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1. Pierga JY, Bonneton C, Magdelénat H, Vincent-Salomon A, Nos C, Pouillart P, Thiery JP: Clinical significance of proliferative potential of occult metastatic cells in bone marrow of patients with breast cancer. Br J Cancer; 2003 Aug 4;89(3):539-45
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  • [Title] Clinical significance of proliferative potential of occult metastatic cells in bone marrow of patients with breast cancer.
  • There is increasing statistical evidence that the presence of tumour cells in bone marrow detected by immunocytochemistry represents an important prognostic indicator in breast cancer, but their individual capacity to become clinical metastases is unknown.
  • The aim of this study was to assess the proliferative capacity of these occult metastatic cells in the bone marrow of patients with various stages of breast cancer.
  • We obtained bone marrow aspirates from 60 patients with breast cancer before treatment with chemotherapy: 17 stage II, 12 stage III and 31 stage IV.
  • After bone marrow culture for 6-34 days (median: 17 days) under specific cell culture conditions, viable epithelial cells were detected by cytokeratin staining in 40 patients (66%).
  • Expansion of tumour cells was poorly correlated with tumour cell detection on primary screening (P=0.06).
  • On primary screening, tumour cell detection was positive in 56% of patients and was correlated with clinical UICC stage (P=0.01).
  • However, with a median follow-up of 23 months, expansion of tumour cells from bone marrow was associated with decreased patient survival (P=0.04), whereas the survival difference according to detection of CK-positive cells on primary screening was not statistically significant.
  • In conclusion, viable tumour cells can be detected in the bone marrow of breast cancer patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Cell Division. Neoplasm Staging


2. Bugat R, Bataillard A, Lesimple T, Voigt JJ, Culine S, Lortholary A, Merrouche Y, Ganem G, Kaminsky MC, Negrier S, Perol M, Laforêt C, Bedossa P, Bertrand G, Coindre JM, Fizazi K, FNCLCC, CRLCC: [Standards, Options and Recommendations for the management of patient with carcinoma of unknown primary site]. Bull Cancer; 2002 Oct;89(10):869-75
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  • [Title] [Standards, Options and Recommendations for the management of patient with carcinoma of unknown primary site].
  • [Transliterated title] Standards, Options et Recommandations 2002 pur la prise en charge des patients atteints de carcinomes de site primitif inconnu (rapport abrégé).
  • OBJECTIVES: To develop clinical practice guidelines for carcinoma of unknown primary site (CUPS) patients according to the definitions of the Standards, Options and Recommendations project.
  • 1) An adapted immunochemistry test using a specific antibody battery should be performed for the anatomopathologic diagnosis.
  • 2) The aim of the diagnosis is to identify specific anatomoclinical forms that can be treated by a specific treatment (standard, level of evidence B2).
  • Except these forms, searching for the primary tumor site have no prognosis or therapeutic interest that can justify a systematic diagnosis assessment (standard, level of evidence B2).
  • 3) The management of poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma consists of platin/etoposide based chemotherapy.
  • There is no standard treatment for the differentiated forms.
  • In the event of a non operable tumor, an irradiation should be performed.
  • If mammary MRI is negative, surgical treatment and mammary irradiation are not recommended and an axillary node excision should be performed.
  • 6) The standard treatment for women with primary papillary serous carcinoma of the peritoneum is a surgical resection followed by chemotherapy, as recommended for ovarian cancer.
  • 7) CUPS not belonging to any specific anatomoclinical forms can be treated by chemotherapy, symptomatic treatment alone or treatment based on biphosphonates in presence bone metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Axilla. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Sex Factors

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  • (PMID = 12441278.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-4551
  • [Journal-full-title] Bulletin du cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bull Cancer
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Guideline; Journal Article; Practice Guideline
  • [Publication-country] France
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3. Pandit-Taskar N, Batraki M, Divgi CR: Radiopharmaceutical therapy for palliation of bone pain from osseous metastases. J Nucl Med; 2004 Aug;45(8):1358-65
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  • [Title] Radiopharmaceutical therapy for palliation of bone pain from osseous metastases.
  • Bone metastasis occurs as a result of a complex pathophysiologic process between host and tumor cells leading to cellular invasion, migration adhesion, and stimulation of osteoclastic and osteoblastic activity.
  • The process is mediated by parathyroid hormones, cytokines, and tumor-derived factors.
  • Several sequelae occur as a result of osseous metastases and resulting bone pain can lead to significant debilitation.
  • Pain associated with osseous metastasis is thought to be distinct from neuropathic or inflammatory pain.
  • Several mechanisms-such as invasion of tumor cells, spinal cord astrogliosis, and sensitization of nervous system-have been postulated to cause pain.
  • Pharmaceutical therapy of bone pain includes nonsteroidal analgesics and opiates.
  • These drugs are associated with side effects, and tolerance to these agents necessitates treatment with other modalities.
  • Bisphosphonates act by inhibiting osteoclast-mediated resorption and have been increasingly used in treatment of painful bone metastasis.
  • While external beam radiation therapy remains the mainstay of pain palliation of solitary lesions, bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals have entered the therapeutic armamentarium for the treatment of multiple painful osseous lesions. (32)P has been used for >3 decades in the treatment of multiple osseous metastases.
  • The myelosuppression caused by this agent has led to the development of other bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals, including (89)SrCl, (153)Sm-ethylenediaminetetramethylene phosphonic acid ((153)Sm-EDTMP), (179m)SnCl, and (166)Ho-Labeled 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetramethylenephosphonate ((166)Ho-DOTMP). (89)Sr is a bone-seeking radionuclide, whereas (153)Sm-EDTMP is a bone-seeking tetraphosphonate; both have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of painful osseous metastases.
  • While both agents have been shown to have efficacy in the treatment of painful osseous metastases from prostate cancer, they may also have utility in the treatment of painful osseous metastases from breast cancer and perhaps from non-small cell lung cancer.
  • We conclude with recommended guidelines for therapy and follow-up.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Pain / etiology. Pain / radiotherapy. Palliative Care / methods. Patient Care Management / methods. Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Radiopharmaceuticals / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / complications. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / radiotherapy. Practice Guidelines as Topic

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  • (PMID = 15299062.001).
  • [ISSN] 0161-5505
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of nuclear medicine : official publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Nucl. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radioisotopes; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals
  • [Number-of-references] 70
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4. Kodaira M, Takahashi S, Yamada S, Ueda K, Mishima Y, Takeuchi K, Yamamoto N, Ishikawa Y, Yokoyama M, Saotome T, Terui Y, Hatake K: Bone metastasis and poor performance status are prognostic factors for survival of carcinoma of unknown primary site in patients treated with systematic chemotherapy. Ann Oncol; 2010 Jun;21(6):1163-7
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  • [Title] Bone metastasis and poor performance status are prognostic factors for survival of carcinoma of unknown primary site in patients treated with systematic chemotherapy.
  • BACKGROUND: Cancer of unknown primary site (CUP) generally has a poor prognosis, and there is no established standard therapy.
  • There have been no reports of a prognostic model for CUP patients treated with a single regimen of systemic chemotherapy.
  • METHODS: Univariate and multivariate prognostic factor analysis for overall survival (OS) were conducted retrospectively in 58 consecutive CUP patients treated with carboplatin plus paclitaxel (Taxol) therapy as a first-line treatment.
  • RESULTS: Univariate prognostic factor analysis revealed baseline performance status (PS) of two or more, low serum albumin level, pleural effusion, bone metastasis, and liver metastasis as adverse prognostic factors.
  • Cox proportional hazards analysis showed that poor PS and bone metastasis had the most powerful adverse impact on survival.
  • We developed a prognostic model using those two variables-a good-risk group (PS 0-1 without bone metastasis) and a poor-risk group (PS > or =2 or bone metastasis).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Poor PS and bone metastasis were identified as independent adverse prognostic factors in CUP.
  • A simple prognostic model was developed and seems useful for decision making as to whether chemotherapy is indicated for CUP patients.

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  • [CommentIn] Ann Oncol. 2010 Jun;21(6):1143-4 [20089568.001]
  • (PMID = 20019088.001).
  • [ISSN] 1569-8041
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
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5. Swiatoniowski G, Bruzewicz S, Suder E, Warszylewicz-Szymanek M, Kłaniewski T, Prudlak E, Molenda W, Setta M: [Surprisingly positive effect of palliative CAP chemotherapy of bone-disseminated, undifferentiated carcinoma of unknown primary origin in patient with low performance status according to WHO]. Przegl Lek; 2006;63(3):166-8
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  • [Title] [Surprisingly positive effect of palliative CAP chemotherapy of bone-disseminated, undifferentiated carcinoma of unknown primary origin in patient with low performance status according to WHO].
  • The paper presents the case of a 58-year old male with low performance status (3 according to WHO) diagnosed with bone-disseminated, undifferentiated carcinoma of unknown primary origin in April 2001.
  • The patient was given reduced dosage CAP chemotherapy (cisplatin 40 mg/m2, doxorubicin 40 mg/m2, cyclophosphamide 40 mg/m2, every 21 days).
  • A total number of 12 treatment courses were administered, reaching summary admissible dosage of doxorubicin.
  • The patient's condition improved in the course of treatment - pain symptoms and levels of tumor biomarkers decreased significantly, while performance status increased.
  • Chemotherapy was completed in December 2001.
  • Presently the level of tumor biomarkers are increasing but it is not accompanied with metastasis or primary focus manifestation.
  • Although the described patient undoubtedly belonged to the group with poor prognosis, the treatment applied resulted with surprisingly positive effect.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bone Neoplasms / drug therapy. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma / drug therapy. Carcinoma / secondary. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary. Palliative Care
  • [MeSH-minor] Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Cyclophosphamide / therapeutic use. Doxorubicin / therapeutic use. Health Status. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16969902.001).
  • [ISSN] 0033-2240
  • [Journal-full-title] Przegla̧d lekarski
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prz. Lek.
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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6. Alvarez Marcos CA, Llorente Pendás JL, Franco Gutiérrez V, Hermsen M, Cuesta Albalad MP, Fernández Espina H, Suárez Nieto C: [Distant metastases in head and neck cancer]. Acta Otorrinolaringol Esp; 2006 Oct;57(8):369-72
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  • [Transliterated title] Metástasis a distancia en el cáncer de cabeza y cuello.
  • INTRODUCTION: The presence of distant metastasis (DM) after the initial treatment of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is not considered a common event and it is associated to a poor outcome.
  • PURPOSE: To investigate the prevalence and risk factors associated with the diagnosis of distant metastasis in SCC.
  • RESULTS: During the follow-up period after the initial treatment, 6.2% of the patients were diagnosed of having distant metastasis.
  • The site of primary tumor was hypopharynx in 14.4%, unknown origin in 11.8% and oropharynx in 8.5%.
  • The most common sites of DM were the lungs (58%) and the bone (22%).
  • There is a need of guidelines for screening of distant metastases in patients with HNSCC in order to get an early diagnosis and a more effective treatment.
  • Because of the poor prognosis of DM, protocols including adjuvant chemotherapy should be investigated.

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  • (PMID = 17117695.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-6519
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta otorrinolaringológica española
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Otorrinolaringol Esp
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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7. Boghossian V, Owen ID, Nuli B, Xiao PQ: Neuroendocrine (Merkel cell) carcinoma of the retroperitoneum with no identifiable primary site. World J Surg Oncol; 2007;5:117

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  • [Title] Neuroendocrine (Merkel cell) carcinoma of the retroperitoneum with no identifiable primary site.
  • The disease is rather rare and only a relatively few cases present with no apparent primary lesion.
  • Pathological and immunohistochemical analysis of the transabdominal CT-guided biopsy specimen revealed tissue consistent with neuroendocrine carcinoma.
  • This would be consistent with a presumptive diagnosis of primary nodal disease.
  • Alternatively, an initial skin lesion could have spontaneously regressed and the retroperitoneal mass represents a single site of metastasis.
  • Moreover, metastasis to the retroperitoneal lymph nodes has been reported as relatively common when compared to other sites such as liver, bone, brain and skin.
  • CONCLUSION: Wide local excision of the primary tumor is the surgical treatment of choice for localized disease.
  • We propose that further studies are needed to elucidate the true efficacy of chemotherapy in conventional as well as unconventional patients with neuroendocrine carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Merkel Cell / secondary. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / secondary. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / pathology. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy, Needle. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Laparotomy / methods. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Risk Assessment. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17949500.001).
  • [ISSN] 1477-7819
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2117014
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8. Mehrabi A, Kashfi A, Fonouni H, Schemmer P, Schmied BM, Hallscheidt P, Schirmacher P, Weitz J, Friess H, Buchler MW, Schmidt J: Primary malignant hepatic epithelioid hemangioendothelioma: a comprehensive review of the literature with emphasis on the surgical therapy. Cancer; 2006 Nov 1;107(9):2108-21
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  • [Title] Primary malignant hepatic epithelioid hemangioendothelioma: a comprehensive review of the literature with emphasis on the surgical therapy.
  • Malignant hepatic epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (HEH) is a rare malignant tumor of vascular origin with unknown etiology and a variable natural course.
  • The authors present a comprehensive review of the literature on HEH with a focus on clinical outcome after different therapeutic strategies.
  • The reviewed parameters included demographic data, clinical manifestations, therapeutic modalities, and clinical outcome.
  • Most patients presented with multifocal tumor that involved both lobes of the liver.
  • Lung, peritoneum, lymph nodes, and bone were the most common sites of extrahepatic involvement at the time of diagnosis.
  • The most common management has been liver transplantation (LTx) (44.8% of patients), followed by no treatment (24.8% of patients), chemotherapy or radiotherapy (21% of patients), and liver resection (LRx) (9.4% of patients).
  • The 1-year and 5-year patient survival rates were 96% and 54.5%, respectively, after LTx; 39.3% and 4.5%, respectively, after no treatment, 73.3% and 30%, respectively, after chemotherapy or radiotherapy; and 100% and 75%, respectively, after LRx.
  • LRx has been the treatment of choice in patients with resectable HEH.
  • However, LTx has been proposed as the treatment of choice because of the hepatic multicentricity of HEH.
  • The role of different adjuvant therapies for patients with HEH remains to be determined.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemangioendothelioma, Epithelioid / diagnosis. Hemangioendothelioma, Epithelioid / surgery. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis. Liver Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Hepatectomy. Humans. Liver Transplantation. Male. Neoplasm Metastasis. Survival Rate

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2006 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 17019735.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 101
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9. Kato S, Yasuda K, Nishino Y, Ohori H, Takahashi M, Takahashi S, Yamaura G, Ohtsuka K, Kakudo Y, Chiba N, Shimodaira H, Sakayori M, Kato S, Suzuki T, Murakawa Y, Gamoh M, Shibata H, Yoshioka T, Ishioka C: [Clinical characteristics of cancer of unknown primary (CUP)--a summary of 22 cases]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2007 Aug;34(8):1227-31
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  • [Title] [Clinical characteristics of cancer of unknown primary (CUP)--a summary of 22 cases].
  • Cancer of unknown primary site (CUP) is not a rare entity and accounts for 3-5% of all malignant neoplasias.
  • Systemic chemotherapy is applied in many cases, but the ideal therapeutic strategy has not yet been determined.
  • CUP shows much histological and therapeutic heterogeneity.
  • We analyzed the clinical and therapeutic characteristics 22 cases of CUP patients.
  • There is no significant tendency as to the site of lymph node metastasis.
  • Bone metastases are frequently encountered.
  • It seems undifferentiated carcinomas are more responsive to chemotherapy.
  • In our experience all of the chemo-responsive cases are treated with platinum-based chemotherapy.
  • Because of its variety, individualized therapy may be ideal for CUP.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / drug therapy. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / mortality
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma / mortality. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Drug Administration Schedule. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Paclitaxel / administration & dosage. Prognosis. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 17687203.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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10. Bedikian AY, Papadopoulos NE, Kim KB, Vardeleon A, Smith T, Lu B, Deitcher SR: A pilot study with vincristine sulfate liposome infusion in patients with metastatic melanoma. Melanoma Res; 2008 Dec;18(6):400-4
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  • Vincristine sulfate liposome infusion (VSLI) is a sphingomyelin/cholesterol liposome encapsulated formulation of vincristine that results in an extended drug circulation time and the potential for enhanced malignancy targeting, exposure, and anticancer activity.
  • Safety, tumor response, and survival were determined.
  • Twenty-seven patients with metastatic melanoma of cutaneous (n=19), uveal (n=4), mucosal (n=1), and unknown (n=3) primary were treated.
  • Twenty-five (93%) patients had received one or more prior lines of chemotherapy and/or immunotherapy; 14 (48%) had received a vinblastine-containing regimen.
  • One complete (uveal melanoma metastatic to lung) and two partial responses (previously untreated cutaneous melanoma metastatic to the bone, brain, spleen and lung, and another with melanoma of unknown primary involving the lung, liver, and lymph node) were found.
  • The median time to progression was 1.9 months.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / administration & dosage. Melanoma / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy. Vincristine / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Delayed-Action Preparations. Female. Humans. Liposomes / administration & dosage. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Pilot Projects. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 19011511.001).
  • [ISSN] 1473-5636
  • [Journal-full-title] Melanoma research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Melanoma Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 0 / Delayed-Action Preparations; 0 / Liposomes; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine
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11. Medina-Franco H, Urist MM: Occult breast carcinoma presenting with axillary lymph node metastases. Rev Invest Clin; 2002 May-Jun;54(3):204-8
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  • BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Occult primary breast carcinoma is uncommon.
  • Most reported series encompass a large periods of time with great variability in diagnostic and treatment approaches.
  • The objective of the present study was to review the recent experience with this type of presentation of breast cancer in the University of Alabama at Birmingham.
  • METHODS: Retrospective review of clinicopathological data of female patients presenting with axillary metastasis of adenocarcinoma with unknown primary and normal clinical and mammographic breast exam seen at UAB between 1985 and 1998.
  • All patients had biopsy proven adenocarcinoma consistent with breast primary.
  • Nine out of ten patients received some type of local treatment to the breast.
  • Six patients received radiation therapy to the breast.
  • All patients received chemotherapy.
  • With mean follow-up time of 48 months, two patients developed local recurrence to the axilla and four developed distant metastasis and eventually died.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In presence of axillary metastasis from an unknown breast primary, an extensive work-up evaluation is not necessary.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Lymphatic Metastasis / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Alabama / epidemiology. Axilla. Biopsy. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Lymph Node Excision. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Mammography. Menopause. Middle Aged. Palpation. Retrospective Studies. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 12183889.001).
  • [ISSN] 0034-8376
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista de investigación clínica; organo del Hospital de Enfermedades de la Nutrición
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev. Invest. Clin.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Mexico
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12. Bruns J, Fiedler W, Werner M, Delling G: Dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma--a fatal disease. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol; 2005 Jun;131(6):333-9
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  • The mean age of the patients at diagnosis was 59.8 years.
  • Adjuvant chemotherapy was given to five patients.
  • In one patient the stage was unknown.
  • At follow-up 11 patients were dead of disease (DOD), one dead of unknown reason (DOU) and one alive with disease (AWD).
  • The mean survival time was 9.7 months.
  • Metastasis to different anatomical sites was evident after a period of 10 months.
  • DDCS is rare and is the primary malignant bone tumour with the worst prognosis.
  • Surgery is the most important procedure, although it is unclear whether a radical resection improves the long-term results.
  • Information regarding neoadjuvant and/or adjuvant therapy with chemotherapy is very limited.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / mortality. Chondrosarcoma / mortality
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cell Differentiation. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Prognosis. Survival Rate. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Cites] Ann Oncol. 2001 Jun;12(6):859-64 [11484965.001]
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  • (PMID = 15785935.001).
  • [ISSN] 0171-5216
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cancer research and clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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13. Pacheco-Ojeda L, Domeisen H, Narvaez M, Tixi R, Vivar N: Malignant salivary gland tumors in Quito, Ecuador. ORL J Otorhinolaryngol Relat Spec; 2000 Nov-Dec;62(6):296-302
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The goal of this study was to review a 16-year experience of a major general hospital in the treatment of these lesions.
  • Adenoid cystic carcinoma and mucoepidermoid carcinoma were the most common histologic types.
  • Thirty-one (53%) patients were treated by surgery alone; postoperative radiation therapy was additionally given to 22 (38%), and surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy were applied in 5 cases (9%).
  • Twelve patients (21%) developed distant metastasis (DM; 2 in more than one site): 7 in the lungs, 2 in the brain, 2 in the bone and 1 each in the liver, subcutaneous tissue and pleura.
  • Twenty-three patients are deceased: 6 with LR, 7 with DM, 3 with both LR and DM, 1 with locoregional recurrence and DM, 2 with a second neoplasm, 3 with intercurrent disease and 1 from unknown causes.
  • There were no significant differences in mortality according to the site of the primary tumor or histologic type, but stage and involved surgical margins were important prognostic factors (p = 0.006 and 0.003).
  • CONCLUSIONS: The surgical or multimodality treatment of MSGT has provided a good locoregional control (78%) and 68% 10-year survival in a series of patients treated at the oncology department of a general hospital in Quito, Ecuador.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / therapy. Carcinoma, Mucoepidermoid / therapy. Salivary Gland Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Factors. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Combined Modality Therapy. Ecuador / epidemiology. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Salivary Glands / pathology. Survival Analysis

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel
  • (PMID = 11054011.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-1569
  • [Journal-full-title] ORL; journal for oto-rhino-laryngology and its related specialties
  • [ISO-abbreviation] ORL J. Otorhinolaryngol. Relat. Spec.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Number-of-references] 31
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14. Lujan M, Cardona AF, Yepes A, Carrasco-Chaumel E, Reveiz L, Otero JM: Myelophthisis in solid tumors: Old aspects, new concepts (ONCOLGroup study). J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):e20672

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • : e20672 Background: Myelophthisis is a form of bone marrow failure due to replacement of hematopoietic tissue by abnormal tissue, most commonly metastatic carcinomas.
  • Twenty-seven pts (30%) had breast cancer, pathology followed by primary unknown tumours (21%), rabdomiosarcoma (10%), prostate adenocarcinoma (10%), gastric carcinoma (7%) and others (22%).
  • At the time when myelophtisis was documented 72% and 50% of pts had osseous and visceral metastasis respectively; 81 pts presented anaemia (Hb 9.8 ± 1.2 gr/dl), mean platelet count was 174,000 and mean leukocyte count was 24,283 ± 5,447.
  • Forty-three pts received chemotherapy following the diagnosis of medullar infiltration, and normal leukocyte count was being seen in 40% of them after such treatment.
  • Nine episodes of febrile neutropenia were found; median overall survival (OS) following the diagnosis of neoplasia and myelophtisis were 13.8 months and 2.2 months respectively.
  • The factors related to lower survival rate were the presence of Hb ≤8.5 gr/dl (HR: 0,54, CI95% 0,32-0,95; p = 0.04), >3 metastasis sites (HR: 0,67, CI95% 0,45-0,92; p = 0.03), visceral disease (HR: 0,72, CI95% 0,66-0,89; p = 0.04) and febrile neutropenia caused by chemotherapy (HR: 0,52, CI95% 0,37-0,60; p = 0.02).
  • Treatment for this subgroup should be selected bearing in mind its potential haematological toxicity.

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  • (PMID = 27961689.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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15. Heinroth S, Bilkenroth U, Eckert AW, Maurer P: [Bone metastases in the maxilla as first manifestation of renal cell cancer. A case report]. Mund Kiefer Gesichtschir; 2006 Jan;10(1):42-5
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  • [Title] [Bone metastases in the maxilla as first manifestation of renal cell cancer. A case report].
  • BACKGROUND: Bone metastases in the upper jaw are relatively rare but not unusual in oral and maxillofacial surgery.
  • In many cases finding the primary tumour is difficult because of its occult location.
  • CASE REPORT: We describe a 53-year-old female patient who suffered from a tumor in the oral cavity.
  • The first histological and clinical diagnosis revealed a granuloma pyogenicum.
  • Because of the delayed healing process another biopsy became necessary showing a metastasis of an unknown primary tumor.
  • Appropriate surgical intervention and chemotherapy were subsequently initiated.
  • CONCLUSION: The present case report demonstrates how difficult it can be to provide the right pathological diagnosis in biopsy material even regarding obvious malignancy.
  • Therefore thorough diagnostic efforts are indispensable to facilitate the causal treatment of an unknown primary tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Renal Cell / secondary. Kidney Neoplasms / diagnosis. Maxillary Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Bone Neoplasms / diagnosis. Bone Neoplasms / pathology. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Bone Neoplasms / therapy. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Kidney / pathology. Maxilla / pathology. Middle Aged. Pelvic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pelvic Neoplasms / pathology. Pelvic Neoplasms / secondary. Pelvic Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 16402238.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-9417
  • [Journal-full-title] Mund-, Kiefer- und Gesichtschirurgie : MKG
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mund Kiefer Gesichtschir
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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16. Stoll S, Taverna C, Michel BA, Sprott H: Spinal pain due to metastasis of unknown origin. Rheumatol Int; 2005 Sep;25(7):562-4

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Spinal pain due to metastasis of unknown origin.
  • Due to the prolonged duration of symptoms, a bone scintigraphy was made, which showed pathological enhancement in the upper thoracic spine.
  • A biopsy showed a metastasis of poorly differentiated carcinoma.
  • A whole-body 18-F-FDG PET scan failed to identify a primary tumour.
  • The patient was given radiotherapy, chemotherapy and analgesic treatment.
  • Metastasis from an unknown primary site can present as cervical spinal disease very similar to degenerative disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / diagnosis. Spinal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Spinal Neoplasms / secondary. Thoracic Vertebrae
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biopsy, Needle. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease Progression. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Low Back Pain / diagnosis. Low Back Pain / etiology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Middle Aged. Positron-Emission Tomography. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Risk Assessment. Severity of Illness Index

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  • (PMID = 15688189.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-8172
  • [Journal-full-title] Rheumatology international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rheumatol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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17. DeLaney TF, Park L, Goldberg SI, Hug EB, Liebsch NJ, Munzenrider JE, Suit HD: Radiotherapy for local control of osteosarcoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2005 Feb 1;61(2):492-8
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  • Patient charts were reviewed to assess local control, progression-free survival, metastasis-free survival, and overall survival.
  • Of the 41 patients, 27 (65.85%) had undergone gross total tumor resection, 9 (21.95%) subtotal resection, and 5 (12.2%) biopsy only.
  • The radiation dose ranged from 10 to 80 Gy (median 66).
  • Chemotherapy was given to 35 patients (85.4%).
  • Of the 41 patients, 27 (65.85%) were treated for localized disease at primary presentation, 10 (24.4%) for local recurrence, and 4 (9.8%) for metastatic disease.
  • Overall survival was better in patients treated at primary presentation (78.8% +/- 8.6% compared with 54% +/- 17.3% for recurrence) p <0.05).
  • No definitive dose-response relationship for local control of tumor was seen, although the local control rate was 71% +/- 9% for 32 patients receiving doses > or =55 Gy vs. 53.6% +/- 20.1% for 9 patients receiving <55 Gy (p = 0.11).
  • Of 15 patients with tumors >5.3 cm, 9 received doses > or =55 Gy and the local control rate was 80% +/- 17.9%, and 6 received doses <55 Gy with a local control rate of only 50% +/- 25% at 5 years (p = 0.16).
  • Two patients had unknown margin status.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Osteosarcoma / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation. Humans. Middle Aged. Radiotherapy Dosage

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  • (PMID = 15667972.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA21239-23
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
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18. Olver IN, Stephenson J, Schulze D: A phase I study of prolonged ambulatory infusion carboplatin with oral etoposide showing activity in prostate cancer. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol; 2000;46(4):338-41
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  • Patients entered had prostate, colon, head and neck, breast, unknown primary cancers and mesothelioma.
  • This was well tolerated except for one patient with multiple bone metastases from prostate cancer experiencing grade 4 myelosuppression and a single patient with grade 3 constipation.
  • Seven patients with hormone-resistant prostate cancer were entered into the study, one at 15 mg/m2, four at 20 mg/m2 and two at 23 mg/m2 of carboplatin, and received a median of four cycles of treatment.
  • The only responses were seen in prostate cancer where there were two partial responses in patients with soft tissue predominant disease.
  • Five patients who could be evaluated with initially elevated PSA exhibited falls of > or 50% after receiving the chemotherapy.
  • The median time to progression of the patients with prostate cancer was 4 months.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / therapeutic use. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Carboplatin / therapeutic use. Etoposide / therapeutic use. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Drug Therapy, Combination. Humans. Infusions, Intravenous. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis / pathology. Pain / drug therapy. Pain / etiology. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11052632.001).
  • [ISSN] 0344-5704
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer chemotherapy and pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase I; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] GERMANY
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin
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19. Møller AK, Pedersen KD, Gothelf A, Daugaard G: Paclitaxel, cisplatin and gemcitabine in treatment of carcinomas of unknown primary site, a phase II study. Acta Oncol; 2010 May;49(4):423-30
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Paclitaxel, cisplatin and gemcitabine in treatment of carcinomas of unknown primary site, a phase II study.
  • BACKGROUND: The present study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of a combination of paclitaxel, cisplatin and gemcitabine in patients with carcinoma of unknown primary site (CUP).
  • The median survival time was 10.7 months, and the survival rates at one and two years were 42% and 14%, respectively.
  • There were 3 treatment-related deaths.
  • The treatment was well tolerated by most patients although neutropenia and thrombocytopenia were relatively common.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / administration & dosage. Bone Marrow / drug effects. Bone Neoplasms / drug therapy. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Deoxycytidine / administration & dosage. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Paclitaxel / administration & dosage. Risk Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20397773.001).
  • [ISSN] 1651-226X
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta oncologica (Stockholm, Sweden)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; B76N6SBZ8R / gemcitabine; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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20. Fernández Cotarelo MJ, Guerra Vales JM: [Therapeutic management of cancer of unknown primary site by pathological types]. Rev Clin Esp; 2009 Oct;209(9):439-43

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Therapeutic management of cancer of unknown primary site by pathological types].
  • [Transliterated title] Manejo terapéutico del cáncer de origen desconocido por grupos patológicos.
  • The term cancer of unknown primary site includes metastatic tumours with different histology and behaviour.
  • Although most of them have a poor short-term prognosis, some patients can benefit from a treatment and will achieve a longer survival.
  • The treatable cases are: metastases of squamous carcinoma in cervical or inguinal adenopathies, metastases of adenocarcinoma in axilar adenopathies in women, malignant ascites due to adenocarcinoma in women, osteoblastic bone metastases in men with elevated serum prostatic specific antigen levels, poorly differentiated tumours with features of a germinal extragonadal tumour, poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas and patients with a single metastasis.
  • Chemotherapy must be considered in the rest of patients, although the optimum regimen is not well established yet.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / pathology. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / therapy

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2008 Sociedad Española de Calidad Asistencial. Published by Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 19852914.001).
  • [ISSN] 0014-2565
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista clínica española
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Clin Esp
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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21. Seeber S, Strumberg D: [Metastases with CUP syndrome]. Urologe A; 2006 May;45(5):614-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Transliterated title] Metastasen mit unbekanntem Primärtumor (CUP).
  • Carcinoma of unknown primary is common, accounting for 2-6% of all cancer patients.
  • The primary site is found in less than 25% of patients before death and frequently goes undiscovered at postmortem examination.
  • At the time point of first diagnosis of CUP syndrome, usually more than 80% of the patients present a disseminated situation.
  • Prognosis depends on the involved site and is unaffected by whether or not the primary site is ever found.
  • For patients presenting with metastasis to peripheral lymph nodes, node dissection may be curative.
  • In patients with small cell malignancies, peritoneal carcinomatosis (in women), poorly differentiated carcinomas involving external lymph nodes, mediastinum, or retroperitoneum, but without metastases to viscera or bone, objective long-term responses are possible with combination chemotherapy.
  • For all other patients, toxic therapies are recommended only for patients with good functional status, for palliation of symptoms when they develop, and for continuous support of the quality of life.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / drug therapy. Palliative Care / methods. Urogenital Neoplasms / drug therapy. Urogenital Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 16710679.001).
  • [ISSN] 0340-2592
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Urologe. Ausg. A
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urologe A
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 40
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22. Mazzoccoli G, Carughi S, La Viola M, De Cata A, Puzzolante F, Camagna A, Russo A, Caparrotti S: [Cardiac metastasis of poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma of unknown primary site]. Ital Heart J Suppl; 2002 Nov;3(11):1112-6

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Cardiac metastasis of poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma of unknown primary site].
  • Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed multiple metastatic lesions, computed tomography of the chest, abdomen and pelvis showed intraatrial masses and whole body nuclear scanning evidenced bone lesion.
  • It was not possible to find the primary tumor by other instrumental or laboratory exams.
  • The patient was transferred to the operating room for cardiac surgery, the mass at risk for embolization was resected and the specimen consisted of fibrous and fibrino-necrotic tissue infiltrated by poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma.
  • The patient received brain and bone radiotherapy and chemotherapy with cisplatin and vinorelbin.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Heart Neoplasms / secondary. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Echocardiography. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 12506513.001).
  • [ISSN] 1129-4728
  • [Journal-full-title] Italian heart journal. Supplement : official journal of the Italian Federation of Cardiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ital Heart J Suppl
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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23. Muzi MG, Rulli F, Federico F: Angiosarcoma of the spleen mimicking rupture. Case report and literature review. Acta Biomed Ateneo Parmense; 2000;71(5):135-40

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  • Primary angiosarcoma of the spleen is very rare and only 143 cases have previously been reported.
  • The pathogenesis is unknown.
  • Patients with or without metastatic disease may be treated by chemotherapy but with poor results.
  • Radiotherapy is used for the pain from bone metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemangiosarcoma / diagnosis. Splenic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Splenic Rupture / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 11450114.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta bio-medica de L'Ateneo parmense : organo della Società di medicina e scienze naturali di Parma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Biomed Ateneo Parmense
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 25
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24. Cheng JC, Esparza SD, Knez VM, Sakamoto KM, Moore TB: Severe lactic acidosis in a 14-year-old female with metastatic undifferentiated carcinoma of unknown primary. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2004 Nov;26(11):780-2
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  • [Title] Severe lactic acidosis in a 14-year-old female with metastatic undifferentiated carcinoma of unknown primary.
  • The diagnosis of an undifferentiated carcinoma of unknown primary was made after open breast biopsy of the mass with negative immunohistochemical studies for breast malignancies.
  • Further evaluation showed extensive metastatic disease affecting the bone marrow, ribs, liver, and brain with magnetic resonance imaging evidence of carcinomatous meningitis.
  • Despite 2 months of chemotherapy and intensive supportive care, the patient died of severe lactic acidosis and disseminated intravascular coagulation after exaggerated menstrual bleeding.
  • The association of severe lactic acidosis and undifferentiated carcinoma of unknown primary in an adolescent has not been previously described.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation / etiology. Fatal Outcome. Female. Hemorrhage / etiology. Humans. Neoplasm Metastasis / diagnosis. Neoplasm Metastasis / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15543020.001).
  • [ISSN] 1077-4114
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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25. Kurebayashi J, Sonoo H, Inaji H, Nishimura R, Iino Y, Toi M, Kobayashi S, Saeki T: Endocrine therapies for patients with recurrent breast cancer: predictive factors for responses to first- and second-line endocrine therapies. Oncology; 2000;59 Suppl 1:31-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Endocrine therapies for patients with recurrent breast cancer: predictive factors for responses to first- and second-line endocrine therapies.
  • To investigate the efficacy of these agents for the treatment of recurrent breast cancer patients, we conducted a retrospective multi-institute survey in Japan.
  • The clinico-pathological data of 131 patients, who received endocrine therapy as first-line treatment between 1993 and 1998, were collected from seven institutes.
  • The median age of the patients was 55 (range 27-92) years, 75% of their primary tumors were estrogen receptor (ER)-positive or unknown, and 95% of the dominant metastatic sites were bone, soft tissue or lungs.
  • The objective response rate to first-line endocrine therapy was 42.7%, and that to second-line therapy 42.5% (17 of 40 patients).
  • Multiple regression analyses of predictive factors for a response to first- and second-line endocrine therapies indicated two independent factors, ER status of the primary tumors and dominant site of metastasis, for the former, and one independent factor, a response to first-line endocrine therapy, for the latter.
  • Analysis of relationships between sequences of use of hormonal agents and objective response rates revealed that the choice of first-line hormonal agent did not influence the overall efficacy of first- and second-line endocrine therapies.
  • Overall survival after first recurrence in patients with tumors exhibiting an objective response or stable disease to first-line endocrine therapy was significantly better than that in patients with tumors exhibiting progressive disease (p < 0.01).
  • These findings suggest that an adequate selection of recurrent breast cancer patients referring the ER status, dominant site of metastasis and a prior response to endocrine therapy may contribute to better clinical outcomes of the patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Estrogen Receptor Modulators / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Predictive Value of Tests. Regression Analysis. Risk Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel
  • (PMID = 11096354.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-2414
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Estrogen Receptor Modulators
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26. Li M, Zhang Y, Bharadwaj U, Zhai QJ, Ahern CH, Fisher WE, Brunicardi FC, Logsdon CD, Chen C, Yao Q: Down-regulation of ZIP4 by RNA interference inhibits pancreatic cancer growth and increases the survival of nude mice with pancreatic cancer xenografts. Clin Cancer Res; 2009 Oct 1;15(19):5993-6001
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • PURPOSE: Zinc levels have been correlated with cancer risk, although the role of zinc and zinc transporters in cancer progression is largely unknown.
  • Both ASPC-shZIP4 and BxPC-shZIP4 cells showed a significant reduction in tumor volume and weight in the s.c. model, and decreased primary tumor weight in the orthotopic model compared with the vector control cells (ASPC-shV and BxPC-shV).
  • Silencing of ZIP4 also caused reduced incidence of tumor metastasis in the mice and downsized the tumor grade.
  • All ASPC-shZIP4-injected mice (100%) remained alive up to 32 days after tumor implantation, whereas only 30% of the ASPC-shV mice were alive at the same time point.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These results identify a previously uncharacterized role of ZIP4 in pancreatic cancer progression, and indicate that knocking down ZIP4 by short hairpin RNA might be a novel treatment strategy for pancreatic cancers with ZIP4 overexpression.

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  • (PMID = 19755388.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA133604-01A2; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA133604; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA133604-01A2; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21CA133604
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cation Transport Proteins; 0 / RNA, Small Interfering; 0 / Slc39a4 protein, mouse
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS140319; NLM/ PMC2756333
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27. Amogne W, Abubaker A: Multifocal vertebral tuberculosis with the involvement of the ribs case report. Ethiop Med J; 2002 Oct;40(4):397-405
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  • The lungs were normal and the radiographic appearance of the skeletal lesions mimicked secondary metastasis of unknown primary site, malignant lymphoma and multiple myeloma.
  • Tuberculosis should be high in the differential diagnosis of multiple destructive bone lesions especially in patients from regions where tuberculosis is endemic.
  • The patient's response to standard antituberculous treatment was favorable.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Antitubercular Agents / therapeutic use. Diagnosis, Differential. Drug Therapy, Combination. Endemic Diseases / statistics & numerical data. Ethiopia / epidemiology. Female. Humans. Paraplegia / microbiology. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 12596659.001).
  • [ISSN] 0014-1755
  • [Journal-full-title] Ethiopian medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ethiop. Med. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ethiopia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antitubercular Agents
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28. Yang GF, Li XH, Zhao Z, Wang WB: Arsenic trioxide up-regulates Fas expression in human osteosarcoma cells. Chin Med J (Engl); 2010 Jul;123(13):1768-73
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  • BACKGROUND: Osteosarcoma is a common primary malignant tumor of bone with a poor prognosis due to its propensity for metastasis.
  • The prognosis of patients is highly dependent on the presence or absence of lung metastasis and on the effectiveness of treatment against it.
  • It has been reported that low level expression of Fas protein in human osteosarcoma cell is closely associated with lung metastasis.
  • A large number of studies have shown that arsenic trioxide (ATO) can inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis of many cancer cell lines; however, its effects on human osteosarcoma cells (Saos-2 cell line) remains unknown.
  • Cytotoxicity, Fas protein and mRNA levels were systematically studied using MTT, Western blotting and real-time PCR, respectively.
  • RESULTS: Proliferation of Saos-2 cells was inhibited by ATO in both a dose- and time-dependent manner.
  • ATO induced G(1) phase arrest of the cell cycle and very efficiently stimulated apoptosis in Saos-2 cells, as evidenced by flow cytometric detection of sub-G(1) DNA content and AO/EB staining.
  • Western blotting results indicated that Fas (FasL) protein expression in osteosarcoma cultures markedly increases in a time dependent manner after exposure to ATO.
  • Compared with control, treatment with ATO 2 micromol/L and 4 micromol/L for 48 hours, resulted in increase of Fas gene expression to 28.31% and 56.74%, respectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: ATO suppressed cell proliferation of Saos-2 cell in a dose- and time-dependent manner and increased Fas protein expression.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD95 / metabolism. Arsenicals / therapeutic use. Osteosarcoma / drug therapy. Osteosarcoma / metabolism. Oxides / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Apoptosis / drug effects. Blotting, Western. Cell Cycle / drug effects. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Flow Cytometry. Humans. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 20819644.001).
  • [ISSN] 0366-6999
  • [Journal-full-title] Chinese medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chin. Med. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD95; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Arsenicals; 0 / FAS protein, human; 0 / Oxides; S7V92P67HO / arsenic trioxide
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29. Nabeshima S, Kishihara Y, Nabeshima A, Yamaga S, Kinjo M, Kashiwagi S, Hayashi J: Poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma with signet-ring cells of the Vater's ampulla, without jaundice but with disseminated carcinomatosis. Fukuoka Igaku Zasshi; 2003 Jul;94(7):235-40
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  • The histological findings from bone marrow showed metastasis of adenocarcinoma with signet-ring cells, although the primary site was unknown.
  • To reduce tumor cells in number and improve DIC, 11 cycles of 5-Fluorouracil and leucovorin therapy were done, and the patient survived for 12 months.
  • Autopsy showed a 0.8 cm diameter, poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma with the signet-ring cell type in the lamina propria of the Vater's ampulla.
  • Many metastatic foci and micro tumor emboli were found in the lung and in bone marrow.
  • This is a rare case of an ampullary tumor of poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma with the signet-ring cell type, without jaundice but with multiple metastasis.
  • 5-Fluorouracil and leucovorin were effective for increasing survival time and improving quality of life.
  • [MeSH-major] Ampulla of Vater. Bone Marrow Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma, Signet Ring Cell / pathology. Common Bile Duct Neoplasms / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation / complications. Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation / drug therapy. Fatal Outcome. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Humans. Jaundice. Leucovorin / administration & dosage. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplastic Cells, Circulating / pathology. Quality of Life

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  • (PMID = 14509231.001).
  • [ISSN] 0016-254X
  • [Journal-full-title] Fukuoka igaku zasshi = Hukuoka acta medica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Fukuoka Igaku Zasshi
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] Q573I9DVLP / Leucovorin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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