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1. Drake CG: Immunotherapy for metastatic prostate cancer. Urol Oncol; 2008 Jul-Aug;26(4):438-44
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  • [Title] Immunotherapy for metastatic prostate cancer.
  • Chemotherapy with docetaxel is the standard treatment for men with metastatic prostate cancer, and results in statistically significant improvements in survival, as well as in quality of life.
  • More significantly, with the onset of early, PSA-based detection of prostate cancer and closer follow-up, many men present with metastatic disease that remains asymptomatic.
  • For such patients, the side effects of chemotherapy would compromise their current performance status and, thus, a nontoxic, early treatment option that could improve overall survival would be highly desirable.
  • Immunotherapy represents one such approach; a number of clinical trials have suggested a survival benefit for immunotherapy in metastatic prostate cancer and confirmed that these agents are generally well-tolerated.
  • As is the case for chemotherapy, it is doubtful that maximal survival benefit will be achieved with single-agent immunotherapy; experimental treatments in which mechanistically distinct immunotherapy approaches are combined, as well as approaches in which immunotherapy is combined with chemotherapy or hormonal therapy are currently under investigation.
  • This review will discuss the mechanisms of action of several immunotherapy approaches for metastatic prostate cancer, focusing on active immunotherapy as opposed to administration of anti-tumor antibodies.
  • [MeSH-major] Immunotherapy / methods. Prostatic Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Dendritic Cells / immunology. Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor / genetics. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Metastasis

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  • (PMID = 18593624.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-1439
  • [Journal-full-title] Urologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA006973
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 83869-56-1 / Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor
  • [Number-of-references] 36
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS787032; NLM/ PMC4886229
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2. Carson AP, Howard DL, Carpenter WR, Taylor YJ, Peacock S, Schenck AP, Godley PA: Trends and racial differences in the use of androgen deprivation therapy for metastatic prostate cancer. J Pain Symptom Manage; 2010 May;39(5):872-81
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  • [Title] Trends and racial differences in the use of androgen deprivation therapy for metastatic prostate cancer.
  • CONTEXT: Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is widely used to manage the symptoms of advanced prostate cancer and has been shown to slow the progression of the disease.
  • OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to assess use trends for ADT overall and by type (orchiectomy and luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone [LHRH] agonists) and the factors associated with time to receipt for metastatic prostate cancer.
  • METHODS: Data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) cancer registry and Medicare claims database were obtained for 5,273 men, aged 65 years and older and diagnosed with Stage IV prostate cancer during 1991-1999 from seven SEER regions.
  • An accelerated failure time regression model with log-normal distribution was used to examine factors associated with mean time to receipt of ADT.
  • RESULTS: African-American men were less likely than white men to receive any ADT after diagnosis (P<0.001).
  • Differences were noted in the time to receipt of ADT, with African-American men having a longer mean time to receipt of orchiectomy (time ratio [TR]=1.50; 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.03, 2.17) or LHRH agonist (TR=1.42; 95% CI=1.06, 1.89) than white men.
  • CONCLUSION: African-American men with metastatic prostate cancer were significantly less likely to receive ADT and, when treated, had a slightly longer time to receipt than white men, which has implications for patients and physicians involved in the palliative management of metastatic prostate cancer.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.
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  • (PMID = 20471547.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-6513
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pain and symptom management
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Pain Symptom Manage
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / PHS HHS / / U55/CCR921930-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 1U01CA114629; United States / NCI NIH HHS / PC / N01-PC-35139; United States / NCI NIH HHS / PC / N02 PC015105; United States / NIMHD NIH HHS / MD / P60MD000244; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA114629; United States / NIMHD NIH HHS / MD / P60 MD000239; United States / NIMHD NIH HHS / MD / P60 MD000244; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 2R25CA057726; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / N01PC35136; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / N01PC35139; United States / NCI NIH HHS / PC / N01-PC-35136; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R25 CA057726
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 33515-09-2 / Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS362675; NLM/ PMC3878612
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3. Tan WW: Novel agents and targets in managing patients with metastatic prostate cancer. Cancer Control; 2006 Jul;13(3):194-8
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  • [Title] Novel agents and targets in managing patients with metastatic prostate cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Docetaxel has recently been found to improve survival in patients with metastatic androgen-independent prostate cancer (AIPC).
  • Chemotherapy as a first-line option leaves room for improvement, while second-line options are multiple and somewhat controversial.
  • METHODS: Clinically relevant articles focusing on chemotherapy drugs for metastatic prostate cancer and their mechanism of action and efficacy were reviewed from January 2004 through April 2006.
  • However, for doublets with docetaxel or second-line chemotherapy, multiple studies have shown interesting and promising results with calcitriol, thalidomide, bevacizumab, satraplatin, vaccines, ixabepilone, and atrasentan.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Docetaxel should be considered for first-line treatment of metastatic AIPC.
  • Due to its progression-free survival of only 6 months, more effective drugs and drug combinations need to be developed to treat patients with AIPC.
  • Combination treatments with docetaxel and other new agents are promising, but adequately powered phase III trials need to be conducted with survival as the principal endpoint for these promising drug combinations.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / therapy. Bone Neoplasms / therapy. Prostatic Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Male


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4. Fujikawa K, Awakura Y, Okabe T, Watanabe R, Nishimura S: [Cost-utility analysis of androgen ablation therapy in metastatic prostate cancer]. Nihon Hinyokika Gakkai Zasshi; 2003 May;94(4):503-11; discussion 511-2
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Cost-utility analysis of androgen ablation therapy in metastatic prostate cancer].
  • BACKGROUND: As Bayoumi, et al pointed out in their article (J. Natl. Cancer Inst.
  • 2000, vol 92, p 1731), it is evident that treatment of prostate cancer with Luteinizing Hormone Releasing Hormone (LHRH) analogue costs more than treatment by bilateral orchiectomy.
  • However, patients with metastatic prostate cancer are usually treated with LHRH analogue.
  • Does this mean that urologist choose higher cost and less Quality-Adjusted Life Year (QALY) treatment?
  • Therefore, we urologists should re-analyze their conclusion whether the treatment with LHRH analogue is really strictly dominated (high cost and low effect).
  • The base case was assumed to be a 65-year-old man with symptomatic metastatic prostate cancer.
  • The model used time horizon of 10 years.
  • Five androgen ablation therapies were evaluated as first-line therapy: diethylstilbestrol diphosphate (DES), orchiectomy, orchiectomy + nonsteroidal antiandrogen (NSAA), LHRH analogue and LHRH analogue + NSAA.
  • RESULTS: While DES was the least expensive therapy with the lowest QALY, LHRH analogue monotherapy was the second most expensive therapy with the longest QALY.
  • Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios relative to DES of LHRH (yen 4,288,295/QALY) was cheaper than that of orchiectomy when quality of life (QOL) weight of orchiectomy was assumed to be 0.94 relative to that of LHRH analogue.
  • Cost/QALY of LHRH analogue relative to DES is yen 4,288,295/QALY, which we considered to represent a good value.
  • Choice of therapy depends on the patient's preference.
  • [MeSH-major] Androgen Antagonists / economics. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / economics. Orchiectomy / economics. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / economics. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cost-Benefit Analysis. Costs and Cost Analysis. Diethylstilbestrol / economics. Diethylstilbestrol / therapeutic use. Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone / analogs & derivatives. Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone / economics. Humans. Male. Quality of Life. Quality-Adjusted Life Years

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  • (PMID = 12795165.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-5287
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Hinyōkika Gakkai zasshi. The japanese journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Hinyokika Gakkai Zasshi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgen Antagonists; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 33515-09-2 / Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone; 731DCA35BT / Diethylstilbestrol
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5. Ansari MS, Gupta NP: Lycopene: a novel drug therapy in hormone refractory metastatic prostate cancer. Urol Oncol; 2004 Sep-Oct;22(5):415-20
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  • [Title] Lycopene: a novel drug therapy in hormone refractory metastatic prostate cancer.
  • OBJECTIVE: In a prospective study we evaluated the efficacy of lycopene for the treatment of patients with metastatic hormone refractory prostate cancer.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Between January 2001 and December 2002, 20 consecutive patients (median age 72; range 56-90) with metastatic HRPC were enrolled in the study.
  • Inclusion criteria were patients previously treated with hormonal therapy now with clinical and biochemical evidence of disease progression.
  • No drug intolerance or toxicity was encountered in any patient.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Lycopene therapy appears to be effective and safe in the treatment of HRPC.
  • [MeSH-major] Antioxidants / pharmacology. Antioxidants / therapeutic use. Carotenoids / pharmacology. Carotenoids / therapeutic use. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / pharmacology. Bone Neoplasms / complications. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Disease Progression. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Pain / etiology. Prospective Studies. Prostate-Specific Antigen / analysis. Treatment Outcome


6. Cho KS, Oh HY, Lee EJ, Hong SJ: Identification of enhancer of zeste homolog 2 expression in peripheral circulating tumor cells in metastatic prostate cancer patients: a preliminary study. Yonsei Med J; 2007 Dec 31;48(6):1009-14
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  • [Title] Identification of enhancer of zeste homolog 2 expression in peripheral circulating tumor cells in metastatic prostate cancer patients: a preliminary study.
  • PURPOSE: Enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2), a kind of transcriptional repressor, is reportedly over-expressed in metastatic prostate cancer.
  • In this study, we analyzed EZH2 mRNA in circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in peripheral blood as a biomarker in patients with metastatic prostate cancer.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Ber-EP4 coated immunomagnetic beads were used to harvest CTCs, and mRNA was isolated by oligo- dT conjugated immunomagnetic beads.
  • The sensitivity of this test for detection of EZH2 mRNA was determined by serial dilutions of a human prostate cancer cell line.
  • Blood samples were collected from 20 patients each with metastatic or localized prostate cancer and 10 healthy volunteers.
  • RESULTS: Sensitivity experiments showed that the test was highly sensitive as it could detect 10 tumor cells per 5 mL.
  • EZH2 mRNA expression density in the metastatic prostate cancer group was significantly higher than in the control (p=0.023) and localized prostate cancer groups (p=0.019).
  • There was no difference between the control and localized prostate cancer groups (p > 0.05).
  • CONCLUSION: EZH2 mRNA expression in circulating epithelial cells represents a promising marker for detecting early metastasis in prostate cancer.
  • However, more specific and sensitive techniques for detection of CTCs are needed to avoid mononuclear cell contamination.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Polycomb Repressive Complex 2. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 18159594.001).
  • [ISSN] 0513-5796
  • [Journal-full-title] Yonsei medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Yonsei Med. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Transcription Factors; EC 2.1.1.43 / EZH2 protein, human; EC 2.1.1.43 / Polycomb Repressive Complex 2
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2628187
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7. Silva BM, Neto JA, Lima RL: [Analysis of complications in metastatic prostate cancer patients submitted to bilateral orchiectomy]. Rev Col Bras Cir; 2010 Aug;37(4):269-73
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  • [Title] [Analysis of complications in metastatic prostate cancer patients submitted to bilateral orchiectomy].
  • [Transliterated title] Análise de complicações em pacientes portadores de câncer de próstata metastático submetidos à orquiectomia bilateral.
  • METHODS: That's an analytical transversal study with a sample of 25 patients, between 58 to 82 years, carriers of metastatic prostate cancer, submitted to the bilateral orchiectomy in the Professor Alberto Antunes University Hospital 's (HUPAA-UFAL), in the period of January of 2003 to December of 2008.
  • 86% of the interviewed ones had related to be satisfied with the results of the procedure and had affirmed that they can have a normal daily life, with significant improvement of the clinical stage.
  • About the adjuvant treatments, only 36% had carried through, being most common, chemotherapy (36%) and x-ray (29%).
  • CONCLUSION: The bilateral orchiectomy constitutes in a good alternative for metastatic prostate cancer patients, in a way that it is observed satisfaction of the majority of the patients in relation to the improvement of the symptoms and the presented complications had not great impact in the daily life of the same ones.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cross-Sectional Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Postoperative Complications / epidemiology. Postoperative Complications / etiology

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  • (PMID = 21085843.001).
  • [ISSN] 1809-4546
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista do Colégio Brasileiro de Cirurgiões
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Col Bras Cir
  • [Language] por
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
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8. O'Donnell RT, DeNardo SJ, Yuan A, Shen S, Richman CM, Lara PN, Griffith IJ, Goldstein DS, Kukis DL, Martinez GS, Mirick GR, DeNardo GL, Meyers FJ: Radioimmunotherapy with (111)In/(90)Y-2IT-BAD-m170 for metastatic prostate cancer. Clin Cancer Res; 2001 Jun;7(6):1561-8
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  • [Title] Radioimmunotherapy with (111)In/(90)Y-2IT-BAD-m170 for metastatic prostate cancer.
  • PURPOSE: Over 31,000 Americans die of androgen-independent metastatic prostate cancer each year.
  • New strategies that do not involve hormonal manipulation but instead recognize the biochemical and molecular characteristics of prostate cancer are needed.
  • Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) uses a tumor-specific monoclonal antibody to deliver systemic, targeted radiation to cancer.
  • The objectives of this Phase I study of (111)In-2IT-BAD-m170 (for imaging) and (90)Y-2IT-BAD-m170 (for therapy) were to determine the toxicity and maximum tolerated dose (MTD), the specificity for targeting metastatic prostate cancer, and the efficacy for palliation of pain.
  • Patients with adequate renal and liver function, rising prostate-specific antigen, and androgen-independent metastatic prostate cancer were eligible.
  • Pain was assessed objectively by questionnaires before and for 8 weeks after RIT; weekly prostate-specific antigen levels were obtained for 2 months after RIT.
  • RESULTS: The MTD of (90)Y-2IT-BAD-m170 was 0.740 GBq/m(2) for patients that had up to 10% of the axial skeleton involved with prostate cancer.
  • Metastatic prostate cancer was targeted by (111)In-2IT-BAD-m170 in all 17 patients.
  • The mean radiation dose delivered to 39 bone and 18 nodal metastases by (90)Y-2IT-BAD-m170 was 10.5 Gy/GBq (range 2.8-25.1).
  • CONCLUSIONS: This study determined the MTD of (111)In/(90)Y-2IT-BAD-m170 in patients with metastatic prostate cancer.
  • The drugs were well tolerated, targeted metastases, and temporarily palliated pain.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Indium Radioisotopes. Prostatic Neoplasms / therapy. Radioimmunotherapy. Yttrium Radioisotopes / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / therapy. Aged. Animals. Cohort Studies. Humans. Male. Mice. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Pain / drug therapy. Prostate-Specific Antigen / biosynthesis. Radiometry. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11410491.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01-CA47829
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase I; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 2IT-BAD-Lym-1 monoclonal antibody; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Indium Radioisotopes; 0 / Yttrium Radioisotopes; EC 3.4.21.77 / Prostate-Specific Antigen
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9. Eastham JA: Bone health in men receiving androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer. J Urol; 2007 Jan;177(1):17-24
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  • [Title] Bone health in men receiving androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer.
  • PURPOSE: Patients with recurrent or metastatic prostate cancer generally receive androgen deprivation therapy, which can result in significant loss of bone mineral density.
  • We explored androgen deprivation therapy related bone loss in prostate cancer, current treatments and emerging therapies.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Literature published on the pathogenesis and management of androgen deprivation therapy related bone loss was compiled and interpreted.
  • Recent drug therapy findings were reviewed, including treatment guidelines.
  • RESULTS: Men with prostate cancer often present with bone loss and the initiation of androgen deprivation therapy can trigger further rapid decreases.
  • Early detection of osteoporosis through androgen deprivation therapy screening and prompt initiation of therapy are critical to prevent continued decreases.
  • Pharmacological therapy with oral and intravenous bisphosphonates has been demonstrated to prevent or decrease the bone loss associated with androgen deprivation therapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Androgen deprivation therapy associated bone loss adversely affects bone health, patient quality of life and survival in men with prostate cancer.
  • Increased awareness of this issue, identification of risk factors, lifestyle modification and initiation of bisphosphonate therapy can improve outcomes.
  • Education of patients and physicians regarding the importance of screening, prevention and treatment is essential.
  • [MeSH-major] Androgen Antagonists / adverse effects. Bone Diseases / chemically induced. Orchiectomy / adverse effects. Prostatic Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Algorithms. Diphosphonates / therapeutic use. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 17161994.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-5347
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgen Antagonists; 0 / Diphosphonates
  • [Number-of-references] 50
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10. Emmenegger U, Francia G, Shaked Y, Kerbel RS: Metronomic chemotherapy: principles and lessons learned from applications in the treatment of metastatic prostate cancer. Recent Results Cancer Res; 2010;180:165-83
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Metronomic chemotherapy: principles and lessons learned from applications in the treatment of metastatic prostate cancer.
  • By frequent and protracted administration of conventional cytotoxic drugs without prolonged interruptions, the primary treatment target shifts from the tumor cell population to the tumor vasculature.
  • This "metronomic" way of chemotherapy administration results in antivascular effects, the mechanistic basis of which remains to be fully elucidated.
  • We outline the basic aspects of the metronomic concept, describe the results of clinical applications of such chemotherapy by focusing on studies in metastatic prostate cancer, and discuss certain shortcomings.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiogenesis Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Clinical Trials as Topic. Endothelial Cells / physiology. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Metastasis. Stem Cells / physiology

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  • (PMID = 20033383.001).
  • [ISSN] 0080-0015
  • [Journal-full-title] Recent results in cancer research. Fortschritte der Krebsforschung. Progrès dans les recherches sur le cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Recent Results Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] Canada / Canadian Institutes of Health Research / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors
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11. Dreicer R: Current status of cytotoxic chemotherapy in patients with metastatic prostate cancer. Urol Oncol; 2008 Jul-Aug;26(4):426-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Current status of cytotoxic chemotherapy in patients with metastatic prostate cancer.
  • Despite efforts at early detection with prostate specific antigen-based screening, more than 25,000 patients in the United States will die this year of metastatic prostate cancer.
  • As a consequence both of screening and increased use of androgen deprivation therapy, patients commonly present with low volume, asymptomatic, metastatic disease.
  • Over the past 2 decades chemotherapy for advanced prostate cancer has evolved from a frightful, toxic experience to one that frequently provides clinically meaningful palliation and a modest, but real survival benefit.
  • With the establishment of docetaxel-based chemotherapy as initial therapy, efforts are underway to evaluate the role of second-line systemic therapy options.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Male. Mitoxantrone / therapeutic use. Neoplasm Metastasis. Taxoids / therapeutic use


12. Moser L, Schubert T, Hinkelbein W: Hormone-refractory and metastatic prostate cancer - palliative radiotherapy. Front Radiat Ther Oncol; 2008;41:117-25
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Hormone-refractory and metastatic prostate cancer - palliative radiotherapy.
  • Prostate cancer progression is commonly manifested by obstructive uropathy, regional lymphatic metastases and hematogenous metastases to the axial skeleton.
  • Radiotherapy is a mainstay in the palliation of symptomatic metastatic prostate cancer and is most often used for the palliation of painful metastatic bone lesions, resulting in a relief of pain in about 80-90% of patients and a reduction of analgesics.
  • In metastatic disease compromising the integrity of the spinal cord or a nerve root, radiotherapy can be used as an urgent intervention to minimize neurological dysfunction and local progression or as an adjunct to surgical decompression.
  • Symptoms of metastatic lymphadenopathy like leg edema and back discomfort caused by pelvic or paraaortic metastases are related to the immediate anatomic structures affected.
  • Radiotherapy for localized hormone-refractory prostate cancer has an excellent local control rate; nevertheless, the prognosis is poor, the majority of patients failing with distant metastasis within few years.
  • The role of radiotherapy in hormone-refractory and metastatic prostate cancer, considering the patient's individual situation, are presented and discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Neoplasm Metastasis / radiotherapy. Palliative Care / methods. Prostatic Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Androgen Antagonists / therapeutic use. Humans. Male


13. Timme TL, Satoh T, Tahir SA, Wang H, Teh BS, Butler EB, Miles BJ, Amato RJ, Kadmon D, Thompson TC: Therapeutic targets for metastatic prostate cancer. Curr Drug Targets; 2003 Apr;4(3):251-61
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Therapeutic targets for metastatic prostate cancer.
  • Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed non-cutaneous cancer in adult males.
  • Although prostate cancer that is confined to the gland can be cured in many patients using surgery or radiation, these treatments are only effective for localized tumors and the long-term failure rates for these treatments suggests that prostate cancer can metastasize relatively early in the course of the disease.
  • Once prostate cancer has metastasized there are no curative therapies.
  • The greatest challenge in the treatment of advanced prostate cancer is to access and eliminate metastatic cells.
  • Therefore, effective prostate cancer therapy will require novel strategies to target cancer cells both at the site of the primary tumor and at distant metastatic sites.
  • In this article we review several therapeutic targets and approaches that may provide new treatments for metastatic prostate cancer.
  • We discuss the use of small molecules to target specific molecular events associated with metastatic prostate cancer, the use of specific antibodies that target unique metastasis associated molecules and the use of various gene therapy strategies to achieve anti-metastatic activities.
  • [MeSH-major] Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antibodies / chemistry. Antibodies / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / chemistry. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor / immunology. Cancer Vaccines / therapeutic use. Genetic Therapy / methods. Humans. Immunotherapy. Male. Neoplasm Metastasis

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  • (PMID = 12643475.001).
  • [ISSN] 1389-4501
  • [Journal-full-title] Current drug targets
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Drug Targets
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / PHS HHS / / P50-58204; United States / PHS HHS / / R01-50588; United States / PHS HHS / / R01-68814
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cancer Vaccines
  • [Number-of-references] 113
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14. Fontana A, Falcone A, Derosa L, Di Desidero T, Danesi R, Bocci G: Metronomic chemotherapy for metastatic prostate cancer: a 'young' concept for old patients? Drugs Aging; 2010 Sep 01;27(9):689-96
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Metronomic chemotherapy for metastatic prostate cancer: a 'young' concept for old patients?
  • Prostate cancer is a common disease in the elderly, and the number of older prostate cancer patients will probably increase with both the aging of the population and the increased rate of screening.
  • In elderly patients with several co-morbidities, cancer management can be complex, and the risk of administering toxic therapy in this setting should be carefully evaluated.
  • Metronomic chemotherapy, i.e. low-dose, long-term, frequently administered chemotherapy, has been shown to have a significant stabilizing effect on cancer and a positive impact on the quality of life of patients, including those with prostate cancer.
  • Given the low toxicity profile of metronomic chemotherapy, elderly patients or patients with co-morbidities may be candidates for a first-line or second-line oral metronomic approach when standard chemotherapies are contraindicated or not acceptable to the patient.
  • Moreover, the possibility of patients being able to spend more time at home is an important component of a palliative treatment such as metronomic chemotherapy.
  • Unfortunately, and despite these considerations, very few data are available on the activity and safety of metronomic chemotherapy in elderly patients.
  • However, retrospective analyses conducted in a small cohort of patients have been published and, notwithstanding their limitations, indicate that novel metronomic schedules are well tolerated, safe and show potentially interesting activity in elderly, 'unfit' (poor performance status) patients with metastatic prostate cancer.
  • Therefore, evaluation of metronomic chemotherapy strategies in prospective, randomized, phase II/III clinical studies of elderly patients with metastatic prostate cancer appears to be warranted.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Drug Administration Schedule. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Metastasis

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  • (PMID = 20809660.001).
  • [ISSN] 1179-1969
  • [Journal-full-title] Drugs & aging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Drugs Aging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
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15. Lebret T, Méjean A: [Role of hormonotherapy in the treatment of metastatic prostate cancer]. Prog Urol; 2008 Nov;18 Suppl 7:S332-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Role of hormonotherapy in the treatment of metastatic prostate cancer].
  • [Transliterated title] Place de l'hormonothérapie dans le traitement du cancer de prostate métastatique.
  • Androgen privation is considered as the referent first line treatment for metastatic prostate cancer.
  • Based on LHRH agonist, different therapeutic schedule included maximum androgenic blockage, intermittent treatment and associations with other drugs like oestrogen leading to possible hormonal manipulations.
  • Since metastasis is confirmed, immediate treatment with continue LHRH agonist is the French Association of Urology (AFU) AFU recommendations treatment for metastatic prostate cancer but intermittent treatment can be considered as an option.
  • [MeSH-major] Androgen Antagonists / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone / analogs & derivatives. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Metastasis / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 19070812.001).
  • [ISSN] 1166-7087
  • [Journal-full-title] Progrès en urologie : journal de l'Association française d'urologie et de la Société française d'urologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prog. Urol.
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgen Antagonists; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 33515-09-2 / Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone
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16. Wörmann B, Wolff JM: [Systemic treatment of metastatic prostate cancer]. Urologe A; 2010 Feb;49(2):221-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Systemic treatment of metastatic prostate cancer].
  • [Transliterated title] Die systemische Therapie des metastasierten Prostatakarzinoms.
  • Systemic treatment of advanced prostate cancer is multifaceted.
  • First-line therapy is antihormonal treatment with androgen deprivation or antiandrogens.
  • Chemotherapy is effective in hormone refractory (castration resistant) prostate cancer.
  • Use of bisphosphonates is standard in metastatic bone disease.
  • Treatment of patients with metastatic prostate cancer is palliative.
  • New approaches and new drugs will increase the therapeutic possibilities considerably.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Androgen Antagonists / adverse effects. Androgen Antagonists / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Diphosphonates / therapeutic use. Disease Progression. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / mortality. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. Orchiectomy. Palliative Care. Quality of Life. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 20180063.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-0563
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Urologe. Ausg. A
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urologe A
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgen Antagonists; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Diphosphonates
  • [Number-of-references] 36
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17. McDowell GC 2nd, Mitchell JW, Moore TD: The use of intrathecal ziconotide to manage refractory malignant pain: Five case studies. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):e20737

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The use of intrathecal ziconotide to manage refractory malignant pain: Five case studies.
  • : e20737 Background: Chronic malignant pain is often difficult to manage.
  • Intrathecal admixtures containing ziconotide may also be viable treatment options for refractory malignant pain.
  • METHODS: The medical records of 5 patients with malignant pain managed with IT ziconotide as monotherapy or as a component of combination therapy were reviewed.
  • Patient characteristics, medical history, IT drug doses, Numeric Pain Intensity (NPI: 0-10 scale, with higher scores indicating greater pain intensity) scores, and clinical observations (including adverse events [AEs]) were identified.
  • RESULTS: Four women (aged 27, 31, 46, and 68 years) with metastatic breast cancer and a 61-year-old man with metastatic prostate cancer were intolerant of or experienced inadequate analgesia with systemic analgesics and/or IT opioids with or without clonidine or bupivacaine.
  • Although the 46-year-old woman experienced substantial pain relief (55.6% reduction in NPI score) and quality of life improvement during ∼3 months of ziconotide therapy, she died of cancer complications that were unrelated to ziconotide.
  • From baseline to last assessment, the remaining 4 patients experienced 25% to 83% reductions in NPI scores with ziconotide therapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These cases suggest that ziconotide, alone or in combination with other IT agents, can be a viable treatment option for patients with refractory malignant pain.

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  • (PMID = 27962005.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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18. Wilding G, Carducci M, Yu DC, Burke J, Borellini F, Aimi J, Working P, Ando D, Kirn D, Small E: A Phase 1/11 trial of IV CG7870, a replication-selective, PSA-targeted oncolytic adenovirus (OAV), for the treatment of hormone-refractory, metastatic prostate cancer. J Clin Oncol; 2004 Jul 15;22(14_suppl):3036

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A Phase 1/11 trial of IV CG7870, a replication-selective, PSA-targeted oncolytic adenovirus (OAV), for the treatment of hormone-refractory, metastatic prostate cancer.
  • : 3036 Background: CG7870 is a replication-selective OAV genetically engineered to preferentially replicate in prostate tissue.A Phase 1/2 trial of intraprostatic delivery of CG7870 for locally-recurrent prostate cancer (PCA) demonstrated that this virus was well-tolerated, with decreases in PSA noted.
  • METHODS: A Phase 1/2 study of systemically administered CG7870 was undertaken.CG7870 was administered as a single IV infusion in a dose-escalation design (10<sup>10</sup> - 6 x 10<sup>12</sup>vp) to 23 patients with metastatic HRPC.
  • The concentration of CG7870 in the peripheral blood demonstrated a biphasic pattern in most patients, with rapid initial clearance followed by a delayed secondary peak (72hr post-treatment) consistent with viral replication.
  • All patients developed antibodies to CG7870.
  • No partial or complete PSA responses were observed; however, 5 patients had a decrease in serum PSA of 25-49% following a single treatment.The median time to PSA progression was 57d and 3 patients were free-from-progression at 6 mos.Median OS has not been reached.
  • CG7870 was well tolerated at doses up to this level with reversible transaminitis as the only significant toxicity.There was a suggestion of anti-PCA activity following a single IV injection of CG7870 as demonstrated by PSA reduction.Future trials will explore the activity of IV CG7870 in combination with taxane chemotherapy for the treatment of advanced PCA.

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  • (PMID = 28015190.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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19. Ferrero J, Berdah JF, Chamorey E, Oudard S, Dides S, Lesbats G, Cavaglione G, Nouyrigat P, Foa C, Guillet P, Kaphan R: A combination docetaxel-capecitabine in patients (pts) with hormone refractory advanced prostate cancer. J Clin Oncol; 2004 Jul 15;22(14_suppl):4624

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A combination docetaxel-capecitabine in patients (pts) with hormone refractory advanced prostate cancer.
  • : 4624 Background: Docetaxel monotherapy is active in hormone refractory metastatic prostate cancer.
  • Recently, this association has proven survival benefits in advanced breast cancer.
  • This multicenter phase II study reports on preliminary efficacy and safety data of docetaxel-capecitabine combination in hormone-refractory prostate cancer with metastases (HRPC).
  • Other requirements included a Karnofsky index of more than 50% and no prior chemotherapy except estramustine.
  • Treatment consisted of 4 cycles of docetaxel 35mg/m2 on day 1, day 8, day 15 and capecitabine 1250mg/m2/day in 2 divided doses from day 5 to day 18 of each 28 days cycle.
  • A minimum of 2 treatment cycles were required for response assessment.
  • Sixty-height percent had prior radiation and 52.3% had prior surgical treatment.
  • Pts received a median of 2 courses of treatment (range 1-4).
  • A total of 54 cycles of treatment were administered.
  • Biological response was observed in 17 pts after the 2<sup>nd</sup> cycle and in 7 pts after the 4<sup>th</sup> cycle.
  • Seven pts (41.2%) exhibited a PSA decrease of >50% after the 2<sup>nd</sup> cycle and 5 pts (71.4%) after the 4<sup>th</sup> cycle.

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  • (PMID = 28015741.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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20. Rodriguez Garzotto A, Sepulveda J, Cortijo A, Garcia L, Garcia Rodriguez I, Ciruelos E, Rodriguez Antolin A, Cortes-Funes H, Castellano D: Oral vinorelbine as a fixed-weekly schedule in taxanes-refractory advanced HRPC: A single institution experience. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):e16084

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • : e16084 Background: Vinorelbine (VRL) has been shown to be active in hormone-refractory prostate cancer (HRPC).
  • Oral formulation of VRL represents a significant advance in the treatment of advanced cancer.
  • Pts with measurable soft tissue disease met traditional guidelines for tumour responses.
  • RESULTS: Thirty seven pts with progressive HR metastatic prostate cancer were evaluated.
  • 23 (62%) pts had previous taxane chemotherapy and 14 pts (38%) were chemo-naive.
  • Only 1 treatment discontinuation was observed (esopahgitis g2).
  • This regimen of oral vinorelbine is an effective and well-tolerated treatment in this setting, despite a major dose-intensity administered.

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  • (PMID = 27963107.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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21. Campana F, Raymond E, Misset JL, Cvitkovic E, Cvitkovic F: Activity of oxaliplatin and 5-fluorouracil/folinic acid (FOLFOX2) in elderly patients with simultaneous advanced colon (ACC) and Hormone refractory prostate cancer (HRPC). J Clin Oncol; 2004 Jul 15;22(14_suppl):8241

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Activity of oxaliplatin and 5-fluorouracil/folinic acid (FOLFOX2) in elderly patients with simultaneous advanced colon (ACC) and Hormone refractory prostate cancer (HRPC).
  • Tumor response was evaluated clinically by ultrasound, CT-Scan and CEA.
  • PSA was also used to assess the response of prostate cancer.
  • RESULTS: Two patients (pts) (PS 1; age:72 and 74) with measurable liver metastasis (colon cancer), non measurable but symptomatic bone metastasis (prostate cancer), and elevated baseline PSA values (12.5 and 255 ng/ml) were evaluable for toxicity and response.
  • FOLFOX2 induced objective responses (60% and 70% tumor regression that lasted 8+ and 6 months) in colon cancer liver metastasis.
  • Chemotherapy was associated with pain relief and significant reductions of PSA values (90% decrease in one pt and normalization in the other).
  • CONCLUSION: Our clinical experience suggests that front-line FOLFOX2 chemotherapy is safe and active to control tumor progression of synchronous advanced colon and hormone-refractory prostate cancers in elderly males.

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  • (PMID = 28016662.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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22. Obeidat NA, Mullins CD, Onukwugha E, Seal B, Hussain A: Characteristics of elderly metastatic prostate cancer (M1 PC) long-term survivors in the SEER Medicare database receiving androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT). J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):e17513

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Characteristics of elderly metastatic prostate cancer (M1 PC) long-term survivors in the SEER Medicare database receiving androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT).
  • : e17513 Background: ADT remains standard treatment for pts with M1 PC, with radiation (RT) and chemotherapy (CT) providing additional palliation.
  • Median time to first treatment with ADT was 1 mo in both ST and LT groups.
  • Evidence regarding how these characteristics simultaneously impact the type and timing of treatment as well as survival deserve more exploration.

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  • (PMID = 27963274.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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23. Morris MJ, Kelly WK, Slovin S, Sauter N, Eicher C, Regan K, Curley T, Delacruz A, Reuter V, Scher HI: Phase I trial of exogenous testosterone (T) for the treatment of castrate metastatic prostate cancer (PC). J Clin Oncol; 2004 Jul 15;22(14_suppl):4560

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Phase I trial of exogenous testosterone (T) for the treatment of castrate metastatic prostate cancer (PC).
  • : 4560 Background: Standard treatment for metastatic PC is androgen withdrawal.
  • METHODS: Eligible patients (pts) had metastatic PC with progression on scans or PSA rises >25% over baseline, had T levels <30 mg/dl, were castrate for ≥1 year, and had failed anti-androgen withdrawal.
  • Pts were treated with T-containing transdermal patches or gel.
  • Three cohorts of 3-6 pts each were defined by treatment duration: 1 week of T, 4 weeks of T, and treatment with T until progression.
  • Antitumor effects were gauged by post-treatment PSA assays and imaging studies.
  • No pt was taken off study for tumor flare, defined as an increase in tumor-related symptoms within the first two weeks of therapy.
  • Therapy was well tolerated.
  • There were no grade 4 events, and only 1 grade 3 event (transaminitis) was felt to be possibly related to drug.
  • Median treatment duration for cohort 3 was 59 days (range 27-124).
  • 1 pt achieved a ≥50% post-treatment PSA decline; 2 pts had stable PSAs; no pts had a radiographic response.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Administration of T to patients with advanced PC for 1 week, 4 weeks, or until disease progression is safe, and not limited by tumor flare.
  • Combinations of T with other agents that modulate AR may be a more productive strategy than continuous monotherapy.
  • Support: Prostate Cancer Foundation, PepsiCo, Sacerdote Fund, NIH CA102544 No significant financial relationships to disclose.

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  • (PMID = 28015943.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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24. Lee RJ, Stott SL, Nagrath S, Ulkus LE, Dahl DM, Smith MR, Toner M, Maheswaran S, Haber DA: Analyses of circulating tumor cell (CTC) dynamics and treatment response in prostate cancer using the CTC-chip microfluidic device. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):5149

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Analyses of circulating tumor cell (CTC) dynamics and treatment response in prostate cancer using the CTC-chip microfluidic device.
  • : 5149 Background: The CTC-Chip reliably detects CTCs in patients with localized and metastatic prostate cancer.
  • In localized disease, CTCs may be indicative of tumor invasiveness.
  • In the metastatic setting, CTCs may be useful in monitoring response to therapy.
  • Molecular analyses of CTCs through this minimally invasive technique may provide insights into disease behavior, whereas sampling of metastatic deposits in bone (the predominant site of prostate metastasis) is not feasible.
  • METHODS: Peripheral blood was collected from patients undergoing treatment.
  • Subgroups of patients (n) included: localized disease undergoing prostatectomy (25), and metastatic disease undergoing either androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) (12) or docetaxel chemotherapy (5).
  • In patients with metastatic disease undergoing either ADT or chemotherapy, CTC quantities generally corresponded with changes in serum PSA and radiographic assessments.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These studies are the first to use the highly sensitive CTC-Chip technology to assess dynamic changes in CTCs in patients undergoing prostatectomy, ADT, or chemotherapy.
  • Ongoing larger studies will assess whether patterns of CTC changes predict recurrence or treatment response.
  • Molecular characterization of CTCs may provide new insights into prostate cancer biology, clinical behavior, and therapeutic targets.

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  • (PMID = 27964441.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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25. Kaliks-Guendelmann R, Santi P, Cardoso A, Del Giglio A: Complete androgen blockade as second-line hormone manipulation and delay of chemotherapy in metastatic prostate cancer. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):e16141

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Complete androgen blockade as second-line hormone manipulation and delay of chemotherapy in metastatic prostate cancer.
  • : e16141 Background: Complete androgen blockade (CAB) after failure of castration or androgen receptor blocker (ARB) has not shown to prolong survival in patients with metastatic prostate cancer, unlike docetaxel-based chemotherapy.
  • METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of all patients with metastatic prostate cancer treated with CAB as second-line hormone manipulation in a single institution after September 2005.
  • We identified 78 patients and evaluated correlations of prostate specific antigen (PSA), Gleason scores, age, type and length of first-line hormone manipulation with OS and PFS during CAB.
  • Forty-four patients received chemotherapy after failing CAB.
  • We did not find any correlation of PFS with type of first-line hormone manipulation (castration vs ARB, p = 0.10), age group (≤70 or >70 years old, p = 0.10), level of PSA at diagnosis (≤50 or >50 ng/mL, p = 0.17) or length of first-line hormone manipulation (≤14m vs >14 m, p = 0.78).
  • There was no significant correlation between PFS and Gleason score at diagnosis (score ≤7 or >7, p = 0.25), nor between the level of testosterone at the beginning of CAB and PFS.
  • Median OS for patients on CAB after failing castration was 36 months (CI 24-48), and median OS of patients on chemotherapy was not reached at 9.5 months follow-up.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Based on a PFS of 12 months, OS of 36 months and good patient tolerance, we believe CAB should still be used in CRPC, prior to initiation of chemotherapy.

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  • (PMID = 27963432.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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26. Basch EM, Sit L, Fruscione M, Burke L, Kane R, George D, Carducci MA, Matthew P, Beer TM, Scher HI: Pain and analgesic use in men with metastatic prostate cancer. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):e20515

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Pain and analgesic use in men with metastatic prostate cancer.
  • : e20515 Background: Pain is an important endpoint in metastatic prostate cancer and was the basis for the 1996 FDA approval of mitoxantrone.
  • The prevalence and distribution of pain severity at specific points in the prostate cancer disease continuum are not well defined.
  • METHODS: A questionnaire that includes the Brief Pain Inventory and additional pain/analgesia items was developed as a collaboration between the DOD/PCF-supported Prostate Cancer Clinical Trials Consortium (PCCTC) and FDA Study Endpoints and Labeling Design (SEALD) team.
  • RESULTS: Between August-December 2008, 325 men with prostate cancers representing different disease states being seen in outpatient clinics of participating centers were each queried once.
  • More than half (n=175) self-reported metastatic disease, including 129 with bone metastases.
  • Among the 49 patients with pain scores ≥4/10, current or past docetaxel use was reported by 32 (65%), androgen deprivation therapy by 47 (96%), and 28 (57%) had been or were currently enrolled in a clinical trial.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Pain is sufficiently prevalent in men with metastatic prostate cancer to enable prospective assessment of palliation endpoints in clinical trials.

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  • (PMID = 27960916.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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27. Ma D, Zhang H, Kennedy B, Parsons T, Olson WC: Antitumor activity of PSMA ADC after progression on docetaxel in a mouse xenograft model of human prostate cancer. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):3030

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Antitumor activity of PSMA ADC after progression on docetaxel in a mouse xenograft model of human prostate cancer.
  • : 3030 Background: Currently, there are no approved therapies for castration-resistant metastatic prostate cancer that has progressed following docetaxel therapy.
  • Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is an attractive target for antibody-targeted therapy of prostate cancer due to its abundant and restricted expression on the surface of prostate cancer cells.
  • We have developed a novel antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) by linking a fully human PSMA monoclonal antibody to monomethylauristatin E (MMAE), a potent tubulin inhibitor.
  • Here, we describe the use of PSMA ADC in a mouse model to treat xenografted human prostate tumors that have progressed following docetaxel therapy.
  • METHODS: Nude mice were implanted subcutaneously with 5 x 10<sup>6</sup> C4-2 human prostate cancer cells.
  • Docetaxel significantly reduced tumor growth (p = 0.025) during the initial phase of the study; however, most of the tumors later progressed.
  • When the tumor volume of an animal in the docetaxel group exceeded 400 mm<sup>3</sup>, the animal was rerandomized to receive continued docetaxel therapy (n = 18) or weekly IV doses of 6 mg/kg PSMA ADC (n = 18).
  • Treatment effects were assessed by measuring tumor volume and overall survival.
  • When tumor volume was assessed to be ≥2,000 mm<sup>3</sup>, animals would be sacrificed.
  • RESULTS: At 134 days following tumor implantation, the survival rate was 100% for animals in the PSMA ADC treatment group; 94% of these mice had tumor sizes <100 mm<sup>3</sup>.
  • In the continued docetaxel treatment group, 14 of 18 animals that were sacrificed when their tumors exceeded 2,000 mm<sup>3</sup>; the survival rate was 22%.
  • Therefore, PSMA ADC treatment significantly shrank tumors and increased overall survival of animals compared to continued docetaxel treatment (p < 0.0001).
  • CONCLUSIONS: PSMA ADC had antitumor activity in mice to xenografted human prostate tumors that had progressed following docetaxel treatment.
  • Treatment with PSMA ADC significantly extended survival in this setting.

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  • (PMID = 27962082.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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28. Kolevska T, Ryan CJ, Huey V, Weisberg L, Wang S, Baer D, Ghadialy A, Goldstein D, Fireman B, Fehrenbacher L: Phase II trial of nab-paclitaxel as first-line therapy of hormone refractory metastatic prostate cancer (HRPC). J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):5152

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Phase II trial of nab-paclitaxel as first-line therapy of hormone refractory metastatic prostate cancer (HRPC).
  • : 5152 Background: Many patients with hormone refractory prostate cancer have poor tolerance to treatment.
  • Docetaxel chemotherapy was shown to improve survival but has substantial toxicity, requires steroid administration, may cause poorly reversible neuropathy and requires long infusion times, all limiting its use.
  • Nab-paclitaxel, an albumin-bound nanopaticle form of paclitaxel, delivers paclitaxel without steroids, requires only 30 minutes infusion time and has favorable toxicity profile that may be more tolerable but effective in patients with prostate cancer.
  • The goal of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of nab-paclitaxel in first line chemotherapy of men with castration resistant prostate cancer.
  • Main eligibility criteria include: hormone refractory metastatic prostate cancer, no prior chemotherapy, performance status 0-2.
  • Primary endpoint was efficacy based on prostate-specific antigen (PSA) response.
  • One patient discontinued the treatment after 1 infusion due to toxicity (elevated ALT).
  • Seven patients received treatment for ≥ 6 months with minimal toxicity (range 6-10 months).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Nab-paclitaxel has activity in patients with metastatic hormone refractory prostate cancer.
  • This regimen was well tolerated, and may be useful in patients who are not suitable candidates for docetaxel based therapy.

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  • (PMID = 27964449.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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29. Yuan J, Orlandi F, Jefferson M, Li H, Gallardo H, Ku G, Wolchok J, Scher H, Allison J, Slovin SF: Cytokine changes in castrate metastatic prostate cancer (CPMC) patients (pts) treated with ipilimumab (Ipi). J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):e16149

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cytokine changes in castrate metastatic prostate cancer (CPMC) patients (pts) treated with ipilimumab (Ipi).
  • Recent data [Proc Amer Soc Clin Onc, Abstr#5004, 2008] from castrate metastatic PC pts suggested that Ipi was active but was associated with grade 3 autoimmune adverse events (AEs), such as colitis, hepatitis, hypophysitis or rash, which required high dose steroids.
  • Of the 10 pts, 8 had ≥1 AE during treatment.
  • Pts were stratified by ascertainment of clinical benefit (CB) vs. no clinical benefit (NCB) based on time-to-PSA-baseline relapse (TTBR) and also by toxicity (tox) using standard NCI tox criteria.
  • TTBR was defined as time from study entry until the time when a PSA measurement reached or exceeded the baseline value.
  • Sera at serial time points were analyzed for interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor α and interleukins (IL)-1b, 2, 4, 8, 10, 12, 13 with the Meso Scale Discovery Multiplex Assay (MSD, Gaithersburg, MD).
  • Investigation of the immunophenotype of pts who remain in follow- up and continue to be enrolled is ongoing as well as the impact of prior chemotherapy on development of toxicities.

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  • (PMID = 27963424.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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30. Sissung TM, Thordardottir S, Gardner ER, Figg WD: Current status of thalidomide and CC-5013 in the treatment of metastatic prostate cancer. Anticancer Agents Med Chem; 2009 Dec;9(10):1058-69
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. THALIDOMIDE .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Current status of thalidomide and CC-5013 in the treatment of metastatic prostate cancer.
  • Thalidomide is emerging as a potentially important therapeutic option in the treatment of metastatic prostate cancer.
  • Although the mechanism of action of this agent remains elusive in malignancies of the prostate, recent data has indicated that thalidomide may play a role in inflammation, immunomodulation, and anti-angiogenesis.
  • Lenalidomide (CC-5013), a thalidomide analogue with improved activity and safety profile in certain disease contexts, is in the early stages of development in prostate cancer.
  • This review will provide the current status of the history, mechanism, metabolism, and clinical use of thalidomide in metastatic prostate cancer.
  • It will also describe the mechanism and clinical use of lenalidomide as it pertains to malignancies of the prostate.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Thalidomide / analogs & derivatives. Thalidomide / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Humans. Male. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19719457.001).
  • [ISSN] 1875-5992
  • [Journal-full-title] Anti-cancer agents in medicinal chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Agents Med Chem
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / PHS HHS / / HHSN261200800001E; United States / Intramural NIH HHS / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 4Z8R6ORS6L / Thalidomide; F0P408N6V4 / lenalidomide
  • [Number-of-references] 95
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31. Lu-Yao G, Moore DF, Oleynick J, Dipaola RS, Yao SL: Use of hormonal therapy in men with metastatic prostate cancer. J Urol; 2006 Aug;176(2):526-31
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Use of hormonal therapy in men with metastatic prostate cancer.
  • PURPOSE: Bilateral orchiectomy or luteinizing hormone releasing hormone agonists represent the standard of care for metastatic prostate cancer.
  • In this population based study we assessed the use rates of these therapies in men who died of prostate cancer.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 9,110 men 65 years or older who died of prostate cancer in 1991 to 2000 were identified through the population based Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results, and Medicare linked database to determine hormonal therapy use rates.
  • RESULTS: Approximately 38% of black and 25% of white men did not receive hormonal therapy before dying of prostate cancer.
  • After adjusting for cancer status at diagnosis and other potential confounding factors black race and residence in low income areas were associated with lower hormonal therapy use (relative risk 0.73, 95% CI 0.67 to 0.80 and 0.91, 95% CI 0.85 to 0.98, respectively).
  • Hormonal therapy use was most comprehensive in the Northeast.
  • CONCLUSIONS: A substantial number of men who die as a consequence of prostate cancer never receive hormonal therapy.
  • The use of hormonal therapy varies significantly.
  • Further studies are warranted to determine factors that may be associated with the incomplete use of hormonal therapy for metastatic prostate cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Metastasis. SEER Program

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  • (PMID = 16813882.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-5347
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal
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32. Lloyd A, Penson D, Dewilde S, Kleinman L: Eliciting patient preferences for hormonal therapy options in the treatment of metastatic prostate cancer. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis; 2008;11(2):153-9
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. BICALUTAMIDE .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Eliciting patient preferences for hormonal therapy options in the treatment of metastatic prostate cancer.
  • Treatment choices for metastatic prostate cancer are complex and can involve men balancing survival versus quality of life.
  • The present study aims to elicit patient preferences with respect to the attributes of treatments for metastatic prostate cancer through a discrete choice experiment (DCE) questionnaire.
  • Men with recently diagnosed localized prostate cancer were asked to envisage that they had metastatic disease when completing a survey.
  • As expected, men with prostate cancer placed considerable importance on gains in survival; however, avoiding side effects of treatment was also clearly important.
  • Survival gains should be considered alongside side effects when discussing treatment options in metastatic disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Androgen Antagonists / therapeutic use. Anilides / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Flutamide / therapeutic use. Nitriles / therapeutic use. Patient Satisfaction. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Tosyl Compounds / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Choice Behavior. Cross-Sectional Studies. Diarrhea / chemically induced. Diarrhea / psychology. Drug Administration Schedule. Drug Costs. Drug Therapy / psychology. Erectile Dysfunction / chemically induced. Erectile Dysfunction / psychology. Gynecomastia / chemically induced. Gynecomastia / psychology. Health Surveys. Hematuria / chemically induced. Hematuria / psychology. Humans. Life Expectancy. Male. Middle Aged. Patient Acceptance of Health Care

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  • (PMID = 17637761.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-5608
  • [Journal-full-title] Prostate cancer and prostatic diseases
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgen Antagonists; 0 / Anilides; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Nitriles; 0 / Tosyl Compounds; 76W6J0943E / Flutamide; A0Z3NAU9DP / bicalutamide
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33. Smith MR: Bisphosphonates to prevent skeletal complications in men with metastatic prostate cancer. J Urol; 2003 Dec;170(6 Pt 2):S55-7; discussion S57-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Bisphosphonates to prevent skeletal complications in men with metastatic prostate cancer.
  • PURPOSE: The literature on clinical trials of bisphosphonates in men with metastatic prostate cancer is reviewed to familiarize the reader with biology of bone metastases and rationale for use of bisphosphonates.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: A MEDLINE review of the literature on prostate cancer and bisphosphonates was performed.
  • In a randomized controlled trial of men with bone metastases and progressive disease after first line hormonal therapy zoledronic acid decreased the skeletal related events, a composite end point defined as fracture, surgery or radiation therapy to bone, or change in antineoplastic therapy for bone pain.
  • Problems with the study populations, drug bioavailability and potency, statistical power and end point definition may have contributed to the negative results of these other studies.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Zoledronic acid decreases the risk of skeletal related events in men with bone metastases and disease progression after first line hormonal therapy.
  • Additional clinical research is needed to evaluate the optimal timing, schedule and duration of bisphosphonate treatment in men with metastatic prostate cancer.
  • Additional research is also necessary to determine whether bisphosphonates can prevent bone metastases in men with high risk nonmetastatic prostate cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / prevention & control. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Diphosphonates / therapeutic use. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Analgesics, Non-Narcotic / therapeutic use. Antimetabolites / therapeutic use. Clodronic Acid / therapeutic use. Humans. Imidazoles / therapeutic use. Male. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 14610411.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-5347
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Analgesics, Non-Narcotic; 0 / Antimetabolites; 0 / Diphosphonates; 0 / Imidazoles; 0813BZ6866 / Clodronic Acid; 6XC1PAD3KF / zoledronic acid
  • [Number-of-references] 26
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34. Aguero MF, Venero M, Brown DM, Smulson ME, Espinoza LA: Phenoxodiol inhibits growth of metastatic prostate cancer cells. Prostate; 2010 Aug;70(11):1211-21
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  • [Title] Phenoxodiol inhibits growth of metastatic prostate cancer cells.
  • BACKGROUND: Phenoxodiol, a synthetic analog of Genistein, is being assessed in several clinical studies against a range of cancer types and was shown to have a good efficacy and safety profile.
  • In this study we tested the effects of Phenoxodiol against prostate cancer cell lines.
  • METHODS: Cell-cycle analysis, plasmatic membrane damage, clonogenic assay, comet assay, and Western blot methodologies were employed to assess the effects of Phenoxodiol on prostate cancer cell lines.
  • An in vivo model confirmed the potential therapeutic efficacy of Phenoxodiol when administered orally to tumor bearing mice.
  • RESULTS: Phenoxodiol treatment promoted a marked inhibition of proliferation and loss of colony formation in LNCaP cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner.
  • Similar effects were also observed in the metastatic prostate cell lines PC3 and DU145.
  • Oral administration of Phenoxodiol induced a considerable growth inhibition of malignant tumors generated by inoculation of LNCaP cells into Balb/c nu/nu athymic mice.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrated that Phenoxodiol promotes apoptosis, as determined by PARP-1 degradation, via mitochondrial depolarization and G1/S cell-cycle arrest thereby confirming that it is active against androgen-dependent and independent prostate cancer cells.
  • Although a precise target for Phenoxodiol has not been identified, these data contribute to our understanding of the mechanism by which this drug promotes cell death in prostate cancer cells, and warrants the continued clinical development of Phenoxodiol as a therapeutic for the treatment of metastatic prostate cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Isoflavones / pharmacology. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Apoptosis / drug effects. Cell Cycle / drug effects. Cell Growth Processes / drug effects. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Survival / drug effects. Comet Assay. DNA Damage. Humans. Male. Mice. Mice, Inbred BALB C. Mice, Nude. Neoplasms, Hormone-Dependent / drug therapy. Neoplasms, Hormone-Dependent / genetics. Neoplasms, Hormone-Dependent / metabolism. Neoplasms, Hormone-Dependent / pathology. Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerase Inhibitors. Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases / metabolism. Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays

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  • [Copyright] 2010. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 20564423.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0045
  • [Journal-full-title] The Prostate
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prostate
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Isoflavones; 0 / Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerase Inhibitors; 995FT1W541 / phenoxodiol; EC 2.4.2.30 / PARP1 protein, human; EC 2.4.2.30 / Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases
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35. Sakai H, Kanetake H: [First line therapy in the treatment of metastatic prostate cancer]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2003 Jan;30(1):43-9
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  • [Title] [First line therapy in the treatment of metastatic prostate cancer].
  • Hormonal therapy has been the main treatment for advanced prostate cancer for the past six decades.
  • Maximum androgen blockade (MAB), combination therapy with castration and antiandrogens, has been compared with castration monotherapy since the late 1980s.
  • Recently published meta-analyses have revealed that MAB with non-steroidal antiandrogens is slightly superior to monotherapy (surgical or medical castration) in the treatment of advanced prostate cancer, and that MAB has more adverse effects.
  • Some studies indicated that the survival of metastatic prostate cancer patients treated with immediate therapy was similar to that of men in whom treatment was delayed.
  • Hormonal therapy has side effects and is costly, and delayed treatment may be beneficial to elderly men with silent metastasis.
  • Intermittent hormonal therapy is a controversial approach to management of advanced prostate cancer, although laboratory data suggest that intermittent androgen deprivation may prolong the duration of androgen dependence.
  • Intermittent hormonal therapy for patients with metastatic prostate cancer needs to be assessed in a randomized trial to determine the effect on overall survival and quality of life.
  • Our results in a randomized clinical trial of chemo-endocrine therapy versus endocrine therapy alone suggested that the addition of chemotherapy (cisplatin plus pirarubicin) to initial endocrine therapy might be beneficial to patients with advanced prostate cancer, especially an aggressive form of prostate cancer.
  • However, chemo-endocrine therapy should be considered an experimental approach at present.
  • [MeSH-major] Androgen Antagonists / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Orchiectomy. Prostatic Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Anilides / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Flutamide / therapeutic use. Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone / agonists. Humans. Male. Nitriles. Quality of Life. Tosyl Compounds

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  • (PMID = 12557704.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgen Antagonists; 0 / Anilides; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Nitriles; 0 / Tosyl Compounds; 33515-09-2 / Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone; 76W6J0943E / Flutamide; A0Z3NAU9DP / bicalutamide
  • [Number-of-references] 32
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36. Macpherson GR, Franks M, Tomoaia-Cotisel A, Ando Y, Price DK, Figg WD: Current status of thalidomide and its role in the treatment of metastatic prostate cancer. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol; 2003 Jun 27;46 Suppl:S49-57
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  • [Title] Current status of thalidomide and its role in the treatment of metastatic prostate cancer.
  • Concurrent with its evaluation in various clinical trials for cancer, thalidomide's mechanism of action is sought and new analogues with improved efficacy and pharmacological profile are emerging.
  • This review is a critical evaluation of thalidomide metabolism, molecular targets, anti-angiogenic activity and clinical efficacy with an emphasis on metastatic prostate cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiogenesis Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Thalidomide / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Clinical Trials as Topic. Humans. Male. Signal Transduction / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 12850527.001).
  • [ISSN] 1040-8428
  • [Journal-full-title] Critical reviews in oncology/hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Crit. Rev. Oncol. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 4Z8R6ORS6L / Thalidomide
  • [Number-of-references] 86
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37. Curtis KK, Pruthi RK, Fonseca R, Gornet MK: Transfusion-dependent anemia after initiation of androgen deprivation therapy for metastatic prostate cancer. Urology; 2007 Oct;70(4):811.e5-8
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  • [Title] Transfusion-dependent anemia after initiation of androgen deprivation therapy for metastatic prostate cancer.
  • Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is a commonly used treatment for metastatic prostate cancer.
  • A 78-year-old patient with metastatic prostate cancer had transfusion-dependent anemia develop while on ADT.
  • The anemia, which had been well managed with iron therapy before ADT, was worsened by the loss of bone marrow-stimulating testosterone effects.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Androgen Antagonists / adverse effects. Anemia / chemically induced. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / adverse effects. Blood Transfusion. Leuprolide / adverse effects. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage / chemically induced. Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage / therapy. Hemoglobins / analysis. Humans. Male. Telangiectasia, Hereditary Hemorrhagic / complications


38. Lissoni P, Malugani F, Casu M, Bukovec R, Egardi R, Bordin V, Fumagalli E, Mengo S, Gardani G: Effect of bicalutamide therapy on prolactin response to L-dopa in metastatic prostate cancer patients. Neuro Endocrinol Lett; 2002 Feb;23(1):61-3
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  • [Title] Effect of bicalutamide therapy on prolactin response to L-dopa in metastatic prostate cancer patients.
  • OBJECTIVES: The secretion of prolactin (PRL), which is a growth factor for prostate cancer cell proliferation, has been proven to present profound alterations in advanced prostate cancer patients, consisting of abnormally elevated baseline levels and paradoxical response to L-dopa.
  • Moreover, the efficacy of standard therapies for prostate cancer may be mediated at least in part by changes in PRL secretion.
  • The present study was carried out to analyze the effects of the new antiandrogen agent bicalutamide on basal levels of PRL and on its response to L-dopa in metastatic prostate cancer patients.
  • MATERIAL & METHODS: The study included 10 metastatic prostate cancer patients.
  • They were investigated with L-dopa test before therapy and after one month of treatment.
  • Mean PRL basal levels decreased after bicalutamide therapy, without, however, significant differences.
  • Before therapy, a paradoxical increase in PRL levels after L-dopa occurred in 4 patients, 3 of them showed basal concentrations of PRL within the normal range.
  • Moreover, bicalutamide therapy significantly reduced PRL increase in response to L-dopa.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This study would suggest that the measurement of the only basal levels is not sufficient to define as normal the secretion of PRL in advanced prostate cancer, because of the possible existence of altered response to the dynamic tests for PRL secretion.
  • Moreover, the study shows that the antitumor therapy with the new anti-androgen bicalutamide may reduce PRL secretion and improve its paradoxical secretion in response to L.-Dopa.
  • Further studies will be required to better define the possible prognostic impact of changes in PRL secretion on the efficacy of treatments for metastatic prostate cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Androgen Antagonists / therapeutic use. Anilides / therapeutic use. Levodopa. Prolactin / blood. Prostatic Neoplasms / blood. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 11880864.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-780X
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro endocrinology letters
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuro Endocrinol. Lett.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Sweden
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgen Antagonists; 0 / Anilides; 0 / Nitriles; 0 / Tosyl Compounds; 46627O600J / Levodopa; 9002-62-4 / Prolactin; A0Z3NAU9DP / bicalutamide
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39. Bouchot O, Lenormand L, Karam G, Prunet D, Gaschignard N, Malinovsky JM, Buzelin JM: Intermittent androgen suppression in the treatment of metastatic prostate cancer. Eur Urol; 2000 Nov;38(5):543-9
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  • [Title] Intermittent androgen suppression in the treatment of metastatic prostate cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: To assess the feasibility of intermittent androgen suppression in patients with metastatic prostate cancer and to quantify the improvement in the quality of life.
  • METHODS: Forty-three patients with M1 b prostate cancer were treated by intermittent hormonal deprivation using luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) analogue alone (n = 11), or associated with an antiandrogen (n = 32).
  • The prospective nonrandomized study required an initial therapy period of 12 months with a stable biological response during 6 months (PSA, testosterone).
  • Treatment was resumed when the serum PSA value recovered to 20 ng/ml, or when local failure or new bone metastasis occurred.
  • RESULTS: The mean follow-up time was 43.7 months.
  • After the initial 12 months of androgen suppression, one patient with a minimal disease was off-therapy with a follow-up of 18 months.
  • For the 42 other patients, the mean off-therapy period was 6.7 months.
  • In the second therapy period (9-12 months), 7 patients were hormono-independent and died with a mean survival time of 27 months; 35 patients were responders.
  • The mean off-therapy length in the second cycle was short (3.8 months).
  • After this time, androgen suppression therapy was reintroduced permanently, but 10 patients were hormono-independent.
  • No difference was observed in the EORTC QLQ-C30 between therapy and off-therapy periods, only a rapid decrease in adverse events due to the hormonal deprivation was reported in all cases during the off-therapy period.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Intermittent androgen suppression in patients with M1 b prostate cancer could be associated with a significant period off-therapy in the first cycle (55.8%), and with a chance of second hormone response.
  • But in the second cycle, the off-therapy period length was short and required a careful follow-up.
  • [MeSH-major] Androgen Antagonists / therapeutic use. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Feasibility Studies. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Prospective Studies. Quality of Life


40. Leav I, Plescia J, Goel HL, Li J, Jiang Z, Cohen RJ, Languino LR, Altieri DC: Cytoprotective mitochondrial chaperone TRAP-1 as a novel molecular target in localized and metastatic prostate cancer. Am J Pathol; 2010 Jan;176(1):393-401
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  • [Title] Cytoprotective mitochondrial chaperone TRAP-1 as a novel molecular target in localized and metastatic prostate cancer.
  • Molecular chaperones of the heat shock protein-90 (Hsp90) family promote cell survival, but the molecular requirements of this pathway in tumor progression are not understood.
  • Here, we show that a mitochondria-localized Hsp90 chaperone, tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated protein-1 (TRAP-1), is abundantly and ubiquitously expressed in human high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, Gleason grades 3 through 5 prostatic adenocarcinomas, and metastatic prostate cancer, but largely undetectable in normal prostate or benign prostatic hyperplasia in vivo.
  • Prostate lesions formed in genetic models of the disease, including the transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate and mice carrying prostate-specific deletion of the phosphatase tensin homolog tumor suppressor (Pten(pc-/-)), also exhibit high levels of TRAP-1.
  • Expression of TRAP-1 in nontransformed prostatic epithelial BPH-1 cells inhibited cell death, whereas silencing of TRAP-1 in androgen-independent PC3 or DU145 prostate cancer cells by small interfering RNA enhanced apoptosis.
  • Targeting TRAP-1 with a novel class of mitochondria-directed Hsp90 inhibitors, ie, Gamitrinibs, caused rapid and complete killing of androgen-dependent or -independent prostate cancer, but not BPH-1 cells, whereas reintroduction of TRAP-1 in BPH-1 cells conferred sensitivity to Gamitrinib-induced cell death.
  • These data identify TRAP-1 as a novel mitochondrial survival factor differentially expressed in localized and metastatic prostate cancer compared with normal prostate.
  • Targeting this pathway with Gamitrinibs could be explored as novel molecular therapy in patients with advanced prostate cancer.

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  • (PMID = 19948822.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-2191
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Pathol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA078810; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA089720; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA118005; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA109874-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA78810; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA109874-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA109874; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA089720-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA90917; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA089720-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA109874; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA89720; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R56 CA089720; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA118005; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA090917
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / HSP90 Heat-Shock Proteins; 0 / Molecular Chaperones; 0 / TRAP-1 protein, mouse; 0 / TRAP1 protein, human
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2797899
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41. Nyirády P, Sárdi E, Beko G, Szucs M, Horváth A, Székely E, Szentmihályi K, Romics I, Blázovics A: [Effects of bioactive molecules of Beta vulgaris L. ssp. esculenta var. rubra on metastatic prostate cancer]. Orv Hetil; 2010 Sep 12;151(37):1495-503
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Effects of bioactive molecules of Beta vulgaris L. ssp. esculenta var. rubra on metastatic prostate cancer].
  • Several reports are known about the effects of nutrition supplements in the improvement of quality of life of patients with tumor, however, the physiological background remains largely unknown.
  • METHODS: Natural table beet product come from commercial service was given twice 10 g daily for 1 month for 24 patients (mean age 68+/-8 years) with hormone-resistant and metastatic prostate cancer treated with taxan chemotherapy, who report themselves first, mean 3,6+/-2,8 years ago with their complains.
  • 18 men's data were amenable after treatment for evaluation.
  • In addition to routine laboratory examination values of HbA1c, 9 cytokines and levels of 3 growth factors, the global parameters of redox-homeostasis, few elements of their metal-ions, Zn- and level of free protoporfirin, trans-metilating processes before and 1 month after treatment were determined.
  • CONCLUSIONS: According to results, it seems that moderate and permanent consumption of table beet product affects the life expectancy of patients favorably; however, due to the increasing values of EGF, medical control is necessary for patients with prostate cancer treated by chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Beta vulgaris. Phytotherapy. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid. Humans. Luminescent Measurements. Male. Middle Aged. Plant Extracts / therapeutic use. Taxoids / therapeutic use. Trace Elements / blood. Treatment Outcome


42. Turner SL, Gruenewald S, Spry N, Gebski V, Metastron Users Group: Less pain does equal better quality of life following strontium-89 therapy for metastatic prostate cancer. Br J Cancer; 2001 Feb 2;84(3):297-302
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  • [Title] Less pain does equal better quality of life following strontium-89 therapy for metastatic prostate cancer.
  • 93 patients with hormone refractory metastatic prostate cancer were entered on a prospective study to measure reduction in pain and changes in quality of life (QoL) after the administration of 150 MegaBequerel (MBq) Strontium-89 (Sr-89).
  • QoL was assessed using a validated instrument, the Functional Living Index - Cancer (FLIC) questionnaire.
  • Pain response was measured using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group scoring system.
  • The lack of correlation of PSA response and clinical parameters indicates that in the palliative setting, PSA may not provide a useful surrogate for treatment outcome.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / complications. Pain / prevention & control. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology. Quality of Life. Strontium / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Diarrhea / chemically induced. Follow-Up Studies. Hematologic Diseases / chemically induced. Humans. Male. Nausea / chemically induced. Neoplasm Metastasis. Prospective Studies. Prostate-Specific Antigen / blood. Prostate-Specific Antigen / drug effects. Spinal Cord Compression / chemically induced. Strontium Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Surveys and Questionnaires. Treatment Outcome. Vomiting / chemically induced


43. Perachino M, Cavalli V, Bravi F: Testosterone levels in patients with metastatic prostate cancer treated with luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone therapy: prognostic significance? BJU Int; 2010 Mar;105(5):648-51
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  • [Title] Testosterone levels in patients with metastatic prostate cancer treated with luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone therapy: prognostic significance?
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine if the testosterone level achieved with androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) is directly related to survival and risk of death in men with metastatic prostate cancer, as agonistic analogues of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormones (LHRH) are indicated for palliative treatment of these patients, but there is no consensus about the utility of serum testosterone measurements during the follow-up, and their possible prognostic value.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 129 consecutive patients with a histological diagnosis of metastatic bony-only prostate cancer and previously untreated with ADT.
  • Testosterone and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels were measured in all patients every 3 months for the duration of the follow-up.
  • The following variables were recorded: age, stage, Gleason score, basal PSA level, basal testosterone level, PSA nadir, time to PSA nadir, testosterone after 6 months, testosterone nadir and time to testosterone nadir.
  • Data were analysed using Cox's proportional hazards models, with the primary endpoint being cancer-specific survival.
  • With a mean follow-up of 47.5 (29.7) months, 71 patients were dead (55%) and 78 were alive (45%) at the time of analysis.
  • Based on the present results, lowering the testosterone level as much as possible should be the goal of ADT in patients with metastatic prostate cancer, as this might affect patient survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Androgen Antagonists / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Goserelin / therapeutic use. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Testosterone / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Epidemiologic Methods. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Treatment Outcome


44. Rocco B, Ferrari M, Scardino E, Matei DV, Verweij F, Varela R, De Cobelli O: Gn-RH antagonist possible response, after Gn-RH agonist failure in a man with metastatic prostate cancer. Anticancer Res; 2005 Jan-Feb;25(1B):577-8
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  • [Title] Gn-RH antagonist possible response, after Gn-RH agonist failure in a man with metastatic prostate cancer.
  • Gn-RH agonists or surgical castration are considered standard treatment for patients affected by metastatic prostate cancer.
  • Despite greater cost, chemical castration is often considered the treatment of choice as it is psychologically better tolerated.
  • We report our experience of one patient undergoing treatment with Gn-RH agonist who developed an early resistance to the administered drug, with serum testosterone levels within the range of normality.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone / agonists. Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone / antagonists & inhibitors. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Humans. Leuprolide / therapeutic use. Male. Neoplasm Metastasis. Prostate-Specific Antigen / blood. Testosterone / blood. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 15816630.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 33515-09-2 / Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone; 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone; EC 3.4.21.77 / Prostate-Specific Antigen; EFY6W0M8TG / Leuprolide
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45. Wu K, Zeng J, Li L, Fan J, Zhang D, Xue Y, Zhu G, Yang L, Wang X, He D: Silibinin reverses epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in metastatic prostate cancer cells by targeting transcription factors. Oncol Rep; 2010 Jun;23(6):1545-52
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  • [Title] Silibinin reverses epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in metastatic prostate cancer cells by targeting transcription factors.
  • Silibinin, a naturally occurring flavanone isolated from milk thistle extract, has been shown to possess strong anticancer efficacy against both androgen-dependent and androgen-independent prostate cancer, wherein it inhibits not only cell growth, but also cell invasion and metastasis.
  • Inhibitory effects of silibinin on prostate cancer invasion, motility and migration were previously observed in the highly bone metastatic ARCaP M cell line; however, mechanisms of such efficacy are not completely elucidated.
  • The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a crucial step in the progression of prostate cancer, reversal or inhibition of EMT by drugs thus provides a new approach to prostate cancer therapy.
  • In the present study, we found that silibinin treatment resulted in the up-regulation of cytokeratin-18 and down-regulation of vimentin and MMP2, which was consistent with morphologic reversal of EMT phenotype leading to be epithelial.
  • Overall these findings demonstrate silibinin was able to reverse EMT to suppress the invasive property of metastatic prostate cancer cells at the transcriptional level.
  • [MeSH-major] Antioxidants / pharmacology. Epithelial Cells / metabolism. Mesoderm / metabolism. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Silymarin / pharmacology. Transcription Factors / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Blotting, Western. Cell Adhesion. Cell Line. Cell Movement. Cell Proliferation. Down-Regulation. Fluorescent Antibody Technique. Humans. Keratin-18 / genetics. Keratin-18 / metabolism. Male. Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 / genetics. Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 / metabolism. NF-kappa B / genetics. NF-kappa B / metabolism. Neoplasm Metastasis. RNA, Messenger / genetics. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Up-Regulation. Vimentin / genetics. Vimentin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20428808.001).
  • [ISSN] 1791-2431
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncol. Rep.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antioxidants; 0 / Keratin-18; 0 / NF-kappa B; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Silymarin; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / Vimentin; 4RKY41TBTF / silybin; EC 3.4.24.24 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 2
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46. Altiparmak MR, Bilici A, Kisacik B, Ozguroglu M: Flutamide-induced acute renal failure in a patient with metastatic prostate cancer. Med Oncol; 2002;19(2):117-9
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  • [Title] Flutamide-induced acute renal failure in a patient with metastatic prostate cancer.
  • Androgen blockage, with either orchiectomy or luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH) analogs combined with an antiandrogen drug, is the standard treatment for metastatic prostate cancer.
  • Flutamide is a non-steroidal antiandrogen drug that is frequently used for total androgen blockage.
  • We report on a 54-yr-old man with metastatic prostate cancer who developed nonoliguric acute renal failure (ARF) during treatment with flutamide.
  • Following discontinuation of flutamide therapy, his renal functions returned to normal limits within 4 wk.
  • His renal function recovered completely after the cessation of the drug for the second time.
  • This observation confirm that ARF may be clearly attributed to flutamide therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Acute Kidney Injury / chemically induced. Androgen Antagonists / adverse effects. Flutamide / adverse effects. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • [Cites] J Clin Oncol. 1999 Jul;17(7):2027-38 [10561254.001]
  • [Cites] Br J Urol. 1994 Nov;74(5):642-5 [7827817.001]
  • [Cites] Cancer. 1994 Sep 1;74(5):1612-4 [8062193.001]
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  • (PMID = 12180480.001).
  • [ISSN] 1357-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Medical oncology (Northwood, London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgen Antagonists; 76W6J0943E / Flutamide
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47. Yashi M, Nukui A, Kurokawa S, Ochi M, Ishikawa S, Goto K, Kobayashi Y, Muraishi O, Tokue A: Elevated serum progastrin-releasing peptide (31-98) level is a predictor of short response duration after hormonal therapy in metastatic prostate cancer. Prostate; 2003 Sep 1;56(4):305-12
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  • [Title] Elevated serum progastrin-releasing peptide (31-98) level is a predictor of short response duration after hormonal therapy in metastatic prostate cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: The neuroendocrine (NE) pathway has been attracting attention as a mechanism for the androgen-independent progression because the neuropeptide provokes tumor growth and inhibits apoptosis under androgen-deprived milieu in prostate cancer cells.
  • METHODS: Serum ProGRP status was determined with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in 460 men with benign and malignant prostatic diseases, chronic renal failure, and healthy controls.
  • Seventy patients with metastatic prostate cancer including four patients (5.7%) with NE carcinoma who underwent hormonal therapy were enrolled in the prognostic analyses by Cox proportional hazards model.
  • RESULTS: The serum status steadily shifted toward predominant expression of ProGRP with the progression of prostate cancer into metastatic and androgen-independent stages.
  • Univariate analysis revealed that the deteriorated performance status (PS) and extent of bony disease (EOD), and high serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), serum ProGRP, and nadir prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels were associated with a lower progression-free survival (PFS) rate (P < 0.005).
  • Serum ProGRP was the most significant predictor among pre-treatment factors in this model (P = 0.0094).
  • CONCLUSIONS: The neuropeptide precursor ProGRP is a distinct serum marker that is useful to know the NE milieu and provides prognostic information in patients with advanced prostate cancer.
  • Standard therapy for metastatic prostate cancer may make progress when further studies will clarify the causative link between serum ProGRP level and androgen-independent disease progression.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Gastrointestinal Hormones / analysis. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging / methods. Peptide Fragments / analysis. Peptides / analysis. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology. Recombinant Proteins / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Androgens / pharmacology. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / pharmacology. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Predictive Value of Tests. Prognosis. Prostate-Specific Antigen / analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 12858359.001).
  • [ISSN] 0270-4137
  • [Journal-full-title] The Prostate
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prostate
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgens; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Gastrointestinal Hormones; 0 / Peptide Fragments; 0 / Peptides; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 0 / pro-gastrin-releasing peptide (31-98); EC 3.4.21.77 / Prostate-Specific Antigen
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48. Small EJ, Smith MR, Seaman JJ, Petrone S, Kowalski MO: Combined analysis of two multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled studies of pamidronate disodium for the palliation of bone pain in men with metastatic prostate cancer. J Clin Oncol; 2003 Dec 1;21(23):4277-84
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  • [Title] Combined analysis of two multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled studies of pamidronate disodium for the palliation of bone pain in men with metastatic prostate cancer.
  • PURPOSE: Bone metastases occur in approximately 80% of patients with advanced prostate cancer.
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of an intravenous bisphosphonate, pamidronate disodium, on pain control in metastatic prostate cancer patients.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Two multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trials were conducted in patients with bone pain due to metastatic prostate cancer, with disease progression after first-line hormonal therapy.
  • Laboratory evaluations included serum prostate-specific antigen, interleukin-6, bone alkaline phosphatase, and urinary bone resorption markers.
  • CONCLUSION: Pamidronate disodium failed to demonstrate a significant overall treatment benefit compared with placebo in palliation of bone pain or reduction of SREs.
  • Evaluation of more potent bisphosphonates in patients with prostate cancer is warranted.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Bone Neoplasms / drug therapy. Diphosphonates / therapeutic use. Pain / drug therapy. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Double-Blind Method. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Palliative Care. Placebos. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome


49. Li NC, Song Y, Jiang HW, Ding Q, Gan WD, Guo HQ, Sun ZY, Hu ZQ, Ye ZQ, Wei Q, Na YQ: [Efficacy and safety of long-acting gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue in the treatment for metastatic prostate cancer]. Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2008 Nov 1;46(21):1653-7
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  • [Title] [Efficacy and safety of long-acting gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue in the treatment for metastatic prostate cancer].
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue (GnRHa) triptorelin 11.25 mg 3-month sustained release formulations in the treatment of metastatic prostate cancer.
  • One hundred and twenty-seven patients with documented metastatic prostate cancer were randomized to receive one injection of the 11.25 mg formulation triptorelin (n = 65) or three injections at 28-day intervals of the 3.75 mg formulation (n = 62).
  • Changes from baseline of TPSA, prostate volume, testosterone, LH, FSH, PRL and estradiol were assessed over 3 months.
  • Changes of the metastatic lesions were also observed and evaluated.
  • RESULTS: After 3 months treatment, total PSA level decreased significantly from baseline both in 11.25 mg group and 3.75 mg group.
  • Prostate volume were also decreased significantly in both groups, median volume declined from 48.0 mm(3) into 21.5 mm(3) in 11.25 mg group and from 45.0 mm(3) into 21.0 mm(3) in 3.75 mg group.
  • No significant differences were found between the two groups in changes of TPSA (P = 0.601) and prostate volume (P > 0.05).
  • CONCLUSION: As a new long-acting sustained release formulation, triptorelin 11.25 mg is comparable to triptorelin 3.75 mg formulation in the aspect of efficacy and safety for the treatments of metastatic prostate cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / administration & dosage. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Triptorelin Pamoate / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone / analogs & derivatives. Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone / therapeutic use. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Safety. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19094763.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5815
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua wai ke za zhi [Chinese journal of surgery]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 33515-09-2 / Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone; 57773-63-4 / Triptorelin Pamoate
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50. Lein M, Wirth M, Miller K, Eickenberg HU, Weissbach L, Schmidt K, Haus U, Stephan C, Meissner S, Loening SA, Jung K: Serial markers of bone turnover in men with metastatic prostate cancer treated with zoledronic Acid for detection of bone metastases progression. Eur Urol; 2007 Nov;52(5):1381-7
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  • [Title] Serial markers of bone turnover in men with metastatic prostate cancer treated with zoledronic Acid for detection of bone metastases progression.
  • OBJECTIVES: This study assessed the usefulness of serial measurements of bone turnover markers in men with metastatic prostate cancer treated with zoledronic acid to detect disease progression.
  • METHODS: Serum measurements of total alkaline phosphatase (tALP), bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (bALP), cross-linked N-terminal (NTx) and cross-linked C-terminal (CTx) telopeptides of type I collagen, amino-terminal procollagen propeptides of type I collagen (PINP), C-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen (ICTP), and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) were performed in 77 prostate cancer patients suffering from bone metastases and treated with zoledronic acid up to 15 mo.
  • Fifty patients were with and 27 patients without objective evidence of metastatic bone progression during the administration of zoledronic acid.
  • In patients with metastatic bone progression PINP, tALP, bALP, and ICTP were significantly higher at weeks 24, 36, 48, and 60 after starting treatment with zoledronic acid compared with patients without progression.
  • In addition to the information of prostate-specific antigen as a monitoring parameter, the bone formation marker showed a better distinction between patients with and without disease progression.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Selected bone turnover markers provide valuable information regarding progression of bone metastasis in men with metastatic prostate cancer under bisphosphonate therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Bone Density Conservation Agents / therapeutic use. Bone Neoplasms / blood. Diphosphonates / therapeutic use. Imidazoles / therapeutic use. Prostatic Neoplasms / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Alkaline Phosphatase / blood. Collagen Type I / blood. Disease Progression. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Peptide Fragments / blood. Peptides / blood. Procollagen / blood. Prognosis. Prospective Studies. Prostate-Specific Antigen / blood

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  • (PMID = 17321667.001).
  • [ISSN] 0302-2838
  • [Journal-full-title] European urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Bone Density Conservation Agents; 0 / Collagen Type I; 0 / Diphosphonates; 0 / Imidazoles; 0 / Peptide Fragments; 0 / Peptides; 0 / Procollagen; 0 / collagen type I trimeric cross-linked peptide; 6XC1PAD3KF / zoledronic acid; EC 3.1.3.1 / Alkaline Phosphatase; EC 3.4.21.77 / Prostate-Specific Antigen
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51. Oh WK, Landrum MB, Lamont EB, McNeil BJ, Keating NL: Does oral antiandrogen use before leuteinizing hormone-releasing hormone therapy in patients with metastatic prostate cancer prevent clinical consequences of a testosterone flare? Urology; 2010 Mar;75(3):642-7
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  • [Title] Does oral antiandrogen use before leuteinizing hormone-releasing hormone therapy in patients with metastatic prostate cancer prevent clinical consequences of a testosterone flare?
  • OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether oral antiandrogen therapy before initiation of leuteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) agonists was associated with fewer clinical flares.
  • LHRH agonists are associated with initial testosterone rises that may cause clinical disease flares in men with metastatic prostate cancer.
  • METHODS: We identified newly diagnosed metastatic prostate cancer patients treated in Veterans Affairs Hospitals from 2001-2004 with LHRH agonists with or without prior antiandrogen therapy.
  • We assessed spinal cord compression, radiation therapy, fractures, bladder outlet obstruction, and narcotic prescriptions for pain within 30 days of starting LHRH therapy.
  • RESULTS: Of 1566 metastatic prostate cancer patients treated with LHRH agonists, 1245 (79.5%) patients received oral antiandrogens before initiating LHRH agonist treatment.
  • Hispanic men, married patients, and those without prior cancer were treated less often with oral antiandrogens (all P < or = .05).
  • In adjusted analysis, there was no decrease in odds of any event for treatment with an antiandrogen within 6 days (OR, 1.04, 95% CI, 0.78-1.40) or > or = 7 days (OR, 0.95, 95% CI, 0.72-1.25) before LHRH agonist treatment.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Antiandrogen therapy before LHRH agonists in metastatic prostate cancer was not associated with differences in fractures, spinal cord compression, bladder outlet obstruction, or narcotic prescriptions.
  • Rates of spinal cord compression or fracture were < 1% in the first 30 days after beginning LHRH agonist therapy regardless of antiandrogen use.
  • [MeSH-major] Androgen Antagonists / administration & dosage. Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone / agonists. Prostatic Neoplasms / blood. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Testosterone / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis


52. Furuya Y, Nagakawa O, Fuse H: Prognostic significance of changes in short-term prostate volume and serum prostate-specific antigen after androgen withdrawal in men with metastatic prostate cancer. Urol Int; 2003;70(3):195-9
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  • [Title] Prognostic significance of changes in short-term prostate volume and serum prostate-specific antigen after androgen withdrawal in men with metastatic prostate cancer.
  • OBJECTIVE: Endocrine therapy is the standard treatment for metastatic prostate cancer although progression to androgen independence is inevitable.
  • To evaluate prognostic factors in metastatic prostate cancer, patients who had been treated with endocrine therapy were investigated especially for the change in prostate volume.
  • METHODS: Fifty-nine patients with untreated metastatic prostate cancer who received endocrine therapy were included in the present study.
  • Blood chemistry, histological grade, extent of bony metastasis, clinical response to hormone therapy including the short-term change in prostate volume and serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA), and prognosis of the patients were evaluated.
  • RESULTS: With univariate analysis, hemoglobin concentration, serum alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), histological grade, extent of bony disease, the short-term change of prostate volume and response of PSA at 3 months were shown to be significant prognostic factors.
  • Response of PSA, LDH and the change in prostate volume were significant for predicting prognosis with multivariate analyses.
  • Five-year survival rate in patients whose prostate had regressed 20% or more at 1 month and whose PSA had been normalized at 3 months was 67%, whereas that in patients whose prostate had regressed less than 20% and whose PSA had not been normalized was 0%.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The patients in whom PSA had not been normalized at 3 months and the prostate volume had regressed less than 20% at 1 month were in the high-risk group.
  • New or more aggressive treatment should be considered.
  • [MeSH-major] Androgen Antagonists / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Prostate / pathology. Prostate-Specific Antigen / blood. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Chlormadinone Acetate / therapeutic use. Diethylstilbestrol / therapeutic use. Flutamide / therapeutic use. Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone / therapeutic use. Humans. Male. Multivariate Analysis


53. Michaelson MD, Kaufman DS, Kantoff P, Oh WK, Smith MR: Randomized phase II study of atrasentan alone or in combination with zoledronic acid in men with metastatic prostate cancer. Cancer; 2006 Aug 1;107(3):530-5
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  • [Title] Randomized phase II study of atrasentan alone or in combination with zoledronic acid in men with metastatic prostate cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Metastatic prostate cancer is characterized by the presence of osteoblastic bone metastases.
  • METHODS: The effects of atrasentan alone versus combination therapy with atrasentan and zoledronic acid were investigated on bone turnover markers in men with bone metastases from prostate cancer.
  • Forty-four men were randomized to receive either atrasentan alone or combination therapy, and 33 completed at least 12 weeks of treatment and were included in the primary analysis.
  • RESULTS: Treatment with the combination resulted in significantly lower serum levels of N-telopeptide, a marker of bone resorption, compared with treatment with atrasentan alone.
  • No Grade 4 or 5 treatment-related toxicities were observed.
  • There was minimal clinical efficacy, with no objective responses and only 1 prostate-specific antigen (PSA) response.
  • CONCLUSIONS: There is no evidence for additive or synergistic effects of combination therapy with atrasentan and zoledronic acid on bone turnover markers in men with metastatic prostate cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols. Diphosphonates / administration & dosage. Imidazoles / administration & dosage. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Pyrrolidines / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Alkaline Phosphatase / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Bone Density Conservation Agents / administration & dosage. Bone Density Conservation Agents / adverse effects. Bone Neoplasms / metabolism. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Bone and Bones / enzymology. Bone and Bones / metabolism. Disease Progression. Dyspnea / complications. Edema / complications. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2006 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 16804927.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 1K12CA87723
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Bone Density Conservation Agents; 0 / Diphosphonates; 0 / Imidazoles; 0 / Pyrrolidines; 6XC1PAD3KF / zoledronic acid; EC 3.1.3.1 / Alkaline Phosphatase; V6D7VK2215 / atrasentan
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54. Bander NH, Trabulsi EJ, Kostakoglu L, Yao D, Vallabhajosula S, Smith-Jones P, Joyce MA, Milowsky M, Nanus DM, Goldsmith SJ: Targeting metastatic prostate cancer with radiolabeled monoclonal antibody J591 to the extracellular domain of prostate specific membrane antigen. J Urol; 2003 Nov;170(5):1717-21
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  • [Title] Targeting metastatic prostate cancer with radiolabeled monoclonal antibody J591 to the extracellular domain of prostate specific membrane antigen.
  • PURPOSE: We performed an interim analysis of imaging data collected in 2 phase I radioimmunotherapy trials to determine the ability of monoclonal antibody (mAb) J591 directed to the extracellular domain of prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) to target sites of known metastatic prostate cancer accurately.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with progressing hormone independent prostate cancer were entered in 2 phase I dose finding trials with radiolabeled mAb J591.
  • J591 is the first mAb targeting the extracellular domain of PSMA as well as the first de-immunized (humanized) mAb to PSMA to be tested in humans.
  • Planar gamma camera imaging studies obtained on the first 53 patients were reviewed and compared to sites of metastatic prostate cancer visualized on conventional imaging studies including bone scan, computerized tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging.
  • In 1 trial 29 patients received 111indium-J591 for imaging followed by 90yttrium-J591 for therapy.
  • RESULTS: Of 53 patients reviewed 46 (87%) had evidence of metastatic disease on conventional scans.
  • Overall, of the 43 evaluable patients J591 accurately targeted bone and/or soft tissue lesions in 42 (98%).
  • J591 accurately targeted bone lesions in 32 of 34 (94%) and soft tissue lesions in 13 of 18 (72%) evaluable patients.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Radiolabeled J591 accurately targets bone and soft tissue metastatic prostate cancer sites, and may be useful for targeting therapeutic and/or diagnostic imaging agents.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / administration & dosage. Antibodies, Monoclonal / immunology. Antigens, Surface / immunology. Bone Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Glutamate Carboxypeptidase II / immunology. Prostatic Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antibody Specificity / immunology. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Extracellular Matrix / immunology. Extracellular Matrix / radionuclide imaging. Gamma Cameras. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Sensitivity and Specificity. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 14532761.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-5347
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / M01 RR 00047
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase I; Comparative Study; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antigens, Surface; 0 / J591 monoclonal antibody; EC 3.4.17.21 / Glutamate Carboxypeptidase II; EC 3.4.17.21 / glutamate carboxypeptidase II, human
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55. Botto H, Rouprêt M, Mathieu F, Richard F: [Multicentre randomized trial comparing triptorelin medical castration versus surgical castration in the treatment of locally advanced or metastatic prostate cancer]. Prog Urol; 2007 Apr;17(2):235-9
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  • [Title] [Multicentre randomized trial comparing triptorelin medical castration versus surgical castration in the treatment of locally advanced or metastatic prostate cancer].
  • [Transliterated title] Etude randomisée multicentrique comparant la castration médicale par triptoréline à la castration chirurgicale dans le traitement du cancer de la prostate localement avancé ou métastatique.
  • OBJECTIVE: To report the results of a trial comparing the efficacy of triptorelin and surgical castration in the treatment of locally advanced or metastatic prostate cancer.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: 80 patients with previously untreated locally advanced or metastatic prostate cancer prostate cancer were included in a one-year multicentre, randomized, prospective, open-label therapeutic trial.
  • Castration is rapidly obtained with triptorelin (< 2 months) and is maintained over time throughout the duration of treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Orchiectomy. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Testis / drug effects. Triptorelin Pamoate / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Acid Phosphatase. Age Factors. Aged. Follow-Up Studies. Forecasting. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging. Prospective Studies. Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases / blood. Survival Rate. Testosterone / blood. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17489325.001).
  • [ISSN] 1166-7087
  • [Journal-full-title] Progrès en urologie : journal de l'Association française d'urologie et de la Société française d'urologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prog. Urol.
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone; 57773-63-4 / Triptorelin Pamoate; EC 3.1.3.2 / Acid Phosphatase; EC 3.1.3.2 / prostatic acid phosphatase; EC 3.1.3.48 / Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases
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56. Cone LA, Koochek K, Henager HA, Fausel R, Gade-Andavolu R, Potts BE, Jennings LM: Leptomeningeal carcinomatosis in a patient with metastatic prostate cancer: case report and literature review. Surg Neurol; 2006 Apr;65(4):372-5, discussion 375-6
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  • [Title] Leptomeningeal carcinomatosis in a patient with metastatic prostate cancer: case report and literature review.
  • BACKGROUND: Leptomeningeal metastasis is discovered at autopsy in approximately 5% of patients with systemic cancer.
  • Until recently with the introduction of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), premorbid diagnosis was extremely difficult.
  • Leptomeningeal metastasis in metastatic prostate cancer has been reported in only 14 patients previously.
  • CASE DESCRIPTION: We recently studied such a patient and were able to establish a correct diagnosis based solely on the MRI and the presence of an elevated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) prostate-specific antigen (PSA).
  • Only 3 previous patients with leptomeningeal prostate metastasis have undergone CSF PSA evaluations.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Anti-Inflammatory Agents / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Consciousness Disorders / etiology. Diagnostic Errors / prevention & control. Early Diagnosis. Fatal Outcome. Headache / etiology. Humans. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Neoplasm Metastasis / drug therapy. Neoplasm Metastasis / pathology. Neoplasm Metastasis / physiopathology. Prostate-Specific Antigen / blood. Prostate-Specific Antigen / cerebrospinal fluid. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Failure

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  • (PMID = 16531199.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-3019
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Neurol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents; EC 3.4.21.77 / Prostate-Specific Antigen
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57. Slipman CW, Patel RK, Siegelman ES, Cirigliano M, Bhat AL, Isaac Z, Lenrow D: Metastatic prostate cancer to the spine and a PSA of 5666: a case report. Pain Physician; 2001 Oct;4(4):317-21
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  • [Title] Metastatic prostate cancer to the spine and a PSA of 5666: a case report.
  • Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer and the second most common cause of cancer death among American men.
  • To our knowledge, the highest reported prostate specific antigen (PSA) level on initial presentation is 3280 ng/mL.
  • A magnetic resonance imaging study of the lumbar spine revealed numerous osseous metastatic lesions, and the PSA level was found to be 5666 ng/mL.
  • He was treated with oral narcotics and a Duragesic patch to achieve analgesia and bicalutamide (Casodex) and leuprolide acetate (Lupron) therapy for androgen blockade.
  • Later in his course, he required chemotherapy due to hormone-refractory prostate cancer.
  • The objective of this report is to discuss the first patient with metastatic prostate cancer to the spine with PSA level greater than 3,500 ng/mL.

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  • (PMID = 16902677.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-3159
  • [Journal-full-title] Pain physician
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pain Physician
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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58. Montgomery RB, Goldman B, Tangen CM, Hussain M, Petrylak DP, Page S, Klein EA, Crawford ED, Southwest Oncology Group: Association of body mass index with response and survival in men with metastatic prostate cancer: Southwest Oncology Group trials 8894 and 9916. J Urol; 2007 Nov;178(5):1946-51; discussion 1951
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  • [Title] Association of body mass index with response and survival in men with metastatic prostate cancer: Southwest Oncology Group trials 8894 and 9916.
  • PURPOSE: We evaluated the effect of body mass index on prostate specific antigen response, and progression-free and overall survival in men with androgen dependent or androgen independent metastatic prostate cancer.
  • The first study included 1,006 men treated with androgen deprivation for metastatic prostate cancer.
  • The second study included 671 patients treated with chemotherapy for metastatic, androgen independent prostate cancer.
  • RESULTS: Among men with androgen dependent disease, higher body mass index was associated with longer overall (p <0.001) and progression-free (p = 0.009) survival, as well as with an increased likelihood of achieving a prostate specific antigen nadir less than 4 ng/ml (p = 0.008).
  • Among men with androgen independent prostate cancer, no clear association could be detected between body mass index and progression-free survival, overall survival or prostate specific antigen response.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed higher body mass index to be associated with better overall and progression-free survival in patients with androgen dependent metastatic prostate cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / therapy. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Body Mass Index. Flutamide / therapeutic use. Orchiectomy / methods. Prostatic Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Disease-Free Survival. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Prognosis. Proportional Hazards Models. Prostate-Specific Antigen / blood. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Southwestern United States / epidemiology. Survival Rate / trends

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  • [CommentIn] J Urol. 2007 Nov;178(5):1842-3 [17868740.001]
  • (PMID = 17868721.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-5347
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA32102; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA38926
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 76W6J0943E / Flutamide; EC 3.4.21.77 / Prostate-Specific Antigen
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59. Okegawa T, Kinjo M, Nutahara K, Higashihara E: Pretreatment serum level of HER2/nue as a prognostic factor in metastatic prostate cancer patients about to undergo endocrine therapy. Int J Urol; 2006 Sep;13(9):1197-201
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  • [Title] Pretreatment serum level of HER2/nue as a prognostic factor in metastatic prostate cancer patients about to undergo endocrine therapy.
  • BACKGROUND: Overexpression of the HER2 receptor protein and amplification of the HER2 gene has been implicated in tumor development and progression, and has been associated with a poor prognosis in several types of cancer.
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate whether pretreatment serum HER2 levels can be used to predict biochemical recurrence-free survival in prostate cancer patients about to undergo endocrine therapy.
  • METHODS: The study population consisted of 379 untreated patients with histologically diagnosed prostate cancer: 197 with T2N0M0, 93 with T3N0M0, 19 with TxN1Mx, and 70 with TxNxM1.
  • Serum HER2 levels were assessed in the prostate cancer patients prior to treatment as well as in a control group of 100 patients with histologically confirmed non-cancer.
  • RESULTS: The mean level of HER2 in serum was significantly higher in prostate cancer patients than non-prostate cancer patients (P = 0.006).
  • Also, the serum HER2 level was significantly higher in bone metastatic cancer patients (14.3 +/- 6.3 ng/mL) than in non-metastatic patients (T2: 11.9 +/- 2.3 ng/mL, P = 0.003; T3: 12.2 +/- 2.8 ng/mL, P = 0.011).
  • The metastatic patients were divided into those with low and high HER2 levels using a cutoff value of 12.6 ng/mL based on receiver-operating characteristic curves.
  • Multivariate Cox logistic regression analysis demonstrated that the pretreatment serum HER2 value (P = 0.022), serum prostate-specific antigen value (P = 0.018), and extent of disease score (P = 0.027) were independent predictors of recurrence.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The pretreatment serum HER2 level may be a useful independent prognostic factor that is associated with a high risk of biochemical recurrence in metastatic prostate cancer patients about to undergo endocrine therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Androgen Antagonists / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Bone Neoplasms / blood. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / blood. Prostatic Neoplasms / blood. Receptor, ErbB-2 / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / blood. Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Aged. Anilides / therapeutic use. Disease-Free Survival. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Nitriles. Prognosis. Prostate-Specific Antigen / blood. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Tosyl Compounds. Treatment Outcome


60. James ND, Sydes MR, Clarke NW, Mason MD, Dearnaley DP, Anderson J, Popert RJ, Sanders K, Morgan RC, Stansfeld J, Dwyer J, Masters J, Parmar MK: Systemic therapy for advancing or metastatic prostate cancer (STAMPEDE): a multi-arm, multistage randomized controlled trial. BJU Int; 2009 Feb;103(4):464-9
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  • [Title] Systemic therapy for advancing or metastatic prostate cancer (STAMPEDE): a multi-arm, multistage randomized controlled trial.
  • There is a need to improve the outcomes for men with high-risk localised, nodal or metastatic prostate cancer, or with aggressively relapsing disease after initial therapy for local disease.
  • This group of men is currently managed with long-term hormone therapy.
  • Thus we aim to evaluate the toxicity and efficacy of three different systemic therapies (docetaxel, zoledronic acid and celecoxib) used alone or combined at the initiation of hormone manipulation for high-risk prostate cancer.
  • This method provides a means of assessing several agents more quickly and efficiently, and allows inactive treatments to be dropped from further study at an early stage.
  • It is a flagship randomized clinical trial for academic research into prostate cancer in the UK.
  • It is hoped that the results will improve outcomes for patients with high-risk prostate cancer.
  • The design could be applicable to the study of new therapies in other cancer types.
  • Continued efforts are required by the urological cancer community to maintain the excellent recruitment shown to date.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Celecoxib. Diphosphonates / administration & dosage. Humans. Imidazoles / administration & dosage. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Pyrazoles / administration & dosage. Risk Factors. Sulfonamides / administration & dosage. Taxoids / administration & dosage. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18990168.001).
  • [ISSN] 1464-410X
  • [Journal-full-title] BJU international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BJU Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / / 10588; United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / G0802851; United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / ; United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / / 3804; United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / MC/ U122861330; United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / / ; United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / G0500966
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase III; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Diphosphonates; 0 / Imidazoles; 0 / Pyrazoles; 0 / Sulfonamides; 0 / Taxoids; 15H5577CQD / docetaxel; 6XC1PAD3KF / zoledronic acid; JCX84Q7J1L / Celecoxib
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61. Curtis KK, Adam TJ, Chen SC, Pruthi RK, Gornet MK: Anaemia following initiation of androgen deprivation therapy for metastatic prostate cancer: a retrospective chart review. Aging Male; 2008 Dec;11(4):157-61
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  • [Title] Anaemia following initiation of androgen deprivation therapy for metastatic prostate cancer: a retrospective chart review.
  • OBJECTIVE: Haemoglobin levels often decline into the anaemic range with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT).
  • We conducted a chart review of patients receiving ADT for metastatic prostate cancer to assess anaemia-related symptoms.
  • METHODS: 135 stage IV prostate cancer cases were reviewed for treatment type; haemoglobin values before and after treatment; and symptoms of anaemia.
  • Mean haemoglobin levels before and after for all treatment forms, for leuprolide alone, and for combination leuprolide/bicalutamide were calculated and evaluated for significant differences.
  • The numbers of patients developing symptoms were recorded and the effects of specific therapies evaluated.
  • Leuprolide and bicalutamide combination treatment caused a mean decline of -0.78 g/dL (p=0.0426).
  • Contingency analysis with Fisher's exact test shows patients receiving leuprolide therapy alone versus other forms of ADT were significantly less likely to have symptoms (chi(2)=0.0190).
  • [MeSH-major] Androgen Antagonists / adverse effects. Anemia / chemically induced. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / adverse effects. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Anilides / adverse effects. Anilides / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Goserelin / adverse effects. Goserelin / therapeutic use. Hemoglobins / analysis. Humans. Leuprolide / adverse effects. Leuprolide / therapeutic use. Linear Models. Male. Neoplasm Metastasis. Nitriles / adverse effects. Nitriles / therapeutic use. Retrospective Studies. Tosyl Compounds / adverse effects. Tosyl Compounds / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 18937151.001).
  • [ISSN] 1473-0790
  • [Journal-full-title] The aging male : the official journal of the International Society for the Study of the Aging Male
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Aging Male
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgen Antagonists; 0 / Anilides; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Hemoglobins; 0 / Nitriles; 0 / Tosyl Compounds; 0F65R8P09N / Goserelin; A0Z3NAU9DP / bicalutamide; EFY6W0M8TG / Leuprolide
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62. Nygård R, Norum J, Due J: Goserelin (Zoladex) or orchiectomy in metastatic prostate cancer? A quality of life and cost-effectiveness analysis. Anticancer Res; 2001 Jan-Feb;21(1B):781-8
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  • [Title] Goserelin (Zoladex) or orchiectomy in metastatic prostate cancer? A quality of life and cost-effectiveness analysis.
  • BACKGROUND: We have today two treatment alternatives (orchiectomy or LHRH-analogue) in metastatic prostate cancer offering the same expectations of survival.
  • The treatment costs per patient treated were 8,895 Pounds (orchiectomy) and 10,937 Pounds (LHRH-analogue).
  • A sensitivity analysis varying discount rate (0-10%), drug charges (25-50% off) and treatment time (12-18 months) did not alter the conclusion.
  • CONCLUSION: Orchiectomy is the treatment of choice when life expectancy is more than two years.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / therapy. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone / antagonists & inhibitors. Goserelin / therapeutic use. Hormone Antagonists / therapeutic use. Orchiectomy. Prostatic Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Cost-Benefit Analysis. Drug Costs. Follow-Up Studies. Hospital Costs. Humans. Life Expectancy. Male. Middle Aged. National Health Programs. Norway / epidemiology. Outpatient Clinics, Hospital / economics. Outpatient Clinics, Hospital / utilization. Quality of Life. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 11299844.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Hormone Antagonists; 0F65R8P09N / Goserelin; 33515-09-2 / Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone
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63. Gravis G, Bladou F, Salem N, Gonçalves A, Esterni B, Walz J, Bagattini S, Marcy M, Brunelle S, Viens P: Results from a monocentric phase II trial of erlotinib in patients with metastatic prostate cancer. Ann Oncol; 2008 Sep;19(9):1624-8
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  • [Title] Results from a monocentric phase II trial of erlotinib in patients with metastatic prostate cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Erlotinib is an orally active small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor targeted against human epidermal growth factor receptor 1/epidermal growth factor receptor (ErbB1), known to be overexpressed in a variety of cancers, including prostate cancer.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: This was a phase II monocentric study of 30 patients with advanced or metastatic prostate cancer, 29 had castration-resistant prostate cancer and 23 had received prior chemotherapy.
  • Efficacy was defined as a decrease or stabilization of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) without clinical progression.
  • PSA-doubling time, evaluated before and after erlotinib, was increased for 10 patients (P = 0.0058).
  • Future directions should include evaluating its use in less advanced prostate cancer.


64. Dearnaley DP, Mason MD, Parmar MK, Sanders K, Sydes MR: Adjuvant therapy with oral sodium clodronate in locally advanced and metastatic prostate cancer: long-term overall survival results from the MRC PR04 and PR05 randomised controlled trials. Lancet Oncol; 2009 Sep;10(9):872-6
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  • [Title] Adjuvant therapy with oral sodium clodronate in locally advanced and metastatic prostate cancer: long-term overall survival results from the MRC PR04 and PR05 randomised controlled trials.
  • BACKGROUND: Bisphosphonates might modulate the development of symptomatic bone metastases in men with prostate cancer.
  • METHODS: 311 men with metastatic disease were recruited to PR05 between 1994 and 1998, and 508 men with non-metastatic disease were recruited to PR04 from 1994 to 1997.
  • All men were treated according to the recruiting site's standard practice at the time: for metastatic disease, all men were starting or responding to long-term hormone therapy; for non-metastatic disease, most men had radiotherapy, hormone therapy, or both.
  • Men were randomly assigned to take four tablets per day of sodium clodronate (2080 mg) or matching placebo for up to 3 years (metastatic disease) or 5 years (non-metastatic).
  • FINDINGS: Of the 278 men with metastatic disease, 258 (93%) were reported to have died.
  • Evidence of a benefit for those with metastatic disease from use of sodium clodronate compared with placebo was seen in overall survival (hazard ratio [HR] 0.77, 95% CI 0.60-0.98; p=0.032).
  • Of the 471 men with non-metastatic disease, 281 (60%) were reported to have died, with no evidence of improvement in overall survival with clodronate compared with placebo (HR 1.12, 0.89-1.42; p=0.94).
  • INTERPRETATION: Long-term data from these trials show that a first-generation bisphosphonate, sodium clodronate, improves overall survival in men with metastatic prostate cancer who are starting hormone therapy, but there is no evidence of an effect in men with non-metastatic prostate cancer.
  • FUNDING: UK MRC; and an education grant and free drug from Roche Products Ltd.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Density Conservation Agents / administration & dosage. Bone Neoplasms / drug therapy. Bone Neoplasms / prevention & control. Clodronic Acid / administration & dosage. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Proportional Hazards Models. Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 19674936.001).
  • [ISSN] 1474-5488
  • [Journal-full-title] The Lancet. Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lancet Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] ISRCTN/ ISRCTN38477744/ ISRCTN61384873
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / / 10588; United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / G0501019; United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / MC/ U122861330; United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Bone Density Conservation Agents; 0813BZ6866 / Clodronic Acid
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2748902
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65. Mottet N, Lucas C, Sene E, Avances C, Maubach L, Wolff JM: Intermittent androgen castration: a biological reality during intermittent treatment in metastatic prostate cancer? Urol Int; 2005;75(3):204-8
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  • [Title] Intermittent androgen castration: a biological reality during intermittent treatment in metastatic prostate cancer?
  • INTRODUCTION: To assess the effects of intermittent maximal androgen blockade (IMAB) on testosterone (T) levels during on- and off-treatment periods.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 51 patients with metastatic prostate cancer underwent a 6-months period of continuous maximal androgen blockade (MAB) consisting of leuprorelin (3.75 mg at monthly intervals) plus flutamide (250 mg t.i.d.) followed by IMAB.
  • During each cycle, the cut-off prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels to stop and resume treatment were 4 and 10 ng/ml, respectively.
  • IMAB continued until progression under treatment occurred.
  • Before treatment, 4 patients had a T lower than normal laboratory value but these recovered all to a normal T value at the end of the first cycle.
  • During the 6 cycles, only 8 patients did not recover a normal T at least once during the off-treatment periods (OTP).
  • CONCLUSION: IMAB protocol with an initial 6-month treatment period can result in an intermittent castration with the recovery of normal T levels in most patients during six consecutive cycles of treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Androgen Antagonists / therapeutic use. Flutamide / therapeutic use. Leuprolide / therapeutic use. Prostate-Specific Antigen / blood. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Testosterone / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Drug Administration Schedule. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Metastasis. Prospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 16215305.001).
  • [ISSN] 0042-1138
  • [Journal-full-title] Urologia internationalis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgen Antagonists; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone; 76W6J0943E / Flutamide; EC 3.4.21.77 / Prostate-Specific Antigen; EFY6W0M8TG / Leuprolide
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66. Sasaki T, Komiya A, Suzuki H, Shimbo M, Ueda T, Akakura K, Ichikawa T: Changes in chromogranin a serum levels during endocrine therapy in metastatic prostate cancer patients. Eur Urol; 2005 Aug;48(2):224-9; discussion 229-30
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  • [Title] Changes in chromogranin a serum levels during endocrine therapy in metastatic prostate cancer patients.
  • INTRODUCTION: The concept of neuroendocrine (NE) differentiation in prostate cancer has become more widely recognized as its diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic usefulness.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: We enrolled 38 patients with stage D prostate cancer who underwent endocrine therapy by medical or surgical castration and oral antiandrogen.
  • According to PSA response, serum levels of CGA as a marker of NE differentiation were measured at the multiple points of time;.
  • (1) pre-treatment, (2) complete response (CR), (3) a nadir level of PSA, (4) PSA failure or hormone independent progression.
  • We compared these serum values in relation to efficacy of endocrine therapy.
  • Serum CGA increased as intervals of endocrine therapy became longer with positive correlation (p < 0.05).
  • CONCLUSION: During endocrine therapy in metastatic prostate cancer patients, serum CGA values were not related to serum PSA levels, and increased as treatment periods became longer.
  • It is suggested that CGA velocity has potential to predict androgen independent progression after endocrine therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / blood. Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Androgen Antagonists / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Chromogranins / blood. Prostatic Neoplasms / blood. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Analysis of Variance. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Disease Progression. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging. Prostate-Specific Antigen / blood. Statistics, Nonparametric


67. Swanson G, Thompson I, Basler J, Crawford ED: Metastatic prostate cancer-does treatment of the primary tumor matter? J Urol; 2006 Oct;176(4 Pt 1):1292-8
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  • [Title] Metastatic prostate cancer-does treatment of the primary tumor matter?
  • PURPOSE: In recent years there has been increased interest in adjuvant therapy for prostate cancer.
  • This trend has engendered a tendency toward overlooking the issue of therapy to the primary tumor in advanced disease.
  • We reviewed the effect of treating the principal disease bulk on overall treatment outcome in patients with advanced and metastatic cancer.
  • Specifically we evaluated the role of surgical tumor cytoreduction.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a comprehensive literature review to evaluate the role of surgical debulking on the outcome of advanced cancer, including any published evidence supporting a benefit of this therapy for prostate cancer.
  • RESULTS: Even in cancers for which adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation are used liberally there is a clear benefit to optimal surgical debulking for local control and survival.
  • The beneficial role of maximal surgical cytoreduction has been clearly demonstrated in advanced ovarian cancer and gastrointestinal carcinomatosis.
  • Maximal debulking of brain, liver and lung metastasis has translated into longer survival.
  • Removal of the primary tumor has been proved to increase survival in randomized trials of metastatic renal cell cancer.
  • It appears that patients with node positive and possibly metastatic prostate cancer have a better response to androgen ablation with surgical removal of the gland.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Surgical cytoreduction of cancer results in a more favorable and durable response to systemic therapy.
  • It is reasonable to explore aggressive surgical therapy for advanced prostate cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasm Metastasis / prevention & control. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Survival Rate


68. Penson DF, Ramsey S, Veenstra D, Clarke L, Gandhi S, Hirsch M: The cost-effectiveness of combined androgen blockade with bicalutamide and luteinizing hormone releasing hormone agonist in men with metastatic prostate cancer. J Urol; 2005 Aug;174(2):547-52; discussion 552
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  • [Title] The cost-effectiveness of combined androgen blockade with bicalutamide and luteinizing hormone releasing hormone agonist in men with metastatic prostate cancer.
  • PURPOSE: Combined androgen blockade therapy (CAB) has been shown to have a small survival advantage over luteinizing hormone releasing hormone LH-RH agonists (LH-RHa) alone in men with metastatic prostate cancer.
  • The goal of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of CAB with bicalutamide and LH-RH agonist therapy to LH-RH agonist therapy alone.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: A macro-simulation model was developed to compare the cost-effectiveness of 2 interventions for stage D2 prostate cancer, 1) CAB with bicalutamide 50 mg per day and monthly dosing of an LH-RHa or 2) monthly LH-RH agonist therapy.
  • Cost and outcomes are tabulated in 5 and 10-year time horizons.
  • The model was most sensitive to the estimates of effectiveness (survival) of LH-RHa therapy alone and CAB therapy.
  • The model was also fairly sensitive to the quality of life effect of having late stage prostate cancer and the cost of bicalutamide.
  • CONCLUSIONS: CAB with bicalutamide is cost-effective when compared with LH-RH monotherapy in men with stage D2 prostate cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Androgen Antagonists / therapeutic use. Anilides / therapeutic use. Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone / agonists. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Cost-Benefit Analysis. Decision Support Techniques. Drug Therapy, Combination. Humans. Male. Nitriles. Quality of Life. Sensitivity and Specificity. Tosyl Compounds

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  • [CommentIn] J Urol. 2005 Aug;174(2):415-6 [16006855.001]
  • (PMID = 16006889.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-5347
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgen Antagonists; 0 / Anilides; 0 / Nitriles; 0 / Tosyl Compounds; 33515-09-2 / Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone; A0Z3NAU9DP / bicalutamide
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69. Mimeault M, Johansson SL, Vankatraman G, Moore E, Henichart JP, Depreux P, Lin MF, Batra SK: Combined targeting of epidermal growth factor receptor and hedgehog signaling by gefitinib and cyclopamine cooperatively improves the cytotoxic effects of docetaxel on metastatic prostate cancer cells. Mol Cancer Ther; 2007 Mar;6(3):967-78
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  • [Title] Combined targeting of epidermal growth factor receptor and hedgehog signaling by gefitinib and cyclopamine cooperatively improves the cytotoxic effects of docetaxel on metastatic prostate cancer cells.
  • The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and hedgehog cascades provide a critical role in prostate cancer progression and contribute to the resistance to clinical therapies and disease relapse.
  • Therefore, we evaluated, for the first time, the antiproliferative and cytotoxic effects induced by a combination of selective inhibitors of EGFR tyrosine kinase and smoothened hedgehog signaling element, gefitinib and cyclopamine, with a current chemotherapeutic drug used in the clinics, docetaxel, on some metastatic prostate cancer cell lines.
  • Immunohistochemical analyses revealed that sonic hedgehog (SHH) expression was enhanced in 39% of primary prostatic adenocarcinomas (Gleason scores 4-10) compared with the corresponding normal tissues of the same prostate gland from 32 prostate cancer patients.
  • The confocal microscopy and Western blot analyses have also indicated the high expression levels of SHH and EGFR in metastatic LNCaP, DU145, and PC3 cells.
  • Moreover, the results revealed that the drugs, alone or in combination, at lower concentrations inhibited the growth of EGF plus SHH-stimulated and serum-stimulated androgen-responsive LNCaP-C33 and androgen-independent LNCaP-C81, DU145, and PC3 cells.
  • Importantly, the combined docetaxel, gefitinib, and cyclopamine also caused a higher rate of apoptotic death of prostate cancer cells compared with individual agents.
  • The cytotoxic effects induced by these drugs in PC3 cells seem to be mediated in part through the cellular ceramide production and activation of caspase cascades via a mitochondrial pathway and the release of cytochrome c into the cytosol.
  • Additionally, the combined agents were more effective at suppressing the invasiveness of PC3 cells through Matrigel in vitro than the single drugs.
  • These findings indicate that the combined use of inhibitors of EGF-EGFR and hedgehog signaling with docetaxel could represent a more promising strategy for treatment in patients with metastatic and androgen-independent prostate cancer.

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  • (PMID = 17363490.001).
  • [ISSN] 1535-7163
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular cancer therapeutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cancer Ther.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA138791; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 88184
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hedgehog Proteins; 0 / Quinazolines; 0 / SHH protein, human; 0 / Taxoids; 0 / Veratrum Alkaloids; 15H5577CQD / docetaxel; 9007-43-6 / Cytochromes c; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; S65743JHBS / gefitinib; ZH658AJ192 / cyclopamine
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70. Sato N, Akakura K, Isaka S, Nakatsu H, Tanaka M, Ito H, Masai M, Chiba Prostate Study Group: Intermittent androgen suppression for locally advanced and metastatic prostate cancer: preliminary report of a prospective multicenter study. Urology; 2004 Aug;64(2):341-5
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  • [Title] Intermittent androgen suppression for locally advanced and metastatic prostate cancer: preliminary report of a prospective multicenter study.
  • OBJECTIVES: To clarify the effect of intermittent androgen suppression on the time to androgen-independent progression and changes in quality of life (QOL).
  • METHODS: Patients with locally advanced or metastatic prostate cancer were treated with a combination of leuprolide acetate and flutamide for 36 weeks.
  • When the serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels at 24 and 32 weeks were less than 4.0 ng/mL, treatment was withheld until the PSA level reached 15 ng/mL or the pretreatment level.
  • This cycle of on-treatment and off-treatment was repeated until PSA failure (three consecutive increases in PSA level greater than 4.0 ng/mL during the on-treatment period) or symptomatic progression was observed.
  • The mean off-treatment duration in cycles 1, 2, and 3 was 46.1, 36.9, and 23.3 weeks, respectively.
  • In the off-treatment period, statistically significant improvements in the QOL score were observed in the categories of potency (11.4 versus 2.4) and social/family well-being (20.3 versus 16.1) compared with those in the on-treatment period.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our interim analysis indicated that QOL is remarkably improved during the off-treatment period.
  • Intermittent androgen suppression would be a viable option for treatment of advanced prostate cancer, although a randomized controlled study is required to determine whether intermittent androgen suppression prolongs the time to androgen-independent cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Androgens. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Flutamide / therapeutic use. Leuprolide / therapeutic use. Neoplasms, Hormone-Dependent / secondary. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Disease Progression. Drug Administration Schedule. Follow-Up Studies. Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone / agonists. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Proteins / blood. Pilot Projects. Prospective Studies. Prostate-Specific Antigen / blood. Quality of Life. Surveys and Questionnaires. Testosterone / blood. Treatment Failure

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  • (PMID = 15302491.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-9995
  • [Journal-full-title] Urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgens; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 33515-09-2 / Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone; 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone; 76W6J0943E / Flutamide; EC 3.4.21.77 / Prostate-Specific Antigen; EFY6W0M8TG / Leuprolide
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71. Noguchi M, Noda S, Yoshida M, Ueda S, Shiraishi T, Itoh K, Kurume-Kumamoto Estracyt Study Group: Chemohormonal therapy as primary treatment for metastatic prostate cancer: a randomized study of estramustine phosphate plus luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonist versus flutamide plus luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonist. Int J Urol; 2004 Feb;11(2):103-9
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  • [Title] Chemohormonal therapy as primary treatment for metastatic prostate cancer: a randomized study of estramustine phosphate plus luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonist versus flutamide plus luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonist.
  • BACKGROUND: The present study was undertaken mainly to investigate whether chemohormonal therapy with estramustine phosphate plus luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) agonist has a more beneficial effect than the hormonal therapy with flutamide plus LHRH agonist for newly diagnosed patients with metastatic prostate cancer.
  • METHODS: A total of 57 patients with metastatic prostate cancer aged 59-80 years (median 74 years) were entered in the study and were randomized to the treatment of estramustine phosphate (560 mg/day) plus LHRH agonist (estramustine group) or flutamide (375 mg/day) plus LHRH agonist (flutamide group) with stratification for the degree of performance status, histological differentiation and bone metastasis.
  • RESULTS: Both of the treatment regimens were well tolerated with similar incidences of adverse drug reactions.
  • The overall response rates (complete response plus partial response) at 12 weeks after treatment in the estramustine and flutamide groups were 76 and 55%, respectively.
  • The median time to objective progression for the estramustine group (25.4 months) was longer than that of the flutamide group (14.6 months).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Chemohormonal therapy with estramustine phosphate plus LHRH agonist showed longer clinical progression-free survival than the hormonal therapy with flutamide plus LHRH agonist (P = 0.03), although there was no significant difference in the overall survival.
  • A larger-scaled trial with more statistical power is required to clarify that the former regimen is more beneficial than the latter for newly diagnosed patients with advanced prostate cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Androgen Antagonists / administration & dosage. Estramustine / administration & dosage. Flutamide / administration & dosage. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / administration & dosage. Disease-Free Survival. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Administration Schedule. Drug Therapy, Combination. Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone / antagonists & inhibitors. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Probability. Prognosis. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 14706014.001).
  • [ISSN] 0919-8172
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of urology : official journal of the Japanese Urological Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgen Antagonists; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 33515-09-2 / Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone; 35LT29625A / Estramustine; 76W6J0943E / Flutamide
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72. Johansen JS, Brasso K, Iversen P, Teisner B, Garnero P, Price PA, Christensen IJ: Changes of biochemical markers of bone turnover and YKL-40 following hormonal treatment for metastatic prostate cancer are related to survival. Clin Cancer Res; 2007 Jun 1;13(11):3244-9
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  • [Title] Changes of biochemical markers of bone turnover and YKL-40 following hormonal treatment for metastatic prostate cancer are related to survival.
  • PURPOSE: Elevated serum levels of biochemical markers of bone turnover and YKL-40 in patients with metastatic prostate cancer (PC) at the time of diagnosis are associated to poor prognosis.
  • In this study, we evaluated the value of these biomarkers in monitoring the patients during hormonal treatment.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Serum procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide (PINP), bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP), CTX-I, and YKL-40 were determined by ELISA in a longitudinal study of 106 patients with metastatic PC during treatment with total androgen ablation or parenteral estrogen.
  • Median observation time was 4.9 years (range, 3.6-6.2).
  • RESULTS: After 6 months treatment, serum PINP, BAP, and YKL-40 decreased (P < 0.0001), but not serum CTX-I compared with baseline values.
  • Multivariate Cox analysis including the biomarkers 6 months after the start of treatment showed that Soloway score (HR, 3.9; P = 0.013), WHO tumor grade (HR, 3.9; P = 0.004), and serum PINP (HR, 2.2; P < 0.0001) were independent prognostic variables of survival.
  • Scoring the biomarkers during treatment as time-dependent covariates in univariate Cox regression analysis showed that increases in serum PINP (HR, 2.0; P < 0.0001), BAP (HR, 2.1; P < 0.0001), and YKL-40 (HR, 2.1; P < 0.0001) were predictors of early death.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Serial monitoring of serum PINP, BAP, CTX-I, and YKL-40 in metastatic PC patients during hormonal treatment provided information of prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone and Bones / drug effects. Glycoproteins / biosynthesis. Hormones / metabolism. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adipokines. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor. Humans. Lectins. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Transplantation. Peptide Fragments / chemistry. Procollagen / chemistry. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17545529.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adipokines; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CHI3L1 protein, human; 0 / Glycoproteins; 0 / Hormones; 0 / Lectins; 0 / Peptide Fragments; 0 / Procollagen; 0 / procollagen Type I N-terminal peptide
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73. Dearnaley DP, Sydes MR, Mason MD, Stott M, Powell CS, Robinson AC, Thompson PM, Moffat LE, Naylor SL, Parmar MK, Mrc Pr05 Collaborators: A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial of oral sodium clodronate for metastatic prostate cancer (MRC PR05 Trial). J Natl Cancer Inst; 2003 Sep 3;95(17):1300-11
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial of oral sodium clodronate for metastatic prostate cancer (MRC PR05 Trial).
  • BACKGROUND: The most frequent site of metastases from prostate cancer is bone.
  • Bisphosphonates reduce excessive bone turnover while preserving bone structure and mineralization in patients with other tumor types.
  • We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial to determine whether the first-generation bisphosphonate sodium clodronate could improve bone progression-free survival (BPFS) times among men with bone metastases from prostate cancer.
  • METHODS: Between June 1994 and July 1998, 311 men who were starting or responding to first-line hormone therapy for bone metastases were randomly assigned to receive oral sodium clodronate (2080 mg/day) or placebo for a maximum of 3 years.
  • Secondary endpoints included overall survival, treatment toxicity, and change in World Health Organization (WHO) performance status.
  • Time-to-event data were analyzed using the log-rank chi-square test and Kaplan-Meier curves.
  • However, the clodronate group reported more gastrointestinal problems and increased lactate dehydrogenase levels and required more frequent modification of the trial drug dose (HR for any adverse event = 1.71, 95% CI = 1.21 to 2.41; P =.002).
  • Results of subgroup analyses suggested that clodronate might be more effective the sooner after diagnosis of metastatic bone disease it is started.
  • CONCLUSION: These results suggest that further studies of the effect of newer generation bisphosphonates on BPFS in men with metastatic prostate cancer are warranted.
  • [MeSH-major] Analgesics, Non-Narcotic / administration & dosage. Bone Neoplasms / complications. Bone Neoplasms / drug therapy. Clodronic Acid / administration & dosage. Pain / prevention & control. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Aged. Androgen Antagonists / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / administration & dosage. Digestive System / drug effects. Diphosphonates / administration & dosage. Disease-Free Survival. Double-Blind Method. Drug Administration Schedule. Drug Therapy, Combination. Great Britain. Humans. Imidazoles / administration & dosage. Male. Middle Aged. Odds Ratio. Research Design. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome


74. Lundström EA, Rencken RK, van Wyk JH, Coetzee LJ, Bahlmann JC, Reif S, Strasheim EA, Bigalke MC, Pontin AR, Goedhals L, Steyn DG, Heyns CF, Aldera LA, Mackenzie TM, Purcea D, Grosgurin PY, Porchet HC: Triptorelin 6-month formulation in the management of patients with locally advanced and metastatic prostate cancer: an open-label, non-comparative, multicentre, phase III study. Clin Drug Investig; 2009;29(12):757-65
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  • [Title] Triptorelin 6-month formulation in the management of patients with locally advanced and metastatic prostate cancer: an open-label, non-comparative, multicentre, phase III study.
  • BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Triptorelin 6-month formulation was developed to offer greater convenience to both patients and physicians by reducing the injection frequency.
  • Absence of luteinizing hormone (LH) stimulation and change in prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level were also assessed.
  • METHODS: An open-label, non-comparative, phase III study in 120 patients with advanced prostate cancer was conducted from July 2006 to August 2007 in private and public institutions in South Africa.
  • The most frequent drug-related adverse events were hot flushes (71.7% of patients).
  • CONCLUSIONS: The triptorelin 6-month formulation was well tolerated and was able to achieve and maintain castration for the treatment of locally advanced and metastatic prostate cancer.
  • By reducing the frequency of required injections, this new formulation offers a more convenient treatment regimen. (Clinical Trial Registration,NCT00751790 at www.clinicaltrials.gov).
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / administration & dosage. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Testosterone / blood. Triptorelin Pamoate / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Delayed-Action Preparations. Hot Flashes / chemically induced. Humans. Injections, Intramuscular. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Prostate-Specific Antigen / blood. South Africa

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  • (PMID = 19888782.001).
  • [ISSN] 1173-2563
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical drug investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Drug Investig
  • [Language] eng
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] ClinicalTrials.gov/ NCT00751790
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase III; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Delayed-Action Preparations; 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone; 57773-63-4 / Triptorelin Pamoate; EC 3.4.21.77 / Prostate-Specific Antigen
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75. Kasahara K, Taguchi T, Yamasaki I, Karashima T, Kamada M, Yuri K, Shuin T: Fluorescence in situ hybridization to assess transitional changes of aneuploidy for chromosomes 7, 8, 10, 12, 16, X and Y in metastatic prostate cancer following anti-androgen therapy. Int J Oncol; 2001 Sep;19(3):543-9
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  • [Title] Fluorescence in situ hybridization to assess transitional changes of aneuploidy for chromosomes 7, 8, 10, 12, 16, X and Y in metastatic prostate cancer following anti-androgen therapy.
  • There have been few detailed studies conducted on the cell population in relation to cytogenetic changes between the pre- and post-treatment periods in patients with prostate cancer.
  • We investigated numerical chromosome changes associated with anti-androgen therapy, using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH).
  • FISH using chromosome-specific centromeric probes was used to assess transitional changes in the frequency of aneuploidy for chromosomes 7, 8, 10, 12, 16, X, and Y in prostate cancer during the pre- and post-treatment periods.
  • Gains of chromosomes 7, 8 and 12 were notable in the pre-treatment samples (8 out of 9 cases in chromosome 7; 8 out of 9 cases in chromosome 8; 7 out of 9 cases in chromosome 12), while a notable reduction in the number of cells with extra copies of these chromosomes was observed in post-treatment specimens.
  • Other chromosomes did not show noticeable change in their FISH signals at each phase of clinical treatment in all 9 cases.
  • Changes in cell number with high ploidies of chromosome 7, 8 and 12 reflect the clinical effects of anti-androgen therapy at the early phase, which might explain the androgen dependency of metastatic prostate cancer cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Androgen Antagonists / therapeutic use. Aneuploidy. Bone Neoplasms / drug therapy. Chromosomes, Human / genetics. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Sex Chromosomes / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Chromosome Aberrations / genetics. Chromosome Disorders. Chromosomes, Human, 6-12 and X / genetics. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 16 / genetics. Humans. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Male. Middle Aged. Prostate-Specific Antigen. Prostatic Hyperplasia / drug therapy. Prostatic Hyperplasia / genetics. Prostatic Hyperplasia / pathology. X Chromosome / genetics. Y Chromosome / genetics

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  • (PMID = 11494034.001).
  • [ISSN] 1019-6439
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgen Antagonists; EC 3.4.21.77 / Prostate-Specific Antigen
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76. Drouin SJ, Rouprêt M, Wallerand H, Houédé N: [Chemotherapy in early stage of hormone-resistant metastatic prostate cancer: what are the indications?]. Prog Urol; 2010 Jun;20 Suppl 3:S192-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Chemotherapy in early stage of hormone-resistant metastatic prostate cancer: what are the indications?].
  • [Transliterated title] Chimiothérapie en phase précoce d'hormonorésistance des cancers de prostate métastatiques: quelles indications?
  • Treatment of hormone-refractory prostate cancer remains a source of debate.
  • Since 2004, docétaxel-based chemotherapy has become the standard treatment as it has demonstrated efficacy on overall survival in two randomized studies.
  • In some studies, chemotherapy seems to be also effective on pain relief.
  • The adverse effects occur more frequently than with others chemotherapy (mitoxantrone) but are moderated and aren't responsible of specific mortality.
  • These facts encourage to begin the chemotherapy as earlier as possible even before metastases appear.
  • Some studies have even raised the issue of an initiation of chemotherapy before the onset of hormone independence.
  • Thus, an early initiation of chemotherapy must be discussed case by case, on an individual basis.
  • The prognosis factors and alternative therapeutic options based on new molecules used in metastatic cancer might also be considered for the therapeutic decision.
  • [MeSH-major] Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging. Taxoids / therapeutic use

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20620964.001).
  • [ISSN] 1166-7087
  • [Journal-full-title] Progrès en urologie : journal de l'Association française d'urologie et de la Société française d'urologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prog. Urol.
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Taxoids; 15H5577CQD / docetaxel
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77. Armstrong AJ, George DJ: New drug development in metastatic prostate cancer. Urol Oncol; 2008 Jul-Aug;26(4):430-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] New drug development in metastatic prostate cancer.
  • In 2007, drug development in castration-resistant metastatic prostate cancer (CRPC) remains challenging, due to the number of potentially viable molecular targets and clinical trials available, the lack of established surrogates for overall survival, and competing causes of mortality.
  • The need for tissue correlative studies for target evaluation and drug mechanism is stressed to continue to advance the field and to define biomarkers that may identify patient populations that may derive a greater benefit from these molecular agents.
  • [MeSH-major] Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Androgen Antagonists / therapeutic use. Angiogenesis Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Cell Survival / drug effects. Drug Design. Humans. Immunotherapy. Male. Neoplasm Metastasis. Orchiectomy

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  • (PMID = 18593623.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-1439
  • [Journal-full-title] Urologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgen Antagonists; 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors
  • [Number-of-references] 63
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78. Ngan S, Mazhar D, Waxman J: Managing metastatic prostate cancer. Br J Hosp Med (Lond); 2005 Nov;66(11):618-22
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Managing metastatic prostate cancer.
  • Prostate cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed malignancies in the west.
  • Most patients with metastatic or recurrent prostate cancer initially respond to androgen deprivation therapy, but almost all eventually progress.
  • This review will focus on current treatment options for metastatic prostate cancer, with a focus on hormonal therapies, chemotherapy and treatment of bony disease, along with biological and targeted therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Prostatic Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Androgen Antagonists / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Humans. Male. Orchiectomy. Radioisotopes / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 16308947.001).
  • [ISSN] 1750-8460
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of hospital medicine (London, England : 2005)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Hosp Med (Lond)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgen Antagonists; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Radioisotopes
  • [Number-of-references] 20
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79. Drudge-Coates L: Skeletal complications and the use of bisphosphonates in metastatic prostate cancer. Int J Palliat Nurs; 2006 Oct;12(10):462-9
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  • [Title] Skeletal complications and the use of bisphosphonates in metastatic prostate cancer.
  • Metastatic prostate cancer represents an incurable progression of the disease that accounts for the vast majority of disease related mortality and is associated with significant skeletal morbidity with events including bone pain, fractures and spinal cord compression.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / drug therapy. Diphosphonates / therapeutic use. Jaw / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Male. Osteonecrosis / chemically induced. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17167378.001).
  • [ISSN] 1357-6321
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of palliative nursing
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Palliat Nurs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Diphosphonates
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80. Breton X, Lechevallier E, Coulange C: [Current place of chemotherapy in the treatment of hormone-refractory metastatic prostate cancer]. Prog Urol; 2005 Jun;15(3):398-404
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Current place of chemotherapy in the treatment of hormone-refractory metastatic prostate cancer].
  • [Transliterated title] Place actuelle de la chimiothérapie dans le traitement du cancer de la prostate métastatique hormonorésistant.
  • The current management of hormone-refractory metastatic prostate cancer is purely palliative.
  • The use of chemotherapy in this indication was revised in 1996, based on the results of studies with a combination of mitoxantrone and prednisone.
  • Two studies using taxols, TAX_327 and SWOG_9916, were published in the New England Journal of Medicine on 7 October 2004, with, for the first time, a median overall survival benefit of 2 months.
  • However, the encouraging results of these 2 studies, which will probably modify the management of hormone-refractory prostate cancer, need to be interpreted cautiously.
  • They also comprise many methodological imprecisions and biases with especially, in the TAX 327 study, a change of treatment arm in 1/3 of patients without exclusion of these patients from the final analysis.
  • Urologists must be aware of the place of chemotherapy in the treatment of prostate cancer in order to remain at the centre of the treatment decision.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Hormones / therapeutic use. Clinical Trials as Topic. Humans. Male. Pain / drug therapy. Quality of Life. Taxoids / therapeutic use

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  • [CommentIn] Prog Urol. 2005 Dec;15(6):1160 [16429675.001]
  • [CommentIn] Prog Urol. 2006 Jun;16(3):394-5 [16821362.001]
  • (PMID = 16097142.001).
  • [ISSN] 1166-7087
  • [Journal-full-title] Progrès en urologie : journal de l'Association française d'urologie et de la Société française d'urologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prog. Urol.
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Taxoids
  • [Number-of-references] 32
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81. Langley RE, Godsland IF, Kynaston H, Clarke NW, Rosen SD, Morgan RC, Pollock P, Kockelbergh R, Lalani el-N, Dearnaley D, Parmar M, Abel PD: Early hormonal data from a multicentre phase II trial using transdermal oestrogen patches as first-line hormonal therapy in patients with locally advanced or metastatic prostate cancer. BJU Int; 2008 Aug;102(4):442-5
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  • [Title] Early hormonal data from a multicentre phase II trial using transdermal oestrogen patches as first-line hormonal therapy in patients with locally advanced or metastatic prostate cancer.
  • OBJECTIVE: To assess the hormonal effects of Fem7 (Merck, KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany) 100 microg transdermal oestrogen patches on men undergoing first-line androgen-deprivation therapy for prostate cancer.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: PATCH is a multicentre, randomized, phase II trial for men with locally advanced or metastatic prostate cancer, comparing luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonist therapy with oestrogen patches.
  • To assess the dosing schedule for the patches, as this was the first time that this brand of patch had been used in men, and to reassure patients and participating clinicians, the Independent Data Monitoring Committee agreed to early release of hormonal data from this study.
  • RESULTS: Oestradiol, testosterone and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels are presented for the first group of 14 patients who received the patches (with 1 withdrawal) and for whom there were > or =12 weeks of follow-up by March 2007.
  • [MeSH-major] Androgen Antagonists / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / administration & dosage. Estrogens / administration & dosage. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Cutaneous. Aged. Androgens / metabolism. Estradiol / blood. Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone / agonists. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prostate-Specific Antigen / blood. Testosterone / blood. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18422771.001).
  • [ISSN] 1464-410X
  • [Journal-full-title] BJU international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BJU Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / / A5343; United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / G0501019; United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / MC/ U122861330; United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / /
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Comparative Study; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgen Antagonists; 0 / Androgens; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Estrogens; 33515-09-2 / Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone; 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone; 4TI98Z838E / Estradiol; EC 3.4.21.77 / Prostate-Specific Antigen
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2564109; NLM/ UKMS1946
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82. Sakamoto S, Kyprianou N: Targeting anoikis resistance in prostate cancer metastasis. Mol Aspects Med; 2010 Apr;31(2):205-14
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Targeting anoikis resistance in prostate cancer metastasis.
  • Anoikis is a mode of apoptotic cell death, consequential to insufficient cell-matrix interactions and a critical player in tumor angiogenesis and metastasis.
  • The events involved in tumor cell progression toward metastasis potential are mediated by integrins, which upon engagement with components of the extracellular matrix (ECM), reorganize to form adhesion complexes.
  • Targeting apoptotic players is of immense therapeutic significance since resistance to apoptosis is not only critical in conferring therapeutic failure to standard treatment strategies, but anoikis (apoptosis upon loss of anchorage and detachment from ECM) also plays an important role in angiogenesis and metastasis.
  • The ability to survive in the absence of adhesion to the ECM, enables tumor cells to disseminate from the primary tumor site, invade a distant site and establish a metastatic lesion.
  • Tumor cells can escape from detachment-induced apoptosis by controlling anoikis pathways, including the extrinsic death receptor pathway and the ECM-integrin mediated cell survival pathway.
  • Considering the functional promiscuity of individual signaling effectors, it is critical to dissect the molecular networks mechanistically driving tumor cells to evade anoikis and embark on a metastatic spread.
  • Resistance to die via anoikis dictates tumor cell survival and provides a molecular basis for therapeutic targeting of metastatic prostate cancer.
  • Further dissection of critical anoikis signaling events will enable the therapeutic optimization of anoikis targeting to impair prostate cancer metastasis prior to its initiation.
  • This review will discuss the molecular understanding of anoikis regulation in the tumor microenvironment and the in vivo pharmacological implementation of a novel class of antitumor-drugs to optimize apoptotic-based therapeutic targeting, bypassing anoikis-resistance to impair prostate cancer progression to metastasis.
  • Potential combination strategies targeting tumor vascularity (via anoikis) and impairing tumor initiation (via "classic" apoptosis), provide strong therapeutic promise for metastatic prostate cancer by preventing the onset of metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Anoikis / drug effects. Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Drug Delivery Systems / methods. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Metastasis. Signal Transduction

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  • [Copyright] Published by Elsevier Ltd.
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  • (PMID = 20153362.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-9452
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular aspects of medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Aspects Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA107575; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA107575-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA107575-06
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 82
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS191134; NLM/ PMC2988681
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83. Droz JP, Flechon A, Terret C: [Metastatic prostate cancer]. Rev Prat; 2003 Dec 31;53(20):2258-62
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  • [Title] [Metastatic prostate cancer].
  • [Transliterated title] Cancer métastatique de la prostate.
  • Metastatic prostate cancer is an uncurable disease.
  • Treatment is only palliative.
  • Prostate cancer is an hormonodependent cancer, androgen blockade is the most active treatment.
  • Androgen deprivation is the first-line treatment, impotency and osteoporosis being the main side effects.
  • Other treatments are radiotherapy, radiopharmaceutics and chemotherapy.
  • The most important treatment issue is quality of life.
  • [MeSH-major] Prostatic Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Androgen Antagonists / adverse effects. Androgen Antagonists / therapeutic use. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Brachytherapy. Erectile Dysfunction / chemically induced. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Metastasis. Osteoporosis / chemically induced. Palliative Care. Prognosis. Quality of Life. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 15018080.001).
  • [ISSN] 0035-2640
  • [Journal-full-title] La Revue du praticien
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Prat
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgen Antagonists
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84. Albrecht W, Collette L, Fava C, Kariakine OB, Whelan P, Studer UE, De Reijke TM, Kil PJ, Rea LA: Intermittent maximal androgen blockade in patients with metastatic prostate cancer: an EORTC feasibility study. Eur Urol; 2003 Nov;44(5):505-11
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  • [Title] Intermittent maximal androgen blockade in patients with metastatic prostate cancer: an EORTC feasibility study.
  • OBJECTIVES: In preparation of an intercontinental Phase III trial comparing continuous maximal androgen blockade (MAB) to intermittent androgen suppression (IAS) in untreated metastatic prostate cancer, a feasibility study on IAS was accomplished.
  • Criteria for restarting treatment was PSA >20 ng/ml and PSA > nadir + 50%.
  • One to seven cycles of treatment were given.
  • 76.6% of patients reached a 1st nadir after a median of 19 weeks of treatment, 84.1% of these started the 2nd cycle and 71% of them reached a 2nd nadir after a median of 13.6 weeks.
  • Median time off-treatment was 14.3 and 16.0 weeks corresponding to 38.4% and 48.5% of the duration of each cycle.
  • 32.7% of patients died during follow-up, 82.9% of prostate cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Androgen Antagonists / administration & dosage. Anilides / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / administration & dosage. Disease Progression. Feasibility Studies. Goserelin / administration & dosage. Humans. Male. Nitriles. Prostate-Specific Antigen / blood. Tosyl Compounds. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 14572746.001).
  • [ISSN] 0302-2838
  • [Journal-full-title] European urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 2U10 CA11488-25; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 5U10 CA11488-30
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgen Antagonists; 0 / Anilides; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Nitriles; 0 / Tosyl Compounds; 0F65R8P09N / Goserelin; A0Z3NAU9DP / bicalutamide; EC 3.4.21.77 / Prostate-Specific Antigen
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85. Droz JP, Chaladaj A: Management of metastatic prostate cancer: the crucial role of geriatric assessment. BJU Int; 2008 Mar;101 Suppl 2:23-9
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  • [Title] Management of metastatic prostate cancer: the crucial role of geriatric assessment.
  • Prostate cancer predominantly affects older men, with a median age at diagnosis of 68 years.
  • Due to the increased life expectancy, management of prostate cancer in senior adults (aged >70 years) represents a major public health problem.
  • This patient population may not receive optimal therapy for their disease, if decisions are made based on their chronological age alone.
  • Comorbidity is the key predictor of health status and should weigh more heavily on the treatment decision than age alone.
  • Although clinical trials are rarely designed specifically for senior adults, evidence suggests that healthy senior adults have similar treatment outcomes to their younger counterparts.
  • The urological approach in senior adults with advanced prostate cancer should be fundamentally the same as in younger patients.
  • In hormone-sensitive metastatic prostate cancer, androgen deprivation represents the first-line treatment.
  • In hormone-refractory metastatic prostate cancer, chemotherapy with docetaxel (75 mg/m(2) every 3 weeks) plus low-dose prednisone is the standard and shows the same efficacy in healthy senior adults as in younger patients.
  • Palliative treatments (palliative surgery, radiopharmaceutics, radiotherapy, medical treatments for pain and symptoms, pharmacological palliative therapies) should also be integrated in the global management of these patients.
  • In conclusion, treatment decisions in senior adults should be adapted to health status.
  • The development of guidelines for the management of localized and advanced prostate cancer in senior adults is underway.
  • [MeSH-major] Androgen Antagonists / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Geriatric Assessment. Neoplasms, Hormone-Dependent / drug therapy. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Neoplasm Metastasis. Palliative Care / methods. Prednisone / administration & dosage. Retrospective Studies. Taxoids / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 18307689.001).
  • [ISSN] 1464-410X
  • [Journal-full-title] BJU international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BJU Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgen Antagonists; 0 / Taxoids; 15H5577CQD / docetaxel; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone
  • [Number-of-references] 43
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86. Sorscher SM: Tumor lysis syndrome following docetaxel therapy for extensive metastatic prostate cancer. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol; 2004 Aug;54(2):191-2
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  • [Title] Tumor lysis syndrome following docetaxel therapy for extensive metastatic prostate cancer.
  • Tumor Lysis Syndrome (TLS) is characterized by biochemical changes due to rapid tumor lysis of malignant cells, usually after chemotherapy.
  • Typically it is seen in patients with hematologic malignancies sensitive to chemotherapy within days of receiving chemotherapy.
  • Recently Baeksgaard and Sorensen reviewed the small number of cases of TLS after treatment of nonhematologic malignancies reported between 1977 and 2002.
  • After careful review of the literature, I describe what appears to be to the first reported case of TLS associated with chemotherapeutic treatment of metastatic prostate cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / adverse effects. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Taxoids / adverse effects. Tumor Lysis Syndrome / etiology

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  • (PMID = 15148627.001).
  • [ISSN] 0344-5704
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer chemotherapy and pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 0 / Taxoids; 15H5577CQD / docetaxel
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87. Cole A, Mendelblatt D, Aguayo J, Mathew A, Martin E, Vesely DL: Metastatic prostate cancer (with prostate-specific antigen of 9996) presenting as obstructive jaundice. Am J Med Sci; 2000 Feb;319(2):118-22
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  • [Title] Metastatic prostate cancer (with prostate-specific antigen of 9996) presenting as obstructive jaundice.
  • A 78-year-old man admitted with clinical jaundice and pelvic pain had a total bilirubin level of 6.56 mg/dL, an alkaline phosphatase level of 855 U/L, and a prostate specific antigen (PSA) level of 9996 ng/mL.
  • A biopsy of one pelvic lesion revealed metastatic prostate cancer.
  • This man's obstructive jaundice and bone pain had a dramatic response to treatment with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog (leupro lide) and antiandrogen (bicalutamide).
  • All bone pair and clinical signs of jaundice disappeared in 1 week His total bilirubin decreased to 0.84 mg/dL by 2 weeks His PSA values reflected this clinical response, decreasing to 4022 ng/mL in 1 week, 2680 ng/dL after 2 weeks and 1028 ng/mL after 1 month of the above therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cholestasis / etiology. Prostate-Specific Antigen / blood. Prostatic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Alkaline Phosphatase / blood. Androgen Antagonists / administration & dosage. Anilides / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / administration & dosage. Bilirubin / blood. Bone Neoplasms / drug therapy. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Humans. Leuprolide / administration & dosage. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Nitriles. Tosyl Compounds. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 10698097.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9629
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of the medical sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Med. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgen Antagonists; 0 / Anilides; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Nitriles; 0 / Tosyl Compounds; A0Z3NAU9DP / bicalutamide; EC 3.1.3.1 / Alkaline Phosphatase; EC 3.4.21.77 / Prostate-Specific Antigen; EFY6W0M8TG / Leuprolide; RFM9X3LJ49 / Bilirubin
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88. Wilson SS, Crawford ED: Controversies of androgen ablation therapy for metastatic prostate cancer. Curr Pharm Des; 2006;12(7):799-805
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  • [Title] Controversies of androgen ablation therapy for metastatic prostate cancer.
  • Ever since Huggins and Hodges won a Nobel Prize in 1966 for their work describing the relationship between testosterone and prostate cancer, androgen deprivation has continued to be an important component in the treatment of prostate cancer.
  • Refinements in the therapy have occurred in the past 50 years, yet controversies still exist.
  • This review details the controversies and advances in androgen deprivation for prostate cancer including: neoadjuvant androgen deprivation, combined androgen blockade, early versus late androgen deprivation treatment, intermittent versus continuous androgen deprivation monotherapy, anti-androgen monotherapy, anti-androgen and 5-alpha reductase inhibitor combinations, androgen deprivation with periodic intravenous bisphosphonate infusions, and androgen deprivation in conjunction with chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Androgen Antagonists / therapeutic use. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemotherapy, Adjuvant / methods. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Metastasis. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 16515496.001).
  • [ISSN] 1381-6128
  • [Journal-full-title] Current pharmaceutical design
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr. Pharm. Des.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgen Antagonists
  • [Number-of-references] 69
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89. Berthold DR, Moore MJ: Targeting metastatic prostate cancer: the search for innovative systemic therapies. Oncology (Williston Park); 2006 Dec;20(14):1787-91; discussion 1791-6
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  • [Title] Targeting metastatic prostate cancer: the search for innovative systemic therapies.
  • Metastatic hormone-resistant prostate cancer has proven largely resistant to cytotoxic therapy.
  • Since 2004, docetaxel (Taxotere)/prednisone has become the standard chemotherapy used to treat advanced hormone-resistant prostate cancer.
  • However, the survival advantage is modest and a significant number of patients do not respond to chemotherapy.
  • It is hoped that an increased understanding of the mechanisms underlying the progression of prostate cancer will lead to new treatment modalities.
  • With the growing number of biologic and targeted agents under development, the potential armamentarium of prostate cancer treatments is steadily growing.
  • However, none of the new treatment modalities has yet been shown to be more effective than standard treatments.
  • This article will provide an overview of targeted or innovative therapies in the treatment of prostate cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bone Neoplasms / drug therapy. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Androgen Antagonists / therapeutic use. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 17263128.001).
  • [ISSN] 0890-9091
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology (Williston Park, N.Y.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncology (Williston Park, N.Y.)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgen Antagonists
  • [Number-of-references] 42
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90. Johannsen M, Wilke K, Schnorr D, Loening SA: [Taxanes in the chemotherapy of hormone-refractory prostate carcinoma]. Urologe A; 2004 Feb;43(2):160-7
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  • [Title] [Taxanes in the chemotherapy of hormone-refractory prostate carcinoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Taxane in der Chemotherapie des hormonrefraktären Prostatakarzinoms.
  • Prostate cancer represents one of the most prevalent malignancies in men.
  • Standard therapy of metastatic prostate cancer consists of androgen deprivation, which is a palliative therapy yielding a clinical response of limited duration.
  • In hormone-refractory prostate cancer (HRPC), response to chemotherapy with regimens available until about ten years ago has been disappointing.
  • Nowadays, due to increasing life expectancy and earlier diagnosis and therapy of prostate cancer, more patients with hormone-refractory disease are still in relatively good overall condition.
  • With the taxanes, much more effective cytostatic substances for chemotherapy of HRPC are available today.
  • Using modern taxane-based chemotherapy, effective palliation of pain can be achieved in 50-70% of patients with HRPC, while retaining an acceptable quality of life.
  • There is also evidence for improved overall survival after taxane-based chemotherapy, although this remains to be proven by ongoing studies.
  • This article presents an overview of current studies investigating the outcome after taxane-based chemotherapy, as well as new therapeutic approaches in combination with docetaxel.
  • [MeSH-major] Androgen Antagonists / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Pain / drug therapy. Palliative Care / methods. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Taxoids / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Humans. Male. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 14991117.001).
  • [ISSN] 0340-2592
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Urologe. Ausg. A
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urologe A
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgen Antagonists; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Taxoids; 15H5577CQD / docetaxel
  • [Number-of-references] 62
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91. Sengeløv L, Klarskov OP, Karlsson S: [Treatment of hormonal refractory metastatic prostate cancer]. Ugeskr Laeger; 2007 May 14;169(20):1905-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Treatment of hormonal refractory metastatic prostate cancer].
  • [Transliterated title] Behandling af hormonrefraktaer metastatisk prostatacancer.
  • Hormonal refractory metastatic prostate cancer is a fatal disease with a poor prognosis.
  • Treatment options are palliative with second line anti-hormonal, estrogens and prednisolon.
  • Chemotherapy with docetaxel and prednisolon is indicated in patients with symptomatic metastatic disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / metabolism. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Humans. Immunotherapy. Male. Palliative Care. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 17553368.001).
  • [ISSN] 1603-6824
  • [Journal-full-title] Ugeskrift for laeger
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ugeskr. Laeg.
  • [Language] dan
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal
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92. Plotnikov A, Niego B, Ophir R, Korenstein R, Keisari Y: Effective treatment of mouse metastatic prostate cancer by low electric field enhanced chemotherapy. Prostate; 2006 Nov 1;66(15):1620-30
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  • [Title] Effective treatment of mouse metastatic prostate cancer by low electric field enhanced chemotherapy.
  • BACKGROUND: We developed a new anti-cancer treatment, which is a combination of chemotherapeutic agents and low electric field.
  • In the present study we investigated its efficacy against prostate metastatic transgenic adenocarcinoma of mice (TRAMP).
  • METHODS: Mice with 5, 10, and 13 mm in diameter intracutaneous tumors received Low Electric Field Cancer Treatment-Enhanced Chemotherapy (LEFCT-EC) with doxorubicin (10 mg/kg), and monitored for survival, and primary and metastatic tumors growth.
  • In vivo use of LEFCT-EC reduced tumor size, prolonged survival, and cured 36-93% of the animals, dependent on treated tumor size.
  • LEFCT-EC was more effective than surgery with or without chemotherapy.
  • Part of the cured animals developed anti-tumor immunity and immunosuppression, significantly decreased the effectiveness of the treatment.
  • CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that LEFCT-EC is an effective method for the destruction of metastatic prostate tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Doxorubicin / therapeutic use. Electrochemotherapy. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Line, Tumor. Disease Models, Animal. Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor. Electroporation. Male. Mice. Mice, Inbred C57BL. Neoplasm Transplantation. Spleen / drug effects. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16941466.001).
  • [ISSN] 0270-4137
  • [Journal-full-title] The Prostate
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prostate
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin
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93. Jennbacken K, Tesan T, Wang W, Gustavsson H, Damber JE, Welén K: N-cadherin increases after androgen deprivation and is associated with metastasis in prostate cancer. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2010 Jun;17(2):469-79
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  • [Title] N-cadherin increases after androgen deprivation and is associated with metastasis in prostate cancer.
  • Androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) is the standard treatment for metastatic prostate cancer.
  • One factor that has been implicated in the metastatic process is the cell adhesion molecule N-cadherin.
  • In this study, we investigated if the expression of N-cadherin was influenced by androgen deprivation and was associated with metastasis in prostate cancer.
  • The effect of androgen deprivation on N-cadherin expression was initially studied in androgen-dependent (AD) LNCaP and androgen-independent (AI) LNCaP-19 and PC-3 prostate cancer cell lines.
  • In addition, N-cadherin was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in human prostate tumors.
  • Expression of N-cadherin was more frequently found in tumors from patients treated with ADT than in tumors from patients with no prior hormonal treatment.
  • N-cadherin expression was also associated with metastasis and Gleason score.
  • Furthermore, increased N-cadherin was detected in prostate cancer biopsies already 3 months after initiation of ADT when tumors were in a regressed state.
  • In summary the results indicate that androgen deprivation induces N-cadherin in prostate tumors.
  • This might indicate that castration induces molecular alterations in the tumor cells, resulting in a more invasive and metastatic phenotype.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Line, Tumor. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / drug effects. Humans. Male. Mice. Mice, Inbred BALB C. Mice, Nude. Neoplasm Metastasis. Receptors, Androgen / metabolism. Receptors, Androgen / physiology. Transplantation, Heterologous. Treatment Failure. Up-Regulation / drug effects. Up-Regulation / genetics

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  • (PMID = 20233707.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-6821
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgens; 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / CDH2 protein, human; 0 / Cadherins; 0 / Receptors, Androgen
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94. Pelger RC, Lycklama A Nijeholt GA, Zwinderman AH, Hamdy NA: The flare in alkaline phosphatase activity post-orchidectomy predicts which patient may benefit from early chemotherapy in metastatic prostate cancer. Prostate; 2002 Feb 1;50(2):119-24
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The flare in alkaline phosphatase activity post-orchidectomy predicts which patient may benefit from early chemotherapy in metastatic prostate cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: A flare in serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity post-orchidectomy has been shown to be of negative prognostic value for progression-free survival (PFS) in patients with prostate cancer.
  • The aim of this study was to investigate whether a flare in ALP may help identify patients in whom prognosis could be positively influenced by early chemotherapy.
  • METHODS: A retrospective analysis of the database of a Dutch multicenter study was conducted to evaluate the prognostic value of the flare in ALP post-orchidectomy for survival and PFS in 112 patients treated with orchidectomy (previously reported) compared to 121 age- and stage-matched patients additionally treated with estramustine-phosphate (EMP) as first line therapy.
  • RESULTS: There was no overall difference in PFS and survival between the two treatment regimen.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that the simple measurement of ALP activity within 4 weeks of castration represents a useful adjunct in assessing which patients with prostate cancer undergoing androgen ablation may benefit from additional early chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Alkaline Phosphatase / metabolism. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Estramustine / therapeutic use. Orchiectomy. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Prostatic Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Disease-Free Survival. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Predictive Value of Tests. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 11816020.001).
  • [ISSN] 0270-4137
  • [Journal-full-title] The Prostate
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prostate
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 35LT29625A / Estramustine; EC 3.1.3.1 / Alkaline Phosphatase
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95. Culine S, Drouet L, Eymard JC, Fizazi K, Gravis G, Hennequin C, Oudard S, Ravery V, Zerbib M: [Update on the use of estramustin in metastatic prostate cancer]. Prog Urol; 2010 Jan;20(1):24-9
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Prostate Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Update on the use of estramustin in metastatic prostate cancer].
  • [Transliterated title] Le point sur l'utilisation d'estramustine dans le cancer de la prostate métastatique.
  • Chemotherapy is indicated in metastatic castration-refractory prostate cancer.
  • Docetaxel is considered as the reference treatment in this indication.
  • Moreover, the addition of estramustin to chemotherapy demonstrated a survival benefit for patients.
  • Thrombotic events are frequent in patients with advanced prostate cancer and estramustine is known to increase the risk.
  • Optimization of treatment requires a thorough assessment of the individual risk in each patient as well as the prescription of an anti-thrombotic prophylaxis, which should be currently based on low molecular weight heparin.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Estramustine / therapeutic use. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Male. Neoplasm Metastasis

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20123524.001).
  • [ISSN] 1166-7087
  • [Journal-full-title] Progrès en urologie : journal de l'Association française d'urologie et de la Société française d'urologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prog. Urol.
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 35LT29625A / Estramustine
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96. Beekman KW, Hussain M: Targeted approaches for the management of metastatic prostate cancer. Curr Oncol Rep; 2006 May;8(3):206-12
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  • [Title] Targeted approaches for the management of metastatic prostate cancer.
  • Huggins and Hodges described the first systemic targeted therapy for prostate cancer in 1941 with their report on the effects of androgen ablation in men with metastatic disease.
  • Since that time, researchers have identified multiple additional "targets" that may be important in prostate cancer tumorigenesis.
  • These areas include continued emphasis on the androgen receptor in the androgen-independent state, parallel growth pathways such as AKT and HER2 that may act in conjunction or independently of the androgen receptor, the supporting environment that allows for the development of metastatic disease, and standard cytotoxic targets, such as the microtubule.
  • This review is intended to highlight these potential targets and several of the agents that are under development in the treatment of prostate cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Drug Delivery Systems. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols. Endothelial Growth Factors / antagonists & inhibitors. Humans. Male. Medical Oncology / trends. Neoplasm Metastasis. Receptors, Androgen / drug effects


97. Molloy FM, Floeter MK, Syed NA, Sandbrink F, Culcea E, Steinberg SM, Dahut W, Pluda J, Kruger EA, Reed E, Figg WD: Thalidomide neuropathy in patients treated for metastatic prostate cancer. Muscle Nerve; 2001 Aug;24(8):1050-7
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  • [Title] Thalidomide neuropathy in patients treated for metastatic prostate cancer.
  • Sixty-seven men with metastatic androgen-independent prostate cancer in an open-label trial of oral thalidomide underwent neurologic examinations and nerve conduction studies (NCS) prior to and at 3-month intervals during treatment.
  • Thalidomide was discontinued in 55 patients for lack of therapeutic response.
  • Six patients developed neuropathy.
  • The SNAP index can be used to monitor peripheral neuropathy, but not for early detection.
  • [MeSH-major] Peripheral Nervous System Diseases / chemically induced. Peripheral Nervous System Diseases / diagnosis. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Thalidomide / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Action Potentials / drug effects. Age Factors. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Brachial Plexus / drug effects. Brachial Plexus / physiopathology. Cohort Studies. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Electrodiagnosis. Electromyography. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neural Conduction / drug effects. Neurons, Afferent / drug effects. Prospective Studies. Risk Factors. Sural Nerve / drug effects. Sural Nerve / physiopathology


98. Heidenreich A: Bisphosphonates in the management of metastatic prostate cancer. Oncology; 2003;65 Suppl 1:5-11
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Bisphosphonates in the management of metastatic prostate cancer.
  • Prostate cancer (PCA) frequently metastasizes to the bones, and skeletal metastases represent the most common cause of morbidity in advanced PCA.
  • In men with already established bone metastases, BPs might be helpful in preventing skeletal-related events in patients who do not respond to alternative therapies and are at high risk for bone fractures or spinal cord compression.
  • In patients with hormone-refractory prostate cancer, BPs might be administered for analgesic purposes.
  • Prospective randomized trials will have to explore the clinical role of BPs in the prevention of bone metastases following local therapy with curative intent in men at high risk for PCA recurrences.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Bone Neoplasms / drug therapy. Diphosphonates / therapeutic use. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Humans. Imidazoles / therapeutic use. Male. Pain / drug therapy. Pain / etiology. Palliative Care / methods. Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel
  • (PMID = 12949427.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-2414
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Diphosphonates; 0 / Imidazoles; 6XC1PAD3KF / zoledronic acid; UMD7G2653W / ibandronic acid
  • [Number-of-references] 56
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99. Huang YW, Wang LS, Dowd MK, Wan PJ, Lin YC: (-)-Gossypol reduces invasiveness in metastatic prostate cancer cells. Anticancer Res; 2009 Jun;29(6):2179-88
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  • [Title] (-)-Gossypol reduces invasiveness in metastatic prostate cancer cells.
  • BACKGROUND: Acquisition of metastatic ability by prostatic cancer cells is the most lethal aspect of prostatic cancer progression. (-)-Gossypol, a polyphenolic compound present in cottonseeds, possesses anti-proliferative and proapoptotic effects in various cancer cells.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, the differences between MAT-LyLu, rat prostate cancer cells, with a novel isolated subline from metastasized tumors in the lungs of MAT-LyLu-bearing Copenhagen rats (MLL cells) were compared with respect to cell growth and invasion.
  • Moreover, (-)-gossypol treatment induced a dose-dependent inhibition of invasive activity and cell viability and reduced Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL proteins but induced nm23-H1 protein in both cell lines.
  • [MeSH-major] Contraceptive Agents, Male / therapeutic use. Gossypol / therapeutic use. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Apoptosis / drug effects. Blotting, Western. Cell Movement / drug effects. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Male. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / metabolism. Rats. bcl-X Protein / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19528479.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA94718; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA95915
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contraceptive Agents, Male; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; 0 / bcl-X Protein; KAV15B369O / Gossypol
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100. Sim HG, Lau WK, Cheng CW: Predictors of androgen independence in metastatic prostate cancer. BJU Int; 2004 Jun;93(9):1221-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Predictors of androgen independence in metastatic prostate cancer.
  • OBJECTIVE: To assess the factors that influence the onset of androgen independence (AI, which heralds a dismal outcome) in patients with metastatic prostate carcinoma.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: The records of 361 consecutive patients with prostate carcinoma diagnosed and treated in the authors' institution from 1 January 1996 to 31 December 1999 were reviewed retrospectively; 92 with metastatic prostate carcinoma were assessed (median age 71.0 years, range 42-93).
  • Patients were included if they developed metastatic disease from prostate cancer at the time of diagnosis.
  • The nadir for prostate specific antigen (PSA) level was defined as the date of the lowest PSA level after hormonal therapy, and AI was defined as the date of the third consecutive PSA increase above the nadir value by any threshold.
  • The mean (sd) time from diagnosis to the nadir PSA was 13.7 (11.8) months, while the mean time from diagnosis to progression to AI was 30.3 (15.6) months.
  • Univariate analysis showed that a nadir PSA level after treatment of >/= 1 ng/mL (P = 0.0128) was an early predictor of progression to AI; a nadir PSA level of >/= 2 ng/mL (P = 0.0216) was a predictor of poor overall survival.
  • CONCLUSION: Failure to attain a nadir PSA of < 1 ng/mL after treatment predicts progression to AI and a nadir PSA of > 2 ng/mL predicts poorer overall survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Androgens / metabolism. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Prostate-Specific Antigen / blood. Prostatic Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Castration. Disease Progression. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Prospective Studies. Survival Analysis






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