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1. Maréchal R, De Schutter J, Nagy N, Demetter P, Lemmers A, Devière J, Salmon I, Tejpar S, Van Laethem JL: Putative contribution of CD56 positive cells in cetuximab treatment efficacy in first-line metastatic colorectal cancer patients. BMC Cancer; 2010;10:340
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  • [Title] Putative contribution of CD56 positive cells in cetuximab treatment efficacy in first-line metastatic colorectal cancer patients.
  • Antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) could be another possible mechanism of cetuximab antitumor effects and its specific contribution on the clinical activity of cetuximab is unknown.
  • METHODS: We assessed immune cells infiltrate (CD56, CD68, CD3, CD4, CD8, Foxp3) in the primary tumor of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients treated with a first-line cetuximab-based chemotherapy in the framework of prospective trials (treatment group) and in a matched group of mCRC patients who received the same chemotherapy regimen without cetuximab (control group).
  • The relationship between intra-tumoral immune effector cells, the K-ras status and the efficacy of the treatment were investigated.
  • In multivariate analysis, K-ras wild-type (HR: 4.7 (95% CI 1.8-12.3), p = 0.001) and tumor infiltrating CD56+ cells (HR: 2.6, (95%CI:1.14-6.0), p = 0.019) were independent favourable prognostic factors for PFS and response only in the cetuximab treatment group.
  • Assessment of CD56+ cells infiltrate in primary colorectal adenocarcinoma may provide additional information to K-ras status in predicting response and PFS in mCRC patients treated with first-line cetuximab-based chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Antigens, CD56 / metabolism. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Colorectal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Antibody-Dependent Cell Cytotoxicity. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cetuximab. Clinical Trials, Phase II as Topic. Clinical Trials, Phase III as Topic. Female. Flow Cytometry. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Mutation / genetics. Neoplasm Staging. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Prospective Studies. Proto-Oncogene Proteins / genetics. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / antagonists & inhibitors. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / metabolism. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome. ras Proteins / genetics


2. Gulec SA, Mesoloras G, Dezarn WA, McNeillie P, Kennedy AS: Safety and efficacy of Y-90 microsphere treatment in patients with primary and metastatic liver cancer: the tumor selectivity of the treatment as a function of tumor to liver flow ratio. J Transl Med; 2007;5:15
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  • [Title] Safety and efficacy of Y-90 microsphere treatment in patients with primary and metastatic liver cancer: the tumor selectivity of the treatment as a function of tumor to liver flow ratio.
  • BACKGROUND: Treatment records and follow-up data on 40 patients with primary and metastatic liver malignancies who underwent a single whole-liver treatment with Y-90 resin microspheres (SIR-Spheres Sirtex Medical, Lake Forest, IL) were retrospectively reviewed.
  • The objective of the study was to evaluate the anatomic and physiologic determinants of radiation dose distribution, and the dose response of tumor and liver toxicity in patients with liver malignancies who underwent hepatic arterial Y-90 resin microsphere treatment.
  • METHODS: Liver and tumor volume calculations were performed on pre-treatment CT scans.
  • Fractional tumor and liver flow characteristics and lung shunt fractions were determined using hepatic arterial Tc-99m MAA imaging.
  • Liver toxicity was assessed clinically and by liver function tests.
  • Tumor response to therapy was assessed by CT and/or tumor markers.
  • RESULTS: Of the 40 patients, 5 had hepatocellular cancer (HCC), and 35 had metastatic liver tumors (15 colorectal cancer, 10 neuroendocrine tumors, 4 breast cancer, 2 lung cancer, 1 ovarian cancer, 1 endometrial cancer, and 2 unknown primary adenocarcinoma).
  • Tumor volumes ranged from 15.0 to 984.2 cc (mean: 294.9 cc) and tumor to normal liver uptake ratios ranged from 2.8 to 15.4 (mean: 5.4).
  • Liver absorbed doses ranged from 0.7 to 99.5 Gy (mean: 17.2 Gy).
  • Tumor absorbed doses ranged from 40.1 to 494.8 Gy (mean: 121.5 Gy).
  • None of the patients had clinical venoocclusive disease or therapy-induced liver failure.
  • Tumor response correlated with higher tumor flow ratio as measured by Tc-99m MAA imaging.
  • CONCLUSION: Doses up to 99.5 Gy to uninvolved liver are tolerated with no clinical venoocclusive disease or liver failure.
  • The lowest tumor dose producing a detectable response is 40.1 Gy.
  • The utilization of MAA-based imaging techniques to determine tumor and liver blood flow for clinical treatment planning and the calculation of administered activity may improve clinical outcomes.
  • [MeSH-major] Liver / metabolism. Liver / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / therapy. Microspheres. Yttrium / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Toll-Like Receptors / metabolism. Treatment Outcome. Yttrium Radioisotopes

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  • (PMID = 17359531.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-5876
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of translational medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Transl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Toll-Like Receptors; 0 / Yttrium Radioisotopes; 58784XQC3Y / Yttrium
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1845138
  • [General-notes] NLM/ Original DateCompleted: 20070802
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3. Blonski WC, Reddy KR, Shaked A, Siegelman E, Metz DC: Liver transplantation for metastatic neuroendocrine tumor: a case report and review of the literature. World J Gastroenterol; 2005 Dec 28;11(48):7676-83
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  • [Title] Liver transplantation for metastatic neuroendocrine tumor: a case report and review of the literature.
  • Both types of tumors are divided into functional and non-functional tumors.
  • They are characterized by slow growth and frequent metastasis to the liver and may be limited to the liver for long periods.
  • The therapeutic approach to hepatic metastases should consider the number and distribution of the liver metastases as well as the severity of symptoms related to hormone production and tumor bulk.
  • Surgery is generally considered as the first line therapy.
  • In patients with unresectable liver metastases, alternative treatments are dependent on the type and the growth rate.
  • Initial treatments consist of long acting somatostatin analogs and/or interferon.
  • Streptozocin-based chemotherapy is usually reserved for symptomatic patients with rapidly advancing disease, but generally the therapy is poorly tolerated and its effects are short-lived.
  • Locoregional therapy directed such as hepatic-artery embolization and chemoembolization, radiofrequency thermal ablation and cryosurgery, is often used instead of systemic therapy, if the disease is limited to the liver.
  • However, liver transplantation should be considered in patients with neuroendocrine metastases to the liver that are not accessible to curative or cytoreductive surgery and if medical or locoregional treatment has failed and if there are life threatening hormonal symptoms.
  • We report a case of liver transplantation for metastatic neuroendocrine tumor of unknown primary source and provide a detailed review of the world literature on this controversial topic.
  • [MeSH-major] Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Liver Neoplasms / surgery. Liver Transplantation. Neuroendocrine Tumors / secondary. Neuroendocrine Tumors / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16437698.001).
  • [ISSN] 1007-9327
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Number-of-references] 66
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4727220
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4. Kodaira M, Takahashi S, Yamada S, Ueda K, Mishima Y, Takeuchi K, Yamamoto N, Ishikawa Y, Yokoyama M, Saotome T, Terui Y, Hatake K: Bone metastasis and poor performance status are prognostic factors for survival of carcinoma of unknown primary site in patients treated with systematic chemotherapy. Ann Oncol; 2010 Jun;21(6):1163-7
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  • [Title] Bone metastasis and poor performance status are prognostic factors for survival of carcinoma of unknown primary site in patients treated with systematic chemotherapy.
  • BACKGROUND: Cancer of unknown primary site (CUP) generally has a poor prognosis, and there is no established standard therapy.
  • There have been no reports of a prognostic model for CUP patients treated with a single regimen of systemic chemotherapy.
  • METHODS: Univariate and multivariate prognostic factor analysis for overall survival (OS) were conducted retrospectively in 58 consecutive CUP patients treated with carboplatin plus paclitaxel (Taxol) therapy as a first-line treatment.
  • RESULTS: Univariate prognostic factor analysis revealed baseline performance status (PS) of two or more, low serum albumin level, pleural effusion, bone metastasis, and liver metastasis as adverse prognostic factors.
  • Cox proportional hazards analysis showed that poor PS and bone metastasis had the most powerful adverse impact on survival.
  • We developed a prognostic model using those two variables-a good-risk group (PS 0-1 without bone metastasis) and a poor-risk group (PS > or =2 or bone metastasis).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Poor PS and bone metastasis were identified as independent adverse prognostic factors in CUP.
  • A simple prognostic model was developed and seems useful for decision making as to whether chemotherapy is indicated for CUP patients.

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  • [CommentIn] Ann Oncol. 2010 Jun;21(6):1143-4 [20089568.001]
  • (PMID = 20019088.001).
  • [ISSN] 1569-8041
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
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5. Mylona S, Stroumpouli E, Pomoni M, Galani P, Ntai S, Thanos L: Radiofrequency ablation of liver metastases from cancer of unknown primary site. Diagn Interv Radiol; 2009 Dec;15(4):297-302
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  • [Title] Radiofrequency ablation of liver metastases from cancer of unknown primary site.
  • PURPOSE: This retrospective study was performed to review the efficacy of local radiofrequency ablation (RFA) in all the management of liver cancer of unknown primary site (CUP), and to identify possible prognostic features and complications that affect the efficacy of this treatment on survival.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: From April 2003 to December 2007, 22 patients (15 men, 7 women) with a total of 36 liver metastasis of CUP and poor response to prior systemic chemotherapy were treated with computed tomography-guided RFA.
  • CONCLUSION: Our study revealed that RFA appears to be an effective, safe and relatively simple alternative procedure for the local ablation of these lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Liver Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / radiotherapy. Radio Waves / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy, Needle. Cause of Death. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 19908183.001).
  • [ISSN] 1305-3612
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic and interventional radiology (Ankara, Turkey)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn Interv Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Turkey
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6. Gevaert O, Daemen A, De Moor B, Libbrecht L: A taxonomy of epithelial human cancer and their metastases. BMC Med Genomics; 2009;2:69
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  • This technology has the potential to individualize therapy and to discover new drug targets.
  • However, due to technological differences and issues in standardized sample collection no study has evaluated the molecular profile of epithelial human cancer in a large number of samples and tissues.
  • Additionally, it has not yet been extensively investigated whether metastases resemble their tissue of origin or tissue of destination.
  • METHODS: We studied the expression profiles of a series of 1566 primary and 178 metastases by unsupervised hierarchical clustering.
  • RESULTS: Large clusters corresponding to breast, gastrointestinal, ovarian and kidney primary tissues emerged from the data.
  • We also found an expression signature identifying primary tumors of squamous cell histology in multiple tissues.
  • Moreover, a signature was developed based on our unsupervised clustering of breast tumors and this was predictive for disease-specific survival in three independent studies.
  • Next, the metastases from ovarian, breast, lung and vulva cluster with their tissue of origin while metastases from colon showed a bimodal distribution.
  • A significant part clusters with tissue of origin while the remaining tumors cluster with the tissue of destination.
  • CONCLUSION: Our molecular taxonomy of epithelial human cancer indicates surprising correlations over tissues.
  • Additionally, we hypothesize that metastases from gastrointestinal origin either remember their tissue of origin or adapt to the tissue of destination.
  • More specifically, colon metastases in the liver show strong evidence for such a bimodal tissue specific profile.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial / classification. Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial / pathology. Systems Biology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cluster Analysis. Gene Expression Profiling. Genomics. Humans. Internationality. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / therapy. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis

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  • (PMID = 20017941.001).
  • [ISSN] 1755-8794
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC medical genomics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Med Genomics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2806369
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7. Vuoristo MS, Vihinen P, Skyttä T, Tyynelä K, Kellokumpu-Lehtinen P: Carboplatin and vinorelbine combined with subcutaneous interleukin-2 in metastatic melanoma with poor prognosis. Anticancer Res; 2009 May;29(5):1755-9
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  • BACKGROUND: The treatment results of metastatic melanoma are miserable if the tumor has spread beyond the soft tissue and lung, in particular, if dacarbazine (DTIC)-based therapy has failed.
  • Interleukin-2 (IL-2) may augment the efficacy of chemotherapy.
  • Twenty-two patients (11 men, 11 women; median age 56 years) were eligible, of whom 13 had cutaneous, 6 ocular and 3 unknown primary melanoma.
  • Seventeen patients (77%) had liver metastases and an equal number had received prior chemotherapy and/or interferon-alfa for recurrent disease.
  • The median time to progression for all patients was 1.8 months (range 0.7-8.6 months) and the median survival was 7.2 months (range 1.4-42.0 months).
  • CONCLUSION: This regimen may offer clinical benefit for melanoma patients with poor prognosis as second-line therapy after DTIC has failed.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Melanoma / drug therapy. Neoplasm Metastasis

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  • (PMID = 19443399.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Interleukin-2; 5V9KLZ54CY / Vinblastine; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; Q6C979R91Y / vinorelbine
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8. Tauchmanovà L, Pensabene M, Capuano I, Spagnoletti I, Zeppa P, Del Vecchio S, Mainenti M, De Rosa G, Colao A, Contegiacomo A: Poorly differentiated small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma localized in three different endocrine glands: response to chemotherapy and octreotide LAR. J Endocrinol Invest; 2005 Apr;28(4):371-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Poorly differentiated small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma localized in three different endocrine glands: response to chemotherapy and octreotide LAR.
  • Neuroendocrine tumors represent a heterogeneous category of neoplasm, with conflicting diagnostic and therapeutic demands.
  • In particular, a large ovarian mass, multinodular thyroid goiter, right adrenal mass, cystic liver metastases and anterior mediastinum lymph node metastasis were present.
  • Diagnosis of poorly differentiated metastasized NEC of unknown origin was made on the basis of histological and immunohistochemical findings, and treatment with etoposide (100 mg/m2 in days 1, 2 and 3) and cisplatinum (45 mg/m2 in days 2 and 3) was initiated.
  • Rapid improvement of dyspnea and a reduction of the largest thyroid nodule, liver metastases and adrenal mass by 50% were observed after 3 months of treatment; the dimensions remained stable thereafter, while the pericardial lymph node disappeared.
  • In conclusion, poorly differentiated NEC of unknown primary site is a well-recognized category, usually with an aggressive behavior, rapid growth rate and wide dissemination.
  • Our patient is alive 18 months after beginning the treatment, reporting good general condition and quality of life over the whole follow-up period.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Small Cell / drug therapy. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / drug therapy. Neuroendocrine Tumors / drug therapy. Octreotide / therapeutic use. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Lymphatic Metastasis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15966513.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-4097
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
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9. Shibata H: [Treatment of cancer of unknown primary, today and future]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2009 Jun;36(6):918-22

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Treatment of cancer of unknown primary, today and future].
  • Cancer of unknown primary(CUP)is a malignant disease with metastases such as lymph nodes, lung or liver metastasis, and without an identified primary site.
  • Chemotherapy based on the primary site is not applicable for the treatment of CUP.
  • It is very difficult to apply any regimens without information on the primary sites.
  • To resolve this problem, molecular diagnostic technologies using a gene expression profiling platform to identify the primary site of CUP are now applied.
  • Primary site-dependent chemotherapy could be conducted in accordance with the result of the molecular diagnosis of the primary site.
  • Identification of the underlying mechanism that is specific to the unfavorable CUP may be a clue to develop a novel treatment for CUP.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Female. Gene Expression Profiling. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 19542712.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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10. Bedikian AY, Papadopoulos NE, Kim KB, Vardeleon A, Smith T, Lu B, Deitcher SR: A pilot study with vincristine sulfate liposome infusion in patients with metastatic melanoma. Melanoma Res; 2008 Dec;18(6):400-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Vincristine sulfate liposome infusion (VSLI) is a sphingomyelin/cholesterol liposome encapsulated formulation of vincristine that results in an extended drug circulation time and the potential for enhanced malignancy targeting, exposure, and anticancer activity.
  • Safety, tumor response, and survival were determined.
  • Twenty-seven patients with metastatic melanoma of cutaneous (n=19), uveal (n=4), mucosal (n=1), and unknown (n=3) primary were treated.
  • Twenty-five (93%) patients had received one or more prior lines of chemotherapy and/or immunotherapy; 14 (48%) had received a vinblastine-containing regimen.
  • One complete (uveal melanoma metastatic to lung) and two partial responses (previously untreated cutaneous melanoma metastatic to the bone, brain, spleen and lung, and another with melanoma of unknown primary involving the lung, liver, and lymph node) were found.
  • The median time to progression was 1.9 months.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / administration & dosage. Melanoma / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy. Vincristine / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Delayed-Action Preparations. Female. Humans. Liposomes / administration & dosage. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Pilot Projects. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 19011511.001).
  • [ISSN] 1473-5636
  • [Journal-full-title] Melanoma research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Melanoma Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 0 / Delayed-Action Preparations; 0 / Liposomes; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine
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11. Suita S, Shono K, Tajiri T, Takamatsu T, Mizote H, Nagasaki A, Inomata Y, Hara T, Okamura J, Miyazaki S, Kawakami K, Eguchi H, Tsuneyoshi M, Committee for Pediatric Solid Malignant Tumors in the Kyushu Area: Malignant germ cell tumors: clinical characteristics, treatment, and outcome. A report from the study group for Pediatric Solid Malignant Tumors in the Kyushu Area, Japan. J Pediatr Surg; 2002 Dec;37(12):1703-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Malignant germ cell tumors: clinical characteristics, treatment, and outcome. A report from the study group for Pediatric Solid Malignant Tumors in the Kyushu Area, Japan.
  • PURPOSE: This study aims to assess the prognostic factors and optimal treatments for malignant germ cell tumors (MGCT) in childhood.
  • The prognostic factors and treatments were assessed based on the 5-year survival rate. RESULTS:.
  • (1) Stage: 100% for stage I (n = 54), 75.0% for stage II (n = 4), 67.3% for stage III (n = 14), and 54.8% for stage IV (n = 33); Unknown: n = 12. (2) Primary site: 93.4% for the testis (n = 52), 86.7% for the ovary (n = 31), 56.9% for the sacrococcygeal (n = 21), and 60.6% for others (n = 12); unknown: n = 1. (3) Surgical intervention for primary tumor: 100% for stage I with a complete resection (n = 53), 78.4% for stage III, IV with a complete resection (n = 26), and 33.3% for stage III, IV with an incomplete resection (n = 21). (4) Type of chemotherapy for the stage III and IV: 83.9% for the PVB (cisplatin, vinblastin, bleomycin; n = 13), 66.7% for the VAC (vincristine, actinomycin D, cyclophosphamide; n = 6), and 47.1% for other regimens (n = 25).
  • CONCLUSIONS: An early stage, a diagnosis under 1 year of age and a primary site in the gonads were favorable prognosis factors, whereas histologic findings of choriocarcinoma and liver or lung metastasis were unfavorable.
  • Radical complete resection alone is a sufficient treatment for localized MGCT.
  • The PVB regimen is optimal chemotherapy for advanced MGCT; however, high-risk cases still may require more aggressive treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Germinoma / diagnosis. Germinoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Incidence. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / epidemiology. Ovarian Neoplasms / surgery. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Testicular Neoplasms / diagnosis. Testicular Neoplasms / epidemiology. Testicular Neoplasms / surgery. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2002, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.
  • [CommentIn] J Urol. 2003 Sep;170(3):1040 [12926414.001]
  • (PMID = 12483635.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-5037
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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12. von Breitenbuch P, Köhl G, Guba M, Geissler E, Jauch KW, Steinbauer M: Thermoablation of colorectal liver metastases promotes proliferation of residual intrahepatic neoplastic cells. Surgery; 2005 Nov;138(5):882-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Thermoablation of colorectal liver metastases promotes proliferation of residual intrahepatic neoplastic cells.
  • BACKGROUND: Resection of liver neoplasms is believed to promote growth of residual intrahepatic neoplastic cells.
  • As the effects of radiofrequency thermoablation (RFA) are still unknown, we aimed to compare the influence of RFA versus liver resection on residual intrahepatic neoplastic cells.
  • METHODS: A primary metastasis was established by injection of syngenic CT-26 coloncarcinoma cells into the right liver lobe of Balb/C mice.
  • Five days later, 3 x 10(5) GFP-transfected CT-26 tumor cells were injected intraportally, and the primary metastasis was treated by resection (group I, n = 7) or RFA (group II, n = 7).
  • RESULTS: Resection of a primary metastasis enhanced the proliferation of residual intrahepatic neoplastic cells, compared with the control group.
  • On the basis of our findings, RFA should not be recommended as an alternative curative treatment to resection.
  • Furthermore, if RFA is performed as palliative therapy, postinterventional chemotherapy may be advisable to overcome the stimulation of residual neoplastic cells by RFA.
  • [MeSH-major] Catheter Ablation / adverse effects. Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Liver Neoplasms / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Division. Cell Survival. Liver / pathology. Liver / surgery. Male. Mice. Mice, Inbred BALB C. Palliative Care

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  • (PMID = 16291389.001).
  • [ISSN] 0039-6060
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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13. Wai PY, Mi Z, Guo H, Sarraf-Yazdi S, Gao C, Wei J, Marroquin CE, Clary B, Kuo PC: Osteopontin silencing by small interfering RNA suppresses in vitro and in vivo CT26 murine colon adenocarcinoma metastasis. Carcinogenesis; 2005 Apr;26(4):741-51
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Osteopontin silencing by small interfering RNA suppresses in vitro and in vivo CT26 murine colon adenocarcinoma metastasis.
  • Hepatic metastasis is a primary cause for failure of locoregional therapy in colorectal cancer.
  • Increased expression of osteopontin (OPN), a ligand for alpha(v)beta3 integrin and CD44 receptors, is associated with metastasis in several types of cancer.
  • However, the mechanism by which OPN mediates metastasis in colorectal cancer remains unknown.
  • CT26 wild-type cells (WT) and CT26 cells stably expressing murine-mismatch siRNA (pS-MM) served as controls.
  • In vivo hepatic metastasis was assessed by quantifying liver weights and surface tumor nodules in 33 BALB/c mice (11/group) subjected to intrasplenic injection of tumor cells. pS-OPN-A4 resulted in a 50.4% decrease in mean liver weight compared with WT (3.79 +/- 1.49 g versus 1.88 +/- 1.34 g, P = 0.009).
  • This study demonstrates that RNA interference stably reduces CT26 tumor expression of OPN and significantly attenuates CT26 colon cancer metastasis by diminishing tumor cell motility and invasiveness.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / therapy. Colonic Neoplasms / therapy. Gene Silencing / drug effects. Liver Neoplasms / therapy. RNA, Small Interfering / physiology. Sialoglycoproteins / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Blotting, Western. Cell Movement. Down-Regulation. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / physiology. Genetic Therapy. In Vitro Techniques. Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 / metabolism. Mice. Mice, Inbred BALB C. Organ Size. Osteopontin

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  • (PMID = 15661802.001).
  • [ISSN] 0143-3334
  • [Journal-full-title] Carcinogenesis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Carcinogenesis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R01AI44629; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / R01GM65113
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Small Interfering; 0 / Sialoglycoproteins; 0 / Spp1 protein, mouse; 106441-73-0 / Osteopontin; EC 3.4.24.24 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 2
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14. Natsuhara A, Iwasaki Y, Minagawa T, Takemura Y, Nakanisi M, Nagata K, Harada H, Kubota Y, Yokomura I, Nakagawa M: [Aggressively metastatic neuroendocrine carcinoma in the middle mediastinum]. Nihon Kokyuki Gakkai Zasshi; 2001 Sep;39(9):705-9

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Routine examination disclosed no metastatic or primary lesion elsewhere.
  • A surgical biopsy resulted in a diagnosis of neuroendocrine carcinoma of unknown primary organ.
  • The patient was given 1 course of chemotherapy with CAV-PE, but little effect was seen.
  • However, when a PE regimen combined with thoracic radiation was used, the tumor shrank to half of its size.
  • After the patient subsequently received high-dose treatment with Etoposide, CT imaging and cytologic analysis revealed multiple metastases to the subcutaneous tissue, both adrenal glands and the liver.
  • Lung lesions also spread aggressively, and the patient died of metastasis.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / secondary. Disease Progression. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 11729693.001).
  • [ISSN] 1343-3490
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Kokyūki Gakkai zasshi = the journal of the Japanese Respiratory Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nihon Kokyuki Gakkai Zasshi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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15. Pacheco-Ojeda L, Domeisen H, Narvaez M, Tixi R, Vivar N: Malignant salivary gland tumors in Quito, Ecuador. ORL J Otorhinolaryngol Relat Spec; 2000 Nov-Dec;62(6):296-302
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The goal of this study was to review a 16-year experience of a major general hospital in the treatment of these lesions.
  • Adenoid cystic carcinoma and mucoepidermoid carcinoma were the most common histologic types.
  • Thirty-one (53%) patients were treated by surgery alone; postoperative radiation therapy was additionally given to 22 (38%), and surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy were applied in 5 cases (9%).
  • Twelve patients (21%) developed distant metastasis (DM; 2 in more than one site): 7 in the lungs, 2 in the brain, 2 in the bone and 1 each in the liver, subcutaneous tissue and pleura.
  • Twenty-three patients are deceased: 6 with LR, 7 with DM, 3 with both LR and DM, 1 with locoregional recurrence and DM, 2 with a second neoplasm, 3 with intercurrent disease and 1 from unknown causes.
  • There were no significant differences in mortality according to the site of the primary tumor or histologic type, but stage and involved surgical margins were important prognostic factors (p = 0.006 and 0.003).
  • CONCLUSIONS: The surgical or multimodality treatment of MSGT has provided a good locoregional control (78%) and 68% 10-year survival in a series of patients treated at the oncology department of a general hospital in Quito, Ecuador.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / therapy. Carcinoma, Mucoepidermoid / therapy. Salivary Gland Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Factors. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Combined Modality Therapy. Ecuador / epidemiology. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Salivary Glands / pathology. Survival Analysis

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel
  • (PMID = 11054011.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-1569
  • [Journal-full-title] ORL; journal for oto-rhino-laryngology and its related specialties
  • [ISO-abbreviation] ORL J. Otorhinolaryngol. Relat. Spec.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Number-of-references] 31
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16. Zang RY, Zhang ZY, Cai SM, Tang MQ, Chen J, Li ZT: Epithelial ovarian cancer presenting initially with extraabdominal or intrahepatic metastases: a preliminary report of 25 cases and literature review. Am J Clin Oncol; 2000 Aug;23(4):416-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical features of patients with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) that are initially categorized as extraabdominal adenocarcinoma of unknown primary.
  • Twenty-five patients with EOC, who were treated in the Cancer Hospital of Shanghai Medical University from January 1986 to December 1997, and manifesting as extraperitoneal or liver parenchyma metastases at the time of presentation without detectable ovarian tumors, were retrospectively studied.
  • When compared with 52 other women with stage IV EOC, 20 patients who initially sought treatment for extraabdominal metastases experienced a better prognosis, with an estimated median survival of 24 months versus 10 months (p = 0.0427).
  • The prognosis of such cases, mainly for those with supraclavicular lymphadenopathy or malignant pleural effusion, is better than that for other stage IV EOC patients, probably because most of the patients who initially had distant metastases were generally in condition that permitted aggressive surgery or multicycle chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / diagnosis. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Adult. Aged. CA-125 Antigen / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Linear Models. Middle Aged. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Neoplasm Staging. Pleural Effusion, Malignant / diagnosis. Prognosis. Remission Induction. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 10955875.001).
  • [ISSN] 0277-3732
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CA-125 Antigen
  • [Number-of-references] 13
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17. Pavlidis N, Briasoulis E, Hainsworth J, Greco FA: Diagnostic and therapeutic management of cancer of an unknown primary. Eur J Cancer; 2003 Sep;39(14):1990-2005
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Diagnostic and therapeutic management of cancer of an unknown primary.
  • Metastatic Cancer of Unknown Primary Site (CUP) accounts for approximately 3% of all malignant neoplasms and is therefore one of the 10 most frequent cancer diagnoses in man.
  • Patients with CUP present with metastatic disease for which the site of origin cannot be identified at the time of diagnosis.
  • The following clinicopathological entities have been recognised: (i) metastatic CUP primarily to the liver or to multiple sites, (ii) metastatic CUP to lymph nodes including the sub-sets involving primarily the mediastinal-retroperitoneal, the axillary, the cervical or the inguinal nodes, (iii) metastatic CUP of peritoneal cavity including the peritoneal papillary serous carcinomatosis in females and the peritoneal non-papillary carcinomatosis in males or females, (iv) metastatic CUP to the lungs with parenchymal metastases or isolated malignant pleural effusion, (v) metastatic CUP to the bones, (vi) metastatic CUP to the brain, (vii) metastatic neuroendocrine carcinomas and (viii) metastatic melanoma of an unknown primary.
  • Extensive work-up with specific pathology investigations (immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy, molecular diagnosis) and modern imaging technology (computed tomography (CT), mammography, Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scan) have resulted in some improvements in diagnosis; however, the primary site remains unknown in most patients, even on autopsy.
  • Several favourable sub-sets of CUP have been identified, which are responsive to systemic chemotherapy and/or locoregional treatment.
  • Identification and treatment of these patients is of paramount importance.
  • The considered responsive sub-sets to platinum-based chemotherapy are the poorly differentiated carcinomas involving the mediastinal-retroperitoneal nodes, the peritoneal papillary serous adenocarcinomatosis in females and the poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas.
  • Other tumours successfully managed by locoregional treatment with surgery and/or irradiation are the metastatic adenocarcinoma of isolated axillary nodes, metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of cervical nodes, or any other single metastatic site.
  • Empirical chemotherapy benefits some of the patients who do not fit into any favourable sub-set, and should be considered in patients with a good performance status.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnostic Imaging / methods. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis / diagnosis. Male. Physician's Role. Prognosis. Prospective Studies

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  • [CommentIn] Eur J Cancer. 2004 Jun;40(9):1454-5 [15177507.001]
  • (PMID = 12957453.001).
  • [ISSN] 0959-8049
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of cancer (Oxford, England : 1990)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 119
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18. Pawlik TM, Gleisner AL, Bauer TW, Adams RB, Reddy SK, Clary BM, Martin RC, Scoggins CR, Tanabe KK, Michaelson JS, Kooby DA, Staley CA, Schulick RD, Vauthey JN, Abdalla EK, Curley SA, Choti MA, Elias D: Liver-directed surgery for metastatic squamous cell carcinoma to the liver: results of a multi-center analysis. Ann Surg Oncol; 2007 Oct;14(10):2807-16
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  • [Title] Liver-directed surgery for metastatic squamous cell carcinoma to the liver: results of a multi-center analysis.
  • BACKGROUND: The role of hepatic resection for metastatic squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) remains unknown.
  • The current study evaluates the role of hepatic resection in patients with metastatic SCC to the liver.
  • RESULTS: Primary SCC site was anal (n = 27), head/neck (n = 12), lung (n = 4), esophagus (n = 2), and other (n = 7).
  • Treatment of primary SCC was chemotherapy +/- radiotherapy alone (n = 29), chemotherapy +/- radiotherapy + surgery (n = 15), or surgery alone (n = 8).
  • The median time to recurrence was 9.8 months, and 5-year DFS was 18.6%.
  • Factors associated with reduced DFS were liver tumor size > 5 cm (hazard ratio (HR) = 2.02) and positive surgical margin (HR = 2.33).
  • Risk factors associated with worse overall survival included synchronous disease (HR = 4.09), hepatic metastasis > 5 cm (HR = 1.71) and positive surgical resection margin (HR = 1.83).
  • Long-term survival, however, can be achieved following surgical resection of SCC liver metastasis, especially in patients who present with limited metachronous disease amenable to margin negative resection.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / secondary. Electrocoagulation. Esophageal Neoplasms / surgery. Head and Neck Neoplasms / surgery. Hepatectomy. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / mortality. Prognosis. Retreatment. United States


19. Ooki A, Yamashita K, Kikuchi S, Sakuramoto S, Katada N, Watanabe M: Phosphatase of regenerating liver-3 as a convergent therapeutic target for lymph node metastasis in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Int J Cancer; 2010 Aug 1;127(3):543-54
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. RHODANINE .

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  • [Title] Phosphatase of regenerating liver-3 as a convergent therapeutic target for lymph node metastasis in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
  • Phosphatase of regenerating liver-3 (PRL-3) is a molecule associated with metastasis in a diverse of cancers, which, however, remains largely unknown in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC).
  • We examined both the clinical significance of PRL-3 expression and its biological roles, and assessed possibilities as a therapeutic target in ESCC.
  • PRL-3 expression was found in 78% (69 of 88) of the primary ESCC on immunohistochemistry; it was the strong independent predictor for lymph node metastasis (LNM) on a multivariate logistic regression model (p = 0.0014, relative risk =15.20).
  • Additionally, gene amplification was found in 3 (7.9%) of the 38 primary tumors with PRL-3 overexpression by fluorescence in situ hybridization, but in none of the 19 tumors without it.
  • Moreover, the expression status may be a landmark to select patients with benefit from PRL-3-targeted therapy.
  • Thus, PRL-3 could be a convergent therapeutic target against ESCC with LNM.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Enzyme Inhibitors / pharmacology. Esophageal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lymphatic Metastasis / physiopathology. Neoplasm Proteins / antagonists & inhibitors. Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases / antagonists & inhibitors. Rhodanine / analogs & derivatives
  • [MeSH-minor] Apoptosis. Blotting, Western. Cell Cycle. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Proliferation. Fluorescent Antibody Technique. Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic / drug effects. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Polymerase Chain Reaction. RNA, Small Interfering

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  • (PMID = 19960436.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0215
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 1-(2-bromobenzyloxy)-4-bromo-2-benzylidene rhodanine; 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / RNA, Small Interfering; 7O50LKL2G8 / Rhodanine; EC 3.1.3.48 / PTP4A3 protein, human; EC 3.1.3.48 / Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases
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20. Boghossian V, Owen ID, Nuli B, Xiao PQ: Neuroendocrine (Merkel cell) carcinoma of the retroperitoneum with no identifiable primary site. World J Surg Oncol; 2007;5:117

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  • [Title] Neuroendocrine (Merkel cell) carcinoma of the retroperitoneum with no identifiable primary site.
  • The disease is rather rare and only a relatively few cases present with no apparent primary lesion.
  • Pathological and immunohistochemical analysis of the transabdominal CT-guided biopsy specimen revealed tissue consistent with neuroendocrine carcinoma.
  • This would be consistent with a presumptive diagnosis of primary nodal disease.
  • Alternatively, an initial skin lesion could have spontaneously regressed and the retroperitoneal mass represents a single site of metastasis.
  • Moreover, metastasis to the retroperitoneal lymph nodes has been reported as relatively common when compared to other sites such as liver, bone, brain and skin.
  • CONCLUSION: Wide local excision of the primary tumor is the surgical treatment of choice for localized disease.
  • We propose that further studies are needed to elucidate the true efficacy of chemotherapy in conventional as well as unconventional patients with neuroendocrine carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Merkel Cell / secondary. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / secondary. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / pathology. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy, Needle. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Laparotomy / methods. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Risk Assessment. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17949500.001).
  • [ISSN] 1477-7819
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2117014
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21. Mehrabi A, Kashfi A, Fonouni H, Schemmer P, Schmied BM, Hallscheidt P, Schirmacher P, Weitz J, Friess H, Buchler MW, Schmidt J: Primary malignant hepatic epithelioid hemangioendothelioma: a comprehensive review of the literature with emphasis on the surgical therapy. Cancer; 2006 Nov 1;107(9):2108-21
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  • [Title] Primary malignant hepatic epithelioid hemangioendothelioma: a comprehensive review of the literature with emphasis on the surgical therapy.
  • Malignant hepatic epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (HEH) is a rare malignant tumor of vascular origin with unknown etiology and a variable natural course.
  • The authors present a comprehensive review of the literature on HEH with a focus on clinical outcome after different therapeutic strategies.
  • The reviewed parameters included demographic data, clinical manifestations, therapeutic modalities, and clinical outcome.
  • Most patients presented with multifocal tumor that involved both lobes of the liver.
  • Lung, peritoneum, lymph nodes, and bone were the most common sites of extrahepatic involvement at the time of diagnosis.
  • The most common management has been liver transplantation (LTx) (44.8% of patients), followed by no treatment (24.8% of patients), chemotherapy or radiotherapy (21% of patients), and liver resection (LRx) (9.4% of patients).
  • The 1-year and 5-year patient survival rates were 96% and 54.5%, respectively, after LTx; 39.3% and 4.5%, respectively, after no treatment, 73.3% and 30%, respectively, after chemotherapy or radiotherapy; and 100% and 75%, respectively, after LRx.
  • LRx has been the treatment of choice in patients with resectable HEH.
  • However, LTx has been proposed as the treatment of choice because of the hepatic multicentricity of HEH.
  • The role of different adjuvant therapies for patients with HEH remains to be determined.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemangioendothelioma, Epithelioid / diagnosis. Hemangioendothelioma, Epithelioid / surgery. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis. Liver Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Hepatectomy. Humans. Liver Transplantation. Male. Neoplasm Metastasis. Survival Rate

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2006 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 17019735.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 101
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22. Matsuda M, Amemiya H, Kono H, Suzuki T, Chang MS, Izawa S, Furuya S, Takano A, Matsumoto Y, Fujii H: A huge primary peritoneal papillary adenocarcinoma which demonstrated imaging findings similar to those of extrahepatic-growing type hepatic tumor: report of a case. Surg Today; 2005;35(2):175-80
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. FLUOROURACIL .

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  • [Title] A huge primary peritoneal papillary adenocarcinoma which demonstrated imaging findings similar to those of extrahepatic-growing type hepatic tumor: report of a case.
  • We herein report a 69-year-old woman who presented with a huge intra-abdominal tumor which demonstrated imaging findings similar to those of extrahepatic-growing type hepatic tumor, but turned out to be primary peritoneal papillary adenocarcinoma.
  • Computed tomography showed a well-demarcated mass, measuring 12.0 cm in diameter, which came in contact with the lateral segment of the liver and invaded the diaphragm and abdominal wall.
  • Distant lymph node metastasis was also detected.
  • A fine-needle aspiration biopsy of the tumor showed poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma of unknown origin.
  • After chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin, the maximal diameter of the tumor decreased to 6.0 cm.
  • The patient then underwent a tumorectomy together with a lateral segmentectomy of the liver, a splenectomy, a partial resection of the diaphragm and abdominal wall, and a left oophorectomy.
  • Histological and immunohistochemical examinations demonstrated the tumor to be primary peritoneal papillary adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / radiography. Liver Neoplasms / radiography. Peritoneal Neoplasms / radiography
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Fluorouracil / therapeutic use. Humans. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 15674505.001).
  • [ISSN] 0941-1291
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery today
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Today
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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23. Zang R, Zhang Z, Cai S: [Ovarian carcinoma presents as distant metastases without detectable tumors of the origin disease at the first presentation]. Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi; 2001 Jul;36(7):414-6
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  • OBJECTIVE: To study the characteristics, therapies and prognosis of the patients with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) that are initially categorized as extra-abdominal adenocarcinoma of unknown primary.
  • 1997, and manifesting as extra-peritoneal or liver parenchyma metastases at the time of presentation, without detectable ovarian tumors, were retrospectively studied.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The prognosis of such cases, particularly for those with supraclavicular lymphadenopathy or malignant pleural effusion, is a lot better than other stage IV EOC patients, probably because of most of the patients initially presenting with distant metastases being generally in a good condition competent for aggressive surgery or multi-cycle chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 11718028.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-567X
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua fu chan ke za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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24. Møller AK, Pedersen KD, Gothelf A, Daugaard G: Paclitaxel, cisplatin and gemcitabine in treatment of carcinomas of unknown primary site, a phase II study. Acta Oncol; 2010 May;49(4):423-30
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. TAXOL .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Paclitaxel, cisplatin and gemcitabine in treatment of carcinomas of unknown primary site, a phase II study.
  • BACKGROUND: The present study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of a combination of paclitaxel, cisplatin and gemcitabine in patients with carcinoma of unknown primary site (CUP).
  • The median survival time was 10.7 months, and the survival rates at one and two years were 42% and 14%, respectively.
  • There were 3 treatment-related deaths.
  • The treatment was well tolerated by most patients although neutropenia and thrombocytopenia were relatively common.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / administration & dosage. Bone Marrow / drug effects. Bone Neoplasms / drug therapy. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Deoxycytidine / administration & dosage. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Paclitaxel / administration & dosage. Risk Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20397773.001).
  • [ISSN] 1651-226X
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta oncologica (Stockholm, Sweden)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; B76N6SBZ8R / gemcitabine; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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25. Muzi MG, Rulli F, Federico F: Angiosarcoma of the spleen mimicking rupture. Case report and literature review. Acta Biomed Ateneo Parmense; 2000;71(5):135-40

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Primary angiosarcoma of the spleen is very rare and only 143 cases have previously been reported.
  • The pathogenesis is unknown.
  • The clinical aspects are variable, but loss of weight, anaemia, splenomegaly and liver metastases are frequently present.
  • Patients with or without metastatic disease may be treated by chemotherapy but with poor results.
  • Radiotherapy is used for the pain from bone metastasis.
  • We report the clinical case concerning a 79-years-old man with liver metastases and a 5-cm lesion in the spleen, where a subcapsular rupture was suspected.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemangiosarcoma / diagnosis. Splenic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Splenic Rupture / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 11450114.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta bio-medica de L'Ateneo parmense : organo della Società di medicina e scienze naturali di Parma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Biomed Ateneo Parmense
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 25
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26. Suwa D, Konno H, Tanaka T, Urano T: Intraperitoneal infusion of recombinant plasminogen activator inhibitor type 2 induced apoptosis in implanted human colon cancer and inhibited its growth and liver metastasis. Anticancer Res; 2008 Mar-Apr;28(2A):693-8
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  • [Title] Intraperitoneal infusion of recombinant plasminogen activator inhibitor type 2 induced apoptosis in implanted human colon cancer and inhibited its growth and liver metastasis.
  • Primary tumors in rPAI-2-treated group were smaller (0.45 +/- 0.13 g, n = 16) than in the other two groups (control: 0.73 +/- 0.24 g, n = 15; rPAI-1: 0.62 +/- 0.29 g, n = 19).
  • Primary tumors in the rPAI-2-treated group exhibited less mature ductal structures and were significantly smaller.
  • Liver metastasis was less frequent in the rPAI-1 (5/19) and rPAI-2-treated groups (1/16) than in the control group (14/15).
  • PAI-2 more effectively suppressed tumor metastasis and progression, probably by inducing apoptosis; some different unknown mechanism may cause the difference in both antitumor effect and the histological findings.
  • This may indicate the therapeutic potential of these PAls in malignant patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Apoptosis / drug effects. Colonic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 2 / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Drug Evaluation. Humans. Infusions, Parenteral. Mice. Mice, Inbred BALB C. Mice, Nude. Recombinant Proteins / pharmacology. Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays

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  • (PMID = 18507009.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 2; 0 / Recombinant Proteins
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27. Tehranipour N, AL-Nahhas A, Canelo R, Stamp G, Woo K, Tait P, Gishen P: Concordant F-18 FDG PET and Y-90 Bremsstrahlung scans depict selective delivery of Y-90-microspheres to liver tumors: confirmation with histopathology. Clin Nucl Med; 2007 May;32(5):371-4
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  • [Title] Concordant F-18 FDG PET and Y-90 Bremsstrahlung scans depict selective delivery of Y-90-microspheres to liver tumors: confirmation with histopathology.
  • Selective Internal Radiation Therapy using yttrium-90 (Y-90) microspheres is a novel method for the treatment of advanced liver cancer.
  • The procedure involves intrahepatic arterial delivery of the Y-90 microspheres.
  • Since hepatic tumors derive their blood supply mainly from the hepatic arteries, it is assumed that the microspheres will be preferentially delivered to tumor cells.
  • We report a case of hepatic metastasis from an unknown primary, where treatment with Y-90 microspheres was the only available option due to inoperability and low tolerance to chemotherapy.
  • Pretherapy F-18 FDG-PET scan defined the distribution of the active tumor within the liver.
  • Following the injection of Y-90 microspheres, Bremsstrahlung imaging showed uptake only in the F-18 FDG-PET-defined tumor area.
  • Post therapy debulking surgery was performed and histopathology of tumor samples confirmed the preferential distribution of the injected microspheres in the hepatic tumor circulation with very little in the healthy liver tissue.
  • [MeSH-major] Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Liver Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Liver Neoplasms / therapy. Microspheres. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods. Radiopharmaceuticals. Yttrium Radioisotopes / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Drug Delivery Systems. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17452865.001).
  • [ISSN] 0363-9762
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0 / Yttrium Radioisotopes; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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28. Garg PK, Khurana N, Hadke NS: Subcutaneous and breast metastasis from asymptomatic gallbladder carcinoma. Hepatobiliary Pancreat Dis Int; 2009 Apr;8(2):209-11
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  • [Title] Subcutaneous and breast metastasis from asymptomatic gallbladder carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Though gallbladder carcinoma is associated with early lymphatic and hematogenous spread, the only common extra-abdominal site of metastasis is lung.
  • Gallbladder carcinoma metastasizing to breast and subcutaneous tissue is not known.
  • METHOD: This report describes an interesting and unusual case of asymptomatic gallbladder carcinoma presenting with subcutaneous and breast metastasis.
  • The patient was investigated for a primary neoplasm.
  • An ultrasound of the abdomen followed by a contrast-enhanced CT scan showed a growth in gallbladder, infiltrating the liver with multiple hepatic metastases.
  • She was diagnosed as a case of metastatic adenocarcinoma of the gallbladder and palliative combination chemotherapy with gemcitabine and carboplatin was given.
  • But she developed jaundice and deteriorated dramatically in a short span of time.
  • No specific therapy could be started and she was given supportive treatment.
  • She died within three weeks of diagnosis due to hepatic encephalopathy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This report highlights an unusual metastasis of gallbladder carcinoma to the breast and subcutaneous tissue presenting as multiple lesions, which has never been reported in the English literature.
  • These were unknown sites of metastasis for carcinoma of the gallbladder.

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  • (PMID = 19357037.001).
  • [ISSN] 1499-3872
  • [Journal-full-title] Hepatobiliary & pancreatic diseases international : HBPD INT
  • [ISO-abbreviation] HBPD INT
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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29. Hoffmann C, Horst HA, Weichenthal M, Hauschild A: Malignant melanoma and HIV infection -- aggressive course despite immune reconstitution. Onkologie; 2005 Jan;28(1):35-7
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  • BACKGROUND: Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has altered the course of most AIDS-related malignancies.
  • The 53-year-old man received HAART in order to use both its anti-tumor efficacy and its stimulating effect on cellular and humoral immune functions.
  • Furthermore, our patient was treated with interleukin-2, a drug which has shown efficacy in metastatic melanoma and HIV infection.
  • RESULTS: Although the CD4 and CD8 cell count increased significantly, a fulminant progression of melanoma in the liver and spleen was noted, and the patient died subsequently.
  • CONCLUSION: This case describes that neither immune reconstitution through HAART nor interleukin-2 treatment were able to lead into an anti-tumor response.
  • HIV-infected patients should be monitored routinely for an early diagnosis of this potentially lethal disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-HIV Agents / administration & dosage. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active / methods. HIV Infections / drug therapy. Melanoma / drug therapy. Melanoma / secondary. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Disease Progression. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Rare Diseases. Treatment Outcome


30. Scherwitz P, Lindenfelser R, Krüger I: [Localization of primary small cell carcinoma with liver metastasis: a rare combination of colonic adenocarcinoma and undifferentiated small cell carcinoma]. Chirurg; 2002 Aug;73(8):859-61
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  • [Title] [Localization of primary small cell carcinoma with liver metastasis: a rare combination of colonic adenocarcinoma and undifferentiated small cell carcinoma].
  • Neuroendocrine or small cell cancer (SCC) is a rare tumor, accounting for less than 1% of all colorectal cancers.
  • There is a high rate of metastasis in SCC.
  • We present a case of a 67-year-old female patient with liver metastasis of SCC.
  • Initially, the primary tumor was not found and the patient underwent chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Small Cell / secondary. Colonic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary. Paclitaxel / analogs & derivatives. Taxoids
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Colectomy. Colon / pathology. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Liver / pathology. Time Factors. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. DOCETAXEL .
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  • (PMID = 12425166.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-4722
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Chirurg; Zeitschrift für alle Gebiete der operativen Medizen
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chirurg
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 0 / Taxoids; 15H5577CQD / docetaxel; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
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31. Sano J, Sugiyama Y, Kunieda K, Sano B, Saji S: Therapeutic effect of TNP-470 on spontaneous liver metastasis of colon tumors in the rabbit. Surg Today; 2000;30(12):1100-6
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  • [Title] Therapeutic effect of TNP-470 on spontaneous liver metastasis of colon tumors in the rabbit.
  • Even though angiogenesis inhibitor is thought to be one of the promising agents in tumor dormancy therapy, its optimal administration is still unknown.
  • Therefore, the efficient protocol using TNP-470 was examined regarding its treatment affect against spontaneous liver metastases of colon tumors in the rabbit.
  • A spontaneous liver metastases model was established in the rabbit by the inoculation of VX-2 tumors into the subserosal space of the colon.
  • The therapeutic effect of TNP-470 was then investigated by monitoring both the number of metastatic nodules in the liver and the microvessel density (MVD) in the tumor by immunohistochemical staining using anti-CD31 monoclonal antibody.
  • TNP-470 did not show any effect on the primary tumor.
  • It was able to reduce the metastatic spread to liver when it was administered at the microscopic metastatic stage.
  • Treatment at this stage, however, was not able to sufficiently control the disease.
  • These results indicated that TNP-470 could efficiently cause the tumor to enter into a dormant state by inhibiting angiogenesis when it was used at the initial stage of the metastatic process in the liver.
  • Regarding its clinical application, TNP-470 might be useful for preventing the metachronous liver metastases of colorectal cancer when it is administered as adjuvant therapy after curative surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiogenesis Inhibitors / pharmacology. Colonic Neoplasms / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Sesquiterpenes / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cyclohexanes. Female. Infusions, Intravenous. Neovascularization, Pathologic / drug therapy. Rabbits

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  • (PMID = 11193742.001).
  • [ISSN] 0941-1291
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery today
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Today
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Cyclohexanes; 0 / Sesquiterpenes; 129298-91-5 / O-(chloroacetylcarbamoyl)fumagillol
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32. Cheng JC, Esparza SD, Knez VM, Sakamoto KM, Moore TB: Severe lactic acidosis in a 14-year-old female with metastatic undifferentiated carcinoma of unknown primary. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2004 Nov;26(11):780-2
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Severe lactic acidosis in a 14-year-old female with metastatic undifferentiated carcinoma of unknown primary.
  • The diagnosis of an undifferentiated carcinoma of unknown primary was made after open breast biopsy of the mass with negative immunohistochemical studies for breast malignancies.
  • Further evaluation showed extensive metastatic disease affecting the bone marrow, ribs, liver, and brain with magnetic resonance imaging evidence of carcinomatous meningitis.
  • Despite 2 months of chemotherapy and intensive supportive care, the patient died of severe lactic acidosis and disseminated intravascular coagulation after exaggerated menstrual bleeding.
  • The association of severe lactic acidosis and undifferentiated carcinoma of unknown primary in an adolescent has not been previously described.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation / etiology. Fatal Outcome. Female. Hemorrhage / etiology. Humans. Neoplasm Metastasis / diagnosis. Neoplasm Metastasis / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15543020.001).
  • [ISSN] 1077-4114
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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33. Economou MA: Uveal melanoma and macular degeneration: molecular biology and potential therapeutic applications. Acta Ophthalmol; 2008 Dec;86(8):930-1
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  • [Title] Uveal melanoma and macular degeneration: molecular biology and potential therapeutic applications.
  • Uveal melanoma is the most common primary intraocular malignant tumor in adults with 30% to 50% of patients that ultimately succumb to metastatic disease, mainly to the liver. (Shields et al.
  • 1991) Although new diagnostic and therapeutic tools have been developed during the most recent years, only the eye conservation rate has been achieved, while the survival rate remains poor.
  • The reason for this liver-homing is largely unknown, but it is conceivable that hepatic environmental factors may be implicated in the growth, dissemination, and progression of this malignancy.
  • The insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) that binds to the IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) is mainly produced in the liver.
  • It has been shown to be crucial for tumor transformation, maintenance of malignant phenotype, promotion of cell growth, and prevention of apoptosis. (Baserga 1995) The hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor (HGF/SF) is another growth factor produced in the liver and exerts its biological effects through binding to the plasma membrane receptor c-Met.
  • The activation of this receptor by HGF/SF ligand can induce proliferation, motility, adhesion, and invasion of tumor cells. (Cruz et al.
  • 2003) Metastasis is a process involving many components, including tumor cell adhesion, migration, extracellular matrix (ECM) proteolysis, and invasion.
  • The tumor cells undergo intravasation, disperse via the vascular and the lymphatic systems, and finally extravasate to invade the secondary sites.
  • Efforts to target the IGF-I system has been made with different types of cancer but not with uveal melanoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Macular Degeneration / drug therapy. Melanoma / drug therapy. Melanoma / metabolism. Molecular Biology / methods. Uveal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Uveal Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Biomarkers. Humans. Mice. Podophyllotoxin / analogs & derivatives. Podophyllotoxin / therapeutic use. Prognosis. Receptor, IGF Type 1 / antagonists & inhibitors. Receptor, IGF Type 1 / metabolism. Signal Transduction. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / metabolism


34. Salinas-Jazmín N, de la Fuente M, Jaimez R, Pérez-Tapia M, Pérez-Torres A, Velasco-Velázquez MA: Antimetastatic, antineoplastic, and toxic effects of 4-hydroxycoumarin in a preclinical mouse melanoma model. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol; 2010 Apr;65(5):931-40
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • PURPOSE: We have previously reported that in vitro treatment of B16-F10 melanoma cells with 4-hydroxycoumarin (4-HC) decreases their metastatic potential.
  • However, the antimetastatic efficacy of 4-HC in vivo is unknown; therefore, we investigated the antimetastatic and antineoplastic effects of 4-HC in a mouse melanoma model.
  • METHODS: Experimental metastasis assay was performed in C57BL/6 mice that received 4-HC before intravenous injection of B16-F10 cells.
  • Moreover, 4-HC diminished primary tumor growth and increased survival time in mice bearing melanoma tumors.
  • Treatments also decrease spontaneous lung metastases in the same animals.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These results show that 4-HC not only exhibit antimetastatic effect in vivo, but also effectively reduces tumor growth and improves survival, even when it produce toxic effects.
  • Although the molecular mechanism of 4-HC actions needs to be further defined, our data suggest that 4-HC may lead to the development of agents that could be used as adjuvants in the therapy of melanoma.
  • [MeSH-major] 4-Hydroxycoumarins / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Melanoma, Experimental / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Anticoagulants / adverse effects. Anticoagulants / therapeutic use. Disease Models, Animal. Drug Evaluation, Preclinical. Kidney / drug effects. Kidney / pathology. Kidney / ultrastructure. Liver / drug effects. Liver / pathology. Lung / drug effects. Lung / pathology. Lung / ultrastructure. Male. Mice. Mice, Inbred C57BL. Neoplasm Metastasis

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  • (PMID = 19690859.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-0843
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer chemotherapy and pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 4-Hydroxycoumarins; 0 / Anticoagulants; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; X954ZLL2RD / 4-hydroxycoumarin
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