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1. Lo SS, Wu CW, Chi KH, Tseng HS, Shen KH, Hsieh MC, Lui WY: Concomitant chemoradiation treatment in the management of patients with extrahepatic biliary tract recurrence of gastric carcinoma. Cancer; 2000 Jul 1;89(1):29-34
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  • [Title] Concomitant chemoradiation treatment in the management of patients with extrahepatic biliary tract recurrence of gastric carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to determine the role of concomitant chemoradiation in the alleviation of obstructive jaundice in patients with extrahepatic biliary tract metastases from gastric carcinoma.
  • METHODS: Thirteen patients with good performance status who had obstructive jaundice resulting from extrahepatic biliary metastases after gastrectomy for gastric carcinoma were treated with palliative intent.
  • Treatment consisted of insertion of a percutaneous transhepatic choledochal drainage (PTCD) catheter followed by external radiation up to a total dose of 40-60 grays in combination with chemotherapy (cisplatin 20 mg/m(2)/day, 5-fluorouracil 600 mg/m(2)/day, and leucovorin 90 mg/m(2)/day for 96 hours during the first and fifth weeks) on an outpatient basis.
  • Hyperbilirubinemia continued to improve after treatment, patients' clay-colored stool resolved within an average of 4 weeks (range, 2-6 weeks), and bilirubin levels returned to normal.
  • The PTCD catheter could be removed after treatment was completed (the seventh week); the mean duration of PTCD placement was 2 months.
  • The entire treatment course was performed on an outpatient basis; hospital admission was necessary only for PTCD insertion and chemotherapy.
  • Ten patients died of their disease, with an average survival of 14.4 months (range, 4-31 months) from the time of PTCD insertion.
  • Biliary tract patency was maintained until death.
  • No serious treatment-related complications occurred, and no endoprothesis or intraluminal brachytherapy was needed in this study.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Satisfactory palliation can be achieved by concomitant chemoradiation for patients with obstructive jaundice resulting from extrahepatic biliary metastases from gastric carcinoma, providing an alternative treatment choice for these patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bile Duct Neoplasms / drug therapy. Bile Duct Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Bile Ducts, Extrahepatic. Cholestasis, Extrahepatic / etiology. Stomach Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Brachytherapy. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Humans. Leucovorin / administration & dosage. Male. Middle Aged. Palliative Care. Recurrence. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2000 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 10896997.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; Q573I9DVLP / Leucovorin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil; PFL protocol
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2. Nuzzo G, Giuliante F, Ardito F, Vellone M, Pozzo C, Cassano A, Giovannini I, Barone C: Liver resection for primarily unresectable colorectal metastases downsized by chemotherapy. J Gastrointest Surg; 2007 Mar;11(3):318-24
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  • [Title] Liver resection for primarily unresectable colorectal metastases downsized by chemotherapy.
  • This study was performed prospectively to assess the effect of systemic chemotherapy (FOLFIRI protocol) in patients with initially unresectable colorectal liver metastases (CRLM) and, after performing liver resection in patients with downsized metastases, to compare the postoperative and long-term results with those of patients with primarily resectable CRLM.
  • The analysis addressed all patients who underwent hepatectomy for primarily resectable CRLM (Group A), or underwent chemotherapy for primarily unresectable CRLM and among these, particularly the patients who were finally resected after downsizing of CRLM (Group B).
  • Forty-two other patients underwent chemotherapy; after an average of nine courses, 18 of them (42.8%) with significantly downsized lesions were explored and 15 (35.7%, Group B) were resected, whereas three had peritoneal metastases.
  • These results show that in about one-third of the patients with primarily unresectable CRLM, downsizing of the lesions by chemotherapy (FOLFIRI protocol) permitted a subsequent curative resection.
  • In these patients, operative risk and survival did not differ from the figures observed in primarily resectable patients and, in spite of a lower disease-free survival with more frequent recurrence, re-resection still represented a valid option to continue treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology. Hepatectomy. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Liver Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Camptothecin / analogs & derivatives. Camptothecin / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Fluorouracil / therapeutic use. Humans. Leucovorin / therapeutic use. Male. Middle Aged. Postoperative Complications

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  • (PMID = 17458605.001).
  • [ISSN] 1091-255X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of gastrointestinal surgery : official journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Gastrointest. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] Q573I9DVLP / Leucovorin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil; XT3Z54Z28A / Camptothecin; IFL protocol
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3. Tan MC, Linehan DC, Hawkins WG, Siegel BA, Strasberg SM: Chemotherapy-induced normalization of FDG uptake by colorectal liver metastases does not usually indicate complete pathologic response. J Gastrointest Surg; 2007 Sep;11(9):1112-9
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  • [Title] Chemotherapy-induced normalization of FDG uptake by colorectal liver metastases does not usually indicate complete pathologic response.
  • Dramatic responses are being observed in colorectal cancer liver metastases treated with newer chemotherapeutic regimens.
  • These have been associated with normalization of [(18)F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) uptake (complete metabolic response) on follow-up Positron Emission Tomography with [(18)F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG-PET) scans in some patients.
  • We analyzed a subset of patients who had neoadjuvant chemotherapy for hepatic metastases from colorectal adenocarcinoma.
  • (1) FDG-avid hepatic lesions before initiation of chemotherapy;.
  • (2) complete metabolic response of the same lesions after chemotherapy; and (3) histopathologic examination of hepatic lesions.
  • All had synchronous, hepatic-only colorectal metastases.
  • Seven lesions had complete metabolic response and disappeared on computed tomography (CT); of these, six still contained viable tumor.
  • We conclude that complete metabolic response on FDG-PET after neoadjuvant chemotherapy is an unreliable indicator of complete pathologic response.
  • Therefore, currently, curative resection of liver metastases in these patients should not be deferred on the basis of FDG-PET findings.
  • [MeSH-major] Liver Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Positron-Emission Tomography
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Angiogenesis Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bevacizumab. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology. Drug Therapy, Combination. Female. Fluorouracil / therapeutic use. Glucose-6-Phosphate / analogs & derivatives. Humans. Leucovorin / therapeutic use. Male. Middle Aged. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Organoplatinum Compounds / therapeutic use. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17623263.001).
  • [ISSN] 1091-255X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of gastrointestinal surgery : official journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Gastrointest. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Organoplatinum Compounds; 2S9ZZM9Q9V / Bevacizumab; 40871-47-4 / 2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose-6-phosphate; 56-73-5 / Glucose-6-Phosphate; Q573I9DVLP / Leucovorin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil; Folfox protocol
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4. Spunt SL, Lobe TE, Pappo AS, Parham DM, Wharam MD Jr, Arndt C, Anderson JR, Crist WM, Paidas C, Wiener E, Andrassy RJ, Schwartz CL: Aggressive surgery is unwarranted for biliary tract rhabdomyosarcoma. J Pediatr Surg; 2000 Feb;35(2):309-16
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Aggressive surgery is unwarranted for biliary tract rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) of the biliary tract is rare, and, in addition to multiagent chemotherapy with or without radiotherapy (RT), some investigators recommend aggressive surgery.
  • To assess the role of surgery, records of all 25 eligible patients with biliary RMS enrolled in IRSG studies I through IV from 1972 to 1998 were reviewed.
  • METHODS: Treatment included surgery with or without vincristine, dactinomycin, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, cisplatin, etoposide, ifosfamide, and with or without RT.
  • Data evaluated included clinical presentation, treatment, complications, and outcome.
  • RESULTS: Diagnostic imaging identified the primary tumor but failed to identify regional metastases.
  • Although only 6 (29%) patients without distant metastases underwent gross total resection, estimated 5-year survival rate was 78% (95% CI 58%, 97%).
  • Infectious complications were common and frequently associated with external biliary drains.
  • External biliary drains increase the risk of postoperative infectious complications.
  • [MeSH-major] Biliary Tract Neoplasms / surgery. Biliary Tract Surgical Procedures. Rhabdomyosarcoma / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Reoperation. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 10693686.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3468
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-24507-21; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA72989-02
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
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5. Aldrighetti L, Arru M, Ronzoni M, Salvioni M, Villa E, Ferla G: Extrahepatic biliary stenoses after hepatic arterial infusion (HAI) of floxuridine (FUdR) for liver metastases from colorectal cancer. Hepatogastroenterology; 2001 Sep-Oct;48(41):1302-7
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  • [Title] Extrahepatic biliary stenoses after hepatic arterial infusion (HAI) of floxuridine (FUdR) for liver metastases from colorectal cancer.
  • Hepatic arterial infusion of floxuridine is an effective treatment for unresectable hepatic metastases from colorectal cancer.
  • Despite its pharmacological advantage of higher tumor drug concentration with minimal systemic toxicity, hepatic arterial infusion of floxuridine is characterized by regional toxicity, including hepatobiliary damage resembling idiopathic sclerosing cholangitis (5-29% of treated cases).
  • Unlike previous reports describing biliary damage of both intrahepatic and extrahepatic ducts, a case series of extrahepatic biliary stenosis after hepatic arterial infusion with floxuridine is herein described.
  • Between September 1993 and February 1999, 54 patients received intraarterial hepatic chemotherapy based on continuous infusion of floxuridine (dose escalation 0.15-0.30 mg/kg/day for 14 days every 28 days) plus dexamethasone 28 mg.
  • Five patients (9.2%) developed biliary toxicity with jaundice and cholangitis (3 cases), alterations of liver function tests and radiological features of biliary tract abnormalities.
  • They received from 9 to 19 cycles (mean 14.5 +/- 6.3 cycles) of floxuridine infusion with a total drug delivered dose ranging from 20.3 to 41.02 mg/kg (mean: 31.4 +/- 13.5 mg/kg).
  • Extrahepatic biliary sclerosis was discovered by computed tomography scan and ultrasound, followed by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and/or percutaneous cholangiography in 3 cases.
  • Two patients were treated by sequentially percutaneous biliary drainage and balloon dilation while 1 patient had an endoscopic transpapillary biliary prosthesis placed.
  • The present series suggests that in some patients receiving hepatic arterial infusion of floxuridine extrahepatic biliary stenosis may represent the primary event leading to a secondary intrahepatic biliary damage that does not correlate with specific floxuridine toxicity but results from bile stasis and infection, recurrent cholangitis and eventually biliary sclerosis.
  • Aggressive research for extrahepatic biliary sclerosis is advised, since an early nonsurgical treatment of extrahepatic biliary stenosis may prevent an irreversible intrahepatic biliary sclerosis worsening the prognosis of metastatic liver disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Cholestasis, Extrahepatic / chemically induced. Colorectal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Floxuridine / adverse effects. Infusions, Intra-Arterial. Liver Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Cholangiography. Cholangitis, Sclerosing / chemically induced. Cholangitis, Sclerosing / diagnosis. Cholangitis, Sclerosing / therapy. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Liver Function Tests. Male. Middle Aged. Stents


6. Miyazaki M: [The treatments of hepatic metastasis from pancreato-biliary cancer]. Nihon Geka Gakkai Zasshi; 2003 Oct;104(10):717-20
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  • [Title] [The treatments of hepatic metastasis from pancreato-biliary cancer].
  • Hepatic metastases of pancreatobiliary cancer have a dismal patient prognosis of approximately 1 year after diagnosis.
  • There have been a few reports in the literature on aggressive treatment of these patients with the intention of cure.
  • For hepatic metastases from biliary cancer, hepatic resection has been performed in a small number of patients, resulting in a median survival time of less than 12 months.
  • In our series of 7 patients, median survival time was 9 months.
  • For hepatic metastases of gallbladder carcinoma, long-term (> 3-year) survivors have been reported.
  • In our series of 16 patients, median survival time was 8 months, but one patient is still alive after more than 5 years.
  • For simultaneous hepatic metastases of pancreas cancer.
  • The median survival times in their series were 11 and 6 months after hepatic resection and pancreaticoduodenectomy, respectively.
  • These results cannot justify aggressive resection for patients with hepatic metastases of pancreatic cancer.
  • In most series previously reported, the treatment for hepatic metastases from pancreatobiliary malignancies was systemic and regional chemotherapy, especially hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy.
  • However, there is no evidence suggesting a beneficial effect of cancer chemotherapy on prognosis.
  • Therefore new therapeutic modalities should be developed to improve the outcome of the treatment of hepatic metastases of pancreatobiliary cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Biliary Tract Neoplasms / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Liver Neoplasms / surgery. Pancreatic Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 14579758.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-4894
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Geka Gakkai zasshi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nihon Geka Gakkai Zasshi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Number-of-references] 25
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7. Cho C, Wust P, Hildebrandt B, Issels RD, Sehouli J, Kerner T, Deja M, Budach V, Gellermann J: Regional hyperthermia of the abdomen in conjunction with chemotherapy for peritoneal carcinomatosis: evaluation of two annular-phased-array applicators. Int J Hyperthermia; 2008 Aug;24(5):399-408

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Regional hyperthermia of the abdomen in conjunction with chemotherapy for peritoneal carcinomatosis: evaluation of two annular-phased-array applicators.
  • Options for enhancing the effect of standard chemotherapy, such as aggressive surgery and intraperitoneal chemotherapy, have limitations.
  • In this phase I/II study, we evaluated regional hyperthermia of the pelvis and abdomen using the annular-phased-array technique as an adjunct to chemotherapy.
  • METHODS: Forty-five patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis (with or without liver metastases) in colorectal cancer (CRC) (n = 16), ovarian cancer (OC) (n = 17), or gastric/pancreatic/biliary cancer (n = 12) underwent standard chemotherapy and regional hyperthermia.
  • Most CRC patients received second-line chemotherapy.
  • Regional hyperthermia was applied using a SIGMA-60 applicator (OC), a SIGMA-Eye/MR applicator (CRC), or various ring applicators (gastric/pancreatic/biliary cancer).
  • Three-year overall survival was encouraging for patients with CRC (22%) and OC (29%) but not gastric/pancreatic/biliary cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Abdomen. Hyperthermia, Induced / instrumentation. Hyperthermia, Induced / methods. Peritoneal Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Biliary Tract Neoplasms / therapy. Colorectal Neoplasms / therapy. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Liver Neoplasms / therapy. Male. Middle Aged. Ovarian Neoplasms / therapy. Pancreatic Neoplasms / therapy. Stomach Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 18608591.001).
  • [ISSN] 1464-5157
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of hyperthermia : the official journal of European Society for Hyperthermic Oncology, North American Hyperthermia Group
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Hyperthermia
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase I; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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8. Suzuki S, Inaba K, Yokoi Y, Ohata K, Ota S, Azuma M, Tanaka T, Konno H, Baba S, Hirano T, Nakamura S: Photodynamic therapy for malignant biliary obstruction: a case series. Endoscopy; 2004 Jan;36(1):83-7

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Photodynamic therapy for malignant biliary obstruction: a case series.
  • We describe four elderly patients (age range 73-85 years) with bile duct carcinoma who were treated with photodynamic therapy.
  • Prior to photodynamic treatment the patients underwent percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) to relieve jaundice.
  • The photodynamic therapy was carried out under percutaneous transhepatic cholangioscopy, 2 days after intravenous administration of sodium porfimer (2 mg/kg).
  • Photodynamic therapy was achieved safely without occurrence of cholangitis in all patients, and was followed by metallic stent placement, resulting in the improvement of performance levels in three patients who did not have liver metastases.
  • Photodynamic therapy via the PTBD route is a safe and promising palliative therapy for selected elderly patients with bile duct carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Biliary Tract Neoplasms / drug therapy. Carcinoma / drug therapy. Photochemotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cholangiography. Female. Hematoporphyrin Photoradiation. Humans. Laser Therapy. Male. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 14722861.001).
  • [ISSN] 0013-726X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endoscopy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endoscopy
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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9. Furuse J, Nakachi K, Suzuki E, Shimizu S, Ishii H, Yoshino M: [Unresectable gallbladder cancer with lymph node and liver metastases completely responding to S-1 monotherapy - a case report]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2007 Oct;34(10):1679-82
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  • [Title] [Unresectable gallbladder cancer with lymph node and liver metastases completely responding to S-1 monotherapy - a case report].
  • We report a patient with gallbladder cancer and multiple liver and lymph node metastases which completely responded to S-1, an oral fluoropyrimidine anticancer drug.
  • The patient was enrolled in the "Late phase II study of S-1 in patients with advanced biliary tract cancer".
  • [MeSH-major] Gallbladder Neoplasms / drug therapy. Gallbladder Neoplasms / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Lymphatic Metastasis. Oxonic Acid / therapeutic use. Tegafur / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / toxicity. Drug Combinations. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17940390.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Clinical Trial, Phase II; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Drug Combinations; 150863-82-4 / S 1 (combination); 1548R74NSZ / Tegafur; 5VT6420TIG / Oxonic Acid
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10. Ishiguro T, Kitaoka T, Sakimoto T, Miyazaki T, Yokoyama M, Ishibashi K, Matsuki M, Inoue N, Sano M, Ishida H: [Modified FOLFOX6 treatment for obstructive jaundice caused by hepatic lymph-node metastasis from liver metastases of rectal cancer--a case report]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2008 Nov;35(12):2138-40
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. LEUCOVORIN .

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  • [Title] [Modified FOLFOX6 treatment for obstructive jaundice caused by hepatic lymph-node metastasis from liver metastases of rectal cancer--a case report].
  • Chemotherapy is potentially hazardous for patients with liver dysfunction.
  • Although FOLFOX regimen is one of the standard chemotherapies for nonresectable liver metastases of colorectal cancer, the safety of this regimen has not been established yet in patients with obstructive jaundice associated with multiple liver metastases.
  • We report a case of nonresectable liver metastases of rectal cancer treated by modified FOLFOX6 regimen after percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage for obstructive jaundice, which was caused by hepatic lymph-node metastasis.
  • Five days after giving a birth, a 32-year-old woman underwent Hartmann's procedure for perforation of rectal cancer associated with multiple liver metastases.
  • She was admitted again to receive chemotherapy 35 days after surgery, but the level of total bilirubin was elevated (3.9 mg/dL).
  • After an introduction of mFOLFOX6 treatment, a biliary-stenting was successfully performed, and the mFOLFOX6 continued with a full dose starting from the 5th cycle.
  • Although the therapeutic efficacy after an additional 8-cycle was classified as stable disease (SD), she did not show any sign of adverse effects except for grade 1 neurotoxicity.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Jaundice, Obstructive / drug therapy. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Rectal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Rectal Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Female. Fluorouracil / adverse effects. Fluorouracil / therapeutic use. Humans. Leucovorin / adverse effects. Leucovorin / therapeutic use. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Organoplatinum Compounds / adverse effects. Organoplatinum Compounds / therapeutic use. Stents. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 19106549.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Organoplatinum Compounds; Q573I9DVLP / Leucovorin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil; Folfox protocol
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11. Mambrini A, Fiorentini G, Pennucci C, Muttini MP, Manni A, Del Freo A, Zamagni D, Rabbi C, Sanguinetti F, Cantore M: Intra-arterial hepatic chemotherapy combined with systemic infusion of 5-FU in patients with advanced biliary tract cancers. J Clin Oncol; 2004 Jul 15;22(14_suppl):4197

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  • [Title] Intra-arterial hepatic chemotherapy combined with systemic infusion of 5-FU in patients with advanced biliary tract cancers.
  • : 4197 Background: The prognosis of advanced biliary tract cancer (ABTC) is very poor.
  • Common systemic chemotherapy (CHT) have been reported to produce transient partial remission only in a small proportion of patients (PTS).
  • 13 PTS were male; median age was 65 years (49-75); performance status was 0-1 in 17 PTS, 2 in 9 PTS; all had hystological confirmed ABTC; 21 PTS had cholangiocarcinoma and 5 PTS had gallbladder carcinoma, with liver involvement > 50% in 10 and < 50% in 16 PTS; three PTS ha peritoneal involvement, 3 had pleural metastases and 2 had bone involvement.
  • RESULTS: 125 cycles were administered, with a median of 6 cycles per patient (1-8); no side effects related to angiographic procedure were observed, while 6 cases of deep venous thrombosis related to central venous catheter occurred.
  • The overall response rate, including complete response (CR), partial response (PR) and stable disease (SD) was 21/26 (80%); 1 patient had CR, evaluated by positron emission tomography (PET), 8 PTS had PR, 12 had SD and 5 showed a progression of disease.
  • Median time to progression is 7 months (3-19).

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  • (PMID = 28013886.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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12. Kersten S, Wein A, Albrecht H, Reulbach U, Maennlein G, Wolff K, Ostermeier N, Hohenberger W, Hahn EG, Boxberger F: Palliative systemic chemotherapy with gemcitabine (GEM) and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) as 24h-infusion in patients with advanced inoperable biliary tract cancer (UICC stage IV). J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):e15633

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Palliative systemic chemotherapy with gemcitabine (GEM) and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) as 24h-infusion in patients with advanced inoperable biliary tract cancer (UICC stage IV).
  • : e15633 Background: Due to the late diagnosis of biliary tract carcinomas in an advanced tumor stage, the application of palliative chemotherapy frequently remains as a possible treatment option.
  • The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and toxic side effects of a chemotherapy schedule consisting of GEM combined with 5-FU in patients (pts.) with metastatic biliary tract cancer.
  • METHODS: Evaluation of 35 pts. based on our prospective tumor registry data; essential inclusion criteria: histologically proven adeno-carcinoma, UICC stage IV, chemonaivity; all the pts. were presented in the interdisciplinary tumorboard of Erlangen University and were primarily non-curatively-resectable (n = 35); evaluation period: 11/1998 - 09/2008; treatment schedule: 1.000 mg/m<sup>2</sup> of GEM as a 0.5h-infusion (inf.) combined with 2.000 mg/m<sup>2</sup> of 5-FU as a 24h-inf. via port catheter on day 1, 8, 15 qd 22.
  • RESULTS: Median age: 64 years; men/women: n=18/17; ECOG 0/1/2: n=10/21/4; localisation: intrahepatic bile ducts: n=19, extrahepatic bile ducts: n=11; gall bladder: n=4; metastases: liver: 91.4%, lymph nodes: 51.4%, peritoneum: 28.8%, bones: 8.6%, intestine: 8.6%, skin: 2.9%, lungs: 2.9%; chemotherapy applications: total number: 486, average value/patient: 13.9; CA 19-9 elevated yes/no: n=13/22 (37.1%/62.9%); CEA elevated yes/no: n=15/9 (42.9%/25.7%, not evaluable: 11); higher grade toxicity (III or IV): leukocytopenia III: 14.3%, thrombocytopenia III: 2.9%, weariness III: 2.9%, diarrhea III: 5.7%, diarrhea IV: 2.9%, vomiting IV: 2.9%, pain III: 5.7%, ascites III: 5.7%, infections III: 2.9%, thromboembolia IV: 2.9%, elevated bilirubin value III: 1.7%, grade IV: 8.3%; deep leg vein thrombosis: 15%; median TTP: 5.1 months (95% CI: 2.9 - 7.2); median overall survival: 10.4 months (95% CI: 7.9 - 12.9); 6-months-/1-year-/2-year-survival rate: 65.7%/45.7%/17.1%; response rate: PR: n=5 (14.3%), SD: n=18 (51.4%), PD: n=7 (20%), not evaluable: n=5 (14.3%); tumor control (PR/SD): n=23 (65.7%); median follow-up: 10.4 months.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Combination chemotherapy with weekly GEM as a 0.5h-inf. and 5-FU as a 24h-inf. on an out-patient basis is an effective palliative treatment schedule with solely low grade toxicity.

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  • (PMID = 27962748.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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13. Salerno S, Florena AM, Romano I, Miceli L, Lo Casto A: Multifocal biliary cystadenocarcinoma of the liver: CT and pathologic findings. Tumori; 2006 Jul-Aug;92(4):358-60

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Multifocal biliary cystadenocarcinoma of the liver: CT and pathologic findings.
  • Biliary cystadenocarcinoma is a rare tumor that originates from the hepatobiliary epithelium.
  • Although this tumor can affect any portion of the biliary tree, intrahepatic location is more common.
  • The lesion is most often solitary and large when discovered; multiple lesions or metastases within the liver are very rare.
  • The patient was treated with chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Biliary Tract Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Biliary Tract Neoplasms / pathology. Cystadenocarcinoma / diagnostic imaging. Cystadenocarcinoma / pathology. Tomography, Spiral Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Biliary Tract Surgical Procedures / methods. Biopsy. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Humans. Laparoscopy. Male. Middle Aged. Transaminases / blood

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  • (PMID = 17036531.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-8916
  • [Journal-full-title] Tumori
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tumori
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.6.1.- / Transaminases
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14. Ishii N, Fujitani S, Suzuki S, Tsukamoto M, Arai M, Hashimoto A, Izuka Y, Fukuda K, Horiki N, Fujita Y: [A case of advanced gastric cancer with pyloric stenosis and obstructive jaundice responding to s-1/paclitaxel combination therapy after endoscopic balloon dilatation and endoscopic biliary drainage]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2008 Jan;35(1):121-4
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. TAXOL .

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  • [Title] [A case of advanced gastric cancer with pyloric stenosis and obstructive jaundice responding to s-1/paclitaxel combination therapy after endoscopic balloon dilatation and endoscopic biliary drainage].
  • A 65-year-old female who complained of appetite loss and upper abdominal pain was diagnosed as unresectable advanced gastric cancer with pyloric stenosis and obstructive jaundice by peritoneal and lymph node metastases.
  • After endoscopic balloon dilatation and endoscopic biliary drainage, S-1(80 mg/m(2)/day, days 1-14 with 1 week rest)/pacli- taxel(PTX)(50 mg/m(2)/day, day 1, day 8)combination therapy was done.
  • After one course of the chemotherapy, subjective symptoms were relieved and oral intake was increased.
  • Computed tomography showed that the volume of gastric wall, the size of paraaortic lymph node, and the amount of pleural effusion and ascites were decreased.
  • Grade 1 alopecia, vasculitis and grade 2 neutropenia were observed as adverse reactions to the treatment.
  • S-1/PTX combination therapy after endoscopic intervention was effective in this case of advanced gastric cancer with pyloric stenosis and obstructive jaundice.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Jaundice, Obstructive / pathology. Jaundice, Obstructive / therapy. Oxonic Acid / therapeutic use. Paclitaxel / therapeutic use. Pyloric Stenosis / pathology. Stomach Neoplasms / pathology. Tegafur / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biliary Tract Diseases. Catheterization. Drug Combinations. Endoscopes. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18195540.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Drug Combinations; 150863-82-4 / S 1 (combination); 1548R74NSZ / Tegafur; 5VT6420TIG / Oxonic Acid; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
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15. Fiorentini G, Giovanis P, Leoni M, De Giorgi U, Cariello A, Dazzi C, Caldeo A: Amifostine (Ethyol) as modulator of hepatic and biliary toxicity from intraarterial hepatic chemoembolization: results of a phase I study. Hepatogastroenterology; 2001 Mar-Apr;48(38):313-6
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  • [Title] Amifostine (Ethyol) as modulator of hepatic and biliary toxicity from intraarterial hepatic chemoembolization: results of a phase I study.
  • BACKGROUND/AIMS: Hepatic and biliary toxicity are still significant problems after intraarterial hepatic chemoembolization for liver metastases from large bowel cancers.
  • In about 30-60% of the patients hepatic and biliary toxicity are the limiting aspects of intraarterial hepatic chemoembolization and exclude a lot of patients from a repeated beneficial treatment.
  • Amifostine (Ethyol) is a prodrug that must be dephosphorylated to the free thiol in which form it can detoxify free oxygen radicals generated by radiation, hypoxia and by drugs such anthracyclines, platinum analogues and alkylating agents.
  • Amifostine as inactive prodrug is primarily metabolized at the tissue site by membrane alkaline phosphatase, which is highly active in the cell membranes of normal endothelial cells and biliary tree cells but not in the cell membranes and neovascular capillaries of tumor.
  • The resulting high thiol content in normal liver tissue (biliary cells and hepatocytes) compared with the negligible concentration in liver metastases from large bowel cancers probably provides for selective drug resistance to intraarterial hepatic chemoembolization protecting normal tissue and allowing full therapeutic effect on tumor.
  • METHODOLOGY: From May 1997 we planned a phase I study in patients receiving intraarterial hepatic chemoembolization for liver metastases from large bowel cancers.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Amifostine can be certainly administered at 300 mg/m2 as intraarterial infusion and could be a significant step to ameliorate the therapeutic ratio of intraarterial hepatic chemoembolization.
  • [MeSH-major] Amifostine / administration & dosage. Biliary Tract / drug effects. Chemoembolization, Therapeutic / adverse effects. Liver / drug effects. Liver Neoplasms / therapy. Prodrugs / administration & dosage. Radiation-Protective Agents / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Infusions, Intra-Arterial. Intestinal Neoplasms / pathology. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 11379297.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-6390
  • [Journal-full-title] Hepato-gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hepatogastroenterology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase I; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Prodrugs; 0 / Radiation-Protective Agents; M487QF2F4V / Amifostine
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16. Nelms JK, Patel JA, Atkinson DP, Raves JJ: Metastatic malignant melanoma of the gallbladder presenting as biliary colic: a case report and review of literature. Am Surg; 2007 Aug;73(8):833-5
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  • [Title] Metastatic malignant melanoma of the gallbladder presenting as biliary colic: a case report and review of literature.
  • Malignant melanoma (MM) is the most common cancer to metastasize to the gastrointestinal tract.
  • Autopsy reports estimate that up to 15 per cent of these patients also have gallbladder metastases, and MM accounts for up to 60 per cent of metastatic lesions to the gallbladder.
  • The effect of screening for gallbladder metastases on improving survival is not well defined, and thus its role remains controversial.
  • Cholecystectomy for melanoma metastases to the gallbladder seems to be mostly palliative, although there have been isolated reports of excellent long-term survival outcomes.
  • The role for immunotherapy and chemotherapy in this population is not well defined, and overall prognosis is poor.
  • Recent reports have advocated laparoscopic cholecystectomy as the treatment of choice, though there remains a concern for peritoneal port site seeding.
  • [MeSH-minor] Cholecystectomy, Laparoscopic. Diagnosis, Differential. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 17879698.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-1348
  • [Journal-full-title] The American surgeon
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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17. Thomas KT, Bream PR Jr, Berlin J, Meranze SG, Wright JK, Chari RS: Use of percutaneous drainage to treat hepatic abscess after radiofrequency ablation of metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Am Surg; 2004 Jun;70(6):496-9
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  • Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is well described in the treatment of primary hepatic malignancies and colorectal carcinoma hepatic metastases.
  • Following 6 months' treatment, a new liver metastasis was identified.
  • It remained stable for 6 months during additional chemotherapy and thereafter was treated with RFA.
  • Contrast injection of the drain 4 weeks later demonstrated resolution of the abscess cavity but communication with the biliary tree.
  • The drain was removed and the tract embolized with Gel-foam to prevent complications of biliary-cutaneous fistula.
  • Thus, RFA can be used in treatment of limited isolated hepatic metastases from previously treated pancreatic adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Adenocarcinoma / therapy. Catheter Ablation / adverse effects. Drainage / methods. Liver Abscess / therapy. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Liver Neoplasms / therapy. Pancreatic Neoplasms / pathology. Pancreatic Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 15212401.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-1348
  • [Journal-full-title] The American surgeon
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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18. Shitara K, Ishiguro A, Munakata M, Sakata Y, Mizuno Y, Wada R: [A case of advanced gastric cancer with obstructive jaundice that responded to TS-1/CPT-11 combination therapy after percutaneous transhepatic cholangio drainage]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2005 Oct;32(10):1465-8
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  • [Title] [A case of advanced gastric cancer with obstructive jaundice that responded to TS-1/CPT-11 combination therapy after percutaneous transhepatic cholangio drainage].
  • TS-1/CPT-11 combination therapy was carried out in a case of advanced gastric cancer with liver and lymph node metastases and obstructive jaundice after percutaneous transhepatic cholangio drainage (PTCD).
  • Regression of the primary carcinoma and reduction in size of metastases were observed.
  • Grade 1 fatigue and grade 2 neutropenia were noted as adverse reactions to the treatment.
  • TS-1/CPT-11 combination therapy was useful in this case of advanced gastric cancer with liver and lymph node metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Drainage / methods. Jaundice, Obstructive / therapy. Stomach Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Biliary Tract. Camptothecin / administration & dosage. Camptothecin / analogs & derivatives. Combined Modality Therapy. Drug Administration Schedule. Drug Combinations. Gastroscopy. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Oxonic Acid / administration & dosage. Pyridines / administration & dosage. Tegafur / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 16227750.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Drug Combinations; 0 / Pyridines; 150863-82-4 / S 1 (combination); 1548R74NSZ / Tegafur; 5VT6420TIG / Oxonic Acid; 7673326042 / irinotecan; XT3Z54Z28A / Camptothecin
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19. Yamaguchi Y, Shimizu H, Yoneda E: [A case of recurrent endocrine cell carcinoma of the common bile duct successfully treated by hepatic artery infusion with CPT-11 and CDDP]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2009 May;36(5):823-5
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  • A 77-year-old woman underwent pancreatoduodenectomy with the diagnosis of biliary tract cancer.
  • Systemic infusion of gemcitabine was started as adjuvant chemotherapy, however, 6 months after the operation, multiple liver and lymph node metastases were revealed by computed tomography.
  • This method could be a therapeutic option for recurrent endocrine cell carcinoma of the bile duct.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bile Duct Neoplasms / drug therapy. Bile Duct Neoplasms / secondary. Camptothecin / analogs & derivatives. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Pancreatic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Pancreatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Female. Hepatic Artery. Humans. Infusions, Intra-Arterial. Pancreaticoduodenectomy. Recurrence. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 19461186.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 7673326042 / irinotecan; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; XT3Z54Z28A / Camptothecin
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20. Barbaro B, Caputo F, Tebala C, Di Stasi C, Vellone M, Giuliante F, Nuzzo G, Bonomo L: Preoperative right portal vein embolisation: indications and results. Radiol Med; 2009 Jun;114(4):553-70
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  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-six consecutive patients, 14 with liver metastases (ten from colorectal cancer; four from carcinoid tumours) and 12 with biliary cancers (ten Klatskin tumours; one gallbladder tumour; one intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma) with insufficient predicted future remnant liver (FRL) underwent right PVE to induce hypertrophy of the contralateral hemiliver prior to surgical resection.
  • RESULTS: The FRL volume increased by 5%-25% (15% on average) after right PVE in patients with liver metastases and by 9%-19% (14% on average) in patients with biliary cancers.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Right PVE extends the indications for hepatectomy in patients with liver metastases and those with biliary cancers who have an insufficient potential hepatic functional reserve.
  • [MeSH-major] Biliary Tract Neoplasms / drug therapy. Biliary Tract Neoplasms / surgery. Embolization, Therapeutic. Hepatectomy / methods. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Liver Neoplasms / surgery. Portal Vein. Preoperative Care / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bile Duct Neoplasms / drug therapy. Bile Duct Neoplasms / surgery. Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic. Cholangiocarcinoma / drug therapy. Cholangiocarcinoma / surgery. Female. Gallbladder Neoplasms / drug therapy. Gallbladder Neoplasms / surgery. Humans. Klatskin Tumor / drug therapy. Klatskin Tumor / surgery. Male. Middle Aged. Practice Guidelines as Topic. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19367466.001).
  • [ISSN] 0033-8362
  • [Journal-full-title] La Radiologia medica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiol Med
  • [Language] eng; ita
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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21. Shimono C, Suwa K, Sato M, Shirai S, Yamada K, Nakamura Y, Makuuchi M: Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the gallbladder: long survival achieved by multimodal treatment. Int J Clin Oncol; 2009 Aug;14(4):351-5
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Gallbladder Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the gallbladder: long survival achieved by multimodal treatment.
  • We report a case of large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the gallbladder in a 64-year-old woman who presented with a right upper quadrant mass whose longest diameter was 11.5 cm; the mass was initially considered to be unresectable because of probable invasion to the main portal vein and biliary tract.
  • The patient received multi-modal treatment, consisting of intraarterial chemotherapy, three-dimensional radiation therapy, right trisegmentectomy, and gamma-knife irradiation (for brain metastases).
  • She has survived for 69 months since the initial diagnosis and has shown no signs of recurrence at 35 months after the last gamma-knife irradiation for brain metastases.
  • This result suggests that multimodal treatment including surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy achieved a good response and led to long survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Large Cell / therapy. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / therapy. Gallbladder Neoplasms / therapy. Radiosurgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Radiation Dosage. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19705247.001).
  • [ISSN] 1437-7772
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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22. Uemura S, Maeda H, Munekage M, Yoshioka R, Okabayashi T, Hanazaki K: Hepatic resection for metastatic colon cancer in patients with situs inversus totalis complicated by multiple anomalies of the hepatobiliary system: the first case report. J Gastrointest Surg; 2009 Sep;13(9):1724-7
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Liver Cancer.

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  • Despite postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy, tumor markers increased and multiple liver metastases were detected on abdominal ultrasonography.
  • Enhanced computed tomography revealed not only liver metastases but also hepatobiliary anomalies associated with situs inversus totalis as follows:.
  • For the treatment of hepatic metastases from sigmoid colon cancer in a patient with situs inversus totalis, "left" hepatic lobectomy, partial hepatectomy, and radiofrequency ablation therapy were performed.
  • Adjuvant chemotherapy has been continued for 2 years after the second operation and the patient is doing well without recurrence.
  • [MeSH-major] Abnormalities, Multiple / surgery. Biliary Tract / abnormalities. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Liver Neoplasms / surgery. Sigmoid Neoplasms / complications. Sigmoid Neoplasms / pathology. Situs Inversus / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Catheter Ablation / methods. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Colectomy / methods. Follow-Up Studies. Hepatectomy / methods. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Risk Assessment. Time Factors. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome. Ultrasonography, Doppler

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  • (PMID = 19415395.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-4626
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of gastrointestinal surgery : official journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Gastrointest. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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23. Ksienski D, Woods R, Speers C, Kennecke H: Patterns of referral and resection among patients with liver-only metastatic colorectal cancer (MCRC). Ann Surg Oncol; 2010 Dec;17(12):3085-93
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Liver Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Metastases larger than 5 cm, bilobar, or more than 3 metastases were classified as high tumor burden.
  • In multivariate analysis, variables associated with referral were younger age (P < .001), ECOG performance status 0/1 (P < .002), chemotherapy for metastatic disease (P = .007), 1-3 metastasis (P < .001), and unilobar disease (P < .001).
  • Resection of hepatic metastases was associated with improved overall survival irrespective of initial tumor burden.
  • [MeSH-major] Biliary Tract Neoplasms / surgery. Colorectal Neoplasms / surgery. Hepatectomy. Liver Neoplasms / surgery. Practice Patterns, Physicians'. Referral and Consultation
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biliary Tract Surgical Procedures. British Columbia / epidemiology. Cohort Studies. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prospective Studies. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome


24. Menias CO, Surabhi VR, Prasad SR, Wang HL, Narra VR, Chintapalli KN: Mimics of cholangiocarcinoma: spectrum of disease. Radiographics; 2008 Jul-Aug;28(4):1115-29
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • A wide spectrum of neoplastic and nonneoplastic conditions of the biliary tract may masquerade as cholangiocarcinoma, adding to the complexity of management in patients suspected to have cholangiocarcinoma.
  • Mimics of cholangiocarcinoma constitute a heterogeneous group of entities that includes primary sclerosing cholangitis, recurrent pyogenic cholangitis, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome cholangiopathy, autoimmune pancreatitis, inflammatory pseudotumor, Mirizzi syndrome, xanthogranulomatous cholangitis, sarcoidosis, chemotherapy-induced sclerosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, metastases, melanoma, lymphoma, leukemia, and carcinoid tumors.
  • In most cases, a definitive diagnosis can be established only with histopathologic examination of a biopsy specimen.

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  • (PMID = 18635632.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-1323
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiographics : a review publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiographics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 69
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25. Mita Y, Ajiki T, Kamigaki T, Okazaki T, Hori H, Horiuchi H, Hirata K, Fujita T, Fujimori T, Kuroda Y: Antitumor effect of gemcitabine on orthotopically inoculated human gallbladder cancer cells in nude mice. Ann Surg Oncol; 2007 Apr;14(4):1374-80
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: The prognosis of gallbladder carcinoma is poor; therefore, investigating the efficacy of new chemotherapy agents is essential for the treatments for this tumor.
  • Recently, several studies have reported clinical trials using gemcitabine as treatment for advanced gallbladder cancers.
  • METHODS: We examined the cytotoxicity of gemcitabine in four biliary tract cancer cell lines using the WST-1 assay.
  • All mice were sacrificed one week after the end of treatment, and macroscopic and histological findings were evaluated.
  • Survival duration of the mice after gemcitabine treatment was compared to that of untreated mice.
  • RESULTS: The gemcitabine sensitivity of the four biliary tract cancer cell lines was similar in a dose dependent manner.
  • In the in vivo models, the Group A mice showed huge tumors of the gallbladder, with liver invasion and lymph node metastases.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Gemcitabine treatment may inhibit tumor progression and prolong survival in gallbladder cancer by inhibiting cell proliferation and inducing apoptosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Bile Duct Neoplasms / drug therapy. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Gallbladder Neoplasms / drug therapy. Neovascularization, Pathologic / prevention & control

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  • (PMID = 17235714.001).
  • [ISSN] 1068-9265
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; B76N6SBZ8R / gemcitabine
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26. Orth K, Beger HG: Gallbladder carcinoma and surgical treatment. Langenbecks Arch Surg; 2000 Dec;385(8):501-8
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Gallbladder Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Gallbladder carcinoma and surgical treatment.
  • The frequency of gallbladder cancer in all operations of the biliary tract is about 1-3%, reflecting the commonest biliary tract malignancy.
  • Preoperative imaging, including ultrasound and computed tomography (CT), may reveal signs indicative of the presence of malignancy.
  • Regional and para-aortic lymphadenectomy provides no survival benefit for patients with para-aortic disease, which has a negative influence on prognosis equivalent to that of distant metastases.
  • A survival benefit is seen only in selected patients with metastases limited to the regional nodes.
  • Other approaches to the management of advanced tumours include systemic chemotherapy or combined chemo-radiotherapy and need further evaluation.

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  • (PMID = 11201005.001).
  • [ISSN] 1435-2443
  • [Journal-full-title] Langenbeck's archives of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Langenbecks Arch Surg
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 76
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27. Pitton MB, Herber S, Raab P, Mönch C, Wunsch M, Schneider J, Schweden F, Otto G, Thelen M: [Percutaneous radiofrequency ablation of liver tumors using the LeVeen 4 cm array probe]. Rofo; 2003 Nov;175(11):1525-31
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Liver Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Adapted to the tumor size, the LeVeen Probe was repositioned during the procedure with an additional safety margin of 1 cm.
  • RESULTS: One to 4 metastases were treated per patient during one or up to 4 procedure sessions.
  • In 4 cases two treatment sessions were necessary in order to achieve the intended results.
  • In one case the procedure was aborted because of a close relationship between lesion and right colon.
  • Morbidity was 9.2 %: Bleeding complications (n = 3, one arterial bleeding from the ablation tract, two intrahepatic bleedings with extrahepatic hematoma) were confirmed by selective angiography of the hepatic artery and were treated with coil embolisation of the respective segmental arteries.
  • One patient suffered from fever up to 39 degrees C and inflammation of the biliary tract and received a cholecystectomy 22 days post interventionally.
  • One case is scheduled for a second treatment session for complete tumor ablation.
  • 13 of 35 patients suffered from tumor recurrence, either local recurrences and/or new metastases.
  • At the sites of prior RF-ablation 9 local recurrences were detected in 7 patients, two cases with isolated local recurrences and 5 cases with local recurrences and new metastases.
  • 6 Patients showed no evidence for local recurrences but new metastases.
  • In these 11 cases a total of 37 metastases were found at new locations.
  • The remaining 10 patients received chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Catheter Ablation / instrumentation. Catheter Ablation / methods. Liver Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Radio Waves / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Humans. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted. Middle Aged. Recurrence. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 14610704.001).
  • [ISSN] 1438-9029
  • [Journal-full-title] RöFo : Fortschritte auf dem Gebiete der Röntgenstrahlen und der Nuklearmedizin
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rofo
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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28. Ross DD, Nakanishi T: Impact of breast cancer resistance protein on cancer treatment outcomes. Methods Mol Biol; 2010;596:251-90
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Cancer Chemotherapy.

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  • [Title] Impact of breast cancer resistance protein on cancer treatment outcomes.
  • This ABC transporter functions (at least in part) as a xenobiotic protective mechanism for the organism: in the gut and biliary tract, it prevents absorption and enhances elimination of potentially toxic substances.
  • Therefore, BCRP could influence cancer outcomes by (a) endogenous BCRP affecting the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination of anticancer drugs;.
  • (b) BCRP expression in cancer cells may directly cause resistance by active efflux of anticancer drugs;.
  • (c) BCRP expression in cancer cells could be a manifestation of the activity of metabolic and signaling pathways that impart multiple mechanisms of drug resistance, self-renewal (stemness), and invasiveness (aggressiveness)--i.e. impart a poor prognosis--to cancers.
  • Whether this adverse prognostic effect results from resistance imparted to the cancer cells as the direct result of BCRP efflux of anticancer drugs, or whether BCRP expression (and also Pgp expression - coexpression of these transporters is common among poor risk cancers) serves as indicators of the activity of signaling pathways that enhance cancer cellular proliferation, metastases, genomic instability, enhance drug resistance, and oppose programmed cell death mechanisms is yet unknown.
  • [MeSH-major] ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters / metabolism. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] ATP Binding Cassette Transporter, Sub-Family G, Member 2. Animals. Antineoplastic Agents / metabolism. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Cell Line, Tumor. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Humans. Mutation. Neoplastic Stem Cells / metabolism. Polymorphism, Genetic. Treatment Outcome. Xenobiotics / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19949928.001).
  • [ISSN] 1940-6029
  • [Journal-full-title] Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Methods Mol. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / ABCG2 protein, human; 0 / ATP Binding Cassette Transporter, Sub-Family G, Member 2; 0 / ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Xenobiotics
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