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1. Singh A, Singh P, Sahni K, Shukla P, Shukla V, Pant NK: Non-small cell lung cancer presenting with choroidal metastasis as first sign and showing good response to chemotherapy alone: a case report. J Med Case Rep; 2010;4:185

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Non-small cell lung cancer presenting with choroidal metastasis as first sign and showing good response to chemotherapy alone: a case report.
  • The primary sites for choroidal metastasis in decreasing order and by gender are: breast, lung, unknown primary, gastrointestinal and pancreas, skin melanoma and other rare sources in females, and lung, unknown primary, gastrointestinal and pancreas, prostate, kidney, skin melanoma and other rare sources in males.
  • Available treatment options are external beam radiotherapy and plaque radiotherapy, while new methods like surgical resection, transpupillary thermotherapy and intravitreal chemotherapy offer promises for the future.
  • The use of chemotherapy alone for choroidal metastases is not widely reported.
  • He was found to have an adenocarcinoma of the lung with choroidal metastasis as the first presenting sign.
  • There were no findings of metastasis involving his contralateral eye.
  • He was administered chemotherapy based on gemcitabine and carboplatin.
  • He had significant progressive subjective and objective improvement since his first chemotherapy.
  • His current best corrected visual acuity is 20/60 after three cycles of chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Chemotherapy alone can be used as an effective mode of treatment in patients who have primary tumors that respond to chemotherapy.

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  • [Cites] Arch Ophthalmol. 1973 Feb;89(2):97-9 [4683617.001]
  • [Cites] Arch Ophthalmol. 1974 Oct;92(4):276-86 [4412321.001]
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  • (PMID = 20565905.001).
  • [ISSN] 1752-1947
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medical case reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Case Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2916915
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2. Sciacca V, Ciorra AA, Di Fonzo C, Rossi R, Pistillucci G, Lugini A, D'Aprile M: Long-term survival of metastatic melanoma to the ileum with evidence of primary cutaneous disease after 15 years of follow-up: a case report. Tumori; 2010 Jul-Aug;96(4):640-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Long-term survival of metastatic melanoma to the ileum with evidence of primary cutaneous disease after 15 years of follow-up: a case report.
  • The small bowel is the most common site of gastrointestinal metastasis from cutaneous melanoma.
  • Although rare primary melanoma of the small bowel has been described, more frequently these lesions originate from unknown cutaneous melanoma.
  • Here we report the case of a 58-year-old man with a diagnosis of melanoma of the ileum without evidence of primary cutaneous disease.
  • After 15 years, during the clinical and radiological follow-up, a cutaneous melanoma in the left parietal side of the scalp, probably corresponding to the primary lesion with abdominal node metastasis, was diagnosed.
  • After 6 months of chemotherapy with fotemustine, the patient showed a complete response.
  • At present, he is still alive 18 years after the diagnosis of intestinal metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Ileal Neoplasms / secondary. Melanoma / secondary. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Positron-Emission Tomography. Survival Analysis. Time Factors. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 20968150.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-8916
  • [Journal-full-title] Tumori
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tumori
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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3. Nicol I, Chuto G, Gaudy-Marqueste C, Brenot-Rossi I, Grob JJ, Richard MA: [Role of FDG PET-CT in cutaneous melanoma]. Bull Cancer; 2008 Nov;95(11):1089-101
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Transliterated title] Place de la TEP-TDM au FDG dans le mélanome cutané
  • RESULTS: PET-CT is not indicated for the diagnosis of the malignancy of a suspicious cutaneous lesion, or for initial regional node staging.
  • The sole curative treatment of melanoma being surgery, the most useful indications of PET-CT are preoperative staging of one (or more) nodal or distant metastases, whether histologically confirmed or not.
  • Preoperative PET-CT can spare a patient with unknown metastases a useless surgery.
  • PET-CT is not indicated for assessing response to chemotherapy, except in clinical trials.
  • [MeSH-major] Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Melanoma / radionuclide imaging. Positron-Emission Tomography. Radiopharmaceuticals. Skin Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis / radionuclide imaging. Neoplasm Staging / methods. Neoplasms, Second Primary / radionuclide imaging

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  • (PMID = 19036682.001).
  • [ISSN] 1769-6917
  • [Journal-full-title] Bulletin du cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bull Cancer
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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4. Yokoyama H, Nakanishi H, Kodera Y, Ikehara Y, Ohashi N, Ito Y, Koike M, Fujiwara M, Tatematsu M, Nakao A: Biological significance of isolated tumor cells and micrometastasis in lymph nodes evaluated using a green fluorescent protein-tagged human gastric cancer cell line. Clin Cancer Res; 2006 Jan 15;12(2):361-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Biological significance of isolated tumor cells and micrometastasis in lymph nodes evaluated using a green fluorescent protein-tagged human gastric cancer cell line.
  • PURPOSE: The biological significance of isolated tumor cells and micrometastasis in lymph node defined by the International Union against Cancer remains essentially unknown because of the lack of appropriate animal models.
  • In the present study, we developed a lymph node micrometastasis model featuring a human gastric cancer cell line tagged with green fluorescent protein gene (GCIY-EGFP), which allows visualization of even isolated tumor cells in the development of metastasis without histologic procedure.
  • Using this model, we investigated the effect of surgery and chemotherapy on the growth of early-phase metastasis formation in the lymph nodes.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: The time course of spontaneous inguinal lymph node metastasis after s.c. inoculation of GCIY-EGFP cells into nude mice was examined with fluorescence dissecting microscopy.
  • Then, the effects of surgical removal of the primary tumor with or without anti-asialo GM1 treatment or postoperative chemotherapy on the growth of isolated tumor cells and micrometastasis in the lymph nodes were examined.
  • RESULTS: GCIY-EGFP cells were found to metastasize spontaneously to the inguinal lymph nodes to form isolated tumor cells, micrometastasis, and, finally, develop macroscopic metastasis at 1 to 2, 3 to 5, and 5 weeks postinjection, respectively.
  • When the primary tumors were removed within 2 weeks of inoculation, isolated tumor cells, but not micrometastasis, in the lymph nodes regressed by 4 weeks after surgery in all the mice examined (five of five).
  • This spontaneous regression of isolated tumor cells was completely reversed by anti-asialo GM1 treatment, which could deplete natural killer cells effectively in nude mice.
  • Chemotherapy following resection of the primary tumor at an early stage partially eliminated the remaining micrometastasis in the lymph nodes.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that isolated tumor cells in the regional lymph nodes regressed by removal of the primary tumor mainly via natural killer cell-mediated antitumor activity and that micrometastasis in the lymph nodes could be effectively eliminated by the postoperative chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Green Fluorescent Proteins. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Stomach Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. G(M1) Ganglioside / immunology. Gastrectomy. Humans. Killer Cells, Natural / immunology. Lymph Node Excision. Lymph Nodes. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Mice. Mice, Nude. Neoplasm Staging. Neoplasm Transplantation. Postoperative Care. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 16428473.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / enhanced green fluorescent protein; 147336-22-9 / Green Fluorescent Proteins; 37758-47-7 / G(M1) Ganglioside; 71012-19-6 / asialo GM1 ganglioside
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5. Rivière F, Bonnichon-Py A, Le Floch H, Salles Y, Staub E, Mairovitz A, Foehrenbach H, Margery J, Pons F, Marotel C, Vaylet F: [Pulmonary malignant melanoma: primary or metastatic?]. Rev Mal Respir; 2010;27(1):88-92
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  • [Title] [Pulmonary malignant melanoma: primary or metastatic?].
  • Primary pulmonary malignant melanoma is rare (0.01% of pulmonary cancers); only 25 cases are published in the literature.
  • The diagnosis of primary pulmonary malignant melanoma is controversial, the pathogenesis is unknown and a pulmonary metastasis from a mucocutaneous melanoma is the main differential diagnosis.
  • The diagnosis is based on the strict application of the Jensen criteria published in 1967.
  • We report the case of an asymptomatic 82-year-old man presenting with a fortuitously discovered primary pulmonary malignant melanoma according to the Jensen criteria and treated by lobectomy (cT1N0M0).
  • Surgery seems to be the gold standard treatment on account of the poor sensitivity of melanoma to chemotherapy and radiotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Melanoma / pathology. Melanoma / secondary. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Humans. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted. Lung / pathology. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Male. Positron-Emission Tomography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 20146959.001).
  • [ISSN] 1776-2588
  • [Journal-full-title] Revue des maladies respiratoires
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Mal Respir
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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6. Kakutani K, Doita M, Nishida K, Miyamoto H, Kurosaka M: Radiculopathy due to malignant melanoma in the sacrum with unknown primary site. Eur Spine J; 2008 Sep;17 Suppl 2:S271-4
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  • [Title] Radiculopathy due to malignant melanoma in the sacrum with unknown primary site.
  • Melanoma is an interesting tumor, showing the appearance of metastasis without any trace of its primary lesion.
  • To report a very rare case of malignant melanoma in the sacrum with unknown primary origin.
  • Plain radiograph, computed tomography scan, and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a destructive lesion in the sacrum and left ilium, which infiltrated the spinal canal and sacroiliac joint.
  • The tumor cells were immunoreactive for HMB-45.
  • The pathological diagnosis was malignant melanoma.
  • No obvious primary malignant melanoma was detected on the skin surface, on the oral or anal mucosa, or in the fundus oculi.
  • Following radiotherapy and chemotherapy, the severe buttock pain disappeared and the patient was able to walk without impediment.
  • However the patient died nine months after initial diagnosis.
  • Malignant melanoma in the sacrum with an unknown primary site, showing S1 radiculopathy is reported for the first time.
  • The melanoma could have been a metastatic tumor of the sacrum, although the primary site was not detected.
  • The incidence of primary melanoma is increasing faster than any other cancer.
  • Thus treatment of patients with spinal metastasis of melanoma is an important challenge for orthopedic surgeons.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / secondary. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / pathology. Radiculopathy / etiology. Radiculopathy / pathology. Sacrum / pathology. Spinal Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Back Pain / etiology. Back Pain / pathology. Back Pain / physiopathology. Disease Progression. Drug Therapy. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Ilium / pathology. Ilium / radiography. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Polyradiculopathy / etiology. Polyradiculopathy / pathology. Polyradiculopathy / physiopathology. Radiotherapy. Sacroiliac Joint / pathology. Sacroiliac Joint / radiography. Spinal Canal / pathology. Spinal Canal / radiography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Failure. Urination Disorders / etiology. Urination Disorders / pathology. Urination Disorders / physiopathology

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  • (PMID = 18075762.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-0932
  • [Journal-full-title] European spine journal : official publication of the European Spine Society, the European Spinal Deformity Society, and the European Section of the Cervical Spine Research Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Spine J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2525896
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7. Garg PK, Khurana N, Hadke NS: Subcutaneous and breast metastasis from asymptomatic gallbladder carcinoma. Hepatobiliary Pancreat Dis Int; 2009 Apr;8(2):209-11
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Subcutaneous and breast metastasis from asymptomatic gallbladder carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Though gallbladder carcinoma is associated with early lymphatic and hematogenous spread, the only common extra-abdominal site of metastasis is lung.
  • Gallbladder carcinoma metastasizing to breast and subcutaneous tissue is not known.
  • METHOD: This report describes an interesting and unusual case of asymptomatic gallbladder carcinoma presenting with subcutaneous and breast metastasis.
  • The patient was investigated for a primary neoplasm.
  • She was diagnosed as a case of metastatic adenocarcinoma of the gallbladder and palliative combination chemotherapy with gemcitabine and carboplatin was given.
  • But she developed jaundice and deteriorated dramatically in a short span of time.
  • No specific therapy could be started and she was given supportive treatment.
  • She died within three weeks of diagnosis due to hepatic encephalopathy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This report highlights an unusual metastasis of gallbladder carcinoma to the breast and subcutaneous tissue presenting as multiple lesions, which has never been reported in the English literature.
  • These were unknown sites of metastasis for carcinoma of the gallbladder.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / secondary. Skin Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 19357037.001).
  • [ISSN] 1499-3872
  • [Journal-full-title] Hepatobiliary & pancreatic diseases international : HBPD INT
  • [ISO-abbreviation] HBPD INT
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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8. Boghossian V, Owen ID, Nuli B, Xiao PQ: Neuroendocrine (Merkel cell) carcinoma of the retroperitoneum with no identifiable primary site. World J Surg Oncol; 2007;5:117

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  • [Title] Neuroendocrine (Merkel cell) carcinoma of the retroperitoneum with no identifiable primary site.
  • BACKGROUND: Neuroendocrine carcinoma is an aggressive neoplasm that mainly affects elderly Caucasians and typically arises in sun-exposed areas of the skin.
  • The disease is rather rare and only a relatively few cases present with no apparent primary lesion.
  • Pathological and immunohistochemical analysis of the transabdominal CT-guided biopsy specimen revealed tissue consistent with neuroendocrine carcinoma.
  • This would be consistent with a presumptive diagnosis of primary nodal disease.
  • Alternatively, an initial skin lesion could have spontaneously regressed and the retroperitoneal mass represents a single site of metastasis.
  • Moreover, metastasis to the retroperitoneal lymph nodes has been reported as relatively common when compared to other sites such as liver, bone, brain and skin.
  • CONCLUSION: Wide local excision of the primary tumor is the surgical treatment of choice for localized disease.
  • We propose that further studies are needed to elucidate the true efficacy of chemotherapy in conventional as well as unconventional patients with neuroendocrine carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Merkel Cell / secondary. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / secondary. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / pathology. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy, Needle. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Laparotomy / methods. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Risk Assessment. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17949500.001).
  • [ISSN] 1477-7819
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2117014
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9. Bedikian AY, Papadopoulos NE, Kim KB, Vardeleon A, Smith T, Lu B, Deitcher SR: A pilot study with vincristine sulfate liposome infusion in patients with metastatic melanoma. Melanoma Res; 2008 Dec;18(6):400-4
The Lens. Cited by Patents in .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Vincristine sulfate liposome infusion (VSLI) is a sphingomyelin/cholesterol liposome encapsulated formulation of vincristine that results in an extended drug circulation time and the potential for enhanced malignancy targeting, exposure, and anticancer activity.
  • Safety, tumor response, and survival were determined.
  • Twenty-seven patients with metastatic melanoma of cutaneous (n=19), uveal (n=4), mucosal (n=1), and unknown (n=3) primary were treated.
  • Twenty-five (93%) patients had received one or more prior lines of chemotherapy and/or immunotherapy; 14 (48%) had received a vinblastine-containing regimen.
  • One complete (uveal melanoma metastatic to lung) and two partial responses (previously untreated cutaneous melanoma metastatic to the bone, brain, spleen and lung, and another with melanoma of unknown primary involving the lung, liver, and lymph node) were found.
  • The median time to progression was 1.9 months.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / administration & dosage. Melanoma / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy. Vincristine / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Delayed-Action Preparations. Female. Humans. Liposomes / administration & dosage. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Pilot Projects. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 19011511.001).
  • [ISSN] 1473-5636
  • [Journal-full-title] Melanoma research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Melanoma Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 0 / Delayed-Action Preparations; 0 / Liposomes; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine
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10. Christiansen H, Hermann RM, Martin A, Nitsche M, Schmidberger H, Pradier O: Neck lymph node metastases from an unknown primary tumor retrospective study and review of literature. Strahlenther Onkol; 2005 Jun;181(6):355-62
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  • [Title] Neck lymph node metastases from an unknown primary tumor retrospective study and review of literature.
  • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Up to 10% of all neck lymph node metastases present without a known primary site.
  • The optimal treatment strategy for these patients is still undefined.
  • The purpose of this retrospective analysis is to assess the outcome in patients with neck metastases from an unknown primary tumor (CUP).
  • Furthermore, prognostic factors and treatment modalities are discussed.
  • In that case, adjuvant radiotherapy was carried out with a mean of 56.7 Gy.
  • These patients received definitive radiotherapy with a mean of 66.8 Gy.
  • In summary, 25 patients received extended radiotherapy including both sides of the neck and potential mucosal primary sites.
  • Additional chemotherapy was administered to five patients.
  • After this period of time, ten patients (36%) remained alive.
  • No subsequent primary could be detected.
  • Grade 3 toxicity (mucositis or skin reactions) was seen in three patients; no hematologic toxicity > grade 2 was observed.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Radiotherapy / adverse effects. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 15925977.001).
  • [ISSN] 0179-7158
  • [Journal-full-title] Strahlentherapie und Onkologie : Organ der Deutschen Röntgengesellschaft ... [et al]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Strahlenther Onkol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 40
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11. Asakura H, Takashima H, Mitani M, Haba R, Seo R, Yokoe K, Toyama Y, Ohkawa M: Unknown primary carcinoma, diagnosed as inflammatory breast cancer,and successfully treated with trastuzumab and vinorelbine. Int J Clin Oncol; 2005 Aug;10(4):285-8
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  • [Title] Unknown primary carcinoma, diagnosed as inflammatory breast cancer,and successfully treated with trastuzumab and vinorelbine.
  • Here we describe a case of IBC, which arose as an unknown primary carcinoma; the patient presented with axillary lymph node metastasis, and was successfully treated with trastuzumab and vinorelbine.
  • Although she underwent various examinations, the primary site of the disease was not revealed.
  • Computed tomography (CT) of the breast showed skin thickening and swelling of the right breast.F-18 Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) showed FDG uptake in the right breast.
  • Two months after the start of chemotherapy, CT revealed a complete response in the lymph nodes, and the skin thickening and parenchymal edema of the right breast had improved.
  • FDG-PET was also performed at this time, and revealed no FDG uptake in either the right breast or the lymph nodes.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Antibodies, Monoclonal / administration & dosage. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Axilla. Female. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Humans. Lymphatic Diseases. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Radiopharmaceuticals. Receptor, ErbB-2 / metabolism. Tomography, Emission-Computed. Trastuzumab. Treatment Outcome. Vinblastine / administration & dosage. Vinblastine / analogs & derivatives

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  • [Cites] Eur J Cancer. 2003 Sep;39(14):1990-2005 [12957453.001]
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  • (PMID = 16136377.001).
  • [ISSN] 1341-9625
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18; 5V9KLZ54CY / Vinblastine; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2; P188ANX8CK / Trastuzumab; Q6C979R91Y / vinorelbine
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12. Soffietti R, Rudā R, Mutani R: Management of brain metastases. J Neurol; 2002 Oct;249(10):1357-69
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  • Brain metastases occur in 20-40% of patients with cancer and their frequency has increased over time.
  • Lung, breast and skin (melanoma) are the commonest sources of brain metastases, and in up to 15% of patients the primary site remains unknown.
  • Contrast-enhanced MRI is the gold standard for the diagnosis.
  • There are no pathognomonic features on CT or MRI that distinguish brain metastases from primary malignant brain tumors or nonneoplastic conditions: therefore a tissue diagnosis by biopsy should be always obtained in patients with unknown primary tumor before undergoing radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy.
  • Some factors are prognostically important: a high Performance Status, a solitary brain metastasis, an absence of systemic metastases, a controlled primary tumor and a younger age.
  • Symptomatic therapy includes corticosteroids to reduce vasogenic cerebral edema and anticonvulsants to control seizures.
  • The combination of surgery and whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT) is superior to WBRT alone for the treatment of single brain metastasis in patients with limited or absent systemic disease and good neurological condition.
  • WBRT alone is the treatment of choice in patients with single brain metastasis not amenable to surgery or radiosurgery, and with an active systemic disease, and in patients with multiple brain metastases.
  • The response rate of brain metastases to chemotherapy is similar to the response rate of the primary tumor and extracranial metastases, some tumor types being more chemosensitive (small cell lung carcinoma, breast carcinoma, germ cell tumors).
  • New radiosensitizers and cytotoxic or cytostatic agents, and innovative technique of drug delivery are being investigated.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Brain Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Hormones / therapeutic use. Anticonvulsants / therapeutic use. Drug Therapy. Humans. Neurosurgery. Prognosis. Radiosurgery. Radiotherapy. Thromboembolism / therapy. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 12382150.001).
  • [ISSN] 0340-5354
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones; 0 / Anticonvulsants
  • [Number-of-references] 134
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13. Hauswald H, Lindel K, Rochet N, Debus J, Harms W: Surgery with complete resection improves survival in radiooncologically treated patients with cervical lymph node metastases from cancer of unknown primary. Strahlenther Onkol; 2008 Mar;184(3):150-6
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  • [Title] Surgery with complete resection improves survival in radiooncologically treated patients with cervical lymph node metastases from cancer of unknown primary.
  • PURPOSE: To assess long-term toxicity, outcome and prognostic factors after multimodal treatment of cervical lymph node metastases from cancer of unknown primary (CUP).
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: In a retrospective study, the treatment results of 84 patients with CUP (median age 63 years, N1 n = 0, N2 n = 44, N3 n = 39, Nx n = 1), treated between 1971 and 2002 with radiotherapy (n = 84, median dose 60 Gy), platinum-based chemotherapy (n = 23) and surgery (n = 69, tonsillectomy [n = 40], neck dissection [n = 52], suprahyoid dissection [n = 18], lymph node excision [n = 14]), were analyzed.
  • RESULTS: After a mean follow-up time of 25 months (ranging from 0.1 to 260 months), the 3- and 5-year overall (disease-free) survival rates were 30% (39%) and 27% (34%), respectively.
  • 75% of individuals achieved remission, whereas 23% showed no change or progression after treatment.
  • 40% of patients suffered grade 3/4 late toxicity: severe skin contracture/induration (n = 2) and severe xerostomia (n = 32).
  • CONCLUSION: Irradiation of cervical lymph node metastases from CUP is an effective treatment option with acceptable late toxicity.
  • Prospective studies defining a standard treatment are needed.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis / radiotherapy. Neck Dissection. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Male. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Radiotherapy / adverse effects. Radiotherapy Dosage. Remission Induction. Retrospective Studies. Time Factors. Tonsillectomy

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  • (PMID = 18330511.001).
  • [ISSN] 0179-7158
  • [Journal-full-title] Strahlentherapie und Onkologie : Organ der Deutschen Röntgengesellschaft ... [et al]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Strahlenther Onkol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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14. Quackenbush KE, Luna-Fineman S, Magee JF, Gundogan M, Golobi M, Irie T, Fernandez CV: Neuroblastoma involvement of the falx cerebri. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2009 Dec 15;53(7):1337-9
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  • The falx is derived from the neural crest and thus may be a location for primary neuroblastoma.
  • Its propensity for metastasis is unknown.
  • We describe two children less than 18 months of age who were successfully managed with chemotherapy alone (without radiation or surgery) for falx involvement with neuroblastoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Dura Mater / pathology. Meningeal Neoplasms / secondary. Neuroblastoma / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Cell Lineage. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Microphthalmia-Associated Transcription Factor / genetics. Neoplasm Staging. Neural Crest. Pulmonary Veins / abnormalities. Remission Induction. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / secondary. Waardenburg Syndrome / complications. Waardenburg Syndrome / genetics

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 19821537.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5017
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / MITF protein, human; 0 / Microphthalmia-Associated Transcription Factor; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin
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15. Bedikian AY, Johnson MM, Warneke CL, McIntyre S, Papadopoulos N, Hwu WJ, Kim K, Hwu P: Systemic therapy for unresectable metastatic melanoma: impact of biochemotherapy on long-term survival. J Immunotoxicol; 2008 Apr;5(2):201-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Systemic therapy for unresectable metastatic melanoma: impact of biochemotherapy on long-term survival.
  • The impact of systemic therapy on survival of patients with metastatic melanoma is uncertain.
  • This retrospective analysis aimed to compare the response rates and survival of patients without prior therapy with cisplatin, vinblastine, dacarbazine and interleukin (IL)-2 who were treated with biochemotherapy (containing these drugs plus interferon-alpha) with those of patients who received combination chemotherapy with and without interferon-alpha (chemotherapy +/- IFN).
  • Records for 616 chemo-naive patients with unresectable metastatic melanoma who were treated on eight Phase II/III clinical trials between 1987 and 2001 were combined and reviewed The database included patients with melanoma of the skin (497 cases), unknown primary melanoma (83 cases), mucosal melanoma (21 cases), and uveal melanoma (15 cases).
  • Two hundred sixty-four patients received biochemotherapy, and 352 received chemotherapy +/- IFN.
  • The overall response rate (complete and partial) of patients treated with biochemotherapy was 52% (138/264) compared with 35% (122/352) among patients treated with chemotherapy +/- IFN regimens.
  • The median survival times for patients in the biochemotherapy and chemotherapy +/- IFN groups were 12.2 mo (95% CI: 10.9, 13.5) and 9.1 mo (95% CI: 8.1, 10.4), respectively (p < 0.0001).
  • Five-year overall survival rates of patients treated with biochemotherapy and chemotherapy +/- IFN were 17% and 7% (p = 0.0004), respectively.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Melanoma / drug therapy. Melanoma / mortality. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / mortality. Uveal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Uveal Neoplasms / mortality
  • [MeSH-minor] Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Dacarbazine / administration & dosage. Databases, Factual. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Interferon-alpha / administration & dosage. Interleukin-2 / administration & dosage. Male. Neoplasm Metastasis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Vinblastine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 18569391.001).
  • [ISSN] 1547-6901
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of immunotoxicology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Immunotoxicol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Meta-Analysis
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / IL2 protein, human; 0 / Interferon-alpha; 0 / Interleukin-2; 5V9KLZ54CY / Vinblastine; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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16. Coit DG: Merkel cell carcinoma. Ann Surg Oncol; 2001 Oct;8(9 Suppl):99S-102S
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Complete surgical resection is the mainstay of treatment of the primary tumor.
  • Because the nodotrophic behavior of the tumor is recognized, lymphatic mapping with sentinel lymph node biopsy is becoming increasingly popular in the initial surgical staging of these patients.
  • The role of elective lymphadenectomy in patients with clinically negative regional nodal basins is unknown.
  • The role of adjuvant radiotherapy, either to the primary site or regional nodal basin, remains undefined.
  • The role of adjuvant chemotherapy in diminishing the risk of subsequent systemic recurrence in patients with positive nodes remains undefined.
  • Overall response rates to combination chemotherapy for surgically unresectable distant metastatic disease are generally high, although responses are transient.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Merkel Cell / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Chromogranins / analysis. Female. Humans. Keratins / analysis. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy / methods

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  • (PMID = 11599913.001).
  • [ISSN] 1068-9265
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chromogranins; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
  • [Number-of-references] 9
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17. Essner R: Surgical treatment of malignant melanoma. Surg Clin North Am; 2003 Feb;83(1):109-56
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Surgical treatment of malignant melanoma.
  • Wide excision of primary melanoma is now performed with 1- to 2-cm radial margins, significantly reducing the need for complex plastic closures, skin grafts. and hospital admissions.
  • Although elective lymph node dissection remains controversial as a therapeutic procedure, the development of SL has improved the staging of the regional lymph nodes and diminished the morbidity of lymph node dissection.
  • The role of SL for routine care of melanoma patients remains unknown.
  • Metastasectomy, which is the surgical resection of distant metastases with tumor-free surgical margins, has not been popular for AJCC stage IV patients with multiple metastases, because surgery is considered a local therapy and therefore of little value for management of disseminated disease.
  • Nevertheless, the many reports of long-term survival after resection of distant melanoma metastases to diverse soft tissue and organ sites clearly indicate that this form of cytoreductive surgery can be extremely successful in carefully selected patients.
  • Unlike chemotherapy, complete surgical metastasectomy can rapidly render a patient disease-free with only a short period of postoperative morbidity.
  • Most patients fully recover from the surgical procedure within 6 weeks, returning to most or all activities.
  • We believe that increased understanding of the biology of the primary and metastases, dramatic improvement in the accuracy of staging metastatic disease, and better techniques of surgical resection provide the best chance for long-term palliation or cure of melanoma.
  • The long-term clinical benefit of this therapy depends on the patient's immune response to, the surgical reduction in tumor burden: an immune response that controls subclinical micrometastases should optimize postoperative survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / surgery. Skin Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis. Prognosis. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 12691453.001).
  • [ISSN] 0039-6109
  • [Journal-full-title] The Surgical clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Clin. North Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 267
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18. Akhtar S, Oza KK, Wright J: Merkel cell carcinoma: report of 10 cases and review of the literature. J Am Acad Dermatol; 2000 Nov;43(5 Pt 1):755-67
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare primary neuroendocrine skin tumor that usually arises in the head and neck or the extremities of elderly patients.
  • Because of the limitation of retrospective data, optimal treatment is not well defined.
  • OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to present the clinical course and treatment of 10 patients with MCC and review the published literature on MCC.
  • The medical literature was also reviewed for natural history and treatment recommendations using MEDLINE search.
  • RESULTS: Five men and 5 women received their treatment between 1986 and 1998 for MCC (5 had stage IA disease, 4 stage IB, 1 stage II).
  • Five of 10 patients had a relapse (mean time before recurrence, 5.7 months) (range, 2 weeks-20 months); one patient had local recurrence, one had regional lymph node recurrence, and 3 had both local and regional lymph node recurrence.
  • In 4 patients systemic metastases developed.
  • After initial surgery, 9 patients received radiotherapy at some point and 3 patients also received chemotherapy.
  • In one patient MCC developed in a previously irradiated field.
  • Review of 875 cases showed a male/female ratio of 1.5:1; location of tumors was as follows: head and neck, 47%; extremities, 40%; trunk, 8%; unknown primary site, 5%.
  • Local recurrence was observed in 25%, regional lymph node involvement in 52%, distant metastasis in 34%, and MCC was a cause of death in 34%.
  • The role of chemotherapy is still controversial and should be considered in patients with advanced disease and those not thought to be candidates for surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Merkel Cell / surgery. Skin Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11050578.001).
  • [ISSN] 0190-9622
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 79
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19. Kefford RF, Thomas NP, Corrie PG, Palmer C, Abdi E, Kotasek D, Beith J, Ranson M, Mortimer P, Watson AJ, Margison GP, Middleton MR: A phase I study of extended dosing with lomeguatrib with temozolomide in patients with advanced melanoma. Br J Cancer; 2009 Apr 21;100(8):1245-9
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  • Patients with unresectable stage 3 or 4 cutaneous or unknown primary melanoma metastases were treated with lomeguatrib 40 mg, b.i.d. for 10 or 14 days and temozolomide 75-100 mg m(-2) on days 1-5.
  • Drugs were administered orally with cycles repeated every 28 days, for up to six cycles.
  • There were two partial responses to treatment giving an overall response rate of 6.25%.
  • Only limited clinical activity was seen, suggesting no advantage for this regimen over conventional temozolomide administration in the treatment of melanoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / toxicity. Dacarbazine / analogs & derivatives. Melanoma / drug therapy. Purines / toxicity. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Anemia / chemically induced. Child. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging. Neutropenia / chemically induced. Patient Selection. Thrombocytopenia / chemically induced

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  • (PMID = 19367282.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-1827
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase I; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Purines; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 85622-93-1 / temozolomide; S79265T71M / lomeguatrib
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2676549
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20. Boudny V, Dusek L, Adámková L, Chumchalová J, Kocak I, Fait V, Lauerová L, Krejcí E, Kovarík J: Lack of STAT 1 phosphorylation at TYR 701 by IFNgamma correlates with disease outcome in melanoma patients. Neoplasma; 2005;52(4):330-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Various STAT abnormalities have been found in cancer cells but their relation to oncogenesis, tumor behavior and disease outcome remains mostly unknown.
  • We have examined the inducibility of STAT 1 phosphorylation by IFN alpha/gamma in primary cultures established from melanoma lymph node metastases at first progression and correlated our results with disease outcome and overall survival.
  • Forty-four patients at clinical stage I-III at initial diagnosis entered the study.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Interferon-gamma / pharmacology. Interferon-gamma / therapeutic use. Melanoma / drug therapy. Melanoma / physiopathology. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / physiopathology. Trans-Activators / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Blotting, Western. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Interferon-alpha / pharmacology. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Phosphorylation. STAT1 Transcription Factor. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • [ErratumIn] Neoplasma. 2005;52(6):523
  • (PMID = 16059651.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-2685
  • [Journal-full-title] Neoplasma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neoplasma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Slovakia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Interferon-alpha; 0 / STAT1 Transcription Factor; 0 / STAT1 protein, human; 0 / Trans-Activators; 82115-62-6 / Interferon-gamma
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