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1. Iihara M: [Therapeutic strategy for pheochromocytoma]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2009 Oct;36(10):1623-6
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  • [Title] [Therapeutic strategy for pheochromocytoma].
  • Pheochromocytoma is the most common type of neuroendocrine tumor arising from the adrenal gland.
  • Pheochromocytoma has been termed a 10% tumor because roughly 10% of such tumors are malignant, multifocal, bilateral, and arise in extra-adrenal sites.
  • Adrenal-sparing laparoscopic surgery is a treatment of choice for bilateral pheochromocytomas.
  • Cyclophosphamide, vincristine and dacarbazine combined chemotherapy and (131)I-MIBG therapy are required for the treatment of metastatic or unresectable malignant pheochromocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / drug therapy. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Pheochromocytoma / drug therapy. Pheochromocytoma / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Laparoscopy


2. Gedik GK, Hoefnagel CA, Bais E, Olmos RA: 131I-MIBG therapy in metastatic phaeochromocytoma and paraganglioma. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging; 2008 Apr;35(4):725-33
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  • [Title] 131I-MIBG therapy in metastatic phaeochromocytoma and paraganglioma.
  • The experience with its therapeutic use is limited.
  • We report our experience for the treatment of malignant phaeochromocytoma and paraganglioma.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: The charts of 19 patients with malignant phaeochromocytoma (n = 12) or paraganglioma (n = 7), who were treated with (131)I-MIBG, were retrospectively reviewed.
  • Four patients (21%) received radiotherapy, three (16%) chemotherapy, and in one patient (5%), both chemotherapy and radiotherapy was given before (131)I-MIBG therapy.
  • Response to (131)I-MIBG treatment was evaluated by objective as tumour response, biochemical and subjective response.
  • CONCLUSION: Our data support that symptomatic and biochemical response can be reached with (131)I-MIBG therapy in patients with metastatic phaeochromocytoma and paraganglioma.
  • Although complete tumour response was not observed, the palliation and control of tumour function by (131)I-MIBG therapy may be valuable for the patients.
  • [MeSH-major] 3-Iodobenzylguanidine / therapeutic use. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Paraganglioma / radiotherapy. Pheochromocytoma / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Thoracic Neoplasms / mortality. Thoracic Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18071700.001).
  • [ISSN] 1619-7070
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Nucl. Med. Mol. Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 35MRW7B4AD / 3-Iodobenzylguanidine
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3. Niaz WA, Alvi S: Metastatic malignant pheochromocytoma of adrenal gland. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak; 2008 May;18(5):305-7
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  • [Title] Metastatic malignant pheochromocytoma of adrenal gland.
  • Malignant pheochromocytoma is a rare disease with a high mortality.
  • Surgical removal is usually curative while chemotherapy and radiotherapy are palliative treatments.
  • A case of metastatic malignant pheochromocytoma of the right adrenal gland is presented who had fluctuating blood pressure with episodic headache and raised urinary VMA levels.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Pheochromocytoma / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy / methods. Adult. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Metastasis. Severity of Illness Index. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color

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  • (PMID = 18541088.001).
  • [ISSN] 1022-386X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons--Pakistan : JCPSP
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Coll Physicians Surg Pak
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Pakistan
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4. Sisson JC: Radiopharmaceutical treatment of pheochromocytomas. Ann N Y Acad Sci; 2002 Sep;970:54-60
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  • [Title] Radiopharmaceutical treatment of pheochromocytomas.
  • Malignant pheochromocytomas, a group of tumors that include metastatic paragangliomas, often produce hypertension and episodic symptoms from secretion of norepinephrine and sometimes epinephrine.
  • Meta-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) follows the pathways of norepinephrine and, when labeled with 131-I, will concentrate sufficiently in the pheochromocytoma to impart therapeutic radiation.
  • More than 100 patients have received treatment with 131-I-labeled MIBG at multiple medical centers.
  • Partial remissions, recorded as decreased tumor presence and tumor function, have been observed in one-third or more of the treated patients.
  • Subsequent chemotherapy increased the benefits attained by 131-I MIBG, but, in a small series of patients, this combination did not further change the outcome.
  • Nevertheless, selective radiation from 131-I MIBG or a similar radiopharmaceutical could play a valuable role in treatments that combine several types of attacks on this recalcitrant malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] 3-Iodobenzylguanidine / therapeutic use. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Pheochromocytoma / radiotherapy. Radiopharmaceuticals / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 12381541.001).
  • [ISSN] 0077-8923
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 35MRW7B4AD / 3-Iodobenzylguanidine
  • [Number-of-references] 16
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5. Hartley A, Spooner D, Brunt AM: Management of malignant phaeochromocytoma: a retrospective review of the use of MIBG and chemotherapy in the West Midlands. Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol); 2001;13(5):361-6
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  • [Title] Management of malignant phaeochromocytoma: a retrospective review of the use of MIBG and chemotherapy in the West Midlands.
  • Metastatic malignant phaeochromocytoma is a rare disorder, with no randomized and few prospective data to facilitate choice between the two main treatment modalities, chemotherapy and radiolabelled metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG).
  • There are fewer patients described in the literature who have received chemotherapy but one prospective trial of chemotherapy reported radiological response rates of 57%.
  • A recent prospective trial combining the two modalities has been disappointing with only one patient completing the treatment schedule.
  • We present six patients with malignant phaeochromocytoma or paraganglioma who received MIBG therapy.
  • Four patients also received chemotherapy.
  • Radiological and hormonal responses were determined and the time to progression after each modality was calculated.
  • One partial hormonal response was seen with MIBG treatment.
  • One complete and one partial hormonal response and one partial radiological response were seen with chemotherapy.
  • The median time to disease progression from commencement of MIBG was 12 months (range 3-44) and from commencement of chemotherapy used as first or second line treatment was 22.5 months (range 7-25).
  • Chemotherapy may be a more active modality in this disease than previously considered.
  • MIBG uptake may increase after a partial radiological response to chemotherapy, enabling subsequent MIBG therapy.
  • Researchers carrying out future trials on combined therapy should consider administering chemotherapy prior to MIBG for the reasons that we outline in this article.
  • [MeSH-major] 3-Iodobenzylguanidine / therapeutic use. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / drug therapy. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Pheochromocytoma / drug therapy. Pheochromocytoma / radiotherapy. Radiopharmaceuticals / therapeutic use

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  • [CommentIn] Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol). 2002 Jun;14(3):261 [12109835.001]
  • (PMID = 11716230.001).
  • [ISSN] 0936-6555
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical oncology (Royal College of Radiologists (Great Britain))
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 35MRW7B4AD / 3-Iodobenzylguanidine
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6. Ahlman H: Malignant pheochromocytoma: state of the field with future projections. Ann N Y Acad Sci; 2006 Aug;1073:449-64
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  • [Title] Malignant pheochromocytoma: state of the field with future projections.
  • The prevalence of malignant pheochromocytoma is about 10%, and is somewhat higher for paraganglioma.
  • A problem for clinical follow-up is that patients with "benign" histopathologic findings may develop metastatic disease.
  • At the first international symposium on pheochromocytoma in Bethesda (2005) experts from different disciplines and patients shared their experiences, and the present knowledge of this rare disease was updated.
  • The main therapeutic goal is therefore often tumor reduction and control of hypertension.
  • To date the best adjunct to surgery is radionuclide therapy using 131I-MIBG, but the background information for optimal treatment is still incomplete.
  • Certain patients may benefit from 131I-MIBG combined with radiotherapy via somatostatin receptors expressed by the tumor, or the combination with chemotherapy.
  • Ongoing microarray studies will reveal novel intracellular pathways of importance for proliferation/cell cycle control, which can be inhibited by pharmacologic tools.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / epidemiology. Pheochromocytoma / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease Models, Animal. Humans. Prevalence


7. Kulke MH, Stuart K, Enzinger PC, Ryan DP, Clark JW, Muzikansky A, Vincitore M, Michelini A, Fuchs CS: Phase II study of temozolomide and thalidomide in patients with metastatic neuroendocrine tumors. J Clin Oncol; 2006 Jan 20;24(3):401-6
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  • [Title] Phase II study of temozolomide and thalidomide in patients with metastatic neuroendocrine tumors.
  • PURPOSE: Standard, intravenous chemotherapy regimens for neuroendocrine tumors have been associated with limited response rates and significant toxicity.
  • We evaluated the efficacy of an oral regimen of temozolomide and thalidomide in patients with metastatic carcinoid, pheochromocytoma, or pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors.
  • RESULTS: Treatment with temozolomide and thalidomide was associated with an objective biochemical (chromogranin A) response rate of 40%, and a radiologic response rate of 25% (45% among pancreatic endocrine tumors, 33% among pheochromocytomas, and 7% among carcinoid tumors).
  • Grade 3-4 toxicities were uncommon, with the exception of grade 3-4 lymphopenia, which developed in 69% of the patient population.
  • Opportunistic infections occurred in three patients (10%) during the time of lymphopenia, and included single cases of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, disseminated varicella zoster virus, and herpes simplex virus.
  • CONCLUSION: Orally administered temozolomide and thalidomide seems to be an active regimen for the treatment of neuroendocrine tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoid Tumor / drug therapy. Pancreatic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Pheochromocytoma / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Angiogenesis Inhibitors / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / administration & dosage. Carcinoma, Islet Cell / drug therapy. Dacarbazine / administration & dosage. Dacarbazine / analogs & derivatives. Disease-Free Survival. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neuroendocrine Tumors / drug therapy. Survival Analysis. Thalidomide / administration & dosage. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16421420.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K23 CA 093401; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / K30 HL04095
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 4Z8R6ORS6L / Thalidomide; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 85622-93-1 / temozolomide
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8. Naoi Y, Tamaki Y, Ooka M, Tsukamoto F, Miyoshi Y, Tanji Y, Taguchi T, Noguchi S: [A case of metastatic pheochromocytoma with remarkable response to combination of cyclophosphamide, vincristine and dacarbazine]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2003 Jan;30(1):145-9
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  • [Title] [A case of metastatic pheochromocytoma with remarkable response to combination of cyclophosphamide, vincristine and dacarbazine].
  • We report the case of a 58-year-old man with metastatic tumors 13 months after the initial surgery for paraganglioma at the left adrenal gland.
  • A CT scan revealed a large tumor at the right scapula and abdominal paraaortic lymph nodes, and the patient received combination therapy of cyclophosphamide, vincristine and dacarbazine (CVD) every 3 to 4 weeks.
  • The metastatic tumors showed optimal reduction in size, and the patient remains alive with no symptoms of the disease one year after the primary chemotherapy.
  • The combination therapy of cyclophosphamide, vincristine and dacarbazine is considered a feasible and effective chemotherapy for metastatic malignant pheochromocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Pheochromocytoma / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Dacarbazine / administration & dosage. Drug Administration Schedule. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 12557721.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; CVD protocol
  • [Number-of-references] 9
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9. Timmers HJ, Kozupa A, Chen CC, Carrasquillo JA, Ling A, Eisenhofer G, Adams KT, Solis D, Lenders JW, Pacak K: Superiority of fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography to other functional imaging techniques in the evaluation of metastatic SDHB-associated pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma. J Clin Oncol; 2007 Jun 1;25(16):2262-9
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  • [Title] Superiority of fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography to other functional imaging techniques in the evaluation of metastatic SDHB-associated pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma.
  • PURPOSE: Germline mutations of the gene encoding subunit B of the mitochondrial enzyme succinate dehydrogenase (SDHB) predispose to malignant paraganglioma (PGL).
  • Timely and accurate localization of these aggressive tumors is critical for guiding optimal treatment.
  • Our aim is to evaluate the performance of functional imaging modalities in the detection of metastatic lesions of SDHB-associated PGL.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Sensitivities for the detection of metastases were compared between [18F]fluorodopamine ([18F]FDA) and [18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET), iodine-123- (123I) and iodine-131 (131I) -metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG), 111In-pentetreotide, and Tc-99m-methylene diphosphonate bone scintigraphy in 30 patients with SDHB-associated PGL.
  • Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) served as standards of reference.
  • RESULTS: Twenty-nine of 30 patients had metastatic lesions.
  • In two patients, obvious metastatic lesions on functional imaging were missed by CT and MRI.
  • Sensitivities were similar before and after chemotherapy or 131I-MIBG treatment, except for a trend toward lower post- (60%/41%) versus pretreatment (80%/65%) sensitivity of 123I-MIBG scintigraphy.
  • CONCLUSION: With a sensitivity approaching 100%, [18F]FDG-PET is the preferred functional imaging modality for staging and treatment monitoring of SDHB-related metastatic PGL.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Germ-Line Mutation. Iron-Sulfur Proteins / genetics. Paraganglioma / radionuclide imaging. Pheochromocytoma / radionuclide imaging. Positron-Emission Tomography. Succinate Dehydrogenase / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] 3-Iodobenzylguanidine. Adult. Dopamine / metabolism. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis

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  • (PMID = 17538171.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iron-Sulfur Proteins; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18; 35MRW7B4AD / 3-Iodobenzylguanidine; EC 1.3.5.1 / SDHB protein, human; EC 1.3.99.1 / Succinate Dehydrogenase; VTD58H1Z2X / Dopamine
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10. Fitzgerald PA, Goldsby RE, Huberty JP, Price DC, Hawkins RA, Veatch JJ, Dela Cruz F, Jahan TM, Linker CA, Damon L, Matthay KK: Malignant pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas: a phase II study of therapy with high-dose 131I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (131I-MIBG). Ann N Y Acad Sci; 2006 Aug;1073:465-90
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  • [Title] Malignant pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas: a phase II study of therapy with high-dose 131I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (131I-MIBG).
  • Thirty patients with malignant pheochromocytoma (PHEO) or paraganglioma (PGL) were treated with high-dose 131I-MIBG.
  • Fourteen patients were refractory to prior radiation or chemotherapy before 131I-MIBG.
  • Marrow hypoplasia commenced 3 weeks after 131I-MIBG therapy.
  • After the first 131I-MIBG therapy, 19 patients required platelet transfusions; 19 received GCSF; 12 received epoeitin or RBCs.
  • High-dose 131I-MIBG resulted in the following overall tumor responses in 30 patients: 4 sustained complete remissions (CRs); 15 sustained partial remissions (PRs); 1 sustained stable disease (SD); 5 progressive disease (PD); 5 initial PRs or SD but relapsed to PD.
  • For patients with metastatic PHEO or PGL, who have good *I-MIBG uptake on diagnostic scanning, high-dose 131I-MIBG therapy was effective in producing a sustained CR, PR, or SD in 67% of patients, with tolerable toxicity.
  • [MeSH-major] 3-Iodobenzylguanidine / therapeutic use. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Paraganglioma / radiotherapy. Pheochromocytoma / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 17102115.001).
  • [ISSN] 0077-8923
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / 2M01 RR01271
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 35MRW7B4AD / 3-Iodobenzylguanidine
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11. Suzuki M, Mikata N, Imao S, Ishiwata S, Nagano T: [Malignant pheochromocytoma with remarkable response to CVD chemotherapy--a case report]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2000 Jun;27(6):921-4
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  • [Title] [Malignant pheochromocytoma with remarkable response to CVD chemotherapy--a case report].
  • Our diagnosis was pheochromocytoma of the left adrenal gland. On Oct.
  • Two years later, it became difficult to control the patient's hypertension, and multiple metastatic liver cancer was found by an abdominal CT scan.
  • The diagnosis of malignant pheochromocytoma was confirmed by the accumulation of 131I-MIBG in the liver.
  • We started CVD chemotherapy.
  • After 10 cycles of this chemotherapy, the serum catecholamine level was almost normalized and the metastatic liver cancer was reduced to one-third in size.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Pheochromocytoma / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Dacarbazine / administration & dosage. Drug Administration Schedule. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 10897222.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] JAPAN
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; CVD protocol
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12. Misseri R: Adrenal surgery in the pediatric population. Curr Urol Rep; 2007 Jan;8(1):89-94
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  • [Title] Adrenal surgery in the pediatric population.
  • Adrenal tumors in children may be benign or malignant.
  • Both a metabolic and a radiographic work-up are required before treatment of an adrenal tumor.
  • The primary therapy for most adrenal lesions is surgical, though some are treated medically or require chemotherapy before excision.
  • Open surgical approaches remain necessary in patients with extensive locally invasive or metastatic disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Diseases / mortality. Adrenal Gland Diseases / pathology. Adrenal Gland Diseases / surgery. Adrenal Glands / embryology. Adrenal Glands / physiopathology. Age Factors. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Laparoscopy / methods. Male. Neuroblastoma / mortality. Neuroblastoma / pathology. Neuroblastoma / surgery. Pheochromocytoma / mortality. Pheochromocytoma / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / surgery. Risk Assessment. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17239322.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-6285
  • [Journal-full-title] Current urology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Urol Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 39
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13. Chrisoulidou A, Kaltsas G, Ilias I, Grossman AB: The diagnosis and management of malignant phaeochromocytoma and paraganglioma. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2007 Sep;14(3):569-85
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  • [Title] The diagnosis and management of malignant phaeochromocytoma and paraganglioma.
  • Although a subset of these tumours has metastatic disease at initial presentation, a significant number develops metastases during follow-up after excision of an apparently benign tumour.
  • Functional imaging using radiolabelled metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) and more recently, (18)F-fluorodopamine and (18)F-fluorodopa positron emission tomography offer substantial sensitivity and specificity to correctly detect metastatic phaeochromocytoma and paraganglioma and helps identify patients suitable for treatment with radiopharmaceuticals.
  • The 5-year mortality rate of patients with malignant phaeochromocytomas and paragangliomas greater than 50% indicates that there is considerable room for the improvement of currently available therapies.
  • The main therapeutic target is tumour reduction and control of symptoms of excessive catecholamine secretion.
  • Currently, the best adjunctive therapy to surgery is treatment with radiopharmaceuticals using (131)I-MIBG; however, this is very rarely curative.
  • Chemotherapy has been used for metastatic disease with only a partial and mainly palliative effect.
  • The role of other forms of radionuclide treatment either alone or in combination with chemotherapy is currently evolving.
  • Ongoing microarray studies may provide novel intracellular pathways of importance for proliferation/cell cycle control, and lead to the development of novel pharmacological agents.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy. Paraganglioma / diagnosis. Paraganglioma / therapy. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Algorithms. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Chromaffin Cells / pathology. Combined Modality Therapy. Endocrine Surgical Procedures. Humans. Radiopharmaceuticals / therapeutic use. Radiotherapy / trends

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  • (PMID = 17914089.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals
  • [Number-of-references] 159
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14. Nomura K, Kimura H, Shimizu S, Kodama H, Okamoto T, Obara T, Takano K: Survival of patients with metastatic malignant pheochromocytoma and efficacy of combined cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and dacarbazine chemotherapy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2009 Aug;94(8):2850-6
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  • [Title] Survival of patients with metastatic malignant pheochromocytoma and efficacy of combined cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and dacarbazine chemotherapy.
  • Exact survival has not been reported, nor has an analysis of the efficacy of chemotherapy on survival time.
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyze the survival curves and survival times of patients with malignant pheochromocytoma and to determine the efficacy of chemotherapy on prolongation of life.
  • PATIENTS AND OUTCOME MEASURES: Thirty-two patients with metastasized malignant pheochromocytoma were analyzed for survival.
  • Survival curves were compared among the 16 patients in this group treated with combined chemotherapy using cyclophosphamide, vincristine and dacarbazine (CVD) and the nine patients not treated with chemotherapy.
  • RESULTS: The survival curve of the 32 patients declined continuously and linearly to at least 20 yr after the diagnosis of pheochromocytoma.
  • In the 25 patients whose primary tumor was excised, patients who already had metastases at the time of pheochromocytoma diagnosis had better survival than those whose metastases were found later.
  • When the effects of CVD were examined after stratifying several factors, female gender and adrenal origin of tumor were found to be negative prognostic factors for CVD chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSION: The present study revealed a long survival time.
  • CVD chemotherapy was not shown to extend survival, especially for women and patients with adrenal gland-derived primary tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / mortality. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Pheochromocytoma / mortality
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Dacarbazine / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Survival Rate. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 19470630.001).
  • [ISSN] 1945-7197
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide
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15. Ciftci AO, Tanyel FC, Senocak ME, Büyükpamukçu N: Pheochromocytoma in children. J Pediatr Surg; 2001 Mar;36(3):447-52
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  • [Title] Pheochromocytoma in children.
  • BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Etiopathogenesis, management, and outcome of pediatric pheochromocytoma (PHEO) still is obscure because of limited number of cases.
  • Information recorded for each patient included age, sex, past medical and family history, clinical characteristics, diagnostic methods, treatment, pathologic findings, and outcome.
  • Sporadic cases of PHEO accounted for 14 patients (88%), whereas 2 children had von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease and multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2b (MEN2b).
  • Preoperative medical therapy was done in all patients.
  • Laparotomy confirmed that 11 patients had localized, 4 patients had regional, and 1 patient had metastatic disease.
  • Incisional biopsy could be taken only from a patient with metastatic disease at presentation.
  • Two patients with localized disease and 2 patients with regional disease had benign recurrences in right (n = 2) and left (n = 2) adrenal glands within 3 to 7 years after operation.
  • Pathologic examination found apparently malignant features in 3 patients who presented with regional (n = 2) or metastatic (n = 1) disease and underwent incisional biopsy (n = 2) or partial excision (n = 1).
  • Adjuvant chemotherapy was commenced postoperatively in all patients with malignant and suggestive of malignant pathologic features.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Early diagnosis and total excision are the most important aspects of accurate treatment for childhood PHEO.
  • Pre- intra- and postoperative medical management is as important as the surgical procedure.
  • Our surgical treatment policy is mainly minimizing the risk of recurrence while preserving adequately functioning adrenal medullar tissue.
  • Because of the steadily increasing incidence of precancerous genetic syndromes related to adrenal glands and poor prognosis of advanced-stage PHEO, childhood cases of hypertensive disorders should receive a detailed and vigorous diagnostic evaluation and appropriate treatment as given to adults.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms. Pheochromocytoma
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Hypertension / etiology. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Treatment Outcome. Turkey


16. Huang H, Abraham J, Hung E, Averbuch S, Merino M, Steinberg SM, Pacak K, Fojo T: Treatment of malignant pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma with cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and dacarbazine: recommendation from a 22-year follow-up of 18 patients. Cancer; 2008 Oct 15;113(8):2020-8
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  • [Title] Treatment of malignant pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma with cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and dacarbazine: recommendation from a 22-year follow-up of 18 patients.
  • BACKGROUND: A long-term follow-up was conducted of 18 patients with a diagnosis of pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma treated with a combination of cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and dacarbazine (CVD).
  • Eighteen patients with metastatic malignant pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma were studied.
  • RESULTS: Combination chemotherapy with CVD produced a complete response rate of 11% and a partial response rate of 44%.
  • Median survival from a landmark was 3.8 years for patients whose tumors responded to therapy and 1.8 years for patients whose tumors did not respond (P = .65).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Combination chemotherapy with CVD produced objective tumor responses in patients with advanced malignant pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma.
  • However, patients reported improvement in symptoms, had objective improvements in blood pressure, and had tumor shrinkage that made surgical resection possible.
  • The authors conclude that CVD therapy is not indicated in every patient with metastatic pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma, but should be considered in the management of patients with symptoms and where tumor shrinkage might be beneficial.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Pheochromocytoma / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Cyclophosphamide / adverse effects. Dacarbazine / administration & dosage. Dacarbazine / adverse effects. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Male. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome. Vincristine / administration & dosage. Vincristine / adverse effects

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 18780317.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide
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17. Mayo-Smith WW, Dupuy DE: Adrenal neoplasms: CT-guided radiofrequency ablation--preliminary results. Radiology; 2004 Apr;231(1):225-30
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  • [Title] Adrenal neoplasms: CT-guided radiofrequency ablation--preliminary results.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate initial experience with radiofrequency (RF) ablation of adrenal neoplasms.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirteen adrenal masses in 12 patients (bilateral metastases in one patient) were treated with computed tomography (CT)-guided percutaneous RF ablation.
  • Eleven adrenal lesions were metastases (five from lung cancer, four from renal cell carcinoma, and two from melanoma); one lesion was a pheochromocytoma and one was an aldosteronoma.
  • There were 10 men and two women (average age, 58 years; range, 40-77 years) in the study; average adrenal mass diameter was 3.9 cm (range, 1-8 cm).
  • Average number of RF applications per adrenal mass was 2.7 (range, 1-5 applications); average time per application was 7.8 minutes (range, 4-13 minutes).
  • Successful treatment was defined as lack of enhancement of the treated region on follow-up CT images and resolution of the biochemical abnormality in two patients.
  • In two patients with large adrenal lesions (4 and 8 cm in diameter), enhancement of residual tissue was observed after one treatment session; this finding was indicative of residual tumor.
  • One patient with thrombocytopenia that resulted from chemotherapy had a small hematoma, but no transfusion was required.
  • No patient developed hypertension during the RF application.
  • No patient with metastases had recurrent tumor at the treated site, and this lack of recurrence indicated effective local control; 11 patients had progression of metastatic disease at extraadrenal sites.
  • CONCLUSION: Preliminary data suggest that CT-guided RF ablation is an effective technique for local control of adrenal neoplasms.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Pheochromocytoma / radiography. Pheochromocytoma / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aldosterone / blood. Biomarkers / blood. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / radiography. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / surgery. Catheter Ablation. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Kidney Neoplasms / radiography. Kidney Neoplasms / surgery. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / radiography. Lung Neoplasms / surgery. Male. Melanoma / pathology. Melanoma / radiography. Melanoma / surgery. Middle Aged. Postoperative Complications / etiology. Postoperative Complications / radiography. Retrospective Studies. Rhode Island. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright RSNA, 2004
  • (PMID = 14990812.001).
  • [ISSN] 0033-8419
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone
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18. Bagwan IN, Cook G, Mudan S, Wotherspoon A: Unusual presentation of metastatic adenocarcinoma. World J Surg Oncol; 2007;5:116
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  • [Title] Unusual presentation of metastatic adenocarcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: The most common tumours of the adrenal gland are adenoma, pheochromocytoma, adrenocortical carcinoma, and metastases.
  • Although the imaging features of these tumours are established, the imaging characteristics of uncommon adrenal masses are less well known.
  • In patients with extradrenal tumour, incidental discovery of an adrenal mass necessitates excluding the possibility of metastatic malignancy.
  • CASE PRESENTATION: A 52 year-old female was diagnosed with oesophageal adenocarcinoma and treated with oesophagectomy and adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • Sixteen months later on staging CT scan a 2 x 2 cm adrenal mass was detected, which increased in size over a period of time to 3 x 3 cm in size.
  • Adrenalectomy was performed and histological examination revealed metastatic adenocarcinoma within an adrenal adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Esophageal Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy / methods. Biopsy, Needle. Esophagectomy / methods. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Risk Assessment. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17949483.001).
  • [ISSN] 1477-7819
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
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  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2100056
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19. Adjallé R, Plouin PF, Pacak K, Lehnert H: Treatment of malignant pheochromocytoma. Horm Metab Res; 2009 Sep;41(9):687-96
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  • [Title] Treatment of malignant pheochromocytoma.
  • Pheochromocytoma (PCC) is a rare disease, mainly sporadic, but also associated with some familial disorders, with a malignancy frequency of approximately 10%.
  • Only the presence of distant metastases, derived from large pleomorphic chromaffin cells, is widely accepted as a criterion of malignancy.
  • Since there is no curative treatment for malignant PCC and due to its unfavorable prognosis, assuring quality of life is one of the main therapeutic objectives.
  • Besides a long-term medical treatment of symptoms using selective alpha-1 blockers and nonselective, noncompetitive alpha- and/or beta-blockers, debulking surgery is the first treatment step.
  • In case of a sufficient uptake of (123)I-MIBG treatment with targeted radiation therapy, use of (131)I-MIBG is an option as an adjuvant therapy, following debulking surgery.
  • Chemotherapy should be applied to patients without positive MIBG-scan, with no response to (131)I-MIBG or progression after radionuclide treatment, and especially in cases with high proliferation index.
  • The most effective chemotherapy regimen appears to be the CVD-scheme, including cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and dacarbazine.
  • The so-called targeted molecular therapies with treatment combinations of temozolomide and thalidomide, or sunitinib monotherapy, and novel therapeutic somatostatin analogues have shown promising results and should thus encourage clinical trials to improve the prognosis of metastatic PCC.
  • Within this review the current treatment modalities and novel molecular strategies in the management of this disease are discussed and a treatment algorithm is suggested.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy. Pheochromocytoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Drug Therapy. Humans. Radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 19672813.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-4286
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormone and metabolic research = Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung = Hormones et métabolisme
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Horm. Metab. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / ZIA HD008735-09
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 92
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS470438; NLM/ PMC3658628
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20. Rescorla FJ: Malignant adrenal tumors. Semin Pediatr Surg; 2006 Feb;15(1):48-56
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Malignant adrenal tumors.
  • Adrenal tumors, apart from neuroblastoma, are relatively rare in infancy and childhood.
  • Most adrenal lesions are benign, and both benign and malignant tumors may be hormonally active thus, making accurate preoperative diagnosis difficult.
  • The two main malignant tumors are adrenocortical carcinoma and pheochromocytoma.
  • Surgical excision is the primary therapy for both tumors, including excision of metastatic and recurrent tumor.
  • An open procedure should be considered for invasive adrenocortical carcinoma and in pheochromocytomas in which preoperative imaging demonstrates metastatic nodal disease.
  • Chemotherapy, although without proven efficacy, is utilized in some children with metastatic or unresectable disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / therapy. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / therapy

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  • (PMID = 16458846.001).
  • [ISSN] 1055-8586
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in pediatric surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin. Pediatr. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 98
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