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1. Chen TC: Prostate cancer and spinal cord compression. Oncology (Williston Park); 2001 Jul;15(7):841-55; discussion 855,859-61
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Prostate Cancer.

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  • [Title] Prostate cancer and spinal cord compression.
  • Prostate cancer metastasis to the spine is an extremely difficult clinical problem to treat.
  • However, it occurs commonly, and all clinicians--not only oncologists--should undertake to understand its pathogenesis, diagnosis, clinical presentation, and current treatment options.
  • This review emphasizes the surgical treatment of prostate cancer metastasis to the spine.
  • The goals of this article are to (1) present an overview of the pathophysiology of this disease, with an emphasis on the mechanisms of metastasis and invasion, (2) provide a general overview of the clinical presentation and diagnosis of metastatic prostate carcinoma, and (3) discuss currently available treatment options.
  • Such options include best medical management, nonsurgical treatments (radiation, chemotherapy), and surgical treatment of newly diagnosed and previously irradiated metastatic prostate carcinoma to the spine.
  • Algorithms for the treatment of this disease are presented.
  • [MeSH-major] Prostatic Neoplasms. Spinal Cord Compression
  • [MeSH-minor] Algorithms. Androgen Antagonists / therapeutic use. Anti-Inflammatory Agents / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Diphosphonates / therapeutic use. Humans. Male. Neurosurgical Procedures / methods. Spinal Neoplasms / complications. Spinal Neoplasms / physiopathology. Spinal Neoplasms / secondary. Spinal Neoplasms / therapy. Steroids

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  • (PMID = 11499687.001).
  • [ISSN] 0890-9091
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology (Williston Park, N.Y.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncology (Williston Park, N.Y.)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgen Antagonists; 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Diphosphonates; 0 / Steroids
  • [Number-of-references] 41
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2. Järveläinen H, Sainio A, Koulu M, Wight TN, Penttinen R: Extracellular matrix molecules: potential targets in pharmacotherapy. Pharmacol Rev; 2009 Jun;61(2):198-223
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  • [Title] Extracellular matrix molecules: potential targets in pharmacotherapy.
  • Any structural inherited or acquired defect and/or metabolic disturbance in the ECM may cause cellular and tissue alterations that can lead to the development or progression of disease.
  • Consequently, ECM molecules are important targets for pharmacotherapy.
  • Unfortunately, until recently, the ECM in drug discovery has been largely ignored.
  • However, several of today's drugs that act on various primary targets affect the ECM as a byproduct of the drugs' actions, and this activity may in part be beneficial to the drugs' disease-modifying properties.
  • In the future, agents and compounds targeting directly the ECM will significantly advance the treatment of various human diseases, even those for which efficient therapies are not yet available.

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  • (PMID = 19549927.001).
  • [ISSN] 1521-0081
  • [Journal-full-title] Pharmacological reviews
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pharmacol. Rev.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / P01 HL018645; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / R24 HL064387; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL18645; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / R24-HL64387-06A1
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Extracellular Matrix Proteins
  • [Number-of-references] 400
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2830117
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3. Maezawa T, Yonese J, Tsukamoto T, Isii N, Hasegawa Y, Ishikawa Y, Fukui I: [Low dose CVD chemotherapy as a tumor dormancy therapy for extra-adrenal malignant pheochromocytoma: a case report]. Nihon Hinyokika Gakkai Zasshi; 2001 Jul;92(5):593-6
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. VINCRISTINE .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Low dose CVD chemotherapy as a tumor dormancy therapy for extra-adrenal malignant pheochromocytoma: a case report].
  • Blood pressure was 170/90 under medication of an alpha-blocker.
  • The destructive change of the 9th vertebra on magnetic resonance imaging strongly suggested metastasis of the tumor.
  • Histologic and immunohistochemical findings of the biopsy specimen taken from the lower abdominal tumor in addition to the above clinical data led to the diagnosis of extra-adrenal malignant pheochromocytoma with spinal metastases.
  • Since 2 cycles of full dose CYVADIC chemotherapy had no effects on lowering the high blood pressure and reducing the tumor size, low dose (60% of the full dose) CVD (cyclophosphamide, vincristine and dacarbazine) was given as a palliative chemotherapy on an out-patient clinic approximately every 4 weeks.
  • After 4 cycles of the chemotherapy, his backache due to spinal metastasis markedly improved, hypertension as well as the plasma dopamine level was normalized and nor-epinephrine level was markedly decreased, though the tumor size was not reduced.
  • Thereafter, no medication for hypertension was necessary.
  • During 3 years and 6 months until now, 36 cycles of the chemotherapy has been repeated with no significant side effects.
  • He has been at full-time work with quality of life being well preserved.
  • Low dose CVD regimen appears to be an effective tumor dormancy therapy for advanced extra-adrenal pheochromocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Abdominal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Pheochromocytoma / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Dacarbazine / administration & dosage. Drug Administration Schedule. Humans. Male. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 11517573.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-5287
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Hinyōkika Gakkai zasshi. The japanese journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Hinyokika Gakkai Zasshi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; CVD protocol
  • [Number-of-references] 9
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4. Li H, Gasbarrini A, Cappuccio M, Terzi S, Paderni S, Mirabile L, Boriani S: Outcome of excisional surgeries for the patients with spinal metastases. Eur Spine J; 2009 Oct;18(10):1423-30

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Outcome of excisional surgeries for the patients with spinal metastases.
  • To evaluate the outcome of the excisional surgeries (en bloc/debulking) in spinal metastatic treatment in 10 years.
  • A total of 131 patients (134 lesions) with spinal metastases were studied.
  • The postoperative survival time and the local recurrence rate were calculated statistically.
  • The comparison of the two procedures on the survival time, local recurrence rate, and neurologic change were made.
  • The median survival time of the en bloc surgery and the debulking surgery was 40.93 and 24.73 months, respectively, with no significant difference.
  • The en bloc surgery can achieve a lower local recurrence rate than the debulking surgery, while was similar in survival outcome, neurological salvage, and incidence of complications.
  • [MeSH-major] Neurosurgical Procedures / methods. Spinal Neoplasms / secondary. Spinal Neoplasms / surgery. Spine / pathology. Spine / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Combined Modality Therapy / instrumentation. Combined Modality Therapy / methods. Drug Therapy. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / mortality. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Outcome Assessment (Health Care) / methods. Postoperative Complications / epidemiology. Prognosis. Radiotherapy. Risk Assessment. Spinal Fusion / methods. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome. Vertebroplasty / methods. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19655177.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-0932
  • [Journal-full-title] European spine journal : official publication of the European Spine Society, the European Spinal Deformity Society, and the European Section of the Cervical Spine Research Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Spine J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2899386
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5. Chohan MO, Rehman T, Cerilli LA, Devers K, Medina-Flores R, Turner P: Metastatic epithelioid trophoblastic tumor involving the spine. Spine (Phila Pa 1976); 2010 Sep 15;35(20):E1072-5
The Weizmann Institute of Science GeneCards and MalaCards databases. gene/protein/disease-specific - MalaCards for epithelioid trophoblastic tumor .

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  • [Title] Metastatic epithelioid trophoblastic tumor involving the spine.
  • OBJECTIVE: We report the first case of epithelioid trophoblastic tumor (ETT) presenting as primary metastasis to the spine.
  • SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: ETT is an extremely rare form of gestational trophoblastic neoplasm with less than 100 cases reported in the literature.
  • A 36-year-old, postpartum woman presented with severe low back pain and was found to have a contrast-enhancing lesion in lower thoracic spine subsequently confirmed as ETT.
  • RESULT: We described the first case of an ETT to present as a primary metastasis to the spine.
  • CONCLUSION: This first report of metastasis of ETT to the spine adds significant new information to the growing literature of this rare and newly identified tumor.
  • It also alerts the neurosurgeon into considering the diagnosis with appropriate clinical presentation.
  • As more number of cases of nervous system involvement with this tumor are reported, crucial information on prognostic factors and treatment regimens will emerge.
  • [MeSH-major] Spinal Neoplasms / secondary. Trophoblastic Neoplasms / secondary. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Combined Modality Therapy. Drug Therapy. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Low Back Pain / etiology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neurosurgical Procedures. Pregnancy. Radiculopathy / etiology. Thoracic Vertebrae / radiography

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  • (PMID = 20802395.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-1159
  • [Journal-full-title] Spine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Spine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
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6. Aebi M: Spinal metastasis in the elderly. Eur Spine J; 2003 Oct;12 Suppl 2:S202-13
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  • [Title] Spinal metastasis in the elderly.
  • Bony metastases are a frequent problem in elderly patients affected by cancer, and those with bony metastases involve the spine in approx. 50%.
  • The most frequent spinal metastases (60%) are from breast, lung, or prostate cancer.
  • The chance that an elderly patient (60-79 years old) is affected by bony metastases is four times higher in men and three times higher in women than a middle-aged patient (40-59 years old).
  • Since the medical treatment with all the adjuvant treatment options prolong the survival of this particular patient group, the spinal metastases may become a mechanical issue, thus requesting surgical treatment.
  • Different classification systems have been proposed to rationalize surgical indications, some concentrating solely on the local spinal tumor involvement and some including the overall clinical situation.
  • Since most of the surgical options are of palliative character, it is more important to base the decision on an overall clinical classification including the different treatment modalities-irradiation, chemotherapy, steroids, bisphosphonates, and surgery-to make a shared decision.
  • In the thoracolumbar spine a posterior decompression and posterolateral vertebral body resection through a posterior approach only, with a concomitant reconstruction and stabilization, has shown to work sufficiently well.
  • In the middle and lower cervical spine the anterior approach with anterior decompression and anterior column reconstruction is most effective and has a low morbidity, whereas the occipitocervical junction can generally be treated by posterior resection and stabilization.
  • The outcome should be determined by the survival time in an ambulatory, independent status, where pain is controlled, and the patient is not hospitalized.
  • Since prospective randomized studies comparing different treatment modalities for spinal metastases including surgery are not available and are ethically difficult to achieve, each case remains an interdisciplinary, shared decision making process for what is considered best for a patient or elderly patient.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / pathology. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Neoplasm Metastasis / pathology. Spinal Neoplasms / pathology. Spinal Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 14505120.001).
  • [ISSN] 0940-6719
  • [Journal-full-title] European spine journal : official publication of the European Spine Society, the European Spinal Deformity Society, and the European Section of the Cervical Spine Research Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Spine J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 58
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3591831
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7. Chiras J, Cormier E, Baragan H, Jean B, Rose M: [Interventional radiology in bone metastases]. Bull Cancer; 2007 Feb;94(2):161-9
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Bone Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Interventional radiology in bone metastases].
  • [Transliterated title] Radiologie interventionnelle des métastases osseuses.
  • Interventional radiology takes a large place in the treatment of bone metastases by numerous techniques, percutaneous or endovascular.
  • Vertebroplasty appears actually as the most important technique for stabilisation of spine metastases as it induces satisfactory stabilisation of the vertebra and offer clear improvement of the quality of life.
  • This last technique appears actually as the most important development to destroy definitively some bone metastases and replace progressively alcoholic destruction of such lesions.
  • Angiographic techniques appear more confidential but endovascular embolization is very useful to diminish the risk of surgical treatment of hyper vascular metastases.
  • Chemoembolization is actually developped to associate the relief of pain induced by endovascular embolization and the carcinolytic effect obtained by local endovascular chemotherapy.
  • All these techniques should develop largely during the next years and their efficacy and safety should improve largely by treating earlier the metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Bone Neoplasms / therapy. Radiography, Interventional / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Back Pain / therapy. Bone Cements / therapeutic use. Catheter Ablation / methods. Embolization, Therapeutic / methods. Humans. Hyperthermia, Induced / methods. Spinal Neoplasms / blood supply. Spinal Neoplasms / secondary. Spinal Neoplasms / surgery. Spine / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17337385.001).
  • [ISSN] 1769-6917
  • [Journal-full-title] Bulletin du cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bull Cancer
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Bone Cements
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8. Mizumoto M, Harada H, Asakura H, Hashimoto T, Furutani K, Hashii H, Takagi T, Katagiri H, Takahashi M, Nishimura T: Prognostic factors and a scoring system for survival after radiotherapy for metastases to the spinal column: a review of 544 patients at Shizuoka Cancer Center Hospital. Cancer; 2008 Nov 15;113(10):2816-22

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Prognostic factors and a scoring system for survival after radiotherapy for metastases to the spinal column: a review of 544 patients at Shizuoka Cancer Center Hospital.
  • BACKGROUND: To optimize selection of a radiotherapy schedule for patients with spinal metastases, the authors analyzed prognostic factors and developed a scoring system to predict survival in such patients.
  • METHODS: Five-hundred forty-four patients with spinal metastases received radiotherapy at Shizuoka Cancer Center Hospital between September 2002 and November 2006.
  • Prognostic factors for survival were studied using a Cox proportional hazards model, and a scoring system was developed based on regression coefficients: Three points were given for an unfavorable tumor type and bad performance status (> or =3); 2 points were given for hypercalcemia, visceral metastases, and previous chemotherapy; and 1 point was given for multiple bone metastases and age > or =71 years.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The scoring system was able to predict the survival of patients with spinal metastases and may be useful for selecting an optimal radiotherapy schedule.
  • [MeSH-major] Spinal Neoplasms / mortality. Spinal Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Spinal Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 18846565.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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9. Haruyama S, Sugita K, Kawakami C, Nakamura M, Tokura Y: Spinal cord compression presumably due to metastasized cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma to the thoracic spine. J UOEH; 2010 Jun 1;32(2):155-9
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  • [Title] Spinal cord compression presumably due to metastasized cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma to the thoracic spine.
  • Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) frequently metastasizes to lymph nodes, but metastasis to the spine is rare.
  • We report a case of cutaneous SCC with metastasis to a particularly rare region, the thoracic spine, which evolved into a spinal cord compression.
  • In November 2005, a 73-year-old man underwent a resection of a primary tumor and standard inguinal lymphadenectomy for a cutaneous SCC of the right fourth toe, defined as T2N1M1 stage.
  • Over the next 3 years, he was given peplomycin, CAV (cisplatin, adriamycin, and vindesine) therapy and radiotherapy for multiple lymph node metastases.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging of the thoracic spine showed the presence of masses in the vertebral body, which compressed the spinal cord.
  • After irradiation and chemotherapy, the patient's complaint was relieved and the level of serum SCC antigen concomitantly declined.
  • Spinal metastasis is one of the items to be kept in mind during the follow-up of patients with cutaneous SCC.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / secondary. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Spinal Cord Compression / etiology. Spinal Neoplasms / secondary. Thoracic Vertebrae
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Urinary Retention / etiology

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  • (PMID = 20549904.001).
  • [ISSN] 0387-821X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of UOEH
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. UOEH
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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10. Birbilis TA, Matis GK, Eleftheriadis SG, Theodoropoulou EN, Sivridis E: Spinal metastasis of glioblastoma multiforme: an uncommon suspect? Spine (Phila Pa 1976); 2010 Apr 1;35(7):E264-9
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  • [Title] Spinal metastasis of glioblastoma multiforme: an uncommon suspect?
  • OBJECTIVE: To report a case and review the literature on glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) with drop-like metastasis to the spine.
  • SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: GBM constitutes the most common adult malignant brain tumor with poor prognosis.
  • Spinal metastases of this malignancy are quite rare and dissemination usually occurs late in the course of the disease.
  • However, recent advances in cancer treatment prolongate survival and provide adequate time for these metastases to give clinical symptoms.
  • METHODS: We hereby present a case of a 57-year-old woman with a history of pineal GBM treated by stereotactic biopsy, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy, readmitted 38 months later due to gait disturbance, spastic paraparesis, edema of lower limbs, bilateral positive Babinski response, and loss of bladder control.
  • No further treatment was given, and the patient died 2 months after the diagnosis of the spinal metastasis.
  • CONCLUSION: Spinal metastases should be commonly suspected in patients with a history of intracranial GBM who complain about symptoms not explained by the primary lesion.Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) was first described by Rudolph Virchow in 1863 and represents the most common and most malignant tumor of the cerebral hemispheres, usually arising between the ages of 40 and 60 years.
  • The incidence in Europe and North America is 2 to 3 cases/100,000 per year, and 75% of the patients die within 18 months after diagnosis.
  • However, when GBM is under apparent control, spinal metastases are clinically rarely detected.
  • Although involvement of the spinal cord (SC) has been noted with increasing frequency in recent years, literature provides only a few well documented cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Glioblastoma / secondary. Pineal Gland / pathology. Spinal Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 20195200.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-1159
  • [Journal-full-title] Spine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Spine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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11. Chiewvit P, Danchaivijitr N, Sirivitmaitrie K, Chiewvit S, Thephamongkhol K: Does magnetic resonance imaging give value-added than bone scintigraphy in the detection of vertebral metastasis? J Med Assoc Thai; 2009 Jun;92(6):818-29
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  • [Title] Does magnetic resonance imaging give value-added than bone scintigraphy in the detection of vertebral metastasis?
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine the role of Magnetic Resonance (MR) imaging for the investigation ofpatients with suspected metastasis to the spine by bone scintigraphy.
  • MATERIAL AND METHOD: Retrospectively reviewed with comparison was made between Technetium-99m Methylene Diphosphonate (99(m)Tc-MDP) bone scintigraphy and corresponding spine MR images in 48 cases of vertebral metastasis at Siriraj Hospital.
  • The intervals between bone scintigraphy and MR images did not exceed 1 month.
  • The authors studied between January 2005 and December 2006 Bone scintigraphy were performed with planar imaging of the entire body and MR imaging was performed with the 1.5 tesla and 3.0 tesla scanner using standard techniques with T1-, T2-weighted images and fat-suppressed T1-weighted images with intravenous administration of gadopentetate dimeglumine.
  • The MR imaging findings were studied: location (cervical or thoracic or lumbar or sacrum spine), number of lesions (solitary or multiple lesions), pattern of enhancement (homogeneous or inhomogeneous), involvement of spinal canal, compression of spinal cord, extradural extension, other incidental findings such as pulmonary metastasis, pleural effusion, lymphadenopathy The final diagnosis was confirmed clinically and followed-up for further management (radiation or surgery) or followed-up by MR imaging (1 month-16 months) and bone scintigraphy (5 months-12 months).
  • RESULTS: Forty-eight cases (80 lesions) of vertebral metastasis were identified (25 men and 23 women; mean age 61 years and range 8-84 years).
  • Primary neoplasms include breast cancer (n=11), colorectal cancer (n=7), lung cancer (n=6), prostate cancer (n=5), nasopharyngeal cancer (n=5), head and neck cancer (n=3), thyroid cancer (n=2), liver cancer (n=2), esophagus cancer (n=1), bladder cancer (n=1), retroperitoneum cancer (n=1), medulloblastoma (n=1), cervical cancer (n=1), ovarian cancer (n=1), malignant melanoma (n=1).
  • The result of bone scintigraphy and MR imaging is used to evaluate vertebral metastasis: in 44 lesions of bone scintigraphy positive for vertebral metastasis, 40/44 lesions (91%) which MR imaging reveal vertebral metastasis.
  • In 24 lesions of negative of bone scintigraphy for vertebral metastasis, the authors found that 14/24 lesions (58%) showed positive of vertebral metastasis from MR imaging.
  • In this group, the authors recommended a further investigation because 58% of negative bone scintigraphy lesions are depicted by only MR imaging.
  • MR imaging demonstrated metastatic cord compression in 16 cases.
  • Extradural extension causes spinal canal narrowing in 30 cases.
  • CONCLUSION: The authors conclude that the MR imaging is more efficient than the bone scintigraphy in detecting vertebral metastasis, especially in the cases that bone scintigraphy are equivocal or negative for vertebral metastasis in high clinical suspicion.
  • Furthermore, MR imaging is important for the further treatment planning such as radiation therapy or systemic chemotherapy.
  • Although MR imaging is useful in the detection of early metastasis that are localized completely in the bone marrow cavity routinely bone scintigraphy remains that most cost-effective method for examination of the entire skeleton.
  • [MeSH-major] Lumbar Vertebrae / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Spinal Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Child. Diphosphonates. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis / radionuclide imaging. Organotechnetium Compounds. Radionuclide Imaging. Retrospective Studies. Spinal Cord Compression. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19530588.001).
  • [ISSN] 0125-2208
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand = Chotmaihet thangphaet
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Assoc Thai
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Thailand
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Diphosphonates; 0 / Organotechnetium Compounds; 0 / technetium 99m methylene bisphosphonate
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12. Aparicio A, Chamberlain MC: Neoplastic meningitis. Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep; 2002 May;2(3):225-35
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  • Neoplastic meningitis (NM) is a common problem in neuro-oncology, occurring in approximately 5% of all patients with cancer.
  • Notwithstanding frequent focal signs and symptoms, NM is a disease that affects the entire neuraxis; therefore, staging and treatment need to encompass all cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) compartments.
  • Central nervous system (CNS) staging of NM includes contrast-enhanced cranial computerized tomography or magnetic resonance imaging, contrast-enhanced spine magnetic resonance imaging or computerized tomographic myelography, and radionuclide CSF flow study.
  • Treatment of NM involves involved-field radiotherapy of bulky or symptomatic disease sites and intra-CSF drug therapy.
  • The inclusion of concomitant systemic therapy may benefit patients with NM and may obviate the need for intra-CSF chemotherapy.
  • At present, intra-CSF drug therapy is confined to three chemotherapeutic agents (ie, methotrexate, cytosine arabinoside, and thio-triethylene thiophosphoramide) administered by a variety of schedules either by intralumbar or intraventricular drug delivery.
  • Although treatment of NM is palliative with an expected median patient survival of 2 to 6 months, it often affords stabilization and protection from further neurologic deterioration in patients with NM.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Neoplasms. Meninges / pathology. Meningitis / pathology. Meningitis / therapy. Neoplasm Metastasis / pathology. Neoplasm Metastasis / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 11937001.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-4042
  • [Journal-full-title] Current neurology and neuroscience reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 79
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13. Chamberlain MC: Leptomeningeal metastasis. Curr Opin Neurol; 2009 Dec;22(6):665-74
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  • [Title] Leptomeningeal metastasis.
  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Leptomeningeal metastasis occurs in approximately 5% of all patients with cancer.
  • This review summarizes recent literature regarding methods of diagnosis and treatment of leptomeningeal metastasis.
  • RECENT FINDINGS: Staging of leptomeningeal metastasis should include contrast-enhanced brain and spine MRI, and though controversial, radionuclide cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow study.
  • Treatment of leptomeningeal metastasis often requires involved-field radiotherapy to bulky or symptomatic disease sites as well as intra-CSF and systemic chemotherapy.
  • The use of high-dose systemic therapy may benefit patients with leptomeningeal metastasis and obviate the need for intra-CSF chemotherapy.
  • Intra-CSF drug therapy primarily utilizes one of three chemotherapeutic agents [i.e. methotrexate, cytosine arabinoside (both free and liposomal) and thio-tetraethylenepentamine] administered by a variety of schedules either by intralumbar or intraventricular drug delivery.
  • Novel intra-CSF agents increasingly utilized in the treatment of leptomeningeal metastasis are targeted mAbs such as rituximab and trastuzumab.
  • SUMMARY: Although treatment of leptomeningeal metastasis is palliative with median patient survival of 2-3 months, treatment may afford stabilization and protection from further neurologic deterioration in patients with leptomeningeal metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Meningeal Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 19738466.001).
  • [ISSN] 1473-6551
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr. Opin. Neurol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
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14. Chamberlain MC: Leptomeningeal metastasis. Semin Neurol; 2010 Jul;30(3):236-44
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  • [Title] Leptomeningeal metastasis.
  • Leptomeningeal metastasis occurs in ~5% of all patients with cancer and is the third most common metastatic complication of the central nervous system.
  • Staging of leptomeningeal metastasis includes contrast-enhanced brain and spine magnetic resonance imaging and radionuclide cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow study.
  • Treatment, when clinically indicated, often requires administration of involved-field radiotherapy to bulky or symptomatic disease sites as well as intra-CSF and systemic chemotherapy.
  • The use of high-dose systemic therapy may benefit selected patients with breast- or lymphoma-related leptomeningeal metastasis and obviate the need for intra-CSF chemotherapy.
  • Intra-CSF drug therapy primarily utilizes one of three chemotherapeutic agents (e.g., methotrexate, cytosine arabinoside, and thiotepa) administered by a variety of schedules either by intralumbar or intraventricular drug delivery.
  • Beginning to be utilized are novel intra-CSF agents, such as the targeted monoclonal antibodies rituximab (anti-CD20 for B-cell lymphoma-related leptomeningeal metastasis) and trastuzumab (anti-Her2/neu for breast cancer-related leptomeningeal metastasis).
  • Although treatment of leptomeningeal metastasis is palliative with median patient survival of 2 to 3 months, treatment may afford stabilization and protection from further neurologic deterioration in patients with leptomeningeal metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Meningeal Neoplasms / secondary. Meningeal Neoplasms / therapy

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  • [Copyright] Thieme Medical Publishers.
  • (PMID = 20577930.001).
  • [ISSN] 1098-9021
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin Neurol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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15. Combe B: Thalidomide: new indications? Joint Bone Spine; 2001 Dec;68(6):582-7
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  • Thalidomide, which was developed as a nonbarbiturate sedative agent, was taken off the market in 1961 after it was linked to a spate of major birth defects.
  • Gradually, thalidomide was reintroduced for the treatment of a few skin diseases including leprous erythema nodosum, severe mucosal ulcers (e.g., associated with HIV infection or Behçet's disease), lymphocytic skin infiltrations, cutaneous lupus erythematosus, and chronic graft-versus-host disease.
  • Recent reports of original pharmacological properties including modulation of cytokine production (mainly reduced TNF-alpha production) and inhibition of angiogenesis have led to the suggestion that thalidomide may be useful in some inflammatory and neoplastic conditions.
  • The anti-angiogenic effects of thalidomide may make this compound valuable as single-drug therapy or as an adjunct to chemotherapy in patients with cancer, particularly those with metastases or multiple myeloma.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiogenesis Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Neovascularization, Pathologic / drug therapy. Thalidomide / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adjuvants, Immunologic / therapeutic use. Humans. Multiple Myeloma / drug therapy. Neoplasm Metastasis / drug therapy. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / antagonists & inhibitors. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 11809002.001).
  • [ISSN] 1297-319X
  • [Journal-full-title] Joint, bone, spine : revue du rhumatisme
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Joint Bone Spine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adjuvants, Immunologic; 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; 4Z8R6ORS6L / Thalidomide
  • [Number-of-references] 44
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16. Chamberlain MC: Leptomeningeal metastasis. Curr Opin Oncol; 2010 Nov;22(6):627-35
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Leptomeningeal metastasis.
  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Leptomeningeal metastasis occurs in approximately 3-5% of all patients with cancer.
  • A contemporary literature review of methods of diagnosis and treatment of leptomeningeal metastasis was performed.
  • RECENT FINDINGS: The single most important aspect to diagnosis of leptomeningeal metastasis is considering and pursuing the diagnosis in a patient with cancer and neurological signs and symptoms.
  • Evaluation of leptomeningeal metastasis includes contrast-enhanced brain and spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and a radionuclide cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow study if leptomeningeal metastasis-directed therapy is being considered.
  • Treatment often requires involved-field radiotherapy to bulky or symptomatic disease sites as well as intra-CSF and systemic chemotherapy.
  • The use of high-dose systemic therapy may benefit patients with leptomeningeal metastasis and obviate the need for intra-CSF chemotherapy.
  • Intra-CSF drug therapy primarily utilizes one of three chemotherapeutic agents (i.e. methotrexate, cytosine arabinoside and thio-TEPA) administered by a variety of schedules either by intralumbar or intraventricular drug delivery.
  • Novel and increasingly utilized intra-CSF agents in the treatment of leptomeningeal metastasis are targeted monoclonal antibodies such as rituximab and trastuzumab.
  • SUMMARY: Although treatment of leptomeningeal metastasis is palliative with median patient survival of 2-3 months (15% of patients with leptomeningeal metastasis survive 1 year), treatment may afford stabilization and protection from further neurologic deterioration in patients with leptomeningeal metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Meningeal Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 20689429.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-703X
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Opin Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
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17. Partap S, Murphy PA, Vogel H, Barnes PD, Edwards MS, Fisher PG: Efficacy and tolerability of intrathecal liposomal cytarabine for central nervous system embryonal tumors. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):2064

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  • : 2064 Background: Liposomal cytarabine (DepoCyt) is a sustained-release intrathecal (IT) preparation of cytarabine, formulated by encapsulating the drug in spherical aqueous chambers within a lipid matrix.
  • While proven effective in lymphomatous meningitis, this drug has shown some activity in medulloblastoma (MB) with spinal metastases in limited pediatric phase I study.
  • METHODS: We reviewed all patients at our institution treated with liposomal cytarabine for primary central nervous system (CNS) embryonal tumors-MB, primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET), and atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor (ATRT).
  • RESULTS: A cohort of 17 patients were treated with liposomal cytarabine at diagnosis of CNS embryonal tumor (2 PNET, 3 ATRT) or relapse (12 MB [7 average-risk, 5 high-risk]); nine had leptomeningeal metastases.
  • Drug was dosed at 2 mg/kg up to 50, every 2 weeks to monthly, along with dexamethasone.
  • Concurrent systemic chemotherapy was given in 16 patients.
  • A total of 102 doses were administered (lumbar IT 76, Ommaya intraventricular 36) with a mean of six treatments (range 1-16).
  • All six evaluable patients with malignant cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cytology and treated with at least two doses cleared their spinal fluid (mean 3 doses, range 1-5).
  • No patient developed malignant CSF cytology while receiving liposomal cytarabine.
  • Ten patients developed progressive disease and died, with only one later recurrence in the spinal fluid.
  • All patients with neoplastic meningitis cleared malignant cells from their spinal fluid after treatment with IT liposomal cytarabine and systemic chemotherapy.

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  • (PMID = 27964690.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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18. Jacobs WB, Perrin RG: Evaluation and treatment of spinal metastases: an overview. Neurosurg Focus; 2001 Dec 15;11(6):e10

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  • [Title] Evaluation and treatment of spinal metastases: an overview.
  • Metastases to the spine are a common and somber manifestation of systemic neoplasia.
  • The incidence of spinal metastases continues to increase, likely a result of increasing survival times for patients with cancer.
  • Historically, surgery for spinal metastases has consisted of simple decompressive laminectomy.
  • Results obtained in retrospective case series, however, have shown that this treatment provides little benefit to the patient.
  • With the advent of better patient-related selection practices, in conjunction with new surgical techniques and improved postoperative care, the ability of surgical therapy to play an important and beneficial role in the multidisciplinary care of cancer patients with spinal disease has improved significantly.
  • Controversy remains, however, with respect to the relative merits of surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these treatments.
  • In this topic review, the literature on spinal column and spinal cord metastases is collated to provide a description of the presentation, investigations, indications for surgical therapy, and the role of adjuvant cancer therapies for patients with spinal metastases.
  • In addition, the authors discuss the different surgical strategies available in the armamentarium of the neurosurgeon treating patients with spinal metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Spinal Neoplasms / secondary. Spinal Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Hormones / therapeutic use. Case Management. Decompression, Surgical. Diagnosis, Differential. Diagnostic Imaging. Diagnostic Tests, Routine. Embolization, Therapeutic. Humans. Incidence. Internal Fixators. Laminectomy. Neurosurgical Procedures. Orthopedic Procedures. Preoperative Care. Radiotherapy / adverse effects. Radiotherapy / methods. Spinal Cord Compression / drug therapy. Spinal Cord Compression / etiology. Spinal Cord Compression / radiotherapy. Spinal Cord Compression / surgery. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16463993.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgical focus
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurg Focus
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones
  • [Number-of-references] 105
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19. Abe T, Sakane M, Ikoma T, Kobayashi M, Nakamura S, Ochiai N: Intraosseous delivery of paclitaxel-loaded hydroxyapatitealginate composite beads delaying paralysis caused by metastatic spine cancer in rats. J Neurosurg Spine; 2008 Nov;9(5):502-10
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  • [Title] Intraosseous delivery of paclitaxel-loaded hydroxyapatitealginate composite beads delaying paralysis caused by metastatic spine cancer in rats.
  • OBJECT: Bone is frequently the first site and the only site of breast cancer at recurrence.
  • Local control is important especially for metastatic spine cancer, because epidural spinal cord compression is significantly associated with the quality of life and survival of these patients.
  • The authors have developed a local delivery system of paclitaxel in the form of hydroxyapatite-alginate composite beads.
  • This study was conducted to clarify the therapeutic effect in a rat model of metastatic spine cancer.
  • METHODS: Twenty-one rats with metastatic spine cancer were divided into 3 groups: a local treatment group (6 rats), a systemic treatment group (9 rats), and a control group (6 rats).
  • The authors monitored the disease-free time and survival times.
  • RESULTS: The animals in the control group developed hind-limb paralysis at a mean of 10.8 days and died at a mean of 16.0 days.
  • The animals treated with 2.4 wt% of paclitaxel-loaded hydroxyapatite-alginate composite beads (the local treatment group) showed a 140-150% increase in the disease-free time and survival time compared with that of the control group.
  • Although an approximately 30-fold higher dosage of paclitaxel was administered, the therapeutic effect was not evident in the systemic treatment group.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Intraosseous delivery of paclitaxel-loaded hydroxyapatite-alginate composite beads delayed paralysis caused by metastatic spine cancer in rats.
  • The results indicate that intraosseous chemotherapy may provide an effective local treatment of metastatic spine cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Alginates. Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / administration & dosage. Durapatite. Microspheres. Paclitaxel / administration & dosage. Spinal Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Drug Carriers. Female. Glucuronic Acid. Hexuronic Acids. Paralysis / etiology. Paralysis / prevention & control. Rats. Rats, Inbred F344. Rats, Sprague-Dawley

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  • (PMID = 18976182.001).
  • [ISSN] 1547-5654
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery. Spine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Neurosurg Spine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Alginates; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 0 / Drug Carriers; 0 / Hexuronic Acids; 8A5D83Q4RW / Glucuronic Acid; 8C3Z4148WZ / alginic acid; 91D9GV0Z28 / Durapatite; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
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20. Massimino M, Gandola L, Spreafico F, Biassoni V, Luksch R, Collini P, Solero CN, Simonetti F, Pignoli E, Cefalo G, Poggi G, Modena P, Mariani L, Potepan P, Podda M, Casanova M, Pecori E, Acerno S, Ferrari A, Terenziani M, Meazza C, Polastri D, Ravagnani F, Fossati-Bellani F: No salvage using high-dose chemotherapy plus/minus reirradiation for relapsing previously irradiated medulloblastoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2009 Apr 1;73(5):1358-63
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] No salvage using high-dose chemotherapy plus/minus reirradiation for relapsing previously irradiated medulloblastoma.
  • PURPOSE: Myeloablative regimens were frequently used for medulloblastoma relapsing after craniospinal irradiation (CSI): in 1997-2002, we used repeated surgery, standard-dose and myeloablative chemotherapy, and reirradiation.
  • Hematopoietic precursor mobilization followed high-dose etoposide or high-dose cyclophosphamide or cisplatin/etoposide therapy.
  • After the overall chemotherapy program, reirradiation was prescribed when possible.
  • RESULTS: Seventeen patients were treated: previous treatment included CSI of 19.5-36 Gy with posterior fossa/tumor boost and chemotherapy in 16 patients.
  • Relapse sites included leptomeninges in 9 patients, spine in 4 patients, posterior fossa in 3 patients, and brain in 1 patient.
  • Twelve of 14 patients with assessable tumor had an objective response after reinduction; 2 experienced progression and were not given the myeloablative courses.
  • Additional relapses appeared in 13 patients continuing the treatment.
  • The only survivor at 93 months had a single spinal metastasis that was excised and irradiated.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Despite responses being obtained and ample use of surgery and reirradiation, second-line therapy with myeloablative schedules was not curative, barring a few exceptions.
  • A salvage therapy for medulloblastoma after CSI still needs to be sought.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cerebellar Neoplasms. Medulloblastoma. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Salvage Therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Carboplatin / adverse effects. Child. Child, Preschool. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Cisplatin / adverse effects. Combined Modality Therapy / methods. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Cyclophosphamide / adverse effects. Disease-Free Survival. Drug Administration Schedule. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Etoposide / adverse effects. Female. Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor / administration & dosage. Humans. Male. Methotrexate / administration & dosage. Methotrexate / adverse effects. Radiotherapy Dosage. Remission Induction / methods. Thiotepa / administration & dosage. Thiotepa / adverse effects. Vincristine / administration & dosage. Vincristine / adverse effects. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19019566.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-355X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 143011-72-7 / Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; 905Z5W3GKH / Thiotepa; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate
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21. Bilsky MH: New therapeutics in spine metastases. Expert Rev Neurother; 2005 Nov;5(6):831-40
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] New therapeutics in spine metastases.
  • The number of patients who will develop metastatic spinal tumors is estimated to be between 5 and 10% of all cancer patients.
  • As the therapy for systemic cancer improves, the number of patients developing symptomatic spinal tumors that require local therapy will increase.
  • Over the last 10 years there has been a dramatic evolution in our ability to treat spinal tumors.
  • These advances have not only been created by improvements in surgical techniques and instrumentation, but also developments in radiographic imaging, radiation therapy and chemotherapy.
  • It is important for spine surgeons, radiologists, and radiation and medical oncologists to continue developing techniques for spinal salvage that will improve pain relief, achieve mechanical stability, improve or maintain neurologic function and sustain local tumor control.
  • The evolution of these technologies will help to provide palliation and improve quality of life for patients with metastatic disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms. Spinal Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Expert Testimony. Humans. Neoplasm Metastasis. Radiosurgery / methods

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  • (PMID = 16274340.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-8360
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert review of neurotherapeutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Rev Neurother
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 69
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22. Shimizu J, Masutani S, Ishida H, Kishi K, Nakayama T, Imamura H, Tatsuta M, Furukawa H, Yura M, Saeki N, Kitamura S, Tomotsu K, Takamura M, Inoue Y: [A case of spinal infarction related to hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2003 Oct;30(11):1758-61
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  • [Title] [A case of spinal infarction related to hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy].
  • A 65-year-old male underwent iliocecal excision and hepatic posterior segmentectomy for cecum cancer and synchronous liver hepatic metastasis in September and October 2001, respectively.
  • A reservoir was implanted by the GDA-coil method from the right femoral artery in November, and WHF (5-FU 1,000 mg/m2) was administered 8 times.
  • The anti-coagulation therapy was changed to an oral drug on the 7th day after hospitalization.
  • Hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy is considered safe for blood and non-blood toxicity compared with systemic chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / adverse effects. Camptothecin / analogs & derivatives. Fluorouracil / adverse effects. Infarction / chemically induced. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Spine / blood supply

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  • (PMID = 14619512.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 7673326042 / irinotecan; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil; XT3Z54Z28A / Camptothecin
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23. Harel R, Angelov L: Spine metastases: current treatments and future directions. Eur J Cancer; 2010 Oct;46(15):2696-707

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Spine metastases: current treatments and future directions.
  • Spinal metastases are the most frequently encountered spinal tumour and can affect up to 50% of cancer patients.
  • Both the incidence and prevalence of metastases are thought to be rising due to better detection and treatment options of the systemic malignancy resulting in increased patient survival.
  • Further, the development and access to newer imaging modalities have resulted in easier screening and diagnosis of spine metastases.
  • Current evidence suggests that pain, neurological symptoms and quality of life are all improved if patients with spine metastases are treated early and aggressively.
  • However, selection of the appropriate therapy depends on several factors including primary histology, extent of the systemic disease, existing co-morbidities, prior treatment modalities, patient age and performance status, predicted life expectancy and available resources.
  • This article reviews the currently available therapeutic options for spinal metastases including conventional external beam radiation therapy, open surgical decompression and stabilisation, vertebral augmentation and other minimally invasive surgery (MIS) options, stereotactic spine radiosurgery, bisphosphonates, systemic radioisotopes and chemotherapy.
  • An algorithm for the management of spine metastases is also proposed.
  • [MeSH-major] Spinal Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Algorithms. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Embolization, Therapeutic. Forecasting. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Middle Aged. Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures. Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Stereotaxic Techniques. Steroids / therapeutic use

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20627705.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-0852
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of cancer (Oxford, England : 1990)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Radioisotopes; 0 / Steroids
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24. Schoeggl A, Reddy M, Matula C: Neurological outcome following laminectomy in spinal metastases. Spinal Cord; 2002 Jul;40(7):363-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Neurological outcome following laminectomy in spinal metastases.
  • OBJECTIVES: Patients suffering from malignant tumour disease and metastases to the spine develop a variety of clinical complaints including radicular symptoms and/or spinal cord compression syndromes.
  • Palliative decompressive laminectomy with total or partial tumour resection is an acknowledged method of treatment, despite controversy.
  • METHOD: Patients suffering from metastases with predominant infiltration of the dorsal epidural parts, or patients who could not be operated on via an anterior approach, were included.
  • Eighty-four patients who met these criteria underwent decompressive laminectomy with total or partial tumour removal.
  • The median survival time was 6.5 months.
  • Post-operatively, 38%, and after 2 months 46% of the patients, developed continence disorders.
  • A significant reduction in analgesic medication was also observed in the post-operative period.
  • CONCLUSION: In our series, palliative laminectomy with total or subtotal tumour reduction in patients with malignant spinal metastatic disease resulted in amelioration of motor function, pain and continence and therefore improved the patients' quality of life.
  • The improvement in quality of life shows that this method is a valuable option in neurosurgical therapy, except for cases with pre-operative paraplegia.
  • [MeSH-major] Laminectomy. Outcome Assessment (Health Care). Palliative Care. Spinal Cord Compression / surgery. Spinal Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Analgesics / therapeutic use. Austria. Drug Utilization / statistics & numerical data. Fecal Incontinence / etiology. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Motor Activity. Pain / drug therapy. Pain / etiology. Paraparesis / etiology. Postoperative Period. Quality of Life. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome. Urinary Incontinence / etiology

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  • (PMID = 12080464.001).
  • [ISSN] 1362-4393
  • [Journal-full-title] Spinal cord
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Spinal Cord
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Analgesics
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25. Ogihara S, Seichi A, Hozumi T, Oka H, Ieki R, Nakamura K, Kondoh T: Prognostic factors for patients with spinal metastases from lung cancer. Spine (Phila Pa 1976); 2006 Jun 15;31(14):1585-90
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Prognostic factors for patients with spinal metastases from lung cancer.
  • STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a retrospective study to identify prognostic factors of patients with spinal metastases from lung cancer.
  • OBJECTIVE: To provide clinical data with strong association to the prognosis and to propose criteria determining indication of operation for spinal metastases.
  • SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: To make a proper selection of patients for whom surgery is indicated, forecasting short-time survival after spinal metastases is very important.
  • In the past, there has been no report of prognostic factors of patients with such metastases from this cancer.
  • METHODS: This study included 114 patients with spinal metastases of lung cancer.
  • Tumors were histologically categorized as non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in 94 patients and small cell lung cancer (SCLC) in 20 patients.
  • We investigated prognostic factors after spinal metastases using Cox comparative hazard model and a preoperative prognostic score proposed by Tokuhashi.
  • We also investigated the patients who underwent operation for spinal metastases from lung cancer in our hospital.
  • RESULTS: Multivariate analysis showed that the significant prognostic factors for survival after spinal metastases from NSCLC were performance status (PS), Ca, Alb.
  • Among SCLC patients, Ca, Alb, and a history of chemotherapy were significant (P < 0.05) in univariate analysis.
  • CONCLUSION: PS, Ca, and Alb in NSCLC and Ca, Alb, and a history of chemotherapy in SCLC are useful for determining an indication of operation for spinal metastases from lung cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / secondary. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / surgery. Carcinoma, Small Cell / secondary. Carcinoma, Small Cell / surgery. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Spinal Neoplasms / secondary. Spinal Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Activities of Daily Living. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Calcium / blood. Female. Humans. Incidence. Male. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Paralysis / epidemiology. Paralysis / etiology. Prognosis. Proportional Hazards Models. Retrospective Studies. Serum Albumin / metabolism. Spinal Cord Diseases / epidemiology. Spinal Cord Diseases / etiology. Survival Analysis

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  • [CommentIn] Nat Clin Pract Neurol. 2007 Apr;3(4):188-9 [17297489.001]
  • (PMID = 16778693.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-1159
  • [Journal-full-title] Spine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Spine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Serum Albumin; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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26. Aydinli U, Ozturk C, Bayram S, Sarihan S, Evrensel T, Yilmaz HS: Evaluation of lung cancer metastases to the spine. Acta Orthop Belg; 2006 Oct;72(5):592-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Evaluation of lung cancer metastases to the spine.
  • Most metastatic spinal lesions (70%) are found at the thoracic level, 20% in the lumbar region, and 10% in the cervical region.
  • A variety of benign and malignant tumours may arise in the lung, but the vast majority is bronchogenic carcinomas (90 to 95%).
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the lung cancer metastases to the vertebral column in terms of type, localisation and metastasis pattern.
  • Between the years 1995 and 2003, 168 lung cancer patients with metastatic spinal tumour who had received radiotherapy and chemotherapy were retrospectively evaluated.
  • The total number of vertebrae in which metastases were detected was 328.
  • The most common site for metastasis was the thoracic spine.
  • In 49 (29%) patients, there was only one vertebral involvement.
  • Additional extravertebral bony metastases were present in 37 (22%) patients; the femur (20 patients) was the most common site.
  • Only 25 of 168 patients were operated due to spinal cord compression leading to neurological deficit.
  • The rest of the patients were treated by appropriate chemotherapy and radiotherapy protocols.
  • The mean survival after diagnosis of vertebral metastasis was 7.1 months.
  • Most of the metastases involve multiple spinal levels.
  • After the diagnosis of vertebral metastasis, the mean survival is seven months.
  • Pain relief and maintaining quality of life must be balanced with the patient's life expectancy, comorbidities and immunological, nutritional and functional status in treatment decision.
  • [MeSH-major] Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Spinal Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 17152424.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-6462
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta orthopaedica Belgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Orthop Belg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Belgium
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27. Cai HY, Liu XD, Cao HP, Wang XQ, Zhang ZY, Dong XC: [Treatment effect of percutaneous vertebroplasty combined with interventional chemotherapy on vertebral metastases]. Ai Zheng; 2005 Apr;24(4):488-93
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  • [Title] [Treatment effect of percutaneous vertebroplasty combined with interventional chemotherapy on vertebral metastases].
  • BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE: Vertebral metastasis is a common manifestation of patients with advanced cancer without effective treatment.
  • This study was to explore treatment value and efficacy of percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) combined with interventional chemotherapy on vertebral metastases.
  • METHODS: Seventy-five patients with vertebral metastases (42 men, 33 women; aged 31-76 years) were divided into 2 groups: 39 were treated by PVP combined with chemotherapy (VPCC group), and 36 were treated by PVP alone (VP group).
  • CONCLUSIONS: PVP may release the pain, and consolidate the vertebrae of patients with vertebral metastases.
  • Its short-term effect may be enhanced by adding drugs into bone cement.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Cements / therapeutic use. Lumbar Vertebrae. Orthopedic Procedures / methods. Spinal Neoplasms. Thoracic Vertebrae
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Combined Modality Therapy. Epirubicin / therapeutic use. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Male. Methotrexate / therapeutic use. Middle Aged. Pain Measurement. Radiography, Interventional

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  • (PMID = 15820076.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Ai zheng = Aizheng = Chinese journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ai Zheng
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Bone Cements; 3Z8479ZZ5X / Epirubicin; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate
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28. Tokuhashi Y, Ajiro Y, Umezawa N: Outcome of treatment for spinal metastases using scoring system for preoperative evaluation of prognosis. Spine (Phila Pa 1976); 2009 Jan 1;34(1):69-73
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Outcome of treatment for spinal metastases using scoring system for preoperative evaluation of prognosis.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate our treatment outcome for spinal metastases using our treatment strategy based on prognostic scoring system.
  • SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: In the treatment of spinal metastases, life expectancy is most important, and our scoring system for metastatic spine tumor prognosis has been useful for such prognostic evaluation.
  • METHODS: Conservative treatment or palliative surgery was indicated in patients with a predicted prognosis of less than 6 months or in those with multiple vertebral metastases, whereas excisional surgery was performed in patients with a predicated prognosis of 1 year or more, or with a predicted prognosis of 6 months or more, and with metastasis in a single vertebra.
  • Only the palliative surgery group (n = 55) showed a significant improvement of the Barthel index between before and after treatment (P < 0.01).
  • The mean maximum Barthel index after treatment in any modality ran parallel to the total scores of our scoring system.
  • CONCLUSION: The prognostic criteria using our scoring system were useful for the pretreatment evaluation of prognosis irrespective of the treatment modality.
  • In any treatment, the survival period of the patients affected the functional prognosis; therefore, it may be appropriate and realistic to select treatment methods by giving first priority to the life expectancy of patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Preoperative Care / methods. Severity of Illness Index. Spinal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Spinal Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Activities of Daily Living. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Combined Modality Therapy. Drug Therapy. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Pain Management. Palliative Care. Paralysis / therapy. Prognosis. Prospective Studies. Radiotherapy. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19127163.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-1159
  • [Journal-full-title] Spine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Spine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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29. Chi JH, Gokaslan ZL: Vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty for spinal metastases. Curr Opin Support Palliat Care; 2008 Mar;2(1):9-13
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  • [Title] Vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty for spinal metastases.
  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Pathologic fractures of the spine are extremely painful and cause significant disability and morbidity in patients suffering from metastatic cancer.
  • Often, these patients are not candidates for open surgical procedures and cannot address mechanical instability and radiation therapy can take weeks to become effective.
  • Minimally invasive surgical techniques have been developed over the past several years, offering a simple and effective way of managing painful pathologic fractures.
  • RECENT FINDINGS: Vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty offer patients a minimally invasive, percutaneous procedure that dramatically reduces pain related to pathologic spinal fractures almost immediately with very low complication rates.
  • Also, these procedures can be performed before, after or concurrently with most radiation and chemotherapy protocols.
  • [MeSH-major] Fractures, Spontaneous / surgery. Spinal Neoplasms / surgery. Vertebroplasty

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  • (PMID = 18685387.001).
  • [ISSN] 1751-4266
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in supportive and palliative care
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Opin Support Palliat Care
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 35
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30. Ulmar B, Catalkaya S, Naumann U, Gerstner S, Cakir B, Schmidt R, Reichel H, Huch K: [Surgical treatment and evaluation of prognostic factors in spinal metastases of renal cell carcinoma]. Z Orthop Ihre Grenzgeb; 2006 Jan-Feb;144(1):58-67
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  • [Title] [Surgical treatment and evaluation of prognostic factors in spinal metastases of renal cell carcinoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Chirurgische Therapie und Evaluation von Prognosefaktoren bei Wirbelsäulenmetastasen durch Nieren-Zell-Karzinome.
  • AIM: The aim of this study was the evaluation of surgical results and prognostic factors in spinal metastases of renal cancer.
  • METHODS: 37 surgical patients with spinal metastases of renal cell carcinoma were retrospectively analysed.
  • In 2 patients the cervical, in 16 patients the thoracic, in 4 patients the thoraco-lumbar and in 16 patients the lumbar spine was involved.
  • RESULTS: In 11 cases (29.7 %) a combined posterior-anterior spondylodesis with vertebral body replacement, in 26 cases (70.3 %) a single posterior instrumentation was done.
  • For the postoperative survival the Karnofsky-Index and the Frankel-Score were univariate highly significant, the factors nutritional condition and latency between the primary tumor and the development of spinal metastases showed a lower significancy.
  • No prognostical influence for the postoperative survival could be detected for the factors gender, age, localisation of the metastases, type of operation and the factor solitary/multiple metastases.
  • The postoperative survival was significantly (p: 0.0030) influenced by postoperative adjuvant therapy (radio- and/or chemotherapy).
  • The analysis of each adjuvant therapy form (i. e. chemo-, radio- and combined therapy) attempts this prognostic effect (p: 0.0229).
  • CONCLUSION: In most patients with spinal metastases of renal cell carcinoma, the singular posterior intrumentation combined with a decompression is a sufficient therapy.
  • To avoid posterior implant failure, in patients with a prognosticated survival of more than one year, a combined posterior-anterior spondylodesis with vertebral body replacement should be done.
  • The prognostic influence of an adjuvant postoperative treatment in the present study must be interpreted in the context of this small, highly selected patient collective.
  • Further standardized studies should be performed to evaluate the prognostic influence of an adjuvant therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Renal Cell / secondary. Kidney Neoplasms / surgery. Spinal Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 16498562.001).
  • [ISSN] 0044-3220
  • [Journal-full-title] Zeitschrift für Orthopädie und ihre Grenzgebiete
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Z Orthop Ihre Grenzgeb
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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31. Muto E, Shioyama Y, Nakamura K, Ohga' S, Nomoto S, Toba T, Yoshitake T, Soeda H, Terashima H, Honda H: Adult rhabdomyosarcoma in the nasal and paranasal sinuses showing complete local response to a combination of chemotherapy and radiotherapy using 3D-CRT and IMRT. Fukuoka Igaku Zasshi; 2005 Oct;96(10):363-9
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  • [Title] Adult rhabdomyosarcoma in the nasal and paranasal sinuses showing complete local response to a combination of chemotherapy and radiotherapy using 3D-CRT and IMRT.
  • Computed tomography (CT) revealed a large tumor in the nasal and left paranasal sinuses invading the left orbital cavity and anterior skull base, and lymph node swellings in the submental and left accessory nerve areas.
  • A biopsy specimen from the nasal tumor was diagnosed histologically as a rhabdomyosarcoma, alveolar type.
  • Because the intracranial direct invasion and distant metastases to the thoracic spine were suspected by pretreatment examination, our case was determined to be inoperable by a head and neck surgeon.
  • Radiotherapy with a total dose of 60 Gy was carried out to control the primary disease.
  • Combined with radiotherapy, chemotherapy was also performed for the treatment of lymph-node metastases and distant diseases.
  • After the treatment was completed, the primary tumor and lymph-node metastases disappeared completely; there was no sign of re-growth during the follow-up period.
  • Chemoradiotherapy may be an effective treatment also for inoperable adult rhabdomyosarcoma in the head and neck region.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms / therapy. Radiotherapy, Conformal / methods. Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated / methods. Rhabdomyosarcoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Combined Modality Therapy. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Dactinomycin / administration & dosage. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Treatment Outcome. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 16408493.001).
  • [ISSN] 0016-254X
  • [Journal-full-title] Fukuoka igaku zasshi = Hukuoka acta medica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Fukuoka Igaku Zasshi
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 1CC1JFE158 / Dactinomycin; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; VAC protocol
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32. Inada T, Kushida A, Sakamoto S, Taguchi H, Shingu K: Intrathecal betamethasone pain relief in cancer patients with vertebral metastasis: a pilot study. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand; 2007 Apr;51(4):490-4
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  • [Title] Intrathecal betamethasone pain relief in cancer patients with vertebral metastasis: a pilot study.
  • BACKGROUND: We have reported previously the usefulness of intrathecal betamethasone for pain relief in cancer patients who suffer from intractable pain caused by vertebral metastasis.
  • METHODS: Thirteen cancer patients with intractable pain caused by vertebral metastasis received 2-3 mg betamethasone in the lumbar subarachnoid space.
  • CSF concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), IL-6, IL-8 and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) were measured with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and a chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay.
  • In these cases, the pain score decreased from 6.7 +/- 0.5 (mean +/- standard error of the mean) to 3.3 +/- 0.3 (P < 0.05), and the CSF concentrations of IL-8 and PGE(2) decreased significantly compared with pre-treatment levels (IL-8, 183.3 +/- 21.2 to 116.5 +/- 10.6 pg/ml; PGE(2), 43.8 +/- 10.3 to 14.7 +/- 3.0 pg/ml).
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-Inflammatory Agents / therapeutic use. Betamethasone / therapeutic use. Pain, Intractable / drug therapy. Spinal Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biomarkers / cerebrospinal fluid. Dinoprostone / cerebrospinal fluid. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay / methods. Female. Humans. Injections, Spinal. Interleukins / cerebrospinal fluid. Luminescent Measurements / methods. Male. Middle Aged. Pain Measurement / methods. Pilot Projects. Treatment Outcome. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / cerebrospinal fluid

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  • (PMID = 17378789.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5172
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Anaesthesiol Scand
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents; 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Interleukins; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; 9842X06Q6M / Betamethasone; K7Q1JQR04M / Dinoprostone
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33. Yeh KH, Lu YS, Hsiao CH, Cheng AL: High-dose tamoxifen modulates drug resistance to doxorubicin, dacarbazine and ifosfamide in metastatic uterine leiomyosarcoma. Anticancer Res; 2003 Nov-Dec;23(6D):5133-7
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  • [Title] High-dose tamoxifen modulates drug resistance to doxorubicin, dacarbazine and ifosfamide in metastatic uterine leiomyosarcoma.
  • A 46-year-old female patient suffered from uterine malignant leiomyosarcoma.
  • Ten months after abdominal subtotal hysterectomy, multiple lung, bone and spine metastases developed.
  • She received 3 cycles of infusional ADI chemotherapy (adriamycin 60 mg/m2, 96-hour i.v. infusion, dacarbazine 500 mg/m2, 96-hour i.v. infusion and ifosfamide 5,000 mg/m2, 72-hour i.v. infusion, repeated every 3 weeks), but the metastatic tumors progressed.
  • An empirical ADI-TAM chemotherapy which incorporated high-dose tamoxifen (TAM) (150 mg/m2/day, in 4 divided doses) into the original ADI regimen was applied from the fourth cycle.
  • High-dose tamoxifen consisted of 240 mg/day for 4 days during chemotherapy and 40 mg/day between cycles.
  • Good partial response with nearly total tumor reduction was achieved after 3 cycles of ADI-TAM therapy.
  • The excellent tumor response by simple addition of high-dose tamoxifen into a previously inactive ADI regimen advocates further investigation for the development of chemotherapy in metastatic uterine leiomyosarcoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Leiomyosarcoma / drug therapy. Uterine Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Dacarbazine / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Drug Synergism. Female. Humans. Ifosfamide / administration & dosage. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Tamoxifen / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 14986591.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 094ZI81Y45 / Tamoxifen; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; UM20QQM95Y / Ifosfamide
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34. Rochet N, Sterzing F, Jensen AD, Dinkel J, Herfarth KK, Schubert K, Eichbaum MH, Schneeweiss A, Sohn C, Debus J, Harms W: Intensity-modulated whole abdominal radiotherapy after surgery and carboplatin/taxane chemotherapy for advanced ovarian cancer: phase I study. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2010 Apr;76(5):1382-9
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  • [Title] Intensity-modulated whole abdominal radiotherapy after surgery and carboplatin/taxane chemotherapy for advanced ovarian cancer: phase I study.
  • PURPOSE: To assess the feasibility and toxicity of consolidative intensity-modulated whole abdominal radiotherapy (WAR) after surgery and chemotherapy in high-risk patients with advanced ovarian cancer.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: Ten patients with optimally debulked ovarian cancer International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics Stage IIIc were treated in a Phase I study with intensity-modulated WAR up to a total dose of 30 Gy in 1.5-Gy fractions as consolidation therapy after adjuvant carboplatin/taxane chemotherapy.
  • Treatment was delivered using intensity-modulated radiotherapy in a step-and-shoot technique (n = 3) or a helical tomotherapy technique (n = 7).
  • Organs at risk were kidneys, liver, heart, vertebral bodies, and pelvic bones.
  • The treatment was well tolerated, and no severe Grade 4 acute side effects occurred.
  • Median follow-up was 23 months, and 4 patients had tumor recurrence (intraperitoneal progression, n = 3; hepatic metastasis, n = 1).
  • CONCLUSIONS: The results of this Phase I study showed for the first time, to our knowledge, the clinical feasibility of intensity-modulated whole abdominal radiotherapy, which could offer a new therapeutic option for consolidation treatment of advanced ovarian carcinoma after adjuvant chemotherapy in selected subgroups of patients.
  • We initiated a Phase II study to further evaluate the toxicity of this intensive multimodal treatment.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy / adverse effects. Combined Modality Therapy / methods. Diarrhea / etiology. Dose Fractionation. Feasibility Studies. Female. Heart / radiation effects. Humans. Kidney / radiation effects. Leukopenia / etiology. Liver / radiation effects. Middle Aged. Pelvic Bones / radiation effects. Prospective Studies. Radiation Injuries / prevention & control. Spine / radiation effects. Thrombocytopenia / etiology

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  • (PMID = 19628341.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-355X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase I; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin
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35. Eleraky M, Papanastassiou I, Vrionis FD: Management of metastatic spine disease. Curr Opin Support Palliat Care; 2010 Sep;4(3):182-8
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  • [Title] Management of metastatic spine disease.
  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In metastatic spine disease, technologic advancements, neurologic recovery, pain relief, cost-effectiveness, and health-related quality of life have all strengthened surgery's and radiation's role in its management.We evaluated different surgical approaches to the spine and the multimodality treatment in the management of these cases.
  • RECENT FINDINGS: Recently, the survival rate of malignant spinal metastases has rapidly improved because of early detection and multimodality treatment.
  • The goals of surgical intervention are to prolong survival and improve the quality of life of patients.The recent evolution of imaging, radiosurgery, advanced surgical decompressive techniques and instrumentation, as well as percutaneous vertebral body cement augmentation, needs to be considered in the decision-making to optimize patient outcomes.
  • SUMMARY: Management of patients with spine tumors requires a multidisciplinary team that includes a medical and radiation oncologist and a spine surgeon.
  • Newer surgical techniques that address both tumor resection and spinal stabilization offer the best outcome in selected patients.
  • The prognostic parameters suggested for metastatic spine tumors include the general condition of the patient, neurological status number of spinal and extraspinal metastases, primary site of the cancer, visceral metastasis, and severity of spinal cord compression.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasm Metastasis / drug therapy. Pain / drug therapy. Quality of Life / psychology. Spinal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Spine / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Hormones / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Bone Density Conservation Agents / therapeutic use. Cost-Benefit Analysis. Decompression, Surgical / instrumentation. Decompression, Surgical / methods. Diphosphonates / therapeutic use. Humans. Radiosurgery / instrumentation. Radiosurgery / methods. Spinal Cord Compression / etiology. United States

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  • (PMID = 20671554.001).
  • [ISSN] 1751-4266
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in supportive and palliative care
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Opin Support Palliat Care
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Bone Density Conservation Agents; 0 / Diphosphonates
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36. Dillman RO, Nanci AA, Williams ST, Kim RB, Hafer RL, Coleman CL, Wang PC, Duma CM, Chen PV, Selvan SR, Cornforth AN, DePriest C: Durable complete response of refractory, progressing metastatic melanoma after treatment with a patient-specific vaccine. Cancer Biother Radiopharm; 2010 Oct;25(5):553-7
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  • [Title] Durable complete response of refractory, progressing metastatic melanoma after treatment with a patient-specific vaccine.
  • A patient with metastatic melanoma who experienced a durable complete response after treatment with a patient-specific vaccine has been described in this article.
  • This 59-year-old woman presented with cervical spine metastases and, within the year, had experienced local disease progression and, despite various therapies, metastases to the axilla, rectum, gall bladder, and multiple soft-tissue sites.
  • She had previously received radiation therapy, combination chemotherapy, interleukin-2 plus interferon biotherapy, and gamma knife radiosurgery, and undergone multiple surgical resections.
  • At the time vaccine therapy was initiated, she had multiple, new, measurable, soft-tissue metastases that were increasing in size.
  • She was treated with a vaccine consisting of autologous dendritic cells incubated with irradiated tumor cells from an autologous tumor cell line and suspended in granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), with subcutaneous injections once a week for 3 weeks and monthly for 5 months.
  • There was evidence of disease regression by the completion of therapy.
  • She remains in complete remission >2.5 years after starting the vaccine, and >2 years after completing the vaccine, and survives >4 years after her initial presentation with bone, bowel, and lymph node metastases.
  • This is the first time she has been in a complete remission since her initial diagnosis.
  • Patient-specific vaccines can sometimes induce durable complete regression of progressing soft-tissue melanoma metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Cancer Vaccines / therapeutic use. Melanoma / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Disease Progression. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Remission Induction. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20849310.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-8852
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer biotherapy & radiopharmaceuticals
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Biother. Radiopharm.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cancer Vaccines
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37. Oka H, Kondoh T, Seichi A, Hozumi T, Nakamura K: Incidence and prognostic factors of Japanese breast cancer patients with bone metastasis. J Orthop Sci; 2006 Jan;11(1):13-9
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  • [Title] Incidence and prognostic factors of Japanese breast cancer patients with bone metastasis.
  • BACKGROUND: Few previous studies have analyzed the incidence of bone metastases in a defined population of Japanese breast cancer patients and their prognosis after chemotherapy.
  • We investigated 695 patients who underwent surgery for breast cancer.
  • The strategy of adjuvant therapy was as follows.
  • Patients with both estrogen receptors (ERs) and progesterone receptors (PgRs) had endocrine therapy as initial adjuvant therapy (n = 239).
  • Patients with neither ERs nor PgRs had chemotherapy.
  • When metastasis to other organs, including bone, was identified, patients received chemotherapy.
  • The survival rates after surgery and after the onset of bone metastasis, as well as the incidence of bone metastasis, were calculated.
  • RESULTS: Bone metastases developed in 148 of 695 patients.
  • All 148 received chemotherapy, and 121 of them developed spinal metastases.
  • The 5-year survival rate after bone metastases was 26.1%.
  • Prognostic factors for bone metastases were visceral metastases and PgR status.
  • Cord compression was observed in 17 of the 148 patients, with the thoracic spine being the most common.
  • The 1-year survival rate for patients with bone metastases who received chemotherapy was 66.3%, whereas that of patients with paralysis after spinal metastases was 17.6%.
  • Within 6 months of the development of spinal cord compression, 70.6% of the patients died.
  • CONCLUSIONS: We reported the incidence and prognostic factors for a defined population of Japanese breast cancer patients with bone and spinal metastases.
  • Our results suggest that the expected survival time for patients with paralysis who received adequate endocrine therapy or chemotherapy is generally poor.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / epidemiology. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Spinal Neoplasms / epidemiology. Spinal Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Incidence. Japan / epidemiology. Male. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 16437343.001).
  • [ISSN] 0949-2658
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of orthopaedic science : official journal of the Japanese Orthopaedic Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Orthop Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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38. Halm H, Richter A, Lerner T, Liljenqvist U: [En-bloc spondylectomy and reconstruction for primary tumors and solitary metastasis of the spine]. Orthopade; 2008 Apr;37(4):356-66
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  • [Title] [En-bloc spondylectomy and reconstruction for primary tumors and solitary metastasis of the spine].
  • [Transliterated title] En-bloc-Spondylektomie und Defektrekonstruktion bei Primärtumoren und Solitärmetastasen der Wirbelsäule.
  • In primary tumors of the spine and, with limitations, solitary metastasis, the surgical approach should aim for curative treatment of the disease.
  • Because the prognosis of malignant bone tumors is extremely limited, if an intralesional approach is performed, an extralesional en bloc resection is the treatment of choice.
  • For the spine, the WBB staging system has been approved, which transfers the principles of the Enneking classification for treating primary malignant tumors of the limb to the spine.
  • After en bloc spondylectomy, rigid and primary stable instrumented dorsoventral reconstruction must be performed - posteriorly with a dual-rod system using pedicle screws, and anteriorly in the ideal case by means of a vertebral body replacement cage.
  • The possibility of extralesional (wide or marginal) resection of spinal tumors depends on tumor size and location.
  • Extralesional resection and, if indicated, other neoadjuvant, adjuvant, or local therapeutic modalities have a strong positive influence on long-term survival rates.
  • A good prognosis for primary tumors is associated with a good response to chemotherapy and extralesional resection.
  • Solitary metastases have a much worse quod vitam prognosis.
  • Therefore, local control of the disease in en bloc resections of solitary metastasis is a second relevant goal, although curative treatment is the primary aim.
  • [MeSH-major] Laminectomy / methods. Reconstructive Surgical Procedures / methods. Spinal Neoplasms / secondary. Spinal Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 18369588.001).
  • [ISSN] 0085-4530
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Orthopade
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Orthopade
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 47
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39. Hirabayashi H, Ebara S, Kinoshita T, Yuzawa Y, Nakamura I, Takahashi J, Kamimura M, Ohtsuka K, Takaoka K: Clinical outcome and survival after palliative surgery for spinal metastases: palliative surgery in spinal metastases. Cancer; 2003 Jan 15;97(2):476-84
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  • [Title] Clinical outcome and survival after palliative surgery for spinal metastases: palliative surgery in spinal metastases.
  • BACKGROUND: The authors sought to identify treatment-related factors that influenced survival after surgical treatment for metastatic spinal tumors and to evaluate the relationship between survival and postoperative ambulation time as a factor related to quality of life.
  • METHODS: The medical records of 81 patients with metastatic spinal tumors who underwent palliative surgery at the study institution were assessed.
  • The Spearman correlation test was used to analyze the relationship between postoperative ambulation and survival time.
  • For patients, postoperative ambulatory median survival was 16.5 months and median ambulation time was 13.8 months.
  • By univariate analysis, anatomic site of the primary tumor, postoperative ambulation, and combined adjuvant therapy (chemotherapy plus radiotherapy) were associated with prolonged survival (P < 0.05).
  • Significant correlations were found between ambulation time and survival time of patients who were able to walk after surgery (P < 0.0001), even in patients with liver (P < 0.05) or lung carcinoma (P < 0.05).
  • CONCLUSIONS: The anatomic site of primary carcinoma and postoperative ambulation were associated with longer survival after palliative surgery for metastatic spinal tumor.
  • When ambulation is attained after surgery, it can be preserved until late in remaining life even when the primary tumor is unfavorable.
  • Palliative surgery for spinal metastasis can improve the quality and quantity of life.
  • [MeSH-major] Palliative Care. Spinal Neoplasms / secondary. Spinal Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Early Ambulation. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Proportional Hazards Models. Quality of Life. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2003 American Cancer Society
  • (PMID = 12518372.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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40. Lázaro B, Klemz M, Flores MS, Landeiro JA: Malignant paraganglioma with vertebral metastasis: case report. Arq Neuropsiquiatr; 2003 Jun;61(2B):463-7
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  • [Title] Malignant paraganglioma with vertebral metastasis: case report.
  • A paraganglioma is a rare tumor, composed of chromaffin cells, groups of cells associated to the autonomous system.
  • When the tumor occurs in the adrenal gland, it is called pheochromocitoma.
  • The malignant paraganglioma is a very rare presentation; it is diagnosed by local recurrence after total resection of the primary mass, or findings of distant metastases.
  • In 1995 she underwent a carotid body tumor resection.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), plain X-rays and computerized tomography scan revealed multiple lesions in C5, T5 and T12.
  • She underwent a surgical procedure to correct the cervical lesion.
  • The histological and immunohistochemical assays revealed a malignant paraganglioma.
  • She received adjuvant radiotherapy, showing clinical improvement after treatment, presenting no symptoms after one year.
  • The therapeutic approach is based on the total resection of the tumor.
  • The treatment of distant metastases can be made with adjuvant measures such as conventional radiotherapy, I 131-MIBG, or chemotherapy, especially in malignant pheochromocitomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Carotid Body Tumor / pathology. Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Spinal Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 12894286.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-282X
  • [Journal-full-title] Arquivos de neuro-psiquiatria
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arq Neuropsiquiatr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
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41. Frye CB, Vance MA: Hypertensive crisis and myocardial infarction following massive clonidine overdose. Ann Pharmacother; 2000 May;34(5):611-5
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  • CASE SUMMARY: A 62-year-old white woman with stage 3 breast cancer metastatic to the spine and a history of hypertension received a combined injection of hydromorphone 48.3 mg and clonidine 12.24 mg subcutaneously in an attempt to refill an implanted epidural infusion pump.
  • She promptly developed mental deterioration, blurred vision, worsening respiration, tachycardia, and hypertension.
  • These effects are not easy to control by standard medical therapies and can cause significant morbidity.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Clonidine, although a safe medication with usual dosages, must be used with caution when given in injectable form.
  • Drugs used to treat overdose, such as naloxone, can potentiate clonidine's adverse effects, leading to further morbidity.
  • [MeSH-minor] Analgesics, Opioid / administration & dosage. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Drug Overdose. Drug Therapy, Combination. Female. Humans. Hydromorphone / administration & dosage. Infusion Pumps, Implantable. Middle Aged. Spinal Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 10852088.001).
  • [ISSN] 1060-0280
  • [Journal-full-title] The Annals of pharmacotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Pharmacother
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenergic alpha-Agonists; 0 / Analgesics, Opioid; MN3L5RMN02 / Clonidine; Q812464R06 / Hydromorphone
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42. Haresh KP, Chinikkatti SK, Prabhakar R, Rishi A, Rath GK, Sharma DN, Julka PK: A rare case of intradural extramedullary Ewing's sarcoma with skip metastasis in the spine. Spinal Cord; 2008 Aug;46(8):582-4
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  • [Title] A rare case of intradural extramedullary Ewing's sarcoma with skip metastasis in the spine.
  • BACKGROUND: Spinal cord tumors are rare and fortunately affect only a minority of the population.
  • These tumors are classified based on their anatomic location in relation to the dura mater and spinal cord as epidural, intradural extramedullary or intradural intramedullary.
  • METHODS: A 26-year-old gentleman presented to us with low backache and progressive paraparesis from a spinal tumor.
  • Neither osteolytic nor osteosclerotic changes were seen in the vertebral bodies.
  • He was treated by surgery, local radiotherapy and chemotherapy.
  • Two months after treatment, he developed a new skip lesion in the spine at T6-T7 level.
  • The new lesion was treated with local radiotherapy and chemotherapy.
  • RESULTS: Presently, the patient has completed treatment and is clinically doing fine.
  • CONCLUSION: Intradural extramedullary Ewing's sarcoma is a rare aggressive neoplasm with high propensity for skip metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Sarcoma, Ewing / secondary. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / pathology. Spinal Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Decompression, Surgical / methods. Dura Mater / pathology. Dura Mater / surgery. Humans. Laminectomy / methods. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods

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  • (PMID = 18268515.001).
  • [ISSN] 1362-4393
  • [Journal-full-title] Spinal cord
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Spinal Cord
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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43. Preechawai P, Amrith S, Yip CC, Goh KY: Orbital metastasis of renal cell carcinoma masquerading as cysticercosis. Orbit; 2008;27(5):370-3
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  • [Title] Orbital metastasis of renal cell carcinoma masquerading as cysticercosis.
  • Metastasis to the orbital soft tissues is relatively uncommon.
  • We report a rare case of renal cell carcinoma with orbital metastasis as the first clinical manifestation.
  • An incisional biopsy performed showed metastatic poorly differentiated carcinoma.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the spine showed extensive vertebral metastasis to the thoracic and lumbosacral spine and the iliac bone, with an incidental detection of a large mass from the right kidney.
  • There were small nodules in the lung suggesting the possibility of pulmonary metastatic deposits.
  • Renal cell carcinoma does not respond to chemotherapy, immunotherapy, or radiation; because of the disease's advanced stage, the patient received palliative treatment.
  • There have been only two other reports in the literature of metastatic renal cell carcinoma in the orbit where the proptosis was the initial presenting feature similar to our case.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Renal Cell / secondary. Cysticercosis / diagnosis. Eye Infections, Parasitic / diagnosis. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Orbital Diseases / diagnosis. Orbital Neoplasms / secondary. Spinal Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Exophthalmos / diagnosis. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Palliative Care

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  • (PMID = 18836935.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-5108
  • [Journal-full-title] Orbit (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Orbit
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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44. Zibis AH, Wade Shrader M, Segal LS: Case report: Mesenchymal chondrosarcoma of the lumbar spine in a child. Clin Orthop Relat Res; 2010 Aug;468(8):2288-94
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  • [Title] Case report: Mesenchymal chondrosarcoma of the lumbar spine in a child.
  • BACKGROUND: Chondrosarcomas of the spine constitute 4% to 10% of all primary spinal bone tumors and approximately 70% of the cases occur during the second or third decade of life.
  • The prognosis of mesenchymal chondrosarcoma is usually poor with a tendency for late local recurrence and metastasis.
  • The patient underwent a staged circumferential resection of the tumor after three rounds of neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
  • The patient had additional chemotherapy and radiation therapy as an intralesional margin was achieved during the procedure.
  • LITERATURE REVIEW: We identified only four previously published cases of spinal mesenchymal chondrosarcoma in childhood, two of which had relatively early recurrence and poor survival, and two survived but with only short followup.
  • PURPOSES AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: As the clinical and radiographic findings of mesenchymal chondrosarcoma are nonspecific, the diagnosis of this rare tumor requires careful histopathologic review of the specimens.
  • We suggest the differential diagnosis of every primary intraspinal tumor include tumors of mesenchymal origin.
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Child. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Remission Induction. Spinal Neoplasms. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20300902.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-1132
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical orthopaedics and related research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res.
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45. El Fekih L, Hassene H, Abdelghaffar H, Fenniche S, Belhabib D, Ben Miled K, Mezni F, Megdiche ML: [Rare localization of sarcoma in an adolescent: thoracic Ewing sarcoma]. Tunis Med; 2010 Apr;88(4):265-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Transliterated title] Localisation rare du sarcome de l'enfant: sarcome d'Ewing thoracique.
  • BACKGROUND: Ewing Sarcoma is considered as primitive neuro ectodermic tumor.
  • It's the most frequent osseous tumor in children and adolescent.
  • This process was associated at vertebral metastasis in D1, D4 and D8.Rapid clinical aggravation, with installation for medullar compression was noted.
  • Morphologic aspects and immunohistochimical study for the operator piece concluded at Ewing sarcoma of the children considered as primitive neuro ectodermic tumor.
  • Six cures of chemotherapy had been prescribed with well recuperation of the motor failure.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / pathology. Ribs / pathology. Sarcoma, Ewing / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Female. Humans. Spinal Neoplasms / secondary. Spinal Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 20446262.001).
  • [ISSN] 0041-4131
  • [Journal-full-title] La Tunisie médicale
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tunis Med
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Tunisia
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46. Lipton A, Uzzo R, Amato RJ, Ellis GK, Hakimian B, Roodman GD, Smith MR: The science and practice of bone health in oncology: managing bone loss and metastasis in patients with solid tumors. J Natl Compr Canc Netw; 2009 Oct;7 Suppl 7:S1-29; quiz S30
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  • [Title] The science and practice of bone health in oncology: managing bone loss and metastasis in patients with solid tumors.
  • Cancer and its treatment can compromise bone health, leading to fracture, pain, loss of mobility, and hypercalcemia of malignancy.
  • Bone metastasis occurs frequently in advanced prostate and breast cancers, and bony manifestations are commonplace in multiple myeloma.
  • Osteoporosis and osteopenia may be consequences of androgen-deprivation therapy for prostate cancer, aromatase inhibition for breast cancer, or chemotherapy-induced ovarian failure.
  • Osteoporotic bone loss and bone metastasis ultimately share a pathophysiologic pathway that stimulates bone resorption by increasing the formation and activity of osteoclasts.
  • Important mediators of pathologic bone metabolism include substances produced by osteoblasts, such as RANKL, the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand, which spurs osteoclast differentiation from myeloid cells.
  • Available therapies are targeted to various steps in cascade of bone metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / prevention & control. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Neoplasms / complications. Osteoporosis / prevention & control
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects. Biomarkers / blood. Bone Density Conservation Agents / therapeutic use. Breast Neoplasms. Female. Humans. Male. Multiple Myeloma. Prostatic Neoplasms

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  • (PMID = 19878635.001).
  • [ISSN] 1540-1405
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network : JNCCN
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Natl Compr Canc Netw
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K24 CA121990; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K24 CA121990-04
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Bone Density Conservation Agents
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS272544; NLM/ PMC3047391
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47. Akens MK, Hardisty MR, Wilson BC, Schwock J, Whyne CM, Burch S, Yee AJ: Defining the therapeutic window of vertebral photodynamic therapy in a murine pre-clinical model of breast cancer metastasis using the photosensitizer BPD-MA (Verteporfin). Breast Cancer Res Treat; 2010 Jan;119(2):325-33
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  • [Title] Defining the therapeutic window of vertebral photodynamic therapy in a murine pre-clinical model of breast cancer metastasis using the photosensitizer BPD-MA (Verteporfin).
  • Breast cancer is known to cause metastatic lesions in the bone, which can lead to skeletal-related events.
  • Currently, radiation therapy and surgery are the treatment of choice, but the success rate varies and additional adjuncts are desirable.
  • Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been applied successfully as a non-radiative treatment for numerous cancers.
  • Earlier work has shown that the athymic rat model is suitable to investigate the effect of PDT on bone metastasis and benzoporphyrin-derivative monoacid ring A (BPD-MA; verteporfin) has been shown to be a selective photosensitizer.
  • The aim of this study was to define the therapeutic window of photosensitizer with regard to drug and light dose.
  • At 14 days, the largest vertebral lesion by bioluminescence imaging was targeted for single treatment PDT.
  • A drug escalating-de-escalating scheme was used (starting drug dose and light energy of 0.2 mg/kg and 50 J, respectively).
  • Outcomes included 48 h post-treatment bioluminescence of remaining viable tumour, histomorphometric assessment of tumour burden, and neurologic evaluation.
  • The region of effect by bioluminescence and histology increased with increasing drug dose and light energy.
  • A safe and effective drug-light dose combination in this model appears to be 0.5 mg/kg BPD-MA and applied light energy of less than 50 J for the thoracic spine and 1.0 mg/kg and 75 J for the lumbar spine.
  • Overall, PDT represents an exciting potential new minimally-invasive local, safe and effective therapy in the management of patients with spinal metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Lumbar Vertebrae / drug effects. Photochemotherapy / methods. Photosensitizing Agents / pharmacology. Porphyrins / pharmacology. Spinal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Thoracic Vertebrae / drug effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Line, Tumor. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation. Female. Genes, Reporter. Humans. Luciferases / genetics. Mice. Rats. Rats, Nude. Time Factors. Transfection. Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays

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  • (PMID = 19263216.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7217
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer research and treatment
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 0 / Porphyrins; 129497-78-5 / verteporfin; EC 1.13.12.- / Luciferases
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48. Ross MD, Bayer E: Cancer as a cause of low back pain in a patient seen in a direct access physical therapy setting. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther; 2005 Oct;35(10):651-8
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  • [Title] Cancer as a cause of low back pain in a patient seen in a direct access physical therapy setting.
  • BACKGROUND: This paper describes the clinical course of a patient with low back pain (LBP) and left lower extremity pain and tingling, and how the physical therapist used clinical examination findings and a lack of improvement with conservative measures to initiate further medical evaluation, which resulted in a diagnosis of cancer as the primary cause of the patient's low back and hip pain.
  • DIAGNOSIS: A 45-year-old man with chief complaints of left-sided LBP, left posterior thigh pain, and tingling along the anterolateral aspect of his left lower extremity was initially seen by a physical therapist in a direct access setting.
  • A short-term course of physical therapy treatment was also undertaken to address neuromusculoskeletal impairments.
  • Despite 5 physical therapy visits over the course of a month, while the patient waited for his scheduled physician appointment, the patient's condition gradually worsened.
  • After medical evaluation, the patient was eventually diagnosed with small cell carcinoma of the lung, with metastases to the spine and pelvis.
  • Despite 2 cycles of chemotherapy, the patient succumbed to the cancer 5 months after he was first seen in physical therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma, Small Cell / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Hip / pathology. Hip / radiography. Humans. Internship and Residency. Low Back Pain / etiology. Low Back Pain / therapy. Male. Middle Aged. Office Visits. Physical Examination. Physical Therapy Modalities / education. Smoking. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16294986.001).
  • [ISSN] 0190-6011
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of orthopaedic and sports physical therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Orthop Sports Phys Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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49. Endo H, Kumabe T, Jokura H, Shirane R, Ariga H, Takai Y, Yoshimoto T: Leptomeningeal dissemination of cerebellar malignant astrocytomas. J Neurooncol; 2003 Jun;63(2):191-9
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  • [Title] Leptomeningeal dissemination of cerebellar malignant astrocytomas.
  • Primary malignant astrocytomas of the cerebellum are extremely rare, and the dissemination patterns and effectiveness of postoperative radiation therapy are unclear.
  • Five consecutive cases of histologically proven cerebellar malignant astrocytoma, two anaplastic astrocytomas, one anaplastic pilocytic astrocytoma, and two glioblastomas, were treated between 1997 and 2001.
  • Four patients underwent surgical removal, local irradiation, and chemotherapy, and one patient with anaplastic pilocytic astrocytoma received subtotal removal followed by gamma knife radiosurgery for the residual tumor.
  • All patients developed leptomeningeal dissemination.
  • Four patients had supratentorial dissemination and two patients had spinal metastases.
  • The time interval between the diagnosis of the primary cerebellar tumor and the diagnosis of leptomeningeal dissemination was 5-29 months (mean 14.6 +/- 10.4 months).
  • Intensive treatment including chemotherapy and radiotherapy may be required in cerebellar malignant astrocytomas, considering the high incidence of symptomatic leptomeningeal dissemination.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / secondary. Cerebellar Neoplasms / pathology. Meningeal Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Cerebral Ventricles / pathology. Child. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Middle Aged. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 12825824.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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50. Ziewacz JE, Song JW, Blaivas M, Yang LJ: Radiation-induced meningeal osteosarcoma of tentorium cerebelli with intradural spinal metastases. Surg Neurol Int; 2010;1:14
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  • [Title] Radiation-induced meningeal osteosarcoma of tentorium cerebelli with intradural spinal metastases.
  • We encountered a patient with a radiation-induced meningeal osteosarcoma with metastatic spread.
  • The patient underwent complete resection of the tumor with adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • Tumor recurrence was observed 9 months after initial diagnosis, and adjuvant radiation therapy was administered.
  • The intracranial disease stabilized; however, multiple cervico-thoracic spinal metastases were discovered 15 months after initial diagnosis.
  • The patient expired 16 months after initial diagnosis.
  • CONCLUSION: Meningeal osteosarcomas are rare lesions that can metastasize and should be considered in the differential diagnosis for dural-based lesions, especially in the case of previous radiation therapy.

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  • (PMID = 20657695.001).
  • [ISSN] 2152-7806
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical neurology international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Neurol Int
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2908355
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Meninges osteosarcoma / Radiation therapy / Spinal metastasis / Tentorium cerebelli
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51. Won E, Wise-Milestone L, Akens MK, Burch S, Yee AJ, Wilson BC, Whyne CM: Beyond bisphosphonates: photodynamic therapy structurally augments metastatically involved vertebrae and destroys tumor tissue. Breast Cancer Res Treat; 2010 Nov;124(1):111-9
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  • [Title] Beyond bisphosphonates: photodynamic therapy structurally augments metastatically involved vertebrae and destroys tumor tissue.
  • Breast cancer patients commonly develop metastases in the spine, which compromises its mechanical stability and can lead to skeletal related events.
  • The current clinical standard of treatment includes the administration of systemic bisphosphonates (BP) to reduce metastatically induced bone destruction.
  • However, response to BPs can vary both within and between patients, which motivates the need for additional treatment options for spinal metastasis.
  • Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been shown to be effective at treating metastatic lesions secondary to breast cancer in an athymic rat model, and is proposed as a treatment for spinal metastasis.
  • At 14 days, a single PDT treatment was administered, with and without previous BP treatment at day 7.
  • In addition to causing tumor necrosis in metastatically involved vertebrae, PDT significantly reduced bone loss, resulting in strengthening of the vertebrae compared to untreated controls.
  • Combined treatment with BP + PDT further enhanced bone architecture and strength in both metastatically involved and healthy bone.
  • Overall, the ability of PDT to both ablate malignant tissue and improve the structural integrity of vertebral bone motivates its consideration as a local minimally invasive treatment for spinal metastasis secondary to breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Diphosphonates / pharmacology. Imidazoles / pharmacology. Photochemotherapy. Photosensitizing Agents / pharmacology. Porphyrins / pharmacology. Spinal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Spine / drug effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Bone Development / drug effects. Cell Line, Tumor. Female. Humans. Necrosis. Rats. Rats, Nude. Time Factors. X-Ray Microtomography. Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays

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  • (PMID = 20066491.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7217
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer research and treatment
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Diphosphonates; 0 / Imidazoles; 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 0 / Porphyrins; 129497-78-5 / verteporfin; 6XC1PAD3KF / zoledronic acid
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52. Mori R, Sakai H, Kato M, Hida T, Nakajima M, Fukuda T, Fukunaga M, Abe T: [Olfactory neuroblastoma with spinal metastasis: case report]. No Shinkei Geka; 2007 May;35(5):503-8
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  • [Title] [Olfactory neuroblastoma with spinal metastasis: case report].
  • Olfactory neuroblastoma is a rare tumor of the nasal cavity.
  • It is a locally aggressive tumor with local recurrence, and distant metastasis occurs in 22-40% of patients.
  • We report a case of olfactory neuroblastoma with cauda equina metastases.
  • A 49-year old male had undergone surgery twice previously; the first for olfactory neuroblastoma in October, 1990, and the second for its intracranial and orbital metastasis in September, 1999.
  • The mass was partially removed and histologically diagnosed as olfactory neuroblastoma metastasis.
  • Whole-spine irradiation of 32 Gy and lumber-spine irradiation of 10 Gy were performed.
  • Olfactory neuroblastoma with spinal metastasis is rare and only 11 cases have been reported in the literature.
  • A very poor prognosis was observed in the patients of olfactory neuroblastoma with spinal metastasis.
  • Olfactory neuroblastoma is a radiosensitive tumor, and radiotherapy for spinal metastasis was reported to be effective.
  • However, effectiveness of chemotherapy was still uncertain.
  • Radiotherapy and further treatment including chemotherapy should be considered in case of spinal metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Cauda Equina. Esthesioneuroblastoma, Olfactory / secondary. Esthesioneuroblastoma, Olfactory / surgery. Nasal Cavity. Nose Neoplasms / pathology. Nose Neoplasms / surgery. Peripheral Nervous System Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Spine / radiation effects

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  • (PMID = 17491347.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-2603
  • [Journal-full-title] No shinkei geka. Neurological surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] No Shinkei Geka
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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53. Chung JJ, Namiki T, Johnson DW: Cervical cancer metastasis to the scalp presenting as alopecia neoplastica. Int J Dermatol; 2007 Feb;46(2):188-9
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  • [Title] Cervical cancer metastasis to the scalp presenting as alopecia neoplastica.
  • A 45-year-old Japanese woman was diagnosed in 1996 with squamous cell cancer of the cervix following an abnormal Papanicolaou smear and subsequent diagnostic conization.
  • She remained asymptomatic until 2003 when she presented with obstructive uropathy with acute renal failure and hydronephrosis, suspected to be from the recurrence of cervical cancer.
  • This was confirmed when computerized tomography (CT)-guided lymph node biopsy showed squamous cell carcinoma of the para-aortic lymph nodes histologically consistent with the cervical primary.
  • In addition, there was evidence of lumbar spine metastasis by positron emission tomography (PET) and bone scans.
  • She received several courses of chemotherapy with cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil (5FU), as well as radiation therapy.
  • CT of the abdomen identified widespread metastases in the liver, pancreatic head, and lumbar spine.
  • The patient decided against further treatment for her advanced cervical cancer but did accept hydromorphone for pain.
  • [MeSH-major] Alopecia / etiology. Head and Neck Neoplasms / secondary. Neoplasms, Squamous Cell / secondary. Scalp. Skin Neoplasms / secondary. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis


54. Fadul CE, Kominsky AL, Meyer LP, Kingman LS, Kinlaw WB, Rhodes CH, Eskey CJ, Simmons NE: Long-term response of pituitary carcinoma to temozolomide. Report of two cases. J Neurosurg; 2006 Oct;105(4):621-6
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  • Pituitary carcinoma is a rare tumor characterized by poor responsiveness to therapy, leading to early death.
  • Reported responses to standard chemotherapy have only been anecdotal, with no single agent or combination demonstrating consistent efficacy in the treatment of patients with this disease.
  • The authors report rare examples of a persistent response to cytotoxic chemotherapy in two patients with pituitary carcinoma.
  • One patient was a 38-year-old man with visual field loss caused by a luteinizing hormone-secreting pituitary carcinoma that had recurred despite multiple surgeries and radiation therapy.
  • Intradural metastases to the spine that had failed to respond to radiation therapy were pathologically confirmed.
  • The second patient was a 26-year-old man with hyperprolactinemia from a prolactin-secreting pituitary tumor.
  • Spine magnetic resonance images obtained to search for causes of neck pain showed a vertebral tumor, which was later confirmed through pathological analysis to be a metastatic pituitary carcinoma.
  • His disease progressed despite radiation therapy, high-dose bromocriptine, and chemotherapy.
  • The patient in the first case underwent all 12 treatment cycles without serious side effects, and his visual field deficits improved.
  • The patient in the second case had undergone only 10 cycles when the drug was stopped because of his severe fatigue.
  • Both patients continue to have partial responses and have been employed full-time for more than 1 year after discontinuing temozolomide therapy.
  • These two examples demonstrate that temozolomide may be effective in treating pituitary carcinomas and thus should be considered in the treatment algorithm for these difficult cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / drug therapy. Luteinizing Hormone / secretion. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Pituitary Neoplasms / drug therapy. Prolactinoma / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Drug Administration Schedule. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Radiosurgery. Retreatment. Spinal Cord / pathology. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / drug therapy. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / secondary. Treatment Failure

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  • (PMID = 17044568.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3085
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurosurg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-67-9 / Luteinizing Hormone
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55. Del Colle R, Bassi R, Adami F, Turazzini M, Gioga G, Pea M, Silvestri M: Multiple radiculopathy of the lower limbs in a cancer patient with meningeal carcinomatosis. Neurol Sci; 2000 Apr;21(2):113-5
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  • [Title] Multiple radiculopathy of the lower limbs in a cancer patient with meningeal carcinomatosis.
  • Meningeal carcinomatosis occurs in 1%-5% of patients with breast cancer.
  • Early diagnosis and aggressive treatment of neurologic involvement are important factors of prognosis.
  • We report a case of a 52-year-old woman who was affected by bilateral breast carcinoma treated with surgery and chemotherapy.
  • Six years after she had become asymptomatic, X-rays showed lumbar spine metastases which were treated with radiotherapy.
  • Clinical examination showed lower limb sensory ataxia with lack of knee and ankle reflexes, and hypopallesthesia from the iliac spine to the foot.
  • Spinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with contrast agent revealed no medullar compression.
  • Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination showed the presence of neoplastic cells, confirming the diagnosis of meningeal carcinomatosis.
  • Our patient underwent 9 cycles of intrathecal methotrexate therapy (25 mg/cycle) with improvement of ataxia and relief of paresthesias.
  • We point out the importance of electrodiagnostic studies and CSF examination in the early documentation of root involvement in cancer patients, when computed tomography, MRI and myelography are normal.
  • Early diagnosis may lead to effective therapy which prolongs survival.
  • [MeSH-minor] Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / therapy. Female. Humans. Methotrexate / therapeutic use. Middle Aged. Spinal Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Spinal Neoplasms / secondary

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  • [CommentIn] Neurol Sci. 2000 Apr;21(2):65-6 [10938182.001]
  • (PMID = 10938191.001).
  • [ISSN] 1590-1874
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurological sciences : official journal of the Italian Neurological Society and of the Italian Society of Clinical Neurophysiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurol. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] ITALY
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate
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56. Kanda S, Fujimoto T, Ito T, Mori S: [Potent and continuous relief of spinal bone pain due to metastasis of non-small cell lung cancer by treatment with gefitinib--a case report]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2009 May;36(5):803-5
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  • [Title] [Potent and continuous relief of spinal bone pain due to metastasis of non-small cell lung cancer by treatment with gefitinib--a case report].
  • A 79-year-old woman with advanced non-small cell lung cancer was admitted to our hospital for palliative terminal care after failure of initial radiotherapy followed by chemotherapy with S-1.
  • She had severe back pain due to metastasis at the sixth thoracic spinal bone.
  • Gefitinib was administered and rapid relief of bone pain was obtained.
  • However, these lesions except for spinal bone metastasis re-grew and five months later, she died of cachexia.
  • Treatment with gefitinib was continued until she died because of the complete relief of bone pain.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / drug therapy. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Pain / drug therapy. Pain / etiology. Quinazolines / therapeutic use. Spine / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Tomography, X-Ray Computed


57. Watanabe R, Takahashi A, Suzuki M, Toki F, Kanazawa T, Hirato J, Morikawa A, Kuwano H: Adolescent wilms tumor with intraspinal and bone metastases: a case report and the review of literature. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2009 Jan;31(1):45-8
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  • [Title] Adolescent wilms tumor with intraspinal and bone metastases: a case report and the review of literature.
  • A 14-year-old girl was referred for a large tumor of the left kidney, with intraspinal and vertebral metastases.
  • Left nephrectomy and intraspinal tumor resection were performed.
  • The tumor bed and vertebras were irradiated.
  • We started chemotherapy according to the DD-4A regimen of Japanese Wilms' Tumor Study Group.
  • The vertebral metastasis was additionally irradiated.
  • Intensive multimodality therapy including DD-4A regimen of National Wilms' Tumor Study can result in long-term disease-free remission.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Spinal Neoplasms / secondary. Wilms Tumor / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 19125087.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-3678
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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58. Weber K, Doucet M, Kominsky S: Renal cell carcinoma bone metastasis--elucidating the molecular targets. Cancer Metastasis Rev; 2007 Dec;26(3-4):691-704
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  • [Title] Renal cell carcinoma bone metastasis--elucidating the molecular targets.
  • The development of bone metastasis from renal cell carcinoma (RCC) signals a transition to a terminal state for the patient with previously isolated disease.
  • These patients may suffer the morbidity of severe, persistent pain, pathologic fractures, and spinal compression from vertebral metastasis before they succumb to their cancer.
  • Although recent advancements have been made in the understanding of breast and prostate bone metastasis, there has been less knowledge in the area of metastatic RCC to the skeleton.
  • This particular cancer in bone remains relatively resistant to standard forms of treatment such as radiation and chemotherapy.
  • A better understanding of the biology of RCC bone metastasis is critically needed in order to improve treatment.
  • Bone-derived cell lines and an experimental animal model have been developed in order to explore the relevant mechanisms of how RCC cells survive within and destroy the bone.
  • This review will focus on the growth factor signaling pathways most important for the RCC-stimulated osteoclast-mediated bone destruction, namely the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF-R) and transforming growth factor-beta receptor (TGF-betaR) pathways.
  • By inhibiting these receptors, growth of RCC within the bone is decreased which, directly or indirectly, decreases bone destruction.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / drug therapy. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / pathology. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Diphosphonates / therapeutic use. Disease Models, Animal. Humans. Interleukin-6 / physiology. Mice. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / antagonists & inhibitors. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / physiology. Signal Transduction. Transforming Growth Factor beta / physiology


59. Steinmetz MP, Mekhail A, Benzel EC: Management of metastatic tumors of the spine: strategies and operative indications. Neurosurg Focus; 2001 Dec 15;11(6):e2
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  • [Title] Management of metastatic tumors of the spine: strategies and operative indications.
  • The spinal column is the most frequent site of bone metastasis in the body.
  • Spine surgeons are often involved in the care of these patients only after nonoperative management has failed.
  • Because surgery has been viewed as no better than radiotherapy in the treatment of metastasis of the spine, it has only been used as a salvage approach.
  • Anterior approaches to the spine are now popular and familiar to most surgeons.
  • These approaches allow direct access to the metastatic lesion, reconstruction of the anterior vertebral column, and the placement of anterior instrumentation.
  • Outcomes are frequently much better when this combined treatment is used instead of radiotherapy alone.
  • In selected patients, surgery may be desired as first-line therapy before radio- or chemotherapy has been initiated.
  • The controversy surrounding surgery for metastatic spinal disease is reviewed.
  • Treatment strategies, both operative and nonoperative, are presented.
  • [MeSH-major] Case Management. Spinal Neoplasms / secondary. Spinal Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Cervical Vertebrae / surgery. Humans. Internal Fixators. Lumbar Vertebrae / surgery. Neurosurgical Procedures / instrumentation. Neurosurgical Procedures / methods. Orthopedic Procedures / instrumentation. Orthopedic Procedures / methods. Postoperative Complications. Thoracic Vertebrae / surgery. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16463994.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgical focus
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurg Focus
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 33
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60. Weis J, Ciray I, Ericsson A, Lindman H, Aström G, Ahlström H, Hemmingsson A: Spectroscopic imaging of bone marrow composition in vertebral bodies. MAGMA; 2001 Aug;13(1):15-8
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  • [Title] Spectroscopic imaging of bone marrow composition in vertebral bodies.
  • The proton spectroscopic imaging technique that uses read gradient during acquisition was used for the measurement of the proton spectra in the lumbar and thoracic part of the spine of a patient with breast cancer without known skeletal metastases.
  • The bone marrow fat/water ratios were evaluated in the same location before and after chemotherapy treatment.
  • The fat/water ratios showed a significant increase as a consequence of the bone marrow degradation process due to chemotherapy.
  • The proposed spectroscopic imaging technique offers rapid acquisition of proton spectra from large volumes of the vertebral bodies.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Marrow / pathology. Bone Neoplasms / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Protons. Spectrophotometry / methods. Spine / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adipose Tissue / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Water

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  • [Cites] Invest Radiol. 1987 Sep;22(9):741-6 [3679764.001]
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  • (PMID = 11410392.001).
  • [ISSN] 0968-5243
  • [Journal-full-title] Magma (New York, N.Y.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] MAGMA
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Protons; 059QF0KO0R / Water
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61. Tsuchiya K, Fujikawa A, Honya K, Nitatori T, Suzuki Y: Diffusion tensor tractography of the lower spinal cord. Neuroradiology; 2008 Mar;50(3):221-5
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  • [Title] Diffusion tensor tractography of the lower spinal cord.
  • INTRODUCTION: We employed a diffusion-tensor (DT) imaging technique involving a single-shot echo-planar sequence in combination with parallel imaging for tractography of the lower spinal cord and assessed the feasibility of this technique.
  • The scan time was 5 min 15 s.
  • On a reconstructed DW image in the sagittal plane, the spinal cord was included in a single region-of-interest to generate a tractogram of the entire cord in seven volunteers and nine patients with spinal canal stenosis or vertebral metastasis.
  • Displacement of the proximal nerve roots was also depicted in the two patients with vertebral metastasis.
  • CONCLUSION: DT imaging using parallel imaging shows potential as a method for routine tractography of the lower spinal cord.
  • [MeSH-major] Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Spinal Cord / anatomy & histology. Spinal Diseases / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18040674.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-3940
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuroradiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuroradiology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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62. Gagnon GJ, Henderson FC, Gehan EA, Sanford D, Collins BT, Moulds JC, Dritschilo A: Cyberknife radiosurgery for breast cancer spine metastases: a matched-pair analysis. Cancer; 2007 Oct 15;110(8):1796-802
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  • [Title] Cyberknife radiosurgery for breast cancer spine metastases: a matched-pair analysis.
  • BACKGROUND: There are few options for breast cancer patients with spinal metastases recurrent within a previous radiation treatment field.
  • To evaluate their outcomes, as there are no comparable radiation treatment options, the outcomes were compared between 18 patients with spinal metastases from breast cancer treated with CyberKnife stereotactic radiosurgery, 17 of which had prior radiotherapy to the involved spinal region and were progressing, and 18 matched patients who received conventional external beam radiotherapy (CRT) up-front for spinal metastases.
  • Women were matched to patients in a CRT group with respect to time from original diagnosis to diagnosis of metastases, estrogen receptor / progesterone receptor (ER/PR) status, presence or absence of visceral metastases, prior radiotherapy, and prior chemotherapy.
  • Survival and complications were compared between treatment groups.
  • RESULTS: The CyberKnife and CRT groups were comparable along all matching dimensions and in performance status before treatment.
  • Outcomes of treatment were similar for patients in both groups; ambulation, performance status, and pain worsened similarly across groups posttreatment.
  • Nevertheless, comparability in these difficult cases shows that salvage CyberKnife treatment is as efficacious as initial CRT without added toxicity.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Radiosurgery / methods. Spinal Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Case-Control Studies. Female. Humans. Matched-Pair Analysis. Middle Aged. Postoperative Complications / etiology. Prognosis. Radiation Dosage. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17786939.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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63. Willems WF, Wieringa JW, Vermeulen RJ, Veenhoven RH: [Limping in toddlers due to disorders of the spine and spinal cord]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd; 2007 Oct 20;151(42):2297-301
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  • [Title] [Limping in toddlers due to disorders of the spine and spinal cord].
  • [Transliterated title] Mank lopen bij peuters door afwijkingen aan de wervelkolom en het ruggenmerg.
  • The authors describe three cases of limping in toddlers caused by infrequent spinal diseases.
  • The second patient, a 13-month-old boy, presented with limping caused by neuroblastoma with extensive bone metastasis.
  • Despite chemotherapy and partial resection of the neuroblastoma, the boy did not survive.
  • She recovered after partial resection of the tumour.
  • In young children presenting with limping, diagnoses involving the spine should also be considered because early intervention can influence the prognosis favourably.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Discitis / diagnosis. Neuroblastoma / pathology. Spinal Diseases / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Anti-Bacterial Agents / therapeutic use. Female. Gait. Humans. Infant. Male. Treatment Failure. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18064928.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-2162
  • [Journal-full-title] Nederlands tijdschrift voor geneeskunde
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd
  • [Language] dut
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents
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64. Michotte A, Chaskis C, Sadones J, Veld PI, Neyns B: Primary leptomeningeal anaplastic oligodendroglioma with a 1p36-19q13 deletion: report of a unique case successfully treated with Temozolomide. J Neurol Sci; 2009 Dec 15;287(1-2):267-70
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  • The diagnosis of an anaplastic oligodendroglioma (WHO grade 3) was made on pathological examination.
  • A rapid progression of the lesion was shown on MRI with leptomeningeal spinal metastases.
  • Serial MRI disclosed a near complete regression of the lesions with no residual enhancement left after 6 cycles of chemotherapy.
  • To our knowledge this is the first report of a patient with a primary leptomeningeal anaplastic oligodendroglioma with diffuse spinal seeding bearing a 1p36/19q13 deletion.
  • Our patient achieved a durable clinical and radiological remission following TMZ treatment.
  • Molecular analysis with determination of chromosome 1p/19q deletions should be performed in all cases of leptomeningeal gliomas to select those patients who might benefit from TMZ chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Dacarbazine / analogs & derivatives. Meningeal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Meningeal Neoplasms / genetics. Mutation / genetics. Oligodendroglioma / drug therapy. Oligodendroglioma / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / administration & dosage. Arachnoid / pathology. Brain / pathology. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 1 / genetics. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 19 / genetics. DNA Mutational Analysis. Gene Deletion. Genetic Predisposition to Disease / genetics. Genotype. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Meningeal Carcinomatosis / drug therapy. Meningeal Carcinomatosis / genetics. Meningeal Carcinomatosis / pathology. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis / drug therapy. Neoplasm Metastasis / genetics. Neoplasm Metastasis / pathology. Pia Mater / pathology. Radiotherapy / methods. Spinal Cord / pathology. Subarachnoid Space / pathology. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19751941.001).
  • [ISSN] 1878-5883
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the neurological sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurol. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 85622-93-1 / temozolomide
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65. Lewandrowski KU, Hecht AC, DeLaney TF, Chapman PA, Hornicek FJ, Pedlow FX: Anterior spinal arthrodesis with structural cortical allografts and instrumentation for spine tumor surgery. Spine (Phila Pa 1976); 2004 May 15;29(10):1150-8; discussion 1159
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  • [Title] Anterior spinal arthrodesis with structural cortical allografts and instrumentation for spine tumor surgery.
  • STUDY DESIGN: The authors report on anterior vertebral reconstruction following tumor resection with use of fresh-frozen, cortical, long-segment allografts prepared from diaphyseal sections of long bones.
  • OBJECTIVE: To analyze the results following the use of cortical allografts in the treatment of spine tumors.
  • SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Metastatic disease and primary spinal bone tumors may result in progressive vertebral collapse, instability, deformity, pain, and neurologic deficit.
  • Controversy as to the appropriate type of anterior reconstruction and/or graft material persists.
  • METHODS: From 1995 until 2001, 30 patients with primary spinal bone tumors or metastases to the spine were treated by anterior vertebral reconstruction with fresh-frozen cortical bone allografts.
  • Ninety-three percent of all allografts were radiographically incorporated as early as 6 months after surgery in spite of adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation therapy.
  • CONCLUSION: Anterior column reconstruction with structural cortical allografts proved to be a reliable technique in patients with spine tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Transplantation. Internal Fixators. Spinal Fusion / methods. Spinal Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Braces. Carcinoma / drug therapy. Carcinoma / radiotherapy. Carcinoma / secondary. Carcinoma / surgery. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Chondrosarcoma / radiotherapy. Chondrosarcoma / surgery. Chordoma / radiotherapy. Chordoma / surgery. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Intraoperative Complications / epidemiology. Male. Middle Aged. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Osteosarcoma / radiotherapy. Osteosarcoma / surgery. Postoperative Complications / epidemiology. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Reoperation. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Transplantation, Homologous. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15131446.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-1159
  • [Journal-full-title] Spine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Spine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / AR45062
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 59
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66. Yone K, Ijiri K, Hayashi K, Yokouchi M, Takenouchi T, Manago K, Nerome Y, Ijichi O, Ikarimoto N, Komiya S: Primary malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor of the cauda equina in a child case report. Spinal Cord; 2004 Mar;42(3):199-203
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  • [Title] Primary malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor of the cauda equina in a child case report.
  • STUDY DESIGN: A case report of primary malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) of the cauda equina in a child is presented, and the literature is reviewed.
  • OBJECTIVE: To discuss the problems involved in the treatment of primary intradural MPNSTs.
  • MRI revealed an intradural tumor at L3-L5 level.
  • Following laminectomy of L3, L4 and L5, the tumor was removed en bloc.
  • Based on pathological and immunohistological findings, the tumor was diagnosed as an MPNST.
  • RESULTS: Although adjuvant chemotherapy was administered local recurrence and cerebral and spinal metastases of the tumor were found 6 months after the operation.
  • Following additional incomplete removal of the recurrent tumor, radiation therapy was administered.
  • Although recurrent and metastatic tumors disappeared or diminished in size by radiation, tumors increased in size thereafter, despite additional adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • Although no gold standard for the treatment of tumors has been established yet, surgical removal of tumors combined with postoperative high-dose radiation may be recommended.
  • [MeSH-major] Cauda Equina / pathology. Nerve Sheath Neoplasms / pathology. Nerve Sheath Neoplasms / secondary. Peripheral Nervous System Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Child, Preschool. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Spinal Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 15001982.001).
  • [ISSN] 1362-4393
  • [Journal-full-title] Spinal cord
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Spinal Cord
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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67. Vecht CJ: Cancer pain: a neurological perspective. Curr Opin Neurol; 2000 Dec;13(6):649-53
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  • [Title] Cancer pain: a neurological perspective.
  • Nerve pain in cancer is common, mainly manifested by a radiculopathy associated with vertebral metastasis, by a plexopathy caused by lymph-node involvement or, more rarely, by trigeminal involvement in cancer of the head and neck.
  • Less frequent types of nerve pain can occur as late effects of antitumour therapy, including surgery, radiation and chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Neoplasm Metastasis. Nervous System Neoplasms / complications. Nervous System Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 11148664.001).
  • [ISSN] 1350-7540
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr. Opin. Neurol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 38
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68. Porta-Etessam J, Martínez-Salio A, Berbel A, Balsalobre-Aznar J, Esteban J, Benito-León J, Ruiz J: [Lhermitte's sign in three oncological patients]. Rev Neurol; 2000 Apr 1-15;30(7):649-51
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  • [Transliterated title] Fenómeno de Lhermitte en tres pacientes oncológicos.
  • This phenomenon is characterized by the occurrence of an electric shock-like sensation going along the spine in a cervico-caudal direction with flexion of the neck, and may also be felt in the upper and lower limbs.
  • A 49 year-old woman diagnosed as having breast cancer and being treated with cisplatin presented with Lhermitte's sign.
  • An 80 year-old man, previously operated on for adenocarcinoma of the colon, without further treatment, presented with progressive weakness of all four limbs and Lhermitte's syndrome.
  • A cervical MR scan showed a metastasis in the vertebral body of C3 with epidural involvement and compression of the spinal cord. Case 3.
  • A 54 year-old man was being treated by radiotherapy for cancer of the larynx.
  • CONCLUSION: Lhermitte's sign is non-specific, although in oncological patients a detailed clinical history and examination should be done seeking data regarding chemotherapy, radiotherapy and spinal compression.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects. Neoplasms / drug therapy. Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Radiation Injuries / complications. Spinal Cord Compression / etiology. Spinal Cord Diseases / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Movement Disorders / diagnosis. Movement Disorders / etiology. Reflex, Abnormal / physiology. Reflex, Stretch / physiology

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  • (PMID = 10859744.001).
  • [ISSN] 0210-0010
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista de neurologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Neurol
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] SPAIN
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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69. Ogawa K, Yoshii Y, Shikama N, Nakamura K, Uno T, Onishi H, Itami J, Shioyama Y, Iraha S, Hyodo A, Toita T, Kakinohana Y, Tamaki W, Ito H, Murayama S: Spinal recurrence from intracranial germinoma: risk factors and treatment outcome for spinal recurrence. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2008 Dec 1;72(5):1347-54
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  • [Title] Spinal recurrence from intracranial germinoma: risk factors and treatment outcome for spinal recurrence.
  • PURPOSE: To analyze retrospectively the risk factors of spinal recurrence in patients with intracranial germinoma and clinical outcomes of patients who developed spinal recurrence.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: Between 1980 and 2007, 165 patients with no evidence of spinal metastases at diagnosis were treated with cranial radiotherapy without spinal irradiation.
  • RESULTS: After the initial treatment, 15 patients (9.1%) developed spinal recurrences.
  • Multivariate analysis revealed that large intracranial disease (>/=4 cm) and multifocal intracranial disease were independent risk factors for spinal recurrence.
  • Radiation field, total radiation dose, and the use of chemotherapy did not affect the occurrence of spinal recurrences.
  • Of the 15 patients who experienced spinal recurrence, the 3-year actuarial overall survival and disease-free survival (DFS) rates from the beginning of salvage treatments were 65% and 57%, respectively.
  • In the analysis, presence of intracranial recurrence and salvage treatment modality (radiotherapy with chemotherapy vs. radiotherapy alone) had a statistically significant impact on DFS.
  • The 3-year DFS rate in patients with no intracranial recurrence and treated with both spinal radiotherapy and chemotherapy was 100%, whereas only 17% in patients with intracranial recurrence or treated with radiotherapy alone (p = 0.001).
  • CONCLUSION: Large intracranial disease and multifocal intracranial disease were risk factors for spinal recurrence in patients with intracranial germinoma with no evidence of spinal metastases at diagnosis.
  • For patients who developed spinal recurrence alone, salvage treatment combined with spinal radiotherapy and chemotherapy was effective in controlling the recurrent disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Germinoma / pathology. Germinoma / radiotherapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / radiotherapy. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / secondary. Spinal Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 18513888.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-355X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin
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70. Saito Y, Amano S, Kashio M, Abe H, Kuboi Y, Sakurai K, Aoki N, Hata S, Negishi N: [A case of breast cancer with multiple bone metastases demonstrating complete remission with high-dose toremifene therapy]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2004 Jun;31(6):911-4
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  • [Title] [A case of breast cancer with multiple bone metastases demonstrating complete remission with high-dose toremifene therapy].
  • We report a 64-year-old woman who underwent mastectomy for stage II (T2N1M0) advanced breast cancer, in whom multiple spine metastases developed 18 months postoperatively.
  • She received 6 cycles of CA (cyclophosphamide 500 mg/m2, ADM 50 mg/m2 3 wq) therapy and oral tamoxifen (20 mg/body) administration for adjuvant therapy.
  • The multiple bone metastases of the spine were revealed by technetium bone scan.
  • The level of serum tumor marker CA15-3 increased two times over the normal range 18 months after surgery.
  • She also developed osteoporosis a few years later, so we selected high-dose toremifene administration (120 mg/body) as a second-line therapy.
  • No adverse effects have occurred and bone metastases disappeared.
  • Moreover, the tumor marker was also normalized 6 months after toremifene therapy started.
  • It was shown that high-dose treatment of toremifene was useful for recurrent breast cancer with bone metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / administration & dosage. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / secondary. Toremifene / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Humans. Mastectomy. Middle Aged. Remission Induction

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  • (PMID = 15222111.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 7NFE54O27T / Toremifene
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71. Grönemeyer DH, Schirp S, Gevargez A: Image-guided radiofrequency ablation of spinal tumors: preliminary experience with an expandable array electrode. Cancer J; 2002 Jan-Feb;8(1):33-9

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  • [Title] Image-guided radiofrequency ablation of spinal tumors: preliminary experience with an expandable array electrode.
  • PURPOSE: Metastases to the spine are a challenging problem.
  • Percutaneous, image-guided tumor ablation with a thermal energy source, such as radiofrequency, has received increasing attention as a promising technique for the treatment of focal malignant disease.
  • We used radiofrequency ablation for patients with unresectable, osteolytic spine metastases under computed tomographic and fluoroscopic guidance.
  • The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility, effectiveness, and safety of radiofrequency ablation as a palliative procedure to reduce pain and back pain-related disability in patients with vertebral and paravertebral spine tumors who were not able to benefit from radiotherapy, chemotherapy, or surgery.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between November 1999 and January 2001, 10 patients with unresectable spine metastases were treated with radiofrequency ablation.
  • For the ablation we used a 50-W radiofrequency generator that is connected to an expandable electrode catheter (RITA Medical System Inc., Mountain View, CA).
  • Metastases were ablated in the thoracic spine, the lumbar spine, and/or the sacral bone.
  • Tumor diameter ranged from 1.5 to 9 cm.
  • Combined computed tomographic and fluoroscopic guidance was used to guide the procedure.
  • Therapy outcome was documented by magnet resonance imaging.
  • Before the therapy and on follow-up of an average of 5.8 months, pain was assessed with the help of the Visual Analogue Scale.
  • In the treated region, magnetic resonance imaging showed no further tumor growth after the therapy.
  • When confirmed by further investigation, this therapy may be a new option for patients with unresectable spine tumors that do not respond to radiotherapy and chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Catheter Ablation / instrumentation. Diathermy / instrumentation. Spinal Neoplasms / secondary. Spinal Neoplasms / surgery

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  • [CommentIn] Cancer J. 2002 Jan-Feb;8(1):26-8; discussion 28-9 [11895200.001]
  • (PMID = 11898806.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-9117
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer journal (Sudbury, Mass.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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72. Spugnini EP, Citro G, Fais S: Proton pump inhibitors as anti vacuolar-ATPases drugs: a novel anticancer strategy. J Exp Clin Cancer Res; 2010;29:44
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  • [Title] Proton pump inhibitors as anti vacuolar-ATPases drugs: a novel anticancer strategy.
  • These pumps play a pivotal role in the regulation of cell pH in normal cells and, to a much greater extent, in tumor cells.
  • The acid microenvironment is modulated through the over-expression of H+ transporters that are also involved in tumor progression, invasiveness, distant spread and chemoresistance.
  • Furthermore, their action seems to synergize with conventional chemotherapy protocols, leading to chemosensitization and reversal of chemoresistance.
  • Aim of this article is to critically revise the current knowledge of this cellular machinery and to summarize the therapeutic strategies developed to counter this mechanism.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Gene Expression Regulation. Neoplasms / drug therapy. Proton Pump Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Vacuolar Proton-Translocating ATPases / antagonists & inhibitors
  • [MeSH-minor] Cytoplasm / metabolism. Disease Progression. Humans. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Metastasis. Proton Pumps / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20459683.001).
  • [ISSN] 1756-9966
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of experimental & clinical cancer research : CR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Exp. Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Proton Pump Inhibitors; 0 / Proton Pumps; EC 3.6.1.- / Vacuolar Proton-Translocating ATPases
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2876100
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73. Bilsky MH, Schefler AC, Sandberg DI, Dunkel IJ, Rosenblum MK: Sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcomas involving the neuraxis: report of three cases. Neurosurgery; 2000 Oct;47(4):956-9; discussion 959-60
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  • OBJECTIVE AND IMPORTANCE: Sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma (SEF) is a rare mesenchymal neoplasm composed of rounded, vimentin-immunoreactive tumor cells disposed in nests and cords within a hyalinized collagenous matrix.
  • The cases recorded to date have been characterized by protracted clinical evolutions with a tendency for stubborn local recurrence, followed by late metastasis.
  • A single instance of brain and vertebral metastasis has been described.
  • CLINICAL PRESENTATION: Two tumors had intracranial, calvarial and extracalvarial, soft-tissue components, whereas the third tumor manifested as a paraspinal mass with extension into the T12-L1 neural foramen and invasion of the T12 nerve root.
  • INTERVENTION: All three affected patients experienced local recurrence and distant metastasis after resection of the primary site.
  • In no case was there a response to adjuvant chemotherapy or radiotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Fibrosarcoma / diagnosis. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Sclerosis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 11014436.001).
  • [ISSN] 0148-396X
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
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74. Elnemr A, Yonemura Y, Shinbo M, Nishino E: Primary retroperitoneal mullerian adenocarcinoma. Rare Tumors; 2010;2(1):e6

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  • Ultrasonography (US) and computed tomography (CT) demonstrated a 15×10 cm cystic mass in the left lower retroperitoneum.
  • Six cycles of intraperitoneal (IP) chemotherapy was administered during the last six months after diagnosis of recurrence by aspiration cytology and high serum tumor markers (CEA, CA19-9).
  • A few days ago, positron emission tomographic (PET) scanning showed evidence of local recurrence and single vertebral metastasis, so she was admitted again for systemic chemotherapy.
  • Meticulous revision of additional sections of the tumor revealed papillary, serous, mucinous, and endometrioid subtypes of the mullerian adenocarcinoma.

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  • (PMID = 21139951.001).
  • [ISSN] 2036-3613
  • [Journal-full-title] Rare tumors
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rare Tumors
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2994487
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; adenocarcinoma / mullerian tumor / retroperitoneum
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75. Wei F, Liu X, Liu Z, Jiang L, Dang G, Ma Q, Dang L: Interferon alfa-2b for recurrent and metastatic giant cell tumor of the spine: report of two cases. Spine (Phila Pa 1976); 2010 Nov 15;35(24):E1418-22
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  • [Title] Interferon alfa-2b for recurrent and metastatic giant cell tumor of the spine: report of two cases.
  • OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate that interferon alfa-2b is a therapeutic option for obtaining long-term control of recurrent and metastatic giant cell tumor of spine.
  • SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Interferon alfa served as angiogenesis inhibitor and has been successfully used to treat giant cell tumor of long bones and facial bones.
  • Up to date, no report is found with regard to the use of interferon as a stand-alone treatment for unresectable, recurrent, and metastatic giant cell tumor originated from the spine.
  • METHODS: A 29-year-old woman with C1 and C2 giant cell tumor was treated by radiotherapy, intralesional curet, and chemotherapy orderly.
  • Tumor recurred after 2 years.
  • Tumor recurred second time and caused severe spinal cord compression.
  • Lung metastasis was diagnosed simultaneously.
  • A 24-year-old man with recurrent giant cell tumor of T5 and T6 was treated by spondylectomy of T5 and T6.
  • Six months later, a giant metastatic lesion was found in sacrococcygeal region, which was excised and proved to be giant cell tumor of bone.
  • The metastatic lesions in the lungs also significantly reduced.
  • CONCLUSION: Interferon therapy may be an effective and safe treatment for spine giant cell tumor recurrence and metastasis in soft tissue.
  • The effectiveness may be time and dosage dependent.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / drug therapy. Interferon-alpha / therapeutic use. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Spinal Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biopsy. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Recombinant Proteins. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 21030898.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-1159
  • [Journal-full-title] Spine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Spine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Interferon-alpha; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 99210-65-8 / interferon alfa-2b
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76. Sugiura H, Yamada K, Sugiura T, Hida T, Mitsudomi T: Predictors of survival in patients with bone metastasis of lung cancer. Clin Orthop Relat Res; 2008 Mar;466(3):729-36
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  • [Title] Predictors of survival in patients with bone metastasis of lung cancer.
  • The prognosis of patients with bone metastasis from lung cancer has not been well documented.
  • We assessed the survival rates after bone metastasis and prognostic factors in 118 patients with bone metastases from lung cancer.
  • The cumulative survival rates after bone metastasis from lung cancer were 59.9% at 6 months, 31.6% at 1 year, and 11.3% at 2 years.
  • A favorable prognosis was more likely in women and patients with adenocarcinoma, solitary bone metastasis, no metastases to the appendicular bone, no pathologic fractures, performance status 1 or less, use of systemic chemotherapy, and use of an epithelial growth factor receptor inhibitor.
  • Analyses of single and multiple variables indicated better prognoses for patients with adenocarcinoma, no evidence of appendicular bone metastases, and treatment with an epithelial growth factor receptor inhibitor.
  • The data preliminarily suggest treatment with an epithelial growth factor receptor inhibitor may improve survival after bone metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Bone Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Protein Kinase Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Quinazolines / therapeutic use. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / antagonists & inhibitors
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Proportional Hazards Models. Retrospective Studies. Sex Factors. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18196360.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-921X
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical orthopaedics and related research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors; 0 / Quinazolines; EC 2.7.10.1 / EGFR protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; S65743JHBS / gefitinib
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2505203
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77. Wegener B, Müller PE, Jansson V, Krödel A, Heinert G, Dürr HR: Cervical spine metastasis of multiple myeloma: a case report with 16 years of follow-up. Spine (Phila Pa 1976); 2004 Sep 1;29(17):E368-72
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  • [Title] Cervical spine metastasis of multiple myeloma: a case report with 16 years of follow-up.
  • It slowly causes bone destruction due to bone marrow infiltration.
  • In patients with continuing neck pain and headache, one has to bear in mind the rare possibility of multiple myeloma or also other malignancies affecting the cervical spine.
  • RESULTS: Initial surgical treatment was aimed at palliation.
  • The patient died 16 years after the first procedure due to progression of the disease.
  • At the very least, a radiograph of the cervical spine and a routine blood test should be performed.
  • Surgical interventions must take into account the relatively long period of survival in multiple myeloma patients compared to patients with other secondary bone tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Cervical Vertebrae. Multiple Myeloma / secondary. Spinal Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease Progression. Fatal Outcome. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Ilium / radiography. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / radiotherapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Osteolysis / etiology. Osteolysis / radiography. Palliative Care. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Reoperation. Sacrum / radiography. Spinal Stenosis / etiology. Spinal Stenosis / surgery. Sternum / radiography. Thoracic Vertebrae / radiography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 15534399.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-1159
  • [Journal-full-title] Spine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Spine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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78. Ertas G, Ucer AR, Altundag MB, Durmus S, Calikoglu T, Ozbagi K, Abanuz H, Altundag K, Demirkasimoglu A: Medulloblastoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor in adults: prognostic factors and treatment results: a single-center experience from Turkey. Med Oncol; 2008;25(1):69-72
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  • [Title] Medulloblastoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor in adults: prognostic factors and treatment results: a single-center experience from Turkey.
  • We performed retrospective review of 29 adult patients with cerebellar medulloblastoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) who received craniospinal radiotherapy in Ankara Oncology Hospital between years 2000 and 2005.
  • All patients were operated followed by craniospinal irradiation; 11 of 29 patients also received chemotherapy.
  • All patients had no distant or spinal metastases at the time of diagnosis.
  • Median follow up time was 26 months.
  • Overall mean survival was 59.80 months in patients who received chemotherapy and 41.4 months in patients who did not have chemotherapy (P = 0.15).
  • Cranial relapses were observed in 3 of 29 patients, and 3 of 29 patients had distant metastases.
  • The mean time to cranial recurrence was 19 months; to distant metastases was 18 months.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Prognosis. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18188718.001).
  • [ISSN] 1357-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Medical oncology (Northwood, London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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79. Kan P, Gottfried ON, Blumenthal DT, Liu JK, Salzman KL, Townsend J, Jensen RL: Primary spinal yolk sac tumor with brain metastasis: case report and review of the literature. J Neurooncol; 2006 Jul;78(3):249-53
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  • [Title] Primary spinal yolk sac tumor with brain metastasis: case report and review of the literature.
  • Primary germ cell tumors of the spinal axis are very rare, with only a few case reports of germinomas and teratomas described in the literature.
  • METHODS: We present the unique case of a 25-year-old woman with an intradural, extramedullary primary yolk sac tumor (YST) at and below the level of the conus medullaris.
  • She was subsequently treated with four cycles of chemotherapy (intravenous cisplatin and etoposide), 40-Gy fractionated focal external beam radiation to the spine, and consolidation with four additional cycles of chemotherapy (intravenous carboplatin, vinblastine, etoposide, and bleomycin).
  • Despite an initial reduction in tumor size and clinical improvement in her neurologic exam, she re-presented a year after surgery with gross enlargement of her spinal tumor and CSF dissemination with metastasis to her brain.
  • Despite further chemotherapy and radiotherapy, the patient died from her disseminated YST.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This case demonstrates that primary YSTs may occur in the spine, and like their intracranial counterparts, are associated with poor prognosis and dissemination through the neuroaxis.
  • When feasible (no evidence of CSF dissemination, metastasis, or multifocal disease), optimal treatment includes as extensive resection of tumor as possible followed by adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation.
  • The authors review the available literature on the treatment of intracranial malignant germ cell tumors, extrapolated to apply to the much rarer spinal lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / secondary. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Spinal Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16773223.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 16
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80. Lüdike A, Knolle J, Schön R, Hinze P, Hofmann HS, Schreiber J: [Primary pulmonary rhabdomyosarcoma as a rare differential diagnosis of small cell lung cancer]. Pneumologie; 2005 Jul;59(7):456-60
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  • [Title] [Primary pulmonary rhabdomyosarcoma as a rare differential diagnosis of small cell lung cancer].
  • Primary pulmonary rhabdomyosarcoma is a rare entity and the histological differential diagnosis can be difficult.
  • We report on a 43-year old female patient, smoker (25 pack-years), in whom a large solitary brain metastasis was diagnosed and enucleated.
  • Histological examination revealed a typical small cell carcinoma and histological examination of biopsies obtained from a tumor in the left upper lobe of the lung was compatible with a small cell carcinoma.
  • Despite chemotherapy there was a progressive tumor growth.
  • Bronchial biopsies again showed a small cell tumor, although immunohistochemistry proved it to be a pleomorphic rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • Due to the progressive tumor growth with necrosis and superinfection and a lack of further metastases lobectomy of the left upper lobe was performed, complicated by postoperative pleural empyema, limiting the possibilities of adjuvant therapy.
  • Early relapse occurred with pleural, pulmonary, chest wall and spinal metastases.
  • Laminectomy and extirpation of the spinal metastases, local radiotherapy and chemotherapy with iphosphamide and doxorubicine led to partial remission and clinical improvement for few months only.
  • The patient died from metastatic primary rhabdomyosarcoma of the lung.
  • This rare tumor mimicked small cell lung cancer.
  • Appraisal of the atypical clinical course and a close dialogue between pathologists and clinicians enabled the correct diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Recurrence

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  • (PMID = 16047279.001).
  • [ISSN] 0934-8387
  • [Journal-full-title] Pneumologie (Stuttgart, Germany)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pneumologie
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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81. Kawashima H, Ishikawa S, Fukase M, Ogose A, Hotta T: Successful surgical treatment of angiosarcoma of the spine: a case report. Spine (Phila Pa 1976); 2004 Jul 1;29(13):E280-3
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  • [Title] Successful surgical treatment of angiosarcoma of the spine: a case report.
  • OBJECTIVES: To report primary angiosarcoma of the T8 vertebra, which was successfully managed with en bloc spondylectomy and postoperative chemotherapy.
  • SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: To the best of our knowledge, the present case is the first documented example of successful treatment of angiosarcoma of the spine.
  • A total spondylectomy of T8 by en bloc resection was performed.
  • The defect of the vertebral body was reconstructed with a apatite-wollastonite glass ceramic prosthesis; moreover, the T6-T10 vertebrae were instrumented by the pedicle screw, hook and rod system.
  • The histologic diagnosis of the excised specimen was high-grade angiosarcoma.
  • Postoperative chemotherapy was implemented to prevent local recurrence and distant metastasis.
  • RESULTS: No sign of local recurrence or metastasis was evident 5 years after surgery.
  • CONCLUSION: This case is the first documented example of successful treatment of angiosarcoma of the thoracic spine.
  • Radiologic findings were nonspecific; consequently, correct diagnosis was established by pathologic examination.
  • Immediate, aggressive operative treatment and postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy afforded a satisfactory outcome.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemangiosarcoma / surgery. Spinal Neoplasms / surgery. Thoracic Vertebrae / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Back Pain / etiology. Bone Screws. Bone Substitutes / therapeutic use. Calcium Compounds. Ceramics. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Durapatite. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Hypesthesia / etiology. Ifosfamide / administration & dosage. Internal Fixators. Male. Middle Aged. Osteolysis / etiology. Prostheses and Implants. Prosthesis Implantation. Remission Induction. Silicates. Spinal Cord Compression / etiology

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  • (PMID = 15223950.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-1159
  • [Journal-full-title] Spine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Spine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Bone Substitutes; 0 / Calcium Compounds; 0 / Silicates; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; 91D9GV0Z28 / Durapatite; S4255P4G5M / calcium silicate; UM20QQM95Y / Ifosfamide
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82. Deer TR, Caraway DL, Kim CK, Dempsey CD, Stewart CD, McNeil KF: Clinical experience with intrathecal bupivacaine in combination with opioid for the treatment of chronic pain related to failed back surgery syndrome and metastatic cancer pain of the spine. Spine J; 2002 Jul-Aug;2(4):274-8
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  • [Title] Clinical experience with intrathecal bupivacaine in combination with opioid for the treatment of chronic pain related to failed back surgery syndrome and metastatic cancer pain of the spine.
  • This drug has been used in many clinical situations including intrathecal infusion.
  • This article examines a large patient group receiving bupivacaine with opioids over an extended period of time and analyzes efficacy and safety.
  • The patients had pain related to failed back surgery syndrome or metastatic cancer to the spine.
  • PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy and safety of intrathecal bupivacaine combined with opioids for treatment of pain of spinal origin when opioids alone were inadequate.
  • The secondary purpose of this study was to determine if the combination of bupivacaine and opioids created a neurological safety risk.
  • These data were compared with a comparable time in the opioid alone treatment arm.
  • The population included 84 noncancer patients and 25 cancer patients.
  • Secondary objectives included measuring the amount of oral and transdermal medication required (opioid and nonopioid), emergency visits, routine office visits and patient satisfaction.
  • These secondary objectives give a measure of health-care utilization.
  • We also reviewed neurological complications during the combined arm of treatment.
  • During the course of treatment with intrathecal bupivacaine, there were no irreversible complications.
  • CONCLUSION: Bupivacaine, when used in combination with opioids, is a helpful and safe method of treatment in a select population of patients who have not responded to intrathecal opioids alone.
  • [MeSH-major] Anesthetics, Local / therapeutic use. Back Pain / drug therapy. Bupivacaine / therapeutic use. Pain, Postoperative / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Analgesics, Opioid / administration & dosage. Analgesics, Opioid / therapeutic use. Drug Combinations. Female. Humans. Infusion Pumps, Implantable / adverse effects. Injections, Spinal. Male. Middle Aged. Pain Measurement. Patient Satisfaction. Retrospective Studies. Spinal Neoplasms / complications. Spinal Neoplasms / secondary. Spine / surgery

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  • (PMID = 14589479.001).
  • [ISSN] 1529-9430
  • [Journal-full-title] The spine journal : official journal of the North American Spine Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Spine J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Analgesics, Opioid; 0 / Anesthetics, Local; 0 / Drug Combinations; Y8335394RO / Bupivacaine
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83. Kusama M, Kaise H, Nakayama S, Ota D, Aoki T, Koyanagi Y, Misaka T, Matunaga T: [A case of breast cancer with multiple bone metastases that responded remarkably to doxifluridine (5'-DFUR), cyclophosphamide (CPA), medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) and pamidronate disodium therapy]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2002 May;29(5):785-9
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  • [Title] [A case of breast cancer with multiple bone metastases that responded remarkably to doxifluridine (5'-DFUR), cyclophosphamide (CPA), medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) and pamidronate disodium therapy].
  • She later developed a sternal metastasis and was recommended for intravenous chemotherapy.
  • However, she refused such an intensive therapy and opted for immunotherapy.
  • Afterward, she came to our hospital because of spinal metastases with back pain.
  • This combined chemotherapy relieved her pain after one course.
  • After 5 courses, tumor markers were reduced to the normal range.
  • After 14 courses, bone X-P revealed that the osteolytic bone showed sclerotic changes and bone scintigraphy showed a complete remission (CR).
  • This regimen is possible on an outpatient basis, and it may play an important role from the standpoint of treatment effectiveness and the quality of life of the patient.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bone Neoplasms / drug therapy. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Breast Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Diphosphonates / administration & dosage. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Floxuridine / administration & dosage. Humans. Medroxyprogesterone Acetate / administration & dosage. Middle Aged. Quality of Life

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  • (PMID = 12040686.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Diphosphonates; 039LU44I5M / Floxuridine; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; C2QI4IOI2G / Medroxyprogesterone Acetate; OYY3447OMC / pamidronate; V1JK16Y2JP / doxifluridine
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84. Kushchayev S, Kushchayeva Y, Theodore N, Preul MC, Clark OH: Percutaneous vertebroplasty for thyroid cancer metastases to the spine. Thyroid; 2010 May;20(5):555-60
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  • [Title] Percutaneous vertebroplasty for thyroid cancer metastases to the spine.
  • BACKGROUND: Spinal metastases secondary to thyroid cancer of follicular and parafollicular cell origin are uncommon but may require stabilization of the compromised vertebrae to prevent fracture with spinal cord injury.
  • Such treatment may also relieve pain and improve survival and quality of life.
  • SUMMARY: Percutaneous vertebroplasty (PV) is a minimally invasive, radiologically guided procedure whereby bone cement is injected into a structurally weakened vertebra to provide immediate stability.
  • The authors present two cases of thyroid cancer with spinal metastases.
  • CONCLUSION: PV is a minimally invasive spinal procedure and should be considered for patients with metastatic thyroid cancer with spinal metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / secondary. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / surgery. Spinal Neoplasms / secondary. Spinal Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Vertebroplasty
  • [MeSH-minor] Activities of Daily Living. Analgesics / administration & dosage. Analgesics / therapeutic use. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Iodine Radioisotopes. Joint Instability. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neck Dissection. Pain / drug therapy. Pain / etiology. Palliative Care. Quality of Life. Spinal Cord Compression / etiology. Spinal Cord Compression / surgery. Thyroidectomy. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 20450433.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-9077
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Analgesics; 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes
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85. Naito Y, Akeda K, Kasai Y, Matsumine A, Tabata T, Nagao K, Uchida A: Lumbar metastasis of choriocarcinoma. Spine (Phila Pa 1976); 2009 Jul 1;34(15):E538-43
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  • [Title] Lumbar metastasis of choriocarcinoma.
  • STUDY DESIGN: A case of lumbar metastasis of a choriocarcinoma is presented.
  • OBJECTIVE: To present and review a rare case of metastatic choriocarcinoma in the lumbar spine.
  • SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Choriocarcinoma is a highly anaplastic malignancy derived from trophoblastic cells characterized by the secretion of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and early hematogenous metastasis.
  • However, metastatic choriocarcinoma in the spine is extremely rare.
  • Although 2 cases of metastasis in lumbar and/or sacral vertebra have been reported, the efficacy of surgical treatment for the spinal metastasis of choriocarcinoma is not yet known.
  • METHODS: The clinical course, radiologic features, pathology, and outcome of the treatment of metastatic choriocarcinoma of the lumbar spine is reported.
  • After computed tomography-guided needle biopsy, a clinical and pathologic diagnosis of lumbar metastasis of choriocarcinoma was made.
  • Surgical resection of the localized L2 vertebra lesion was performed by total en bloc spondylectomy after a poor response to initial chemotherapy with methotrexate.
  • Postsurgically, the serum level of hCG explosively increased and local recurrences around the original L2 vertebra and epidural metastasis abruptly developed.
  • Lung metastases also occurred concurrently and progressed and the patient eventually died to the disease.
  • CONCLUSION: We have reported a rare case of lumbar metastasis of choriocarcinoma after a normal-term pregnancy.
  • This is the first report of lumbar metastasis of choriocarcinoma treated by spinal surgery.
  • Because surgical resection of a lumbar metastasis of choriocarcinoma involves a substantial risk of profuse hemorrhage, local recurrence and the spread of metastasis, multiagent chemotherapy in combination with radiotherapy should be preformed before surgical resection.
  • [MeSH-major] Choriocarcinoma / secondary. Lumbar Vertebrae / pathology. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / pathology. Spinal Neoplasms / secondary. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Biopsy. Chorionic Gonadotropin / blood. Chorionic Gonadotropin / secretion. Drug Therapy / methods. Drug Therapy / standards. Epidural Neoplasms / secondary. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Hydatidiform Mole / complications. Hydatidiform Mole / physiopathology. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Neoplasm Metastasis / pathology. Neoplasm Metastasis / physiopathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neurosurgical Procedures. Pregnancy. Treatment Failure

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  • (PMID = 19564760.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-1159
  • [Journal-full-title] Spine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Spine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin
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86. Mouri Y, Yoshida M, Nakano S, Yorozuya K, Fujii K, Fukutomi T, Nakaoka T, Yamada S, Hara K: A case of osteonecrosis of the jaw in a breast cancer patient with bone metastases receiving long-term treatment with bisphosphonates. Breast Cancer; 2009;16(2):147-50
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. Trastuzumab .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A case of osteonecrosis of the jaw in a breast cancer patient with bone metastases receiving long-term treatment with bisphosphonates.
  • Bisphosphonates (BPs) are often used for the treatment of several diseases such as osteoporosis, cancer-associated hypercalcemia, and osteolytic bone metastasis.
  • Recently, there have been reports of osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) in cancer patients whose treatment regimens include BPs.
  • In this case report, we describe complications and treatment of ONJ in a breast cancer patient with bone metastases who received long-term treatment with BPs.
  • A 70-year-old woman underwent modified radical mastectomy on her left breast cancer and received oral 5-fluorouracil derivatives for 2 years in another hospital.
  • Eleven years after the surgery, she came to our hospital complaining of spinalgia and was diagnosed with recurrent breast cancer with multiple metastases to the stomach, liver, multiple lymph nodes, and spine.
  • After surgery for spine metastases, she was given a combination therapy of trastuzumab (initial bolus: 170 mg/body, followed by two or more cycles of 85 mg/body) every week, docetaxel (100 mg/body) every 3 weeks, and BPs (90 mg/body) every 4 weeks.
  • Medical oncologists need to recognize ONJ as a serious side effect of BP treatment; dentists and oral and maxillofacial surgeons need to thoroughly consult patients regarding the administration of BPs and have them make an informed consent.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / drug therapy. Diphosphonates / adverse effects. Jaw Diseases / chemically induced. Osteonecrosis / chemically induced. Spinal Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antibodies, Monoclonal / administration & dosage. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Taxoids / administration & dosage. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Trastuzumab


87. Seethala RR, Sturgis EM, Raymond AK, Deavers MT: Postirradiation osteosarcoma of the mandible with heterologous differentiation. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2006 Mar;130(3):385-8
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  • We report a case of a mandibular osteoblastic osteosarcoma with rhabdomyosarcomatous differentiation in a 45-year-old man who had a history of Hodgkin lymphoma that was treated with chemotherapy and radiation.
  • Radiographs showed a destructive osteoblastic tumor of the mandible that was proven by biopsy to be osteosarcoma.
  • After the patient underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy, the tumor was resected.
  • It contained a high-grade osteosarcoma composed of osteoblastic and chondroblastic elements that had no definitive response to therapy.
  • The patient received additional chemotherapy and radiation therapy but developed lung, brain, and spinal metastases and died 7 months after surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Mandibular Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced / pathology. Neoplasms, Second Primary / pathology. Osteosarcoma / secondary. Rhabdomyosarcoma / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Transformation, Neoplastic. Combined Modality Therapy. Fatal Outcome. Hodgkin Disease / pathology. Hodgkin Disease / radiotherapy. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis

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  • (PMID = 16519570.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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88. Weisskopf M, Münker R, Hermanns-Sachweh B, Ohnsorge JA, Siebert C: Epithelioid sarcoma in the thoracic spine. Eur Spine J; 2006 Oct;15 Suppl 5:604-9
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  • [Title] Epithelioid sarcoma in the thoracic spine.
  • Epithelioid sarcoma is a rare and highly malignant soft tissue tumor that is commonly found in the extremities and rarely in the trunk area.
  • This malignant tumor often mimics granuloma or nodular fasciitis, which causes a delay in establishing the diagnosis.
  • This type of cancer has a high recurrence rate.
  • Surgical treatment requires wide radical resection.
  • The objective of this case report is to highlight the unique location of a rare neoplasm and to illustrate the relentless course of epithelioid sarcoma despite initial radical resection.
  • A 14-year-old boy was admitted to our facility with a soft tissue mass on the right lower thoracic spine.
  • The large tumor mass had deeply penetrated into the muscles, infiltrated the neuroforamen of T9-T10 level, and compressed the dural sac.
  • Wide excision of the mass, laminectomy and spine fusion with instrumentation was performed.
  • The patient received chemotherapy and irradiation.
  • The first recurrence of the neoplasm was seen as a contralateral metastasis 21 months after the resection.
  • Initial wide excision of the neoplasm and adjuvant therapy including chemotherapy and irradiation seem to slow down the relentless course of epithelioid sarcoma in the trunk.
  • [MeSH-major] Orthopedic Procedures. Sarcoma / diagnosis. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / diagnosis. Spinal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thoracic Vertebrae
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Biopsy. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Orthopedic Fixation Devices. Positron-Emission Tomography. Postoperative Period. Radiography, Thoracic. Spinal Fusion

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  • (PMID = 16474944.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-0932
  • [Journal-full-title] European spine journal : official publication of the European Spine Society, the European Spinal Deformity Society, and the European Section of the Cervical Spine Research Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Spine J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1602205
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89. Otani S, Toyota N, Nozaka K, Wakatsuki T, Takebayashi M, Kamasako A, Tanida O, Hashiguchi H, Ohgami Y, Hirooka Y: [Successful combination therapy with 5'-DFUR and MPA for breast cancer with spinal and vertebral metastases]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2004 Dec;31(13):2151-3
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. FLUOROURACIL .

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  • [Title] [Successful combination therapy with 5'-DFUR and MPA for breast cancer with spinal and vertebral metastases].
  • We report a case of breast cancer with spinal and vertebral lesions.
  • A 49-year-old premenopausal woman with a left breast tumor was admitted to our hospital for acute weakness of the lower limbs and dysuria.
  • The tumor in the left breast was 5.0 cm in diameter with skin ulcer, and it was diagnosed as breast cancer.
  • Magnetic resonance (MR) image showed multiple vertebral and spinal metastases from breast cancer.
  • Chemotherapy, consisting of cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin and 5-fluorouracil (CAF) was initiated.
  • We performed palliative mastectomy after 3 cycles of CAF therapy.
  • Histopathological findings of breast tumor showed scirrhous carcinoma.
  • Although the estrogen and progesterone receptor status of primary tumor was negative, chemo-endocrine therapy, consisting of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) and doxifluridine (5'-DFUR) was given as daily therapy, and vertebral and spinal lesions were reduced.
  • For patients with metastatic breast cancer, complete remission is uncommon, and disease stabilization is a reasonable goal of successful therapy.
  • In this respect, therapy with CAF, followed by MPA and 5'-DFUR, was successful in the patient.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Scirrhous / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma, Scirrhous / secondary. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / secondary. Spinal Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Floxuridine / administration & dosage. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Mastectomy. Medroxyprogesterone Acetate / administration & dosage. Middle Aged. Remission Induction

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  • (PMID = 15628761.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 039LU44I5M / Floxuridine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; C2QI4IOI2G / Medroxyprogesterone Acetate; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil; V1JK16Y2JP / doxifluridine; CAF protocol
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90. Tartler U, Mang R, Schulte KW, Hengge U, Megahed M, Reifenberger J: [Neurocutaneous melanosis and malignant melanoma]. Hautarzt; 2004 Oct;55(10):971-4
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  • [Title] [Neurocutaneous melanosis and malignant melanoma].
  • After he had developed neurological symptoms (grand mal seizures), a cerebral metastasis of a malignant melanoma without a primary melanoma was found.
  • The patient was diagnosed as having a neurocutaneous melanosis with a cerebral metastasis.
  • In spite of a variety of therapeutic attempts (surgery, radiation therapy and chemotherapy) he followed a rapidly progressive, lethal course with increased intracranial pressure, hydrocephalus and spinal metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / diagnosis. Melanosis / diagnosis. Neurocutaneous Syndromes / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Brain / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Male. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / therapy. Nevus, Pigmented / diagnosis. Nevus, Pigmented / pathology. Nevus, Pigmented / therapy. Skin / pathology. Spinal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Spinal Neoplasms / pathology. Spinal Neoplasms / secondary. Spinal Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 15365641.001).
  • [ISSN] 0017-8470
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift fur Dermatologie, Venerologie, und verwandte Gebiete
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hautarzt
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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91. Waki F, Ando M, Takashima A, Yonemori K, Nokihara H, Miyake M, Tateishi U, Tsuta K, Shimada Y, Fujiwara Y, Tamura T: Prognostic factors and clinical outcomes in patients with leptomeningeal metastasis from solid tumors. J Neurooncol; 2009 Jun;93(2):205-12

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Prognostic factors and clinical outcomes in patients with leptomeningeal metastasis from solid tumors.
  • BACKGROUND: Leptomeningeal metastasis (LM) occurs in 4-15% of patients with solid tumors.
  • Although the clinical outcomes in cancer patients have been improving recently, no standard treatment for LM has been established as yet.
  • RESULTS: The primary diseases were as follows; lung cancer (n = 36), breast cancer (n = 33), gastric cancer (n = 8), and others (n = 8).
  • Forty-nine patients had brain metastasis at the time of diagnosis of the LM, and in 51 patients, MRI revealed meningeal dissemination in the brain or spine.
  • Thirty-one patients, including 19 with breast cancer, four with lung cancer, five with gastric cancer and three with other cancers, were treated by intrathecal (IT) chemotherapy.
  • A univariate analysis identified breast cancer, good PS (0-1), time to development of the LM (>1 year), and treatment by IT chemotherapy as being associated with a good prognosis, and multivariate analysis identified poor PS (HR: 1.72 (95% CI, 1.04-2.86) P = 0.04) and MRI-proven LM (HR: 1.82 (95% CI, 1.11-2.98) P = 0.02) as being associated with a poor prognosis.
  • CONCLUSION: In patients with poor prognostic factors, such as poor PS or MRI-proven LM, palliative therapy might be the most suitable treatment strategy.
  • [MeSH-major] Meningeal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Meningeal Neoplasms / secondary. Neoplasm Metastasis / pathology. Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Brain Neoplasms / mortality. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Breast Neoplasms / mortality. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Female. Humans. Lung Neoplasms / mortality. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / pathology. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / secondary. Stomach Neoplasms / mortality. Stomach Neoplasms / pathology. Survival Analysis. Time Factors. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19043775.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7373
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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92. Padovani L, Sunyach MP, Perol D, Mercier C, Alapetite C, Haie-Meder C, Hoffstetter S, Muracciole X, Kerr C, Wagner JP, Lagrange JL, Maire JP, Cowen D, Frappaz D, Carrie C: Common strategy for adult and pediatric medulloblastoma: a multicenter series of 253 adults. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2007 Jun 1;68(2):433-40
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  • Univariate analysis showed that survival significantly correlated with metastasis, postsurgical performance status, brainstem involvement, involvement of the floor of the fourth ventricle (V4), and radiation dose to the spine and to the posterior cerebral fossa (PCF).
  • In the standard-risk subgroup there was no overall survival difference between patients treated with axial doses of >or=34 Gy and patients treated with craniospinal doses <34 Gy plus chemotherapy.
  • Results suggest that patients with standard-risk disease could be treated with radiochemotherapy, reducing doses to the craniospinal area, maintaining at least 50 Gy to the PCF.
  • The role of chemotherapy for this group is still unclear.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebellar Neoplasms / drug therapy. Cerebellar Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Medulloblastoma / drug therapy. Medulloblastoma / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Factors. Analysis of Variance. Combined Modality Therapy / methods. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate