 7673326042 / irinotecan; PQX0D8J21J / Cetuximab; XT3Z54Z28A / Camptothecin
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23. Nakamura T, Ide H: [Malignant melanoma of the alimentary tract]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2003 May;30(5):619-25
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • We reviewed case reports of malignant melanoma in the alimentary tract and discussed the diagnosis and treatment.
  • Metastatic tumors occurred mainly in the stomach and the small intestine.
  • Although resection with lymph node dissection was performed, the prognosis of these patients was worse than that of patients with carcinoma.
  • A combined modality treatment including progressive chemotherapy and biotherapy is expected to improve the prognosis of these patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms. Esophageal Neoplasms. Melanoma. Rectal Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Dacarbazine / administration & dosage. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Nimustine / administration & dosage. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 12795092.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0S726V972K / Nimustine; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; DAV protocol
  • [Number-of-references] 39
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24. Mercadante S, Fulfaro F, Dabbene M: Methadone in treatment of tenesmus not responding to morphine escalation. Support Care Cancer; 2001 Mar;9(2):129-30
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  • [Title] Methadone in treatment of tenesmus not responding to morphine escalation.
  • We describe a 68-year-old man with locally advanced rectal carcinoma metastatic to lung and with unbearable rectal-perineal pain unresponsive to morphine and ketorolac.
  • Treatment with oral methadone was successful and pain improved considerably.
  • [MeSH-major] Analgesics, Opioid / therapeutic use. Anus Diseases / drug therapy. Defecation. Methadone / therapeutic use. Pain / drug therapy. Sensation Disorders / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 11305071.001).
  • [ISSN] 0941-4355
  • [Journal-full-title] Supportive care in cancer : official journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Support Care Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Analgesics, Opioid; 76I7G6D29C / Morphine; UC6VBE7V1Z / Methadone
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25. Rabbitt P, Pathma-Nathan N, Collinson T, Hewett P, Rieger N: Sentinel lymph node biopsy for squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal. ANZ J Surg; 2002 Sep;72(9):651-4
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  • [Title] Sentinel lymph node biopsy for squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal.
  • BACKGROUND: The current Trans-Tasman Radiation Oncology Group (TROG) protocol for T1 and T2 anal cancers is combination chemotherapy and radiotherapy excluding the inguinal region from the field.
  • We have developed a method of sampling the sentinel node in the groin using established node mapping techniques.
  • METHODS: A combination of radio-labelled Antimony Sulphide and Patent Blue dye injected around the anal cancer enable identification of the sentinel node in the groin, using a gamma probe and direct visualization of the blue node.
  • A groin sentinel node was identified and removed in three of these, with pathological assessment excluding metastatic disease in the inguinal region.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The application of this effective technique will allow accurate staging of anal cancers to better plan future treatment regimes.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy / methods

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  • (PMID = 12269917.001).
  • [ISSN] 1445-1433
  • [Journal-full-title] ANZ journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] ANZ J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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26. Barriger RB, Calley C, Cárdenes HR: Treatment of anal carcinoma in immune-compromised patients. Clin Transl Oncol; 2009 Sep;11(9):609-14
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Treatment of anal carcinoma in immune-compromised patients.
  • This study was undertaken to evaluate local control (LC), overall survival (OS) and toxicity in immune-compromised patients with anal carcinoma treated with radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy.
  • METHODS: We identified 25 patients with anal carcinoma and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection or history of solid-organ transplant on chronic medical immune-suppression.
  • One patient had metastatic disease at diagnosis.
  • Median radiation dose to the primary tumour was 50 Gy.
  • RESULTS: One-, 3- and 5-year LC without salvage therapy was 87%, 87% and 70% respectively.
  • One-, 3- and 5-year OS was 100% for treatment time (TT) <50 days and 57%, 38% and 0% for TT > or =50 days (p=0.0009).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Most HIV-positive and organ transplant patients receiving radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy experience acute toxicity but few have chronic complications.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma / therapy. Immunocompromised Host
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Colostomy / statistics & numerical data. Disease Progression. Female. Follow-Up Studies. HIV Seropositivity / complications. HIV Seropositivity / immunology. HIV-1 / immunology. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Registries. Salvage Therapy. Survival Analysis. Transplantation

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  • [Cites] Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2006 Sep 1;66(1):206-11 [16904522.001]
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  • (PMID = 19776001.001).
  • [ISSN] 1699-3055
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical & translational oncology : official publication of the Federation of Spanish Oncology Societies and of the National Cancer Institute of Mexico
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Transl Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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27. Sato H, Koh PK, Bartolo DC: Management of anal canal cancer. Dis Colon Rectum; 2005 Jun;48(6):1301-15
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Anal Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Management of anal canal cancer.
  • PURPOSE: Chemoradiotherapy has replaced radical surgery as the initial treatment of choice for anal canal cancer.
  • The roles of these therapeutic modalities are discussed and recommendations on management of anal canal cancer are made based on currently available evidence.
  • METHODS: Literature on management of anal canal cancer from January 1970 to July 2003 obtained via MEDLINE was reviewed.
  • Reports on anal margin cancers were excluded.
  • RESULTS: Randomized, prospective, Phase 3 trials in Europe and the United States showed that chemoradiotherapy with 5-fluorouracil and mitomycin C was superior in local control, colostomy-free rate, progression-free survival, and cancer-specific survival compared with radiation alone.
  • Chemoradiotherapy, including Cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil, appeared to be equal or superior to surgery as salvage therapy in patients with residual disease six weeks after initial nonsurgical treatment.
  • CONCLUSIONS: To improve treatment outcomes and reduce treatment-related toxicities, further studies are required to elucidate the optimal drug combination and doses, optimal radiation field, total dose, and fraction sizes.
  • Randomized, multicenter trials are needed to define the treatment protocol that provides the highest rate of sphincter preservation with acceptable toxicity.
  • Few studies addressed the treatment of metastatic disease, which remains a major cause of mortality.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Brachytherapy. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Digestive System Surgical Procedures. Dose Fractionation. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging. Radiotherapy, High-Energy. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 15793642.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-3706
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the colon and rectum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Colon Rectum
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 116
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28. Cummings BJ: Current management of anal canal cancer. Semin Oncol; 2005 Dec;32(6 Suppl 9):S123-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Current management of anal canal cancer.
  • Combined-modality therapy consisting of radiation therapy and 5-fluorouracil plus mitomycin remains the standard treatment for localized anal canal cancer, permitting preservation of organ function and achieving high response and survival rates.
  • Current trials are evaluating the ability to deliver higher doses of radiation therapy over shorter intervals.
  • Metastatic disease is less responsive to chemoradiation treatment.
  • Neoadjuvant and adjuvant strategies are being evaluated, and additional drugs including capecitabine, irinotecan, and oxaliplatin are being assessed in treatment of localized and advanced disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic

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  • (PMID = 16399449.001).
  • [ISSN] 0093-7754
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 43
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29. Hainsworth JD, Burris HA 3rd, Meluch AA, Baker MN, Morrissey LH, Greco FA: Paclitaxel, carboplatin, and long-term continuous infusion of 5-fluorouracil in the treatment of advanced squamous and other selected carcinomas: results of a Phase II trial. Cancer; 2001 Aug 1;92(3):642-9
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. FLUOROURACIL .

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  • [Title] Paclitaxel, carboplatin, and long-term continuous infusion of 5-fluorouracil in the treatment of advanced squamous and other selected carcinomas: results of a Phase II trial.
  • BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility, toxicity, and efficacy of the combination of paclitaxel, carboplatin, and long-term continuous infusion 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in the treatment of advanced squamous carcinomas of various primary sites.
  • METHODS: Patients were eligible for this trial if they had metastatic squamous carcinoma at any site except the lung.
  • In addition, patients with locally advanced squamous carcinoma of the head and neck were eligible, if they were considered unlikely to be cured with combined modality therapy.
  • Sixty patients entered this trial between February 1995 and March 1999; 12 patients (20%) had received 1 previous chemotherapy regimen, whereas 48 patients (80%) were previously untreated.
  • All patients received the following regimen: paclitaxel 200 mg/m(2), 1-hour intravenous infusion, Days 1 and 22; carboplatin area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) 6.0 intravenously, Days 1 and 22; 5-FU 225 mg/m(2)/day, by 24-hour continuous intravenous infusion, Days 1-35.
  • Treatment courses were repeated at 6-week intervals; responding patients continued treatment for a maximum of 4 courses (24 weeks).
  • Twelve patients (22%) remain progression free from 7 to 63 months (median, 35 months) after completion of therapy.
  • Complete responses were observed in squamous carcinomas from various primary sites including head and neck, esophagus, cervix, vagina, anus, and unknown primary.
  • The most frequent Grade 3/4 toxicities observed with this 3-drug regimen included leukopenia (48%), diarrhea (17%), mucositis (28%), and portacath-related events (13%).
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Head and Neck Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Carboplatin / adverse effects. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Fluorouracil / adverse effects. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Paclitaxel / administration & dosage. Paclitaxel / adverse effects. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2001 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 11505410.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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30. Wieder R, Pavlick AC, Bryan M, Hameed M, Baredes S, Pliner L, Saunders T, Korah R: Phase I/II trial of accutane as a potentiator of carboplatin and paclitaxel in squamous cell carcinomas. Am J Clin Oncol; 2002 Oct;25(5):447-50
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. 13-CIS-RETINOIC ACID .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • This study investigated the toxicity and efficacy of a 13-cis retinoic acid, carboplatin, and paclitaxel (Taxol) regimen in 18 patients with recurrent or metastatic squamous cell carcinomas (12 head and neck, 4 cervix, 1 esophagus, and 1 anus).
  • Fifteen evaluable patients had a total of 72 treatment cycles.
  • There were 21 grade III or IV toxicities distributed among all the dose levels, including neutropenia, anemia, thrombocytopenia, elevated prothrombin time/partial thromboplastin time, elevated alkaline phosphatase, weight loss, alopecia, and three deaths from aspiration pneumonia and septic shock.
  • The three partial responses were in the four patients with cervical cancer.
  • Toxicity profiles and overall response rates were comparable to prior studies with similar chemotherapy regimens alone.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Isotretinoin / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Drug Synergism. Female. Head and Neck Neoplasms / drug therapy. Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Paclitaxel / administration & dosage. Remission Induction. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / drug therapy. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 12393981.001).
  • [ISSN] 0277-3732
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase I; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; EH28UP18IF / Isotretinoin; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
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31. Iagaru A, Kundu R, Jadvar H, Nagle D: Evaluation by 18F-FDG-PET of patients with anal squamous cell carcinoma. Hell J Nucl Med; 2009 Jan-Apr;12(1):26-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Evaluation by 18F-FDG-PET of patients with anal squamous cell carcinoma.
  • Anal squamous cell carcinoma (ASCC) is a rare cancer of the gastrointestinal tract, representing less than 5% of the digestive malignancies.
  • A total of 14 (18)F-FDG PET scans (8 for initial staging, 6 for evaluation of response to chemotherapy and radiation therapy) were performed in 8 patients (6 men, 2 women).
  • Our results showed that PET demonstrated the primary lesion at initial evaluation in 7 of 8 anal cancers and showed FDG- avid lymph nodes in 4 patients.
  • Metastatic nodal involvement was confirmed by pathology in 2 patients; in the other 2 patients pathology showed reactive follicular hyperplasia.
  • In another patient, follow-up PET demonstrated progression of disease despite treatment, prompting a change in disease management.
  • In the remaining 5 patients with follow-up PET, the scans confirmed interval resolution of the (18)F-FDG uptake in the primary lesion, suggesting good treatment response.
  • In conclusion, PET provides valuable diagnostic information in initial staging and evaluation of treatment response in ASCC that may significantly alter the clinical management.
  • The emergence of the combined PET/CT scanner enhanced the accuracy of the imaging procedure in view of the precise anatomic localization of metabolic abnormalities.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radionuclide imaging. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods

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  • (PMID = 19330178.001).
  • [ISSN] 1790-5427
  • [Journal-full-title] Hellenic journal of nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hell J Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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32. Taylor N, Crane C, Skibber J, Feig B, Ellis L, Vauthey JN, Hamilton S, Cleary K, Dubrow R, Brown T, Wolff R, Hoff P, Sanfilippo N, Janjan N: Elective groin irradiation is not indicated for patients with adenocarcinoma of the rectum extending to the anal canal. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2001 Nov 1;51(3):741-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Elective groin irradiation is not indicated for patients with adenocarcinoma of the rectum extending to the anal canal.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate the inguinal nodal failure rate in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer with anal canal involvement (ACI) treated with pelvic chemoradiation without elective inguinal irradiation.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: From 1990 and 1998, 536 patients received preoperative or postoperative chemoradiation for rectal cancer with curative intent; 186 patients had ACI (<4 cm from the anal verge on rigid proctoscopy).
  • Chemoradiation was delivered preoperatively (45 Gy in 25 fraction) or postoperatively (53 Gy in 29 fractions) with concurrent continuous infusion of 5-fluorouracil (300 mg/m2/d).
  • Only 6 of 184 ACI patients who had clinically negative inguinal nodes at presentation developed inguinal nodal recurrence (5-year actuarial rate 4%); 4 of the 6 cases were isolated.
  • Local control was achieved in both patients with inguinal nodal disease at presentation, but both died of metastatic disease.
  • Only 3 patients with tumors >4 cm from the verge developed inguinal recurrence (5-year actuarial rate <1%).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Inguinal nodal failure in rectal cancer patients with ACI treated with neoadjuvant or adjuvant chemoradiation is not high enough to justify routine elective groin irradiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / radiotherapy. Lymphatic Irradiation. Rectal Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Salvage Therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Groin. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 11597817.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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33. Satzger I, Küttler U, Völker B, Schenck F, Kapp A, Gutzmer R: Anal mucosal melanoma with KIT-activating mutation and response to imatinib therapy--case report and review of the literature. Dermatology; 2010;220(1):77-81
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  • [Title] Anal mucosal melanoma with KIT-activating mutation and response to imatinib therapy--case report and review of the literature.
  • Previously an increased frequency of KIT aberrations in mucosal melanomas was reported, whereas c-KIT in most types of cutaneous melanomas does not appear to be of pathogenetic importance.
  • Recently 12 cases of metastatic melanoma and KIT-activating mutations have been published to be successfully treated with c-KIT blockers such as imatinib, sunitinib, dasatinib or sorafenib.
  • We report here on one of our patients with KIT-activating mutation in metastatic anal mucosal melanoma, who showed a response to imatinib therapy and summarize the available literature regarding this new therapeutic option.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Melanoma / drug therapy. Piperazines / therapeutic use. Protein Kinase Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Pyrimidines / therapeutic use. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Benzamides. Female. Humans. Imatinib Mesylate. Mucous Membrane / drug effects. Mucous Membrane / pathology. Mutation. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit / antagonists & inhibitors. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit / genetics

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 19996579.001).
  • [ISSN] 1421-9832
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatology (Basel, Switzerland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatology (Basel)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Benzamides; 0 / Piperazines; 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors; 0 / Pyrimidines; 8A1O1M485B / Imatinib Mesylate; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit
  • [Number-of-references] 18
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34. Yegüez JF, Martinez SA, Sands DR, Sands LR, Hellinger MD: Colorectal malignancies in HIV-positive patients. Am Surg; 2003 Nov;69(11):981-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Due to the development of more effective medications, those infected with HIV are living longer.
  • Malignant neoplasms of the anus were excluded for the purposes of this study.
  • Twelve patients (9 males and 3 females), mean age 41 years, were identified with the following neoplasm: 6 adenocarcinomas (ACA), 5 non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL), and 1 small-cell carcinoma.
  • Intravenous drug abuse was the main risk factor for HIV.
  • Five out of six patients with ACA had metastatic disease at the time of diagnosis.
  • One patient with stage II ACA developed early liver metastases after colonic resection.
  • This is the largest series of cases of colorectal cancer in the HIV/AIDS patient population published in the English language and the largest number of colorectal ACA reported in this unique population.
  • More recently, we have only treated patients with colorectal ACA; none of them had no risk factors for colorectal cancer (family history, IBD, FAP, HNPCC).
  • These patients developed tumors at earlier ages and were diagnosed at an advanced stage.
  • The use of the new antiretroviral therapy regimens should be further evaluated to know its impact in the survival.


35. Tajima Y, Ishibashi K, Gonda T, Miyazaki T, Nakada H, Takahashi T, Ishida H: [Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal showing complete response following chemoradiotherapy--a case report]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2007 Nov;34(12):2050-2
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal showing complete response following chemoradiotherapy--a case report].
  • We report a case of squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal which showed complete response following chemoradiotherapy.
  • A 54-year-old woman was diagnosed as having squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal (T2N0M0 stage II).
  • Chemoradiotherapy comprising peroral tegafur/uracil and external radiotherapy (60 Gy) to the pelvic space resulted in complete response 4 months after the initiation of the treatment.
  • PET-CT showed recurrence in paraortic lymph node, right sacral and left pubic bone 11 months after the initiation of treatment, although the primary lesion did not relapse.
  • The patient is now given 5-fluorouracil/cisplatin in addition to external radiotherapy (57.5 Gy) to the metastatic lymph node.
  • This case suggests that we should take measures to prevent distant metastases in the treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Colonoscopy. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis / drug therapy. Neoplasm Metastasis / pathology. Neoplasm Metastasis / radiotherapy

  • Genetic Alliance. consumer health - Carcinoma, Squamous Cell.
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  • (PMID = 18219895.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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