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1. Baskin E, Ozen S, Cakar N, Bayrakci US, Demirkaya E, Bakkaloglu A: The use of low-dose cyclophosphamide followed by AZA/MMF treatment in childhood lupus nephritis. Pediatr Nephrol; 2010 Jan;25(1):111-7
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  • [Title] The use of low-dose cyclophosphamide followed by AZA/MMF treatment in childhood lupus nephritis.
  • Cyclophosphamide (CYC) has been the landmark in the treatment of lupus nephritis.
  • However, long-term treatment with CYC is associated with significant side effects.
  • We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of short-term intravenous (IV) CYC treatment as a remission induction treatment followed by azathioprine (AZA) or mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) as a maintenance treatment.
  • All patients received three methylprednisolone (MP) IV pulses, followed by oral prednisone 0.5-1 mg/kg per day and one IV pulse of CYC per month for 6 months.
  • Azathioprine was started as a remission-maintaining treatment.
  • In ten of 20 patients, treatment was switched to MMF.
  • The mean age at the time of diagnosis was 16.11 +/- 3.49 years, and the mean duration of follow-up was 49.6 +/- 27 months.
  • In conclusion, short-term (6-month) IV bolus CYC treatment followed by AZA is a safe and effective treatment in children with severe lupus nephritis, and using MMF increases remission rate in resistant cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Azathioprine / therapeutic use. Cyclophosphamide / therapeutic use. Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use. Lupus Nephritis / drug therapy. Mycophenolic Acid / analogs & derivatives
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Therapy, Combination. Female. Humans. Male. Remission Induction. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19727839.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-198X
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric nephrology (Berlin, Germany)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr. Nephrol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; HU9DX48N0T / Mycophenolic Acid; MRK240IY2L / Azathioprine
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2. Ahrens I, Ellwanger C, Smith BK, Bassler N, Chen YC, Neudorfer I, Ludwig A, Bode C, Peter K: Selenium supplementation induces metalloproteinase-dependent L-selectin shedding from monocytes. J Leukoc Biol; 2008 Jun;83(6):1388-95
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  • Selenium therapy in patients with severe sepsis improves clinical outcome and has been associated with increased activity of the selenoprotein glutathione peroxidase.
  • We determined the effect of selenium treatment on the monocyte adhesion molecule L-selectin and L-selectin-related monocyte functions in vitro and transferred our findings to an in vivo mouse model.
  • Monocytes were purified, cultured, and incubated in the presence or absence of supplemented selenium and metalloproteinase (MP) inhibitors for up to 16 h.
  • A 2.3-fold increase as a result of shedding of L-selectin was observed after 16 h of selenium treatment.
  • Addition of the MP inhibitors GM6001, TNF-alpha-converting enzyme inhibitor 2, or GW280264X strongly reduced selenium-induced L-selectin shedding, indicating a MP-dependent mechanism.
  • Selenium treatment of C57BL6 mice led to increased serum levels of sL-selectin, underscoring the in vivo relevance of our findings.
  • We describe a selenium-induced down-regulation of L-selectin on monocytes as a consequence of MP-dependent shedding of this membrane-anchored adhesion molecule.
  • [MeSH-minor] ADAM Proteins / physiology. Cell Adhesion. Cell Survival / drug effects. Cells, Cultured. Dietary Supplements. Humans. Leukocyte Rolling. Sepsis / drug therapy. Shear Strength. Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 18305178.001).
  • [ISSN] 0741-5400
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of leukocyte biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Leukoc. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 126880-86-2 / L-Selectin; EC 3.4.- / Metalloproteases; EC 3.4.24.- / ADAM Proteins; EC 3.4.24.- / tumor necrosis factor-alpha convertase; H6241UJ22B / Selenium; NI40JAQ945 / Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate
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3. Zhang ZF, Zhao G, Liu LN: [Effectiveness and safety of proton pump inhibitor and levofloxacin based first-line triple therapy in the eradication of Helicobacter pylori: a meta-analysis]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi; 2008 Oct 21;88(38):2722-5
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  • [Title] [Effectiveness and safety of proton pump inhibitor and levofloxacin based first-line triple therapy in the eradication of Helicobacter pylori: a meta-analysis].
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of the proton pump inhibitor and levofloxacin based first-line triple therapy in the eradication of Helicobacter pylori (Hp).
  • METHODS: Correlated randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs) evaluating the effectiveness and safety of proton pump inhibitor and levofloxacin based first-line triple therapy to eradicate Hp were searched in Medline, Embase, OVID, Cochrane Library, Clinical evidence online, Socolar searching platform, and National Knowledge Infrastructure (1994 - 2008).
  • As the first line treatment, proton pump inhibitor and levofloxacin based triple therapy was more effective than standard triple therapy (total OR = 1.56, 95%CI = 1.25 - 1.94, P = 0.000), had lower side effect rate than standard triple therapy (total OR = 0.57, 95%CI = 0.44 - 0.74, P = 0.000), and there was no significant difference in the compliance with the two therapies (total OR = 0.72, 95%CI = 0.34 - 1.49, P = 0.374).
  • CONCLUSION: Proton pump inhibitor and levofloxacin based triple therapy is effective in the eradication of Hp, and should be advocated to be the first-line regime in the treatment of Hp.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-Bacterial Agents / therapeutic use. Helicobacter Infections / drug therapy. Helicobacter pylori. Levofloxacin. Ofloxacin / therapeutic use. Proton Pump Inhibitors / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Drug Therapy, Combination. Humans

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  • (PMID = 19080698.001).
  • [ISSN] 0376-2491
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua yi xue za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Meta-Analysis
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents; 0 / Proton Pump Inhibitors; 6GNT3Y5LMF / Levofloxacin; A4P49JAZ9H / Ofloxacin
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4. Kulkarni SK, Dhir A: Possible involvement of L-arginine-nitric oxide (NO)-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) signaling pathway in the antidepressant activity of berberine chloride. Eur J Pharmacol; 2007 Aug 13;569(1-2):77-83
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  • [Title] Possible involvement of L-arginine-nitric oxide (NO)-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) signaling pathway in the antidepressant activity of berberine chloride.
  • Further, the involvement of L-arginine-nitric oxide (NO)-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) signaling pathway in the antidepressant action of berberine chloride was investigated.
  • When berberine (5 mg/kg, i.p.) was co-administered with other antidepressant drugs, it enhanced the anti-immobility effect of subeffective doses of imipramine (2 mg/kg, i.p.
  • ), the two atypical antidepressant drugs.
  • The antidepressant-like effect of berberine (5 mg/kg, i.p.) in forced-swim test was prevented by pretreatment with L-arginine (750 mg/kg, i.p.
  • ) [substrate for nitric oxide synthase (NOS)].
  • In addition, treatment of mice with methylene blue (10 mg/kg, i.p.
  • ) [direct inhibitor of both nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC)] potentiated the effect of berberine (2 mg/kg, i.p.) in the forced-swim test.
  • [MeSH-major] Antidepressive Agents / pharmacology. Arginine / pharmacology. Berberine / pharmacology. Cyclic GMP / metabolism. Nitric Oxide / metabolism. Signal Transduction / drug effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Behavior, Animal / drug effects. Brain Chemistry / drug effects. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Synergism. Hindlimb Suspension / adverse effects. Indazoles / pharmacology. Injections, Intraperitoneal. Male. Mice. Motor Activity / drug effects. Neurotransmitter Agents / metabolism. Piperazines / pharmacology. Purines / pharmacology. Sildenafil Citrate. Stress, Psychological / drug therapy. Stress, Psychological / etiology. Stress, Psychological / metabolism. Sulfones / pharmacology. Swimming. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 17585901.001).
  • [ISSN] 0014-2999
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antidepressive Agents; 0 / Indazoles; 0 / Neurotransmitter Agents; 0 / Piperazines; 0 / Purines; 0 / Sulfones; 0I8Y3P32UF / Berberine; 2942-42-9 / 7-nitroindazole; 31C4KY9ESH / Nitric Oxide; 94ZLA3W45F / Arginine; BW9B0ZE037 / Sildenafil Citrate; H2D2X058MU / Cyclic GMP
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5. Kakuyama A, Sadzuka Y: Effect of methylxanthine derivatives on doxorubicin transport and antitumor activity. Curr Drug Metab; 2001 Dec;2(4):379-95
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  • Biochemical modulation, which is more effective with the use of antitumor agents, has recently played very important role in cancer chemotherapy.
  • Moreover, caffeine and theobromine did not enhance the side toxicity of doxorubicin on the lipid peroxide level, DNA biosynthesis and the doxorubicin concentrations in normal tissues.
  • Moreover, we investigated the effect of the combination of doxorubicin with caffeine or theobromine on the change in cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cyclic AMP) in tissues in vivo, and the effect of cyclic AMP on doxorubicin efflux in vitro, and measured the distribution of caffeine and theobromine in normal and tumor tissues.
  • This tendency was not seen in normal tissues (heart and liver).
  • And the caffeine concentration in the tumors was the same as that in the heart, and was increased in combination with doxorubicin compared with that in the caffeine-only group during the 4 hr after caffeine treatment.
  • Furthermore, the doxorubicin efflux was promoted by the supply of energy (addition of glucose), influx was decreased relatively, doxorubicin efflux needs the existence of glucose and the inhibition of energy related drug export pump by caffeine induced inhibition of doxorubicin efflux.
  • The treatment of doxorubicin nor caffeine, and any treatment schedule did not change the amount and appearance of GLUT 1 as glucose transporter on Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cell.
  • Caffeine distributes, high level in tumor, keeps the cyclic AMP level, and effects glucose transport or doxorubicin transport depend on energy and inhibits doxorubicin efflux.
  • These action did not show in normal tissues, caffeine did not influence the side toxicity of doxorubicin.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Biological Transport / drug effects. Carcinoma, Ehrlich Tumor / drug therapy. DNA, Neoplasm / drug effects. Humans

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  • (PMID = 11766989.001).
  • [ISSN] 1389-2002
  • [Journal-full-title] Current drug metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr. Drug Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Xanthines; 28109-92-4 / methylxanthine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin
  • [Number-of-references] 30
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6. Bresci G, Parisi G, Mazzoni A, Scatena F, Capria A: Granulocytapheresis versus methylprednisolone in patients with acute ulcerative colitis: 12-month follow up. J Gastroenterol Hepatol; 2008 Nov;23(11):1678-82
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  • AIM: To evaluate granulocytapheresis (GCAP) in active ulcerative colitis (UC), with particular attention to the long-term effects of such treatment.
  • Patients were randomly divided in two groups: Group A received a five-session (1 session/week) treatment with GCAP, Group B were treated with i.v. or i.m. methylprednisolone (MP).
  • Concomitant therapy with oral 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) 2.4 g/day was maintained in both groups.
  • Subjects who achieved a remission were clinically and endoscopically followed for 12 months after the end of GCAP or MP.
  • RESULTS: Remission was observed in 72.5% of those treated with GCAP versus 50% of those treated with MP.
  • After a 12-month follow up, a sustained remission was recorded in 40% of those treated with GCAP and in 25% of those treated with MP.
  • During the GCAP only a transient mild headache was recorded in 10% of patients, whereas side-effects were observed in 50% of those treated with MP (P < 0.05).
  • CONCLUSION: GCAP results were superior to MP for the treatment of UC, even though no statistically significant difference was observed.
  • Side-effects in the GCAP group were significantly lower than in the MP group.
  • This new therapeutic approach seems able to maintain the condition of remission for a longer time after a flare.
  • In fact, the patients who had obtained a remission after a course of CGAP showed fewer relapses during the follow up compared to the patients treated with MP.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-Inflammatory Agents / therapeutic use. Colitis, Ulcerative / therapy. Gastrointestinal Agents / therapeutic use. Granulocytes. Leukapheresis. Methylprednisolone / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Administration, Oral. Adult. Colonoscopy. Combined Modality Therapy. Drug Therapy, Combination. Female. Humans. Injections, Intramuscular. Injections, Intravenous. Male. Mesalamine / administration & dosage. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18823440.001).
  • [ISSN] 1440-1746
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of gastroenterology and hepatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents; 0 / Gastrointestinal Agents; 4Q81I59GXC / Mesalamine; X4W7ZR7023 / Methylprednisolone
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7. Kagaya H, Miura M, Saito M, Habuchi T, Satoh S: Correlation of IMPDH1 gene polymorphisms with subclinical acute rejection and mycophenolic acid exposure parameters on day 28 after renal transplantation. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol; 2010 Aug;107(2):631-6
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  • The risk of acute rejection in patients with higher exposure to mycophenolic acid (MPA), the active metabolite of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), might be due to inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) polymorphisms.
  • Renal transplant recipients were given combination immunosuppressive therapy consisting of tacrolimus and 1.0, 1.5 or 2.0 g/day of MMF in equally divided doses every 12 hr at designated times.
  • However, in the high MPA night-time exposure range (AUC > 60 microg x h/ml and C(0 )> or = 1.9 microg/ml), there was a significant difference in the incidence of subclinical acute rejection between IMPDH1 rs2278293 A/A, A/G and G/G genotypes (each p = 0.019), but not the IMPDH1 rs2278294 genotype.
  • The risk of subclinical acute rejection for recipients who cannot adapt in therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of MPA seems to be influenced by IMPDH1 rs2278293 polymorphism.
  • The prospective analysis of IMPDH1 rs2278293 polymorphism as well as monitoring of MPA plasma concentration after transplantation might help to improve MMF therapy.
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Adult. Aged. Area Under Curve. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Therapy, Combination. Female. Genotype. Humans. Immunocompromised Host. Immunosuppressive Agents / pharmacokinetics. Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use. Male. Middle Aged. Tacrolimus / therapeutic use. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20136638.001).
  • [ISSN] 1742-7843
  • [Journal-full-title] Basic & clinical pharmacology & toxicology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Basic Clin. Pharmacol. Toxicol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 9242ECW6R0 / mycophenolate mofetil; EC 1.1.1.205 / IMP Dehydrogenase; EC 1.1.1.205 / IMPDH1 protein, human; HU9DX48N0T / Mycophenolic Acid; WM0HAQ4WNM / Tacrolimus
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8. Loop T, Liu Z, Humar M, Hoetzel A, Benzing A, Pahl HL, Geiger KK, J Pannen BH: Thiopental inhibits the activation of nuclear factor kappaB. Anesthesiology; 2002 May;96(5):1202-13
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  • BACKGROUND: Thiopental is frequently used for the treatment of intracranial hypertension after severe head injury.
  • Its long-term administration increases the incidence of nosocomial infections, which contributes to the high mortality rate of these patients.
  • RESULTS: Thiopental inhibited the activation of the transcription factor NF-kappaB but did not alter the activity of the cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element binding protein.
  • Thiopental-mediated suppression of NF-kappaB could be observed in Jurkat cells and in primary CD3+ lymphocytes from healthy volunteers, was time- and concentration-dependent, occurred at concentrations that are clinically achieved, and persisted for hours after the incubation.
  • CONCLUSION: The results demonstrate that thiopental inhibits the activation of NF-kappaB and may thus provide a molecular mechanism for some of the immunosuppressing effects associated with thiopental therapy.
  • [MeSH-minor] Biotransformation / drug effects. Blotting, Western. Cytokines / metabolism. Electrophoresis. Genes, Reporter / genetics. Humans. Indicators and Reagents. Jurkat Cells. Lymphocyte Activation / drug effects. Monocytes / drug effects. Monocytes / metabolism. T-Lymphocytes / drug effects. T-Lymphocytes / metabolism

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  • [CommentIn] Anesthesiology. 2003 Apr;98(4):1020; author reply 1020-1 [12657869.001]
  • (PMID = 11981162.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-3022
  • [Journal-full-title] Anesthesiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anesthesiology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cytokines; 0 / Hypnotics and Sedatives; 0 / Indicators and Reagents; 0 / NF-kappa B; 76-75-5 / Thiopental
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9. Taskin O, Muderrisoglu H, Akar M, Simsek M, Mendilcioglu I, Kursun S: Comparison of the effects of tibolone and estrogen replacement therapy on echocardiographic basic cardiac functions in post-menopausal women: a randomized placebo controlled study. Maturitas; 2004 Aug 20;48(4):354-9
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  • [Title] Comparison of the effects of tibolone and estrogen replacement therapy on echocardiographic basic cardiac functions in post-menopausal women: a randomized placebo controlled study.
  • OBJECTIVES: This study is designed to investigate and compare the effects of synthetic steroid tibolone and HRT on systolic and diastolic heart functions in post-menopausal women.
  • Their basic systolic and diastolic functions were investigated with HP Sonos-1000 echocardiography using standard positions and windows before and 6 months after the initiation of HRT.
  • RESULTS: Mean age, weight, length of post-menopausal period, heart rate, systolic and diastolic pressures were similar between the groups.
  • However, at the end of 6 months, left ventricular end-systolic and -diastolic volumes were decreased significantly compared to pretreatment and placebo in both EP and OD treated groups. (55.5 +/- 18.4 and 53.7 +/- 19.1.8 ml; 109.9 +/-19.9 and 110.7 +/- 20.8 ml versus 74.5 +/- 14.9 and 142.7 +/- 19.1 ml, respectively; P < 0.05).
  • Improvement in diastolic functions was significant in EP/OD groups compared to pre-treatment period and the placebo groups (E/A 1.34 +/- 0.1 and 1.38 +/- 0.1 versus 1.18 +/-.09, deceleration time 204 +/- 11.1 and 202.8 +/- 27.1 ms versus 237.6 +/- 26.9 ms, respectively).
  • Besides increase in left ventricular mass adjusted for height, decrease in left ventricular relative wall thickness, and systemic vascular resistance were significant in EP and OD treated groups than placebo and the pre-treatment measurements.
  • Although improved in both OD and EP groups, the changes in systolic and diastolic functions were significantly higher in the OD treated group.
  • [MeSH-major] Estrogen Replacement Therapy. Heart / drug effects. Norpregnenes / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Androgen Antagonists / pharmacology. Androgen Antagonists / therapeutic use. Contraceptive Agents, Female / pharmacology. Contraceptive Agents, Female / therapeutic use. Double-Blind Method. Echocardiography / drug effects. Female. Humans. Medroxyprogesterone Acetate / pharmacology. Medroxyprogesterone Acetate / therapeutic use. Middle Aged. Placebos. Postmenopause / drug effects. Prospective Studies. Ventricular Function, Left / drug effects. Ventricular Function, Right / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 15283927.001).
  • [ISSN] 0378-5122
  • [Journal-full-title] Maturitas
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Maturitas
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Comparative Study; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgen Antagonists; 0 / Contraceptive Agents, Female; 0 / Norpregnenes; 0 / Placebos; C2QI4IOI2G / Medroxyprogesterone Acetate; FF9X0205V2 / tibolone
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10. Tocík Z, Barvík I Jr, Budesínský M, Rosenberg I: Novel isosteric, isopolar phosphonate analogs of oligonucleotides: preparation and properties. Biopolymers; 2006 Nov;83(4):400-13
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  • A synthetic approach leading to novel-type modified oligothymidylates containing an isosteric, isopolar, enzyme-stable C3'-O-P-CH(2)-O-C4'' phosphonate alternative to phosphodiester internucleotide bond was elaborated.
  • The suitable monomers were prepared from 4'-phosphonomethoxy derivatives of alpha-L-threo and beta-D-erythro-2',5'-dideoxythymidine, which were considered interesting as structurally related to nucleoside 5'-monophosphates.
  • The phosphotriester method was applied to the automated synthesis of both homooligomeric phosphonate 15-mer chains and alternating phosphonate-phosphate constructs.
  • The fully modified homooligomers did not hybridize while homooligomers with alternating sequences containing alpha-L-threo-configured units (but not beta-D-erythro-) showed a significant decrease in T(m) values in comparison with natural dT(15).

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  • (PMID = 16845669.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-3525
  • [Journal-full-title] Biopolymers
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biopolymers
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Oligonucleotides; 0 / Organophosphonates
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11. Shu XC, Zhu DH, Pang TJ, Sun L, Ye LH, Lu HY, Yin DC, Xie DH: [Effects of drynaria total flavonoid on osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells at different glucose concentrations: experiment with rats]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi; 2010 Oct 19;90(38):2708-12
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  • (1) low glucose control group, (2) high glucose control group, (3) low glucose classical induction group (sodium glycerophosphate+vitamin C+dexamethasone), (4) high glucose classical induction group (sodium glycerophosphate+vitamin C+dexamethasone), (5) low glucose+drynaria total flavonoid group, and (6) high glucose with drynaria total flavonoid group.
  • Alkaline phosphate (ALP) test kit was used to examine the level of ALP.
  • Immunohistochemistry was used to detect type I collagen level.
  • RESULTS: The A value indicating the ALP activity, ALP staining positive rate, calcium node number, and type I collagen expression score of the low glucose+drynaria total flavonoid group were (0.439±0.024), 48.7%, (9.75±1.71) nodes/HP, and (2.21±0.07) respectively, all significantly higher than those of the sodium glycerophosphate+vitamin C+dexamethasone [(0.385±0.029), 35.0%, (6.25±0.96) nodes/HP, and (1.93±0.13) respectively, all P<0.05].
  • The A value, ALP staining positive rate, calcium node number, and type I collagen expression score of the high glucose with drynaria total flavonoid group were (0.352±0.022), 25.3%, (4.50±1.29)/HP, and (1.70±0.03) respectively, all significantly higher than those of the sodium glycerophosphate+vitamin C+dexamethasone [(0.139±0.013), 22.7%, (3.25±1.50)/HP, and (1.28±0.27) respectively, all P<0.05].
  • The AGE expression levels of the high glucose classical induction group and high glucose+drynaria total flavonoid group were both significantly higher than those of the low glucose classical induction group and low glucose+drynaria total flavonoid group (both P<0.05).
  • There were no significant differences in the AGE level among the low glucose control, low glucose classical induction, and low glucose+drynaria total flavonoid groups (all P<0.05); and among the high glucose control, high glucose classical induction, and high glucose+drynaria total flavonoid groups (all P<0.05).
  • However, the AGE levels of the high glucose groups were all significantly higher than those of the corresponding low glucose groups (all P<0.05).
  • Glucose increased the AGE levels dose- and time-dependently.
  • The concentrations of AGEs were significantly negatively correlated with the expression of type I collagen (r=-0.410, P<0.05).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Drynaria total flavonoid promotes the osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs and relieves the inhibitory effect of osteogenic differentiation by glucose at high concentration.
  • Thus drynaria total flavonoid may provide a potential therapy for diabetic osteoporosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Marrow Cells / drug effects. Flavonoids / pharmacology. Mesenchymal Stromal Cells / drug effects. Osteogenesis / drug effects. Polypodiaceae / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Differentiation / drug effects. Cells, Cultured. Glucose / metabolism. Male. Rats. Rats, Sprague-Dawley

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  • (PMID = 21162903.001).
  • [ISSN] 0376-2491
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua yi xue za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Flavonoids; IY9XDZ35W2 / Glucose
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12. Kincaid SE: Clostridium difficile-associated disease: impact of the updated SHEA/IDSA guidelines. Consult Pharm; 2010 Dec;25(12):834-6
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  • Appropriate management regarding diagnosis, infection control, pharmacotherapy, and prevention is the key to good outcomes in all patient populations.
  • In an effort to identify the best practices, the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America in conjunction with the Infectious Diseases Society of America developed guidelines regarding the diagnosis and management of Clostridium-associated disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-Bacterial Agents / therapeutic use. Clostridium difficile / drug effects. Enterocolitis, Pseudomembranous / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Drug Resistance, Bacterial. Humans. Pharmacists / organization & administration. Practice Guidelines as Topic. Professional Role. Risk Factors. Societies, Medical. United States / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 21172764.001).
  • [ISSN] 0888-5109
  • [Journal-full-title] The Consultant pharmacist : the journal of the American Society of Consultant Pharmacists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Consult Pharm
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents
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13. Serrano-Dueñas M: [Parkinsonism or Parkinson's disease unmasked by pentoxifylline?]. Neurologia; 2001 Jan;16(1):39-42
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  • Pentoxifylline is a synthetic derivative of xantine which stimulates adenosine receptors, inhibit phosphodiesterase and increases cyclic monophosphate adenosine.
  • Four cases of patients with a mean age of 77 years who developed a rigid akinetic syndrome following therapy with a mean dose of 1100 mg/day of pentoxifylline over a mean period of 32 days are presented.
  • Two of these patients presented clinical characteristics of drug-induced parkinsonism and the other two showed Parkinson's disease.
  • The possibility of pentoxifylline causing an imbalance between D1 and D2 receptor stimulation and producing pharmacologic parkinsonism, or rather, the possibility of pentoxifylline unmasking subclinical Parkinson's disease are discussed.

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  • (PMID = 11234661.001).
  • [ISSN] 0213-4853
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurología (Barcelona, Spain)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurologia
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors; SD6QCT3TSU / Pentoxifylline
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14. Bin-Nun A, Schreiber MD: Role of iNO in the modulation of pulmonary vascular resistance. J Perinatol; 2008 Dec;28 Suppl 3:S84-92
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  • Inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) has quickly become a standard therapy for term and near-term infants with hypoxic respiratory failure and persistent pulmonary hypertension.
  • Its effect on the lung is believed to be through the stimulation of soluble guanylyl cyclase and the increased production of cyclic guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cGMP).
  • However, in addition to pulmonary vasodilation and a decrease in pulmonary vascular resistance, nitric oxide (NO) shows several additional potential beneficial effects on the lung.
  • [MeSH-major] Bronchodilator Agents / pharmacology. Nitric Oxide / pharmacology. Vascular Resistance / drug effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Inhalation. Humans. Infant, Newborn. Persistent Fetal Circulation Syndrome / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 19057617.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-5543
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of perinatology : official journal of the California Perinatal Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Perinatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Bronchodilator Agents; 31C4KY9ESH / Nitric Oxide
  • [Number-of-references] 48
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15. von Ahsen N, Oellerich M, Armstrong VW: Characterization of the inosine triphosphatase (ITPA) gene: haplotype structure, haplotype-phenotype correlation and promoter function. Ther Drug Monit; 2008 Feb;30(1):16-22
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  • Inosine triphosphatase (ITPA) cleaves phosphate residues from inosine triphosphate (ITP) and deoxy ITP (dITP), thereby recovering inosine monophosphate, which is a substrate for further purine nucleotide pathways.
  • Deficient ITPA activity leads to intracellular accumulation of ITP/dITP and would, under thiopurine therapy, lead to accumulation of unusual thio-inosine metabolites (thio-ITP) with the potential for adverse metabolic effects.
  • Among haplotypes with a frequency greater than 0.01, we did not find any new low-activity haplotypes besides those carrying 94C>A or IVS2 + 21A>C variants.
  • The gene promoter is associated with a CpG island and driven by Sp-family transcription factors.
  • There was no evidence for functional promoter SNPs, and it is suggested that only SNPs within the very proximal promoter region (approximately 200 bp) have the potential to be functionally significant.

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  • (PMID = 18223458.001).
  • [ISSN] 0163-4356
  • [Journal-full-title] Therapeutic drug monitoring
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ther Drug Monit
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 3.6.1.- / Pyrophosphatases; EC 3.6.1.- / inosine triphosphatase
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16. Hung SC, Tung TY, Yang CS, Tarng DC: High-calorie supplementation increases serum leptin levels and improves response to rHuEPO in long-term hemodialysis patients. Am J Kidney Dis; 2005 Jun;45(6):1073-83
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  • [Title] High-calorie supplementation increases serum leptin levels and improves response to rHuEPO in long-term hemodialysis patients.
  • BACKGROUND: Dialysis patients with a high body mass index are less likely to experience severe anemia.
  • METHODS: We enrolled 65 long-term HD patients to explore the association between leptin level and rHuEPO response by classifying them as either high- or low-leptin individuals (phase 1).
  • Thereafter, 39 patients with malnutrition by means of Subjective Global Assessment were randomly assigned to high-energy and high-protein (an extra 475 kcal and 16.6 g of protein daily; group A; n = 12) or standard-energy, but high-protein (an extra 67.2 kcal and 16.8 g of protein daily; group B; n = 27), supplementation for 12 weeks.
  • RESULTS: In phase 1, a significantly lower erythropoietin dose, greater hematocrit, and better nutritional measures were observed in the high-leptin group (P < 0.001).
  • In phase 2, there was a significant increase in body fat mass (P = 0.001) and median serum leptin levels (P < 0.001) in response to 12 weeks of high-energy supplementation in group A, accompanied by markedly improved erythropoiesis (P < 0.05) compared with groups B and C.
  • [MeSH-major] Anemia / prevention & control. Dietary Proteins / administration & dosage. Dietary Supplements. Energy Intake. Erythropoiesis. Erythropoietin / therapeutic use. Kidney Failure, Chronic / complications. Leptin / blood. Renal Dialysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adipose Tissue / pathology. Adipose Tissue / secretion. Aged. Body Composition. Cross-Sectional Studies. Drug Resistance. Female. Hematocrit. Hemoglobins / analysis. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies. Protein-Energy Malnutrition / blood. Protein-Energy Malnutrition / complications. Protein-Energy Malnutrition / prevention & control. Protein-Energy Malnutrition / therapy. Recombinant Proteins. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15957137.001).
  • [ISSN] 1523-6838
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of kidney diseases : the official journal of the National Kidney Foundation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Kidney Dis.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Comparative Study; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Dietary Proteins; 0 / Hemoglobins; 0 / Leptin; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 0 / epoetin beta; 11096-26-7 / Erythropoietin
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17. Osadchuk AM, Milova-Filippova LA, Kvetnoĭ IM: [Eradication therapy and processes of proliferation and apoptosis in the stomach of patients with duodenal ulcer]. Klin Med (Mosk); 2009;87(5):43-7
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  • [Title] [Eradication therapy and processes of proliferation and apoptosis in the stomach of patients with duodenal ulcer].
  • All DU, CNG, and CAG patients had Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection confirmed by morphological study of gastric mucosa.
  • In group 1, Hp was eradicated by traditional therapy with omeprazole (20 mg), clarithromycin (500 mg), and amoxicillin (1000 mg) twice daily for 7days.
  • This treatment in group 2 was supplemented by dibicor (500 mg twice daily).
  • Thereafter, patients of group 1 continued to receive omeprazole for 6 weeks followed by maintenance therapy; those of group 2 received omeprazole plus dibicor for 6 weeks and maintenance therapy.
  • CNG and CAG patients were examined for the presence of KI-67, BCL-2 regulators and apoptotic activity of epitheliocytes from antral mucosa before and 6 weeks after eradication therapy.
  • It is concluded that its combination with dibicor significantly contributes to Hp elimination, shortens duodenal scarring time, improves KI-67, BCL-2 expression, and stimulates apoptotic activity of epitheliocytes compared with traditional omeprazole treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-Ulcer Agents / therapeutic use. Apoptosis / drug effects. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Duodenal Ulcer / drug therapy. Gastric Mucosa / pathology. Omeprazole / therapeutic use. Taurine / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Drug Therapy, Combination. Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19565827.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-2149
  • [Journal-full-title] Klinicheskaia meditsina
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Klin Med (Mosk)
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Ulcer Agents; 1EQV5MLY3D / Taurine; KG60484QX9 / Omeprazole
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18. Miranda N, Tovar AR, Palacios B, Torres N: [AMPK as a cellular energy sensor and its function in the organism]. Rev Invest Clin; 2007 Nov-Dec;59(6):458-69
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  • The adenine monophosphate (AMP) activated protein kinase (AMPK), is a heterotrimeric complex that is activated by an increase in the AMP/ATP ratio, and is considered to be a cellular energy sensor that contributes to regulate energy balance and caloric intake.
  • AMPK is distributed in most organs including, liver, skeletal muscle, heart and hypothalamus; and even in adipose cells.
  • AMPK also participates in glycolysis regulation, glucose uptake, lipid oxidation, fatty acid synthesis, cholesterol synthesis and gluconeogenesis, and it has been considered as a possible target enzyme in the treatment of some diseases such as obesity, type 2 diabetes and hepatic steatosis.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenosine Monophosphate / metabolism. Adenosine Triphosphate / metabolism. Adipokines / physiology. Adipose Tissue / metabolism. Animals. Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / drug therapy. Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / enzymology. Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / physiopathology. Enzyme Activation / drug effects. Fatty Liver / drug therapy. Fatty Liver / enzymology. Fatty Liver / physiopathology. Glucose / metabolism. Humans. Hypoglycemic Agents / pharmacology. Hypothalamus / metabolism. Lipogenesis / physiology. Liver / metabolism. Myocardium / metabolism. Obesity / drug therapy. Obesity / enzymology. Obesity / physiopathology. Organ Specificity. Phosphorylation. Physical Exertion / physiology. Protein Processing, Post-Translational

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  • (PMID = 18402338.001).
  • [ISSN] 0034-8376
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista de investigación clínica; organo del Hospital de Enfermedades de la Nutrición
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev. Invest. Clin.
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Mexico
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adipokines; 0 / Hypoglycemic Agents; 415SHH325A / Adenosine Monophosphate; 8L70Q75FXE / Adenosine Triphosphate; EC 2.7.4.3 / Adenylate Kinase; IY9XDZ35W2 / Glucose
  • [Number-of-references] 98
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19. Purushotham S, Ramanujan RV: Thermoresponsive magnetic composite nanomaterials for multimodal cancer therapy. Acta Biomater; 2010 Feb;6(2):502-10
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  • [Title] Thermoresponsive magnetic composite nanomaterials for multimodal cancer therapy.
  • The synthesis, characterization and property evaluation of drug-loaded polymer-coated magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) relevant to multimodal cancer therapy has been studied.
  • The hyperthermia and controlled drug release characteristics of these particles was examined.
  • These core-shell composite particles, with a core diameter of approximately 13nm, were loaded with the anti-cancer drug doxorubicin (dox), and the resulting composite nanoparticles (CNPs) exhibit thermoresponsive properties.
  • % dox exhibit excellent heating properties as well as simultaneous drug release.
  • Drug release testing confirmed that release was much higher above the lower critical solution temperature (LCST) of the CNP, with a release of up to 78.1% of bound dox in 29h.
  • Controlled drug release testing of the particles reveals that the thermoresponsive property can act as an on/off switch by blocking drug release below the LCST.
  • Our work suggests that these dox-loaded polymer-coated MNPs show excellent in vitro hyperthermia and drug release behavior, with the ability to release drugs in the presence of AMF, and the potential to act as agents for combined targeting, hyperthermia and controlled drug release treatment of cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Magnetics. Nanostructures. Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Particle Size. X-Ray Diffraction

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  • (PMID = 19596094.001).
  • [ISSN] 1878-7568
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta biomaterialia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Biomater
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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20. Ventura MT, Muratore L, Calogiuri GF, Dagnello M, Buquicchio R, Nicoletti A, Altamura M, Sabbà C, Tursi A: Allergic and pseudoallergic reactions induced by glucocorticoids: a review. Curr Pharm Des; 2003;9(24):1956-64
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  • Glucocorticoids (GCs) represent the most effective treatment for autoimmune and allergic diseases, even if collateral effects are not rare, especially endocrine and immunosuppressive manifestations.
  • Moreover, these drugs can develop adverse immunological reactions of I, III or IV type.
  • Though immediate adverse reactions caused by systemic therapy with GCs are not very frequent, the possible beginning of anaphylactic and pseudo-anaphylactic manifestations in patients undergoing therapy with these drugs has to be considered.
  • Both in the cases of pseudo-allergic and allergic reactions, the pharmacological principle is hardly the responsible agent for the reaction; instead the excipients in drugs are often implicated (succinate salt, sulphites and carboxy-methyl-cellulose).
  • Moreover, it has been hypothesized that in patients with a first type allergic reaction to GCs there is a fourth type, sensitization to GCs, which is not usually diagnosed and even comes before IgE sensitization.
  • Third type hypersensibility reactions may occur, too.
  • Since GCs are large-scale drugs, also in emergency medicine and reanimation, allergic sensitization towards them, although infrequent, gives many interventionist problems.
  • And in particular, it has been noted that patients presenting immediate reactions to hydrocortisone (HC) and methylprednisolone (MP) could tolerate prednisone and prednisolone per os and second-generation GCs, such as desamathazone and betamethazone.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal / adverse effects. Drug Hypersensitivity / immunology. Glucocorticoids / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 12871181.001).
  • [ISSN] 1381-6128
  • [Journal-full-title] Current pharmaceutical design
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr. Pharm. Des.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal; 0 / Glucocorticoids
  • [Number-of-references] 87
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21. Schmiegelow M, Feldt-Rasmussen U, Rasmussen AK, Poulsen HS, Müller J: A population-based study of thyroid function after radiotherapy and chemotherapy for a childhood brain tumor. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2003 Jan;88(1):136-40
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  • [Title] A population-based study of thyroid function after radiotherapy and chemotherapy for a childhood brain tumor.
  • The effect of craniospinal irradiation (CSI) vs. cranial irradiation (CIR) only with or without chemotherapy (CT) on the hypothalamus/pituitary (HP) thyroid axis was assessed in a population-based study of patients treated for a childhood brain tumor not directly involving the HP axis.
  • The biological effective dose (BED) of radiotherapy, determined for the HP region and spine and expressed in grays (Gy) as BED, gives a means of expressing the biological effects of different dosage schedules in a uniform way.
  • The median age at time of radiotherapy was 8.4 yr (range, 0.8-14.9).
  • There was no significant difference between CSI and the CIR only patients with respect to median BED to the HP region.
  • There was a significant relation between basal TSH and time of follow-up (r(s) = -0.39; P = 0.001).
  • In contrast, age at radiotherapy, BED to the HP region and spine, and whether the patient had been treated with CT were not included in the model.
  • The TRH test showed significantly exaggerated and prolonged TSH responses for the CSI and CIR only groups compared with controls, indicating HP dysfunction.
  • In conclusion, these data suggest that both CSI and CIR for childhood brain tumor may affect the HP-thyroid axis, resulting in hypothyroidism.
  • CT had no significant influence on HP-thyroid function.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Brain Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Cranial Irradiation / adverse effects. Thyroid Gland / physiopathology


22. Riihijärvi S, Koivula S, Nyman H, Rydström K, Jerkeman M, Leppä S: Prognostic impact of protein kinase C beta II expression in R-CHOP-treated diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients. Mod Pathol; 2010 May;23(5):686-93
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  • [Title] Prognostic impact of protein kinase C beta II expression in R-CHOP-treated diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients.
  • Development of targeted agents for the treatment of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma includes clinical evaluation of enzastaurin, an agent that suppresses signaling through protein kinase C-beta and AKT pathways.
  • To determine whether protein kinase C-beta expression has prognostic significance for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients treated with immunochemotherapy, we analyzed the expression of protein kinase C-beta II, BCL-2 and cell of origin immunohistochemically from pretreatment samples of 95 diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients.
  • According to Kaplan-Meier analyses, overall survival at 3 years was better among the patients with low than high protein kinase C-beta II protein levels (94 vs 76%, P=0.036).
  • The prognostic value of protein kinase C-beta II expression on survival was seen in the patients with low and high International Prognostic Index risk groups, and in all molecular entities.
  • Gene expression data from an independent set of 233 diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients treated with a combination of rituximab and CHOP-like chemotherapy was analyzed in comparison.
  • Accordingly, a better 3-year overall survival was observed among the subgroup with low protein kinase C-beta II mRNA levels (84 vs 68%, P=0.005).
  • In multivariate analysis with cell of origin, protein kinase C-beta II mRNA expression remained as an independent predictor for overall survival.
  • Together, the data show that protein kinase C-beta II expression has prognostic significance in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients treated with immunochemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / metabolism. Protein Kinase C / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Chi-Square Distribution. Cyclophosphamide / therapeutic use. Doxorubicin / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Prednisone / therapeutic use. Prognosis. Proportional Hazards Models. Protein Kinase C beta. Retrospective Studies. Tissue Array Analysis. Vincristine / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 20190733.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0285
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; EC 2.7.11.13 / Protein Kinase C; EC 2.7.11.13 / Protein Kinase C beta; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone; CHOP protocol
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23. Hu J, Li CW, Zhang X, Pi SH, Zhao JS, Chen XY, Liu Y: [Methylprednisolone and cyclophosphamide pulse therapy of severe systemic lupus erythematosus in children]. Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi; 2003 Jun;41(6):430-4
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  • [Title] [Methylprednisolone and cyclophosphamide pulse therapy of severe systemic lupus erythematosus in children].
  • OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of methylprednisolone (MP) and cyclophosphamide (CPA) intermittent intravenous pulse therapy and the clinical prognosis in children with severe juvenile onset systemic lupus erythematosus (JOSLE).
  • Of the 30 patients, 27 were females and 3 were males, the mean age was (12 +/- 3) years, and 20 of the 22 patients who had undergone initial therapy had LN, and the clinical courses before being involved in the study were 3 to 12 months in nine patients.
  • Twenty-three of the 30 patients had clinical manifestations of renal damages, of whom 4 patients were proven by initial renal biopsy to have WHO type IV, 2 had type II,1 had type V and 1 had type III, and 7 patients had one or more manifestations of central nervous system, including chorea, seizures, cerebrovascular accident (CVA) and organic brain syndrome (OBS), simultaneously, 9 patients had nervous system symptoms without the clinical manifestations of renal damages, 3 patients had lupus crisis, 7 patients did not have any manifestations of renal or neurological damages.
  • According to the protocol of the therapy, the patients were divided into 3 groups: group A (n = 18) patients were treated with MP plus CPA intermittent intravenous pulse for children with lupus nephritis, and with or without neuropsychiatric lupus erythematosus (NPLE), group B (n = 7) with pulsed doses of MP, followed by prednisone and tripterygium wilfordii hook f(T(whf)) for patients without renal or central nerves system damage, and group C (n = 5) with prednisone alone for patients with LN determined by clinical and laboratory features.
  • RESULTS: On short-term follow-up, the SLEDAI-2K (by weight of the renal damage) showed significant difference between group A and group B, but there was no significant difference at the 9th months of the therapy.
  • There was no difference on the effect of both group A and group B, and no frequent infections were seen, ANAs were negative and SLEDAI-2K = 0-point in two patients of each group 12 months after discontinuation of the therapy.
  • CONCLUSION: The immunosuppressive regimen MP + CPA in patients with severe JOSLE and MP + prednisone + T(whf) in patients without major organs damage were superior to the regimen of prednisone alone.
  • [MeSH-major] Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Glucocorticoids / administration & dosage. Immunosuppressive Agents / administration & dosage. Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic / drug therapy. Methylprednisolone / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Drug Therapy, Combination. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Pulse Therapy, Drug. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 14748998.001).
  • [ISSN] 0578-1310
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua er ke za zhi = Chinese journal of pediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Comparative Study; Controlled Clinical Trial; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glucocorticoids; 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; X4W7ZR7023 / Methylprednisolone
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24. Li CX, Liu DJ, Pan CQ, Sang XF, Li X: [Effect of Helicobacter pylori eradication on childhood acute idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura]. Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao; 2009 Jun;29(6):1243-4
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  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of Helicobacter pylor (Hp) eradication in children with acute idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP).
  • METHODS: Ninety-three children with acute ITP and Hp infection were divided into two groups and treated with prednisone and Hp eradication (group A, 51 cases) or with prednisone without Hp eradication (group B, 42 cases).
  • RESULTS: The Hp eradication rate was 94.1% in group A.
  • No difference was found in the therapeutic effects on IPT between the two groups, but the recurrence rate in one year in group A was significantly lower than that in group B.
  • CONCLUSION: NHp eradication does not obviously enhance the therapeutic effect on childhood acute ITP, but can decrease the relapse rate in one year.
  • HP eradication therapy is recommended in children with acute ITP and Hp infection.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-Bacterial Agents / therapeutic use. Helicobacter Infections / drug therapy. Helicobacter pylori / drug effects. Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic / microbiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Drug Therapy, Combination. Female. Humans. Male. Prednisone / therapeutic use


25. Nava-Ocampo AA, Mojica-Madera JA, Villanueva-García D, Caltenco-Serrano R: Antimicrobial therapy and local toxicity of intraventricular administration of vancomycin in a neonate with ventriculitis. Ther Drug Monit; 2006 Jun;28(3):474-6
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  • [Title] Antimicrobial therapy and local toxicity of intraventricular administration of vancomycin in a neonate with ventriculitis.
  • A male newborn was admitted for treatment of congenital occlusive hydrocephalus by means of a ventriculo-peritoneal shunt.
  • On the third day of intraventricular dosing, vancomycin levels in CSF reached 388 mg/dL and protein levels were 1160 mg/dL.
  • On the fifth day of intraventricular treatment the patient had clinically improved and was bacteriologically cured.
  • However, in CSF, protein levels were 3300 mg/dL and vancomycin levels 201 mg/dL.
  • In an attempt to prevent high and potentially toxic levels in CSF, the intraventricular dose of vancomycin should be individualized according to clinical response, bacteriological cultures, vancomycin levels in CSF, and surrogate markers of neurotoxicity, that is, eosinophilia and high protein levels in CSF.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-Bacterial Agents / therapeutic use. Cerebral Ventricles / microbiology. Encephalitis / drug therapy. Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections / drug therapy. Surgical Wound Infection / drug therapy. Vancomycin / therapeutic use. Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Cross Infection. Enterococcus faecalis / drug effects. Enterococcus faecalis / isolation & purification. Humans. Hydrocephalus / surgery. Infant, Newborn. Injections, Intraventricular. Male

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  • (PMID = 16778737.001).
  • [ISSN] 0163-4356
  • [Journal-full-title] Therapeutic drug monitoring
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ther Drug Monit
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents; 6Q205EH1VU / Vancomycin
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26. Nguyen GH, French R, Radhakrishna H: Protein kinase A inhibits lysophosphatidic acid induction of serum response factor via alterations in the actin cytoskeleton. Cell Signal; 2004 Oct;16(10):1141-51
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  • [Title] Protein kinase A inhibits lysophosphatidic acid induction of serum response factor via alterations in the actin cytoskeleton.
  • Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA; 1-acyl-2-hydroxy-sn-glycero-3-phosphate) is a lipid growth factor that stimulates the proliferation of ovarian cancer cells.
  • Treatment of OVCAR-3 cells with forskolin and isobutylmethylxanthine (IBMX; 3-Isobutyl-1-methylxanthine) inhibited LPA stimulation of growth.
  • LPA stimulation of SRF-mediated transcription was also inhibited in OVCAR-3 cells that were incubated with forskolin, dibutyryl cyclic AMP (db-cAMP), or paired cAMP analogues (N(6)-mono-tert-butylcarbamoyladenosine-3', 5'-cyclic monophosphate [6-MBC-cAMP] and Sp-5,6-DCl-BIMPS), which selectively activate type II protein kinase A.
  • In contrast, incubation with a cAMP analogue (8-(4-chloro-phenylthio)-2'-O-methyadenosine-3',5'-cyclic monophosphate [8CPT-2Me-cAMP]) that specifically activates the cAMP inducible Rap1 exchange factor, Epac, did not inhibit SRF.
  • Similar results were obtained when HepG2 hepatoma cells, which do not express endogenous LPA receptors, were transfected with a single LPA receptor (LPA(1)).
  • We observed that treatment of OVCAR-3 cells with forskolin greatly reduced both F-actin staining and focal adhesion labeling with anti-paxillin antibodies.
  • Treatment of OVCAR-3 cells with the F-actin stabilizing compound, jasplakinolide, prevented the protein kinase A (PKA)-mediated inhibition of SRF.
  • [MeSH-major] Cyclic AMP / metabolism. Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases / metabolism. Cytoskeleton / metabolism. Lysophospholipids / pharmacology. Serum Response Factor / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] 1-Methyl-3-isobutylxanthine / pharmacology. Actin Cytoskeleton / drug effects. Actin Cytoskeleton / metabolism. Actins / metabolism. Animals. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / drug therapy. Cell Adhesion / drug effects. Cell Adhesion / physiology. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Colforsin / pharmacology. Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Type II. Cytoskeletal Proteins / metabolism. Female. Humans. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy. Paxillin. Phosphoproteins / metabolism. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 15240009.001).
  • [ISSN] 0898-6568
  • [Journal-full-title] Cellular signalling
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cell. Signal.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL67134
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Actins; 0 / Cytoskeletal Proteins; 0 / Lysophospholipids; 0 / PXN protein, human; 0 / Paxillin; 0 / Phosphoproteins; 0 / Serum Response Factor; 1F7A44V6OU / Colforsin; 22002-87-5 / lysophosphatidic acid; E0399OZS9N / Cyclic AMP; EC 2.7.11.11 / Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Type II; EC 2.7.11.11 / Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases; TBT296U68M / 1-Methyl-3-isobutylxanthine
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27. Weiterová L, Hofer M, Pospísil M, Znojil V, Vácha J, Vacek A, Pipalová I: Influence of the joint treatment with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and drugs elevating extracellular adenosine on erythropoietic recovery following 5-fluorouracil-induced haematotoxicity in mice. Eur J Haematol; 2000 Nov;65(5):310-6
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  • [Title] Influence of the joint treatment with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and drugs elevating extracellular adenosine on erythropoietic recovery following 5-fluorouracil-induced haematotoxicity in mice.
  • The presented data address the problem of pleiotropic effects of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and suggest the ability of drugs increasing the level of extracellular adenosine to activate erythropoiesis when given jointly with G-CSF.
  • To demonstrate these interactions, the effects of the drugs on the recovery from erythropoietic damage induced in mice by a single dose of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) were investigated.
  • Elevation of extracellular adenosine and thus activation of adenosine receptors was induced by joint administration of dipyridamole (DP), a drug inhibiting the cellular uptake of adenosine, and adenosine monophosphate (AMP), an adenosine prodrug.
  • The drugs were injected in a 4-d treatment regimen starting 2 h after 5-FU injection.
  • However, the combination of the three drugs produced significant elevation of erythrocytes in the peripheral blood which pertained in the posttreatment period.
  • Stimulation of proliferation of erythroid progenitor cells (BFU-E) in femoral bone marrow and increased levels of reticulocytes in the peripheral blood were observed in the course of the 4-d treatment regimen.
  • This effect could be interpreted as the result of a sublethal 5-FU-induced damage to erythroid progenitor and precursor cells forced to proliferate intensively by the combination therapy.
  • The observed additivity and synergism of G-CSF with elevated extracellular adenosine in terms of erythropoiesis is an interesting finding with potential implications in clinical practice.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenosine / metabolism. Erythropoiesis / drug effects. Fluorouracil / toxicity. Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenosine Monophosphate / pharmacology. Adenosine Monophosphate / therapeutic use. Animals. Antimetabolites / toxicity. Dipyridamole / pharmacology. Dipyridamole / therapeutic use. Drug Therapy, Combination. Erythrocyte Count. Erythrocytes / cytology. Erythrocytes / drug effects. Erythroid Precursor Cells / cytology. Erythroid Precursor Cells / drug effects. Hemoglobins / drug effects. Hemoglobins / metabolism. Male. Mice. Mice, Inbred C57BL. Mice, Inbred CBA. Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors / pharmacology. Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Reticulocytes / cytology. Reticulocytes / drug effects. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 11092461.001).
  • [ISSN] 0902-4441
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of haematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Haematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] DENMARK
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites; 0 / Hemoglobins; 0 / Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors; 143011-72-7 / Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor; 415SHH325A / Adenosine Monophosphate; 64ALC7F90C / Dipyridamole; K72T3FS567 / Adenosine; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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28. Welsh SJ, Hobbs S, Aherne GW: Expression of uracil DNA glycosylase (UDG) does not affect cellular sensitivity to thymidylate synthase (TS) inhibition. Eur J Cancer; 2003 Feb;39(3):378-87
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  • Inhibition of thymidylate synthase (TS), an important target for cancer chemotherapy, leads to deoxythymidine triphosphate (dTTP) pool depletion and elevation of deoxyuridine monophosphate (dUMP) pools which may also result in the accumulation of deoxyuridine triphosphate (dUTP).
  • Uracil is removed from DNA by uracil DNA glycosylase (UDG) resulting in an abasic site, but since the ratio dUTP:dTTP may remain high during continuing TS inhibition uracil can become re-incorporated into DNA causing a futile cycle eventually leading to DNA damage and cell death.
  • The study showed that although increased expression and activity of UDG may lead to increased cell growth inhibition after TS inhibition over the first 24 h of treatment (measured using 3-(4,5-dimethyl (thiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT), probably due to increased damage to single-stranded DNA, the level of enzyme expression does not affect cell viability or cell death (measured using clonogenic assay, cell counting of attached/detached cells and cleavage of both poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) and caspase 3).
  • Increased expression and activity of UDG did not affect sensitivity to TS inhibition at later time points (up to 72 h treatment).
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Survival. Comet Assay. DNA Damage. DNA Repair. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Humans. Inhibitory Concentration 50. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / enzymology. Transfection. Tumor Cells, Cultured. Uracil-DNA Glycosidase

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  • (PMID = 12565992.001).
  • [ISSN] 0959-8049
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of cancer (Oxford, England : 1990)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / Quinazolines; 0 / Thiophenes; 0 / ZD 9331; EC 2.1.1.45 / Thymidylate Synthase; EC 3.2.2.- / DNA Glycosylases; EC 3.2.2.- / N-Glycosyl Hydrolases; EC 3.2.2.- / Uracil-DNA Glycosidase; FCB9EGG971 / raltitrexed
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29. Bhatia M, Militano O, Jin Z, Figurski M, Shaw L, Moore V, Morris E, Tallamy B, van deVen C, Ayello J, Baxter-Lowe L, Satwani P, George D, Bradley MB, Garvin J, Cairo MS: An age-dependent pharmacokinetic study of intravenous and oral mycophenolate mofetil in combination with tacrolimus for GVHD prophylaxis in pediatric allogeneic stem cell transplantation recipients. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant; 2010 Mar;16(3):333-43
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  • Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), an uncompetitive selective inhibitor of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase, is a new immunosuppressant agent without major mucosal, hepatic, or renal toxicity compared to other prophylactic aGVHD immunosuppressant drugs.
  • Mycophenolic acid (MPA) in plasma samples was measured either by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) or liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) as we have previously described.
  • Plasma samples were obtained at baseline and at 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6 hours after i.v. dosing on days +1, +7, +14, and at 2 time points between day +45 and +100 after p.o. administration post AlloSCT.
  • ) Thirty-eight patients, with a median age of 8 years (0.33-16 years), 20/18 M:F ratio, 21/17 malignant/nonmalignant disease, 17/21 MA: NMA conditioning, 16 of 22 related/unrelated allografts.
  • Median time to myeloid and platelet engraftment was 18 and 31 days, respectively.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Area Under Curve. Child. Child, Preschool. Drug Therapy, Combination. Female. Humans. Immunosuppressive Agents / administration & dosage. Immunosuppressive Agents / adverse effects. Immunosuppressive Agents / pharmacokinetics. Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use. Infant. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Male. Tissue Donors. Transplantation Conditioning / methods. Transplantation, Homologous. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2010 American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 19835971.001).
  • [ISSN] 1523-6536
  • [Journal-full-title] Biology of blood and marrow transplantation : journal of the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 9242ECW6R0 / mycophenolate mofetil; HU9DX48N0T / Mycophenolic Acid; WM0HAQ4WNM / Tacrolimus
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30. Zarski JP, Barange K, Souvignet C, Bertini M, Marcellin P, Tran A, Deugnier Y, Couzigou P, Plages A, Ambroise-Thomas P: Efficacy and safety of lactosaminated human serum albumin-adenine arabinoside monophosphate in chronic hepatitis B patients non-responders to interferon therapy: a randomised clinical trial. J Hepatol; 2001 Mar;34(3):486-8
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  • [Title] Efficacy and safety of lactosaminated human serum albumin-adenine arabinoside monophosphate in chronic hepatitis B patients non-responders to interferon therapy: a randomised clinical trial.
  • [MeSH-major] Hepatitis B, Chronic / drug therapy. Interferons / therapeutic use. Serum Albumin / therapeutic use. Vidarabine Phosphate / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Drug Combinations. Drug Resistance. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retreatment

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  • (PMID = 11322216.001).
  • [ISSN] 0168-8278
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of hepatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Hepatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Letter; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Drug Combinations; 0 / Serum Albumin; 0 / lactosaminated serum albumin; 106XV160TZ / Vidarabine Phosphate; 9008-11-1 / Interferons
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31. Prager F, Michels S, Simader C, Geitzenauer W, Schmidt-Erfurth U: Changes in retinal sensitivity in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration after systemic bevacizumab (avastin) therapy. Retina; 2008 May;28(5):682-8
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  • [Title] Changes in retinal sensitivity in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration after systemic bevacizumab (avastin) therapy.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate changes in central retinal sensitivity in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration after systemic bevacizumab (Avastin; Genentech, Inc., South San Francisco, CA) therapy.
  • METHODS: For all eyes, the central 12 x 12 degrees visual field was recorded using the MP 1 Microperimeter (Nidek, Gamagori, Japan) at baseline and 1 week, 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months after initial treatment.
  • Patients received systemic anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapy with three initial bevacizumab infusions at 2-week intervals.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Systemic bevacizumab therapy induced a significant increase in mean retinal sensitivity at month 6 of follow-up and a significant decrease of mean absolute scotoma size at month 3.
  • The MP 1 Microperimeter proved to be a valuable tool in the evaluation of functional benefits and retinal safety of anti-VEGF therapy with systemic bevacizumab.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Bevacizumab. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infusions, Intravenous. Male. Prospective Studies. Retreatment. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / antagonists & inhibitors. Vision, Ocular / physiology. Visual Acuity. Visual Field Tests. Visual Fields / drug effects

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  • [ErratumIn] Retina. 2008 Oct; 28(8):1178
  • (PMID = 18463510.001).
  • [ISSN] 0275-004X
  • [Journal-full-title] Retina (Philadelphia, Pa.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Retina (Philadelphia, Pa.)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; 2S9ZZM9Q9V / Bevacizumab
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32. Ushkvarok LB: [Stability of neurohumoral effects of losartan combined with metoprolol in chronic cardiac low output]. Lik Sprava; 2002;(7):101-4
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  • Combined therapy with lozartan and metoprolol in patients with chronic cardiac insufficiency has a consistent effect on the levels of epinephrine, angoitensin II, vasopressin, atrial naturiuretic factor, insulin, endothelline, thromboxane B2, guanosine monophosphate, 6-keto prostaglandin F1 alpha, and bradikinin.
  • As to norepinephrine, there has been noted an inconsistent therapeutic effect.
  • It is suggested that the time-related course of a long-term therapy might be associated with a formation of the aldosterone "escape" phenomenon.

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  • (PMID = 12587323.001).
  • [ISSN] 1019-5297
  • [Journal-full-title] Likars'ka sprava
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lik. Sprava
  • [Language] RUS
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ukraine
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenergic beta-Antagonists; 0 / Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists; 0 / Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonists; 0 / Receptors, Neurotransmitter; GEB06NHM23 / Metoprolol; JMS50MPO89 / Losartan
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33. Levine ME, Gillis MG, Koch SY, Voss AC, Stern RM, Koch KL: Protein and ginger for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced delayed nausea. J Altern Complement Med; 2008 Jun;14(5):545-51
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  • [Title] Protein and ginger for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced delayed nausea.
  • BACKGROUND: Nausea that develops during the period that begins 24 hours after the administration of chemotherapy is called delayed nausea, and occurs in many patients with cancer.
  • Meals high in protein decrease the nausea of motion sickness and pregnancy, possibly by reducing gastric dysrhythmias.
  • OBJECTIVES: To explore the use of protein meals with ginger for the treatment of the delayed nausea of chemotherapy.
  • DESIGN: Twenty-eight (28) patients with cancer receiving chemotherapy for the first time were assigned to 1 of 3 groups.
  • For 3 days beginning the day after their chemotherapy, Control Group patients continued with their normal diet, Protein Group patients consumed a protein drink and ginger twice daily, and High Protein Group patients consumed a protein drink with additional protein and ginger twice daily.
  • OUTCOME MEASURES: Patients recorded in a diary each day whether they had experienced nausea, whether their nausea had been frequent, whether their nausea had been bothersome, and whether they had needed any antiemetic medication.
  • Gastric myoelectrical activity was assessed in 5 patients before and after ingestion of a high protein meal and ginger.
  • RESULTS: Reports of nausea, frequent nausea, and bothersome nausea were significantly less common among High Protein Group patients than among Control and Protein Group patients.
  • Furthermore, significantly fewer patients in the High Protein Group used antiemetic medication.
  • Differences between the Protein and Control groups were not statistically significant.
  • In the 5 patients who had tests of gastric myoelectrical activity performed, a significant decrease in gastric dysrhythmia occurred after ingestion of the protein and ginger.
  • CONCLUSIONS: High protein meals with ginger reduced the delayed nausea of chemotherapy and reduced use of antiemetic medications.
  • Protein with ginger holds the potential of representing a novel, nutritionally based treatment for the delayed nausea of chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antiemetics / administration & dosage. Dietary Proteins / administration & dosage. Ginger. Nausea / chemically induced. Nausea / prevention & control. Phytotherapy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasms / drug therapy. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18537470.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-7708
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of alternative and complementary medicine (New York, N.Y.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Altern Complement Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Controlled Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antiemetics; 0 / Dietary Proteins
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34. Nair V, Zhang F, Ma X, Bonsu E: Base-functionalized carbocyclic nucleosides: design, synthesis, and mechanism of antiviral activity. Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids; 2009 May;28(5):408-23
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  • New carbocyclic ribonucleosides with unsaturated groups at the C-2 position of the nucleobase were designed as potential RNA antiviral compounds.
  • The design was based on the expectation that the monophosphates of these compounds would be inhibitors of the enzyme, IMPDH.
  • Appropriate methodologies were developed to achieve the target molecules.

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  • [Cites] Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids. 2000 Jan-Feb;19(1-2):297-327 [10772717.001]
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  • (PMID = 20183592.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-2335
  • [Journal-full-title] Nucleosides, nucleotides & nucleic acids
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U19 AI056540; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U19 AI056540-05; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U19 AI 056540
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antiviral Agents; 0 / Ribonucleosides; EC 1.1.1.205 / IMP Dehydrogenase
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS133069; NLM/ PMC2829736
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35. Butorov IV, Osoianu IuP, Butorov SI, Maksimov VV: [Comparison of the effectiveness of tri- and quadricomponent eradication therapy in patients with peptic ulcer]. Klin Med (Mosk); 2005;83(12):50-3
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  • [Title] [Comparison of the effectiveness of tri- and quadricomponent eradication therapy in patients with peptic ulcer].
  • The purpose of the study was to compare the effectiveness of tri- and quadri-component therapy of Helicobacter pylori (HP)-associated peptic ulcer (PU).
  • The second, OBTM group, included 30 patients receiving omeprazole in a dose of 20 mg twice a day, colloid bismuth subcitrate (de-nol)--120 mg four times a day, tetracycline--500 mg four times a day, and metronidazole--500 mg twice or 250 mg four times a day.
  • The study demonstrated high effectiveness of these regimens in HP eradication, time of coping with pain syndrome, and time of ulcer healing.
  • On the other hand, the cost of the clarythromycin regimen is about 1.8 times higher than the tetracycline regimen, due to high cost of clarythromycin.
  • The study shows that quadri-therapy in patients with a DU relapse allows maintenance of the intragastric acidity at the level which is optimal for quick coping with pain and dyspeptic syndromes, lowering of the degree of inflammatory alterations in the gastric and duodenal mucosa, HP eradication, and ulcer healing.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-Bacterial Agents / therapeutic use. Anti-Ulcer Agents / therapeutic use. Helicobacter Infections / complications. Helicobacter Infections / drug therapy. Helicobacter pylori / drug effects. Peptic Ulcer / drug therapy. Peptic Ulcer / microbiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Amoxicillin / therapeutic use. Clarithromycin / therapeutic use. Drug Administration Schedule. Drug Costs. Drug Therapy, Combination. Female. Humans. Male. Metronidazole / therapeutic use. Middle Aged. Omeprazole / therapeutic use. Organometallic Compounds / therapeutic use. Russia. Tetracycline / therapeutic use. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16502725.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-2149
  • [Journal-full-title] Klinicheskaia meditsina
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Klin Med (Mosk)
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] Controlled Clinical Trial; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents; 0 / Anti-Ulcer Agents; 0 / Organometallic Compounds; 140QMO216E / Metronidazole; 804826J2HU / Amoxicillin; F8VB5M810T / Tetracycline; H1250JIK0A / Clarithromycin; HS813P8QPX / bismuth tripotassium dicitrate; KG60484QX9 / Omeprazole
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36. Keir S, Boswell-Smith V, Spina D, Page C: Mechanism of adenosine-induced airways obstruction in allergic guinea pigs. Br J Pharmacol; 2006 Apr;147(7):720-8
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  • Inhaled adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP), the A1-selective adenosine receptor agonist N6-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA) and ovalbumin all caused airway obstruction in allergic guinea pigs, but not naïve animals, as assessed by changes in total lung resistance.
  • In contrast, airway obstruction to ovalbumin was not inhibited by this treatment.
  • Airway obstruction induced by AMP, CPA and ovalbumin was significantly inhibited following bilateral vagotomy or pharmacological treatment with atropine (2 mg kg(-1)).
  • In contrast, airway obstruction to ovalbumin was not inhibited by this treatment.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenosine A1 Receptor Agonists. Adenosine A1 Receptor Antagonists. Adenosine A2 Receptor Agonists. Adenosine A2 Receptor Antagonists. Airway Resistance / drug effects. Airway Resistance / physiology. Anesthesia. Animals. Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid / cytology. Capsaicin / pharmacology. Cyclic AMP. Guinea Pigs. Histamine H1 Antagonists / pharmacology. Lung / physiopathology. Male. Neural Pathways / physiopathology. Ovalbumin / immunology. Pyrilamine / pharmacology. Respiratory Function Tests. Vagotomy. Xanthines / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 16432507.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-1188
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adenosine A1 Receptor Agonists; 0 / Adenosine A1 Receptor Antagonists; 0 / Adenosine A2 Receptor Agonists; 0 / Adenosine A2 Receptor Antagonists; 0 / Histamine H1 Antagonists; 0 / Xanthines; 102146-07-6 / 1,3-dipropyl-8-cyclopentylxanthine; 9006-59-1 / Ovalbumin; E0399OZS9N / Cyclic AMP; HPE317O9TL / Pyrilamine; K72T3FS567 / Adenosine; S07O44R1ZM / Capsaicin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1751508
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37. Sigel H: Metal ion complexes of antivirally active nucleotide analogues. Conclusions regarding their biological action. Chem Soc Rev; 2004 Mar 30;33(3):191-200
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  • Acyclic nucleoside phosphonates (ANPs), i.e., analogues of (2'-deoxy)nucleoside 5'-monophosphates, have been studied during the past 15 years for their potential as antiviral drugs.
  • One of these compounds, 9-[2-(phosphonomethoxy)ethyl]adenine (PMEA; Adefovir) was recently approved in the form of its bis(pivaloyloxymethyl)ester (Adefovir dipivoxil) for use in hepatitis B therapy, a disease evoked by a DNA virus.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenine Nucleotides / chemistry. Adenine Nucleotides / metabolism. Adenine Nucleotides / pharmacology. Animals. Drug Stability. Humans. Ions. Structure-Activity Relationship. Substrate Specificity. Virus Replication / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 15026824.001).
  • [ISSN] 0306-0012
  • [Journal-full-title] Chemical Society reviews
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chem Soc Rev
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adenine Nucleotides; 0 / Antiviral Agents; 0 / Ions; 0 / Metals; 0 / Nucleotides; 0 / Organophosphonates; 6GQP90I798 / adefovir; JAC85A2161 / Adenine
  • [Number-of-references] 147
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38. Govorkova EA, Ilyushina NA, Boltz DA, Douglas A, Yilmaz N, Webster RG: Efficacy of oseltamivir therapy in ferrets inoculated with different clades of H5N1 influenza virus. Antimicrob Agents Chemother; 2007 Apr;51(4):1414-24
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  • [Title] Efficacy of oseltamivir therapy in ferrets inoculated with different clades of H5N1 influenza virus.
  • Highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza viruses have infected an increasing number of humans in Asia, with high mortality rates and the emergence of multiple distinguishable clades.
  • It is not known whether antiviral drugs that are effective against contemporary human influenza viruses will be effective against systemically replicating viruses, such as these pathogens.
  • Therefore, we evaluated the use of the neuraminidase (NA) inhibitor oseltamivir for early postexposure prophylaxis and for treatment in ferrets exposed to representatives of two clades of H5N1 virus with markedly different pathogenicities in ferrets.
  • Ferrets were protected from lethal infection with the A/Vietnam/1203/04 (H5N1) virus by oseltamivir (5 mg/kg of body weight/day) given 4 h after virus inoculation, but higher daily doses (25 mg/kg) were required for treatment when it was initiated 24 h after virus inoculation.
  • For the treatment of ferrets inoculated with the less pathogenic A/Turkey/15/06 (H5N1) virus, 10 mg/kg/day of oseltamivir was sufficient to reduce the lethargy of the animals, significantly inhibit inflammation in the upper respiratory tract, and block virus spread to the internal organs.
  • Direct sequencing of the NA or HA1 gene segments in viruses isolated from ferret after treatment showed no amino acid substitutions known to cause drug resistance in conserved residues.
  • Thus, early oseltamivir treatment is crucial for protection against highly pathogenic H5N1 viruses and the higher dose may be needed for the treatment of more virulent viruses.
  • [MeSH-major] Antiviral Agents / pharmacology. Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype / drug effects. Orthomyxoviridae Infections / prevention & control. Oseltamivir / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 17296744.001).
  • [ISSN] 0066-4804
  • [Journal-full-title] Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R21 AI057570; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-21756; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / N01AI95357; United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / MC/ U117512708; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / AI-57570; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / AI-95357
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antiviral Agents; 20O93L6F9H / Oseltamivir
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1855473
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39. Abdel Baky NA, Zaidi ZF, Fatani AJ, Sayed-Ahmed MM, Yaqub H: Nitric oxide pros and cons: The role of L-arginine, a nitric oxide precursor, and idebenone, a coenzyme-Q analogue in ameliorating cerebral hypoxia in rat. Brain Res Bull; 2010 Aug 30;83(1-2):49-56
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  • Evidence exists that nitric oxide (NO) may mediate both protective and pathological responses during brain hypoxia (HP).
  • Reactive oxygen species have also been implicated in the pathophysiological response of the brain tissues to HP.
  • Therefore, this study investigated whether a NO precursor, l-arginine (l-arg), a free radical scavenger, idebenone (ID), and their combination would reduce neurological injury resulting from hemic hypoxia (HP) in rats.
  • Moreover, brain lipid peroxides were significantly enhanced, while reduced glutathione, l-ascorbic acids, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) contents, and the activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase, were significantly reduced in the brain tissue.
  • Histopathological examination of the brain tissue supported these biochemical findings.
  • This study showed that ID and l-arg were capable of reducing neurological injury following HP in rat, and support the idea of the usefulness of l-arg and ID as prophylaxis from hypoxic brain injury.
  • [MeSH-major] Antioxidants / therapeutic use. Arginine / therapeutic use. Hypoxia, Brain / prevention & control. Nitrates / adverse effects. Nitric Oxide / metabolism. Ubiquinone / analogs & derivatives
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenosine Triphosphate / metabolism. Animals. Brain / pathology. Catalase / metabolism. Creatine Kinase / blood. Disease Models, Animal. Drug Administration Schedule. Drug Combinations. Gliosis / etiology. Hemoglobins / metabolism. L-Lactate Dehydrogenase / blood. Male. Nervous System Diseases / drug therapy. Nervous System Diseases / etiology. Neurons / drug effects. Neurons / pathology. Random Allocation. Rats. Rats, Wistar. Superoxide Dismutase / metabolism. Time Factors

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  • [Copyright] 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20637840.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-2747
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain research bulletin
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Res. Bull.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antioxidants; 0 / Drug Combinations; 0 / Hemoglobins; 0 / Nitrates; 1339-63-5 / Ubiquinone; 31C4KY9ESH / Nitric Oxide; 8L70Q75FXE / Adenosine Triphosphate; 8M4L3H2ZVZ / sodium nitrate; 94ZLA3W45F / Arginine; EC 1.1.1.27 / L-Lactate Dehydrogenase; EC 1.11.1.6 / Catalase; EC 1.15.1.1 / Superoxide Dismutase; EC 2.7.3.2 / Creatine Kinase; HB6PN45W4J / idebenone
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40. Herndon DN, Tompkins RG: Support of the metabolic response to burn injury. Lancet; 2004 Jun 5;363(9424):1895-902
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  • The simplest, effective anabolic strategies for severe burn injuries are: early excision and grafting of the wound; prompt treatment of sepsis; maintenance of environmental temperature at 30-32 degrees C; continuous feeding of a high carbohydrate, high protein diet, preferably by the enteral route; and early institution of vigorous and aerobic resistive exercise programmes.
  • To further keep erosion of lean body mass to a minimum, administration of anabolic agents, recombinant human growth hormone, insulin, oxandrolone, or anticatabolic drugs such as propranolol are alternative approaches.
  • Exogenous continuous low-dose insulin infusion, beta blockade with propranolol, and use of the synthetic testosterone analogue oxandrolone are the most cost effective and least toxic pharmacological treatments to date.
  • [MeSH-major] Burns / metabolism. Burns / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Energy Metabolism. Hormones / therapeutic use. Humans. Nutritional Support. Oxidation-Reduction. Oxygen Consumption. Temperature

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  • (PMID = 15183630.001).
  • [ISSN] 1474-547X
  • [Journal-full-title] Lancet (London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lancet
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hormones
  • [Number-of-references] 136
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41. Zhou B, Li JB, Cai GX, Ling JH, Dai XP: [Therapeutic effects of the combination of traditional Chinese medicine and western medicine on patients with peptic ulcers]. Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban; 2005 Dec;30(6):714-8
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  • [Title] [Therapeutic effects of the combination of traditional Chinese medicine and western medicine on patients with peptic ulcers].
  • OBJECTIVE: To explore the therapeutic effects and mechanisms of the combination of traditional Chinese medicine and western medicine on patients with peptic ulcers.
  • The clinical effects were compared among each group after the one month treatment.
  • RESULTS: The clinical effects of the combination of Jianweiyuyang granules and ranitidine capsules were better than those of western medicine, with improvement in symptoms and syndrome (P < 0.01 to 0.05), but there was not significant difference with the rate of ulcer healing and the Hp clearance among the combination of Jianweiyuyang granules and ranitidine capsules, Jianweiyuyang granules, and ranitidine capsules (P > 0.05).
  • [MeSH-major] Peptic Ulcer / drug therapy. Phytotherapy. Ranitidine / therapeutic use. Receptors, Endothelin / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Capsules. Drug Therapy, Combination. Drugs, Chinese Herbal / therapeutic use. Endothelin-1 / biosynthesis. Endothelin-1 / genetics. Female. Gastric Mucosa / metabolism. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Mucin 5AC. Mucins / biosynthesis. Mucins / genetics. RNA, Messenger / biosynthesis. RNA, Messenger / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16708818.001).
  • [ISSN] 1672-7347
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhong nan da xue xue bao. Yi xue ban = Journal of Central South University. Medical sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Capsules; 0 / Drugs, Chinese Herbal; 0 / Endothelin-1; 0 / MUC5AC protein, human; 0 / Mucin 5AC; 0 / Mucins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Endothelin; 884KT10YB7 / Ranitidine
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42. Szekeres T, Sedlak J, Novotny L: Benzamide riboside, a recent inhibitor of inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase induces transferrin receptors in cancer cells. Curr Med Chem; 2002 Apr;9(7):759-64
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  • [Title] Benzamide riboside, a recent inhibitor of inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase induces transferrin receptors in cancer cells.
  • Therefore, IMPDH is a very good target for antitumor therapy.
  • In this manuscript we describe the induction of the CD71 transferrin receptor in human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cells following treatment with benzamide riboside.
  • Benzamide riboside might be clinically used in the treatment of leukemia and solid tumors, alone or as part of combination therapy.
  • Since transferrin receptors are overexpressed in certain cancers, such as glioma and colon cancer, a combination therapy that includes benzamide riboside in transferrin-coupled liposomes will not only target cancer cells but also leads to suicidal action because benzamide riboside will upregulate transferrin receptors on cancer cells thereby make it accessible to dose-intensive chemotherapy.
  • We therefore believe that benzamide riboside itself or derivatives of benzamide riboside might become an important addition for the treatment to diseases that are otherwise fatal.
  • [MeSH-minor] Antigens, CD / metabolism. Antigens, Differentiation, B-Lymphocyte / metabolism. Apoptosis / drug effects. Cell Division / drug effects. Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor. HL-60 Cells. Humans. Iron / metabolism. Leukemia, Myeloid / drug therapy. Leukemia, Myeloid / metabolism. Ribavirin / analogs & derivatives. Ribavirin / pharmacology. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 11966439.001).
  • [ISSN] 0929-8673
  • [Journal-full-title] Current medicinal chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr. Med. Chem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, Differentiation, B-Lymphocyte; 0 / CD71 antigen; 0 / Nucleosides; 0 / Receptors, Transferrin; 138385-29-2 / 3-(1-deoxyribofuranosyl)benzamide; 49717AWG6K / Ribavirin; E1UOL152H7 / Iron; EC 1.1.1.205 / IMP Dehydrogenase; ULJ82834RE / tiazofurin
  • [Number-of-references] 27
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43. Takebe N, Cheng X, Wu S, Bauer K, Goloubeva OG, Fenton RG, Heyman M, Rapoport AP, Badros A, Shaughnessy J, Ross D, Meisenberg B, Tricot G: Phase I clinical trial of the inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase inhibitor mycophenolate mofetil (cellcept) in advanced multiple myeloma patients. Clin Cancer Res; 2004 Dec 15;10(24):8301-8
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  • [Title] Phase I clinical trial of the inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase inhibitor mycophenolate mofetil (cellcept) in advanced multiple myeloma patients.
  • PURPOSE: Inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) inhibitors have been used to induce leukemia blast cell differentiation but have not been tested in multiple myeloma for activity.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: A Phase I MMF dose escalation study was conducted in relapsed and refractory myeloma patients who had documented disease progression by myeloma markers or bone marrow plasmacytosis to determine the maximum tolerated dose, toxicities, and efficacy of the drug.
  • To assess the activity of IMPDH inhibition in the myeloma cells of patients, we measured intracellular nucleotide triphosphate levels by high-performance liquid chromatography-based analysis and examined the correlation with clinical response.
  • Future drug development to target this enzyme maybe useful in treating myelomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Enzyme Inhibitors / therapeutic use. IMP Dehydrogenase / antagonists & inhibitors. Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use. Multiple Myeloma / drug therapy. Mycophenolic Acid / analogs & derivatives
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Bone Marrow / drug effects. Bone Marrow / metabolism. Bone Marrow / pathology. Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid. Disease Progression. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Female. Guanosine Triphosphate / metabolism. Humans. Male. Maximum Tolerated Dose. Middle Aged. Plasmacytoma / pathology. Salvage Therapy

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  • (PMID = 15623606.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA069854
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase I; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 86-01-1 / Guanosine Triphosphate; 9242ECW6R0 / mycophenolate mofetil; EC 1.1.1.205 / IMP Dehydrogenase; HU9DX48N0T / Mycophenolic Acid
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44. Tada DB, Vono LL, Duarte EL, Itri R, Kiyohara PK, Baptista MS, Rossi LM: Methylene blue-containing silica-coated magnetic particles: a potential magnetic carrier for photodynamic therapy. Langmuir; 2007 Jul 17;23(15):8194-9
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  • [Title] Methylene blue-containing silica-coated magnetic particles: a potential magnetic carrier for photodynamic therapy.
  • The entrapment of methylene blue (MB), a photodynamic therapy drug under study in our group, in the silica matrix took place during the growth of a silica layer over a magnetic core composed of magnetite nanoparticles.
  • The resulting material was characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), light scattering, and X-ray diffraction.
  • The immobilized drug can generate singlet oxygen, which was detected by its characteristic phosphorescence decay curve in the near-infrared and by a chemical method using 1,3-diphenylisobenzofuran to trap singlet oxygen.
  • The magnetization curve confirmed the superparamagnetic behavior with a reduced saturation magnetization in respect to uncoated magnetic nanoparticles, which is consistent with the presence of a diamagnetic component over the magnetite surface.
  • The result is a single particle platform that combines therapy (photosensitizer) and diagnostic (MRI contrast agent) possibilities at the same time, as well as drug targeting.

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  • (PMID = 17590032.001).
  • [ISSN] 0743-7463
  • [Journal-full-title] Langmuir : the ACS journal of surfaces and colloids
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Langmuir
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 17778-80-2 / Singlet Oxygen; 7631-86-9 / Silicon Dioxide; T42P99266K / Methylene Blue; XM0M87F357 / Ferrosoferric Oxide
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45. Eckersall PD, Gow JW, McComb C, Bradley B, Rodgers J, Murray M, Kennedy PG: Cytokines and the acute phase response in post-treatment reactive encephalopathy of Trypanosoma brucei brucei infected mice. Parasitol Int; 2001 Mar;50(1):15-26
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  • [Title] Cytokines and the acute phase response in post-treatment reactive encephalopathy of Trypanosoma brucei brucei infected mice.
  • Stimulation of the acute phase response during infection of mice with Trypanosoma brucei brucei (T. b. brucei) was investigated in an experimental model of the post-treatment reactive encephalopathy (PTRE), a common side-effect of anti-trypanosome therapy.
  • Plasma levels of the acute phase proteins (APP), haptoglobin (Hp) and serum amyloid P (SAP) increased by day 7 post-infection, but by day 20 had fallen to an intermediate level.
  • Treatment of mice on day 21 with a subcurative dose of diminazene aceturate (Berenil), a procedure known to induce a mild PTRE, cleared the parasite from the circulation with plasma APP and liver expression of mRNA for IL-6 and TNFalpha returning to the levels in the controls.
  • A further subcurative dose of Berenil, leading to a more severe PTRE, was associated with elevated serum concentrations of Hp and SAP, increased TNFalpha mRNA in the liver and detectable IL-6 and TNFalpha mRNA in the brain. mRNA for IL-1alpha was expressed in brain and liver samples from all animals.
  • A severe PTRE caused a systemic acute phase response which was not apparent with a mild PTRE.
  • The pattern of cytokine mRNA induction was similar following both drug treatments.
  • [MeSH-major] Acute-Phase Proteins / metabolism. Cytokines / metabolism. Diminazene / toxicity. Encephalitis / etiology. Trypanocidal Agents / toxicity. Trypanosomiasis, African / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 11267928.001).
  • [ISSN] 1383-5769
  • [Journal-full-title] Parasitology international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Parasitol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Acute-Phase Proteins; 0 / Cytokines; 0 / Haptoglobins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Serum Amyloid P-Component; 0 / Trypanocidal Agents; JI8SAD85NO / diminazene aceturate; Y5G36EEA5Z / Diminazene
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46. Granero GE, Longhi MR: Promising complexes of acetazolamide for topical ocular administration. Expert Opin Drug Deliv; 2010 Aug;7(8):943-53
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  • IMPORTANCE OF THE FIELD: Acetazolamide (ACZ), a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor (CAI), and other oral CAIs have been an integral part of antiglaucoma therapy for > 40 years.
  • However, this treatment leads to unpleasant systemic side effects.
  • The answer to the undesirable effects of ACZ is the topical delivery of this drug into the eye, where it could elicit its physiological action.
  • AREAS COVERED IN THIS REVIEW: This review offers an overview of different approaches to delivering ACZ to the eye, highlighting the potential of the ternary system ACZ:HP-beta-CD:TEA as a tool for formulating aqueous ACZ eye drop solutions.
  • TAKE HOME MESSAGE: The ACZ:HP-beta-CD:TEA complex is an important new approach to improve the ocular bioavailability of this drug.
  • [MeSH-major] Acetazolamide / administration & dosage. Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors / administration & dosage. Cornea / metabolism. Glaucoma / drug therapy. beta-Cyclodextrins / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Topical. Drug Design. Ethanolamines / chemistry. Female. Humans. Intraocular Pressure / drug effects. Male

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  • (PMID = 20565335.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-7593
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert opinion on drug delivery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Opin Drug Deliv
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors; 0 / Ethanolamines; 0 / beta-Cyclodextrins; 9O3K93S3TK / triethanolamine; O3FX965V0I / Acetazolamide
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47. Belhoussine-Idrissi L, Boedeker EC: Helicobacter pylori infection: treatment. Curr Opin Gastroenterol; 2002 Jan;18(1):26-33
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  • [Title] Helicobacter pylori infection: treatment.
  • Current standard treatment regimens for Helicobacter pylori infection provide eradication rates 80 to 90%.
  • These rates have been achieved with a variety of 1-week triple therapies using two antibiotics and an acid suppressant.
  • Antibiotic resistance, which may develop during failed treatment, is becoming increasingly common and has led to studies of new regimens for primary therapy, and new strategies for salvage of failed therapy.
  • Other regimens have been designed and tested with the aim of decreasing the cost of initial therapy or to improve compliance, but abbreviated regimens have high incidence of failure and may add to the problem of resistance.
  • Increasing attention has been paid to the need for, and timing of, the determination of antibiotic resistance of H. pylori isolates either at the time of initial diagnosis or after treatment failure.
  • Treatment regimens should be chosen based on local drug susceptibility patterns and the availability of approved therapeutic agents in each country.
  • Established indications for testing for H. pylori and administering therapy include active or inactive peptic ulcer disease, mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma, as well as hyperplastic polyps, hyperplastic gastropathy, postendoscopic resection for gastric malignancy, and acute H. pylori gastritis.
  • Controversial or unresolved indications for testing and treating include planned use of chronic antisecretory therapy, planned use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and use as a general approach to the prevention of gastric cancer.

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  • (PMID = 17031226.001).
  • [ISSN] 0267-1379
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr. Opin. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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48. Meerbach A, Meier C, Sauerbrei A, Meckel HM, Wutzler P: Antiviral activity of cyclosaligenyl prodrugs of the nucleoside analogue bromovinyldeoxyuridine against herpes viruses. Int J Antimicrob Agents; 2006 May;27(5):423-30
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  • A series of 42 lipophilic bromovinyldeoxyuridine monophosphates (BVDUMPs) are presented as potential prodrugs of the antiviral agent (E)-5-(2-bromovinyl)-2'-deoxyuridine (BVDU).
  • The 5'-cycloSal-masking group technique has been applied to this cyclic nucleoside analogue to achieve delivery of the monophosphate of BVDU inside the target cells.
  • The new substances have been tested for their antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and -2), thymidine kinase-deficient (TK(-)) HSV-1, varicella-zoster virus (VZV), human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV).
  • [MeSH-major] Antiviral Agents / pharmacology. Bromodeoxyuridine / analogs & derivatives. Bromodeoxyuridine / pharmacology. Herpesviridae / drug effects. Prodrugs / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cells, Cultured. Cytopathogenic Effect, Viral / drug effects. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Fibroblasts / virology. Humans. Molecular Structure. Viral Plaque Assay

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  • (PMID = 16621459.001).
  • [ISSN] 0924-8579
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of antimicrobial agents
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antiviral Agents; 0 / Prodrugs; G34N38R2N1 / Bromodeoxyuridine
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49. Maring JG, Groen HJ, Wachters FM, Uges DR, de Vries EG: Genetic factors influencing pyrimidine-antagonist chemotherapy. Pharmacogenomics J; 2005;5(4):226-43
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  • [Title] Genetic factors influencing pyrimidine-antagonist chemotherapy.
  • Pyrimidine antagonists, for example, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), cytarabine (ara-C) and gemcitabine (dFdC), are widely used in chemotherapy regimes for colorectal, breast, head and neck, non-small-cell lung cancer, pancreatic cancer and leukaemias.
  • Interindividual variation in the activity of metabolising enzymes can affect the extent of prodrug activation and, as a result, act on the efficacy of chemotherapy treatment.
  • In this review, proteins relevant for the efficacy and toxicity of pyrimidine antagonists will be summarised.
  • In addition, the role of germline polymorphisms, tumour-specific somatic mutations and protein expression levels in the metabolic pathways and clinical pharmacology of these drugs are described.
  • Germline polymorphisms of uridine monophosphate kinase (UMPK), orotate phosphoribosyl transferase (OPRT), thymidylate synthase (TS), dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) and methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and gene expression levels of OPRT, UMPK, TS, DPD, uridine phosphorylase, uridine kinase, thymidine phosphorylase, thymidine kinase, deoxyuridine triphosphate nucleotide hydrolase are discussed in relation to 5-FU efficacy.
  • Cytidine deaminase (CDD) and 5'-nucleotidase (5NT) gene polymorphisms and CDD, 5NT, deoxycytidine kinase and MRP5 gene expression levels and their potential relation to dFdC and ara-C cytotoxicity are reviewed.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic. Neoplasms / drug therapy. Pharmacogenetics. Polymorphism, Genetic. Pyrimidines / antagonists & inhibitors

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  • (PMID = 16041392.001).
  • [ISSN] 1470-269X
  • [Journal-full-title] The pharmacogenomics journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pharmacogenomics J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Pyrimidines
  • [Number-of-references] 196
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50. Shieh JM, Wu HT, Cheng KC, Cheng JT: Melatonin ameliorates high fat diet-induced diabetes and stimulates glycogen synthesis via a PKCzeta-Akt-GSK3beta pathway in hepatic cells. J Pineal Res; 2009 Nov;47(4):339-44
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  • [Title] Melatonin ameliorates high fat diet-induced diabetes and stimulates glycogen synthesis via a PKCzeta-Akt-GSK3beta pathway in hepatic cells.
  • The present study shows that intraperitoneal injection of 10 mg/kg melatonin ameliorated glucose utilization and insulin sensitivity in high fat diet-induced diabetic mice with an increase in hepatic glycogen and improvement in liver steatosis.
  • Treatment of HepG2 cells with 1 nm melatonin markedly increased glycogen synthesis which was blocked by the melatonin receptor antagonist luzindole.
  • In addition, melatonin increased the phosphorylation of subcellular signals at the level of protein kinase C zeta (PKCzeta), Akt, and glycogen synthase kinase 3beta (GSK3beta) while the increase in glycogen synthesis induced by melatonin was inhibited by PKCzeta pseudo-peptide.
  • However, 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) was not influenced by melatonin treatment.
  • Taken together, melatonin improves glucose intolerance and insulin resistance in high fat diet-induced diabetic mice and stimulates glycogen synthesis via a PKCzeta-Akt-GSK3beta pathway in HepG2 cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental / etiology. Dietary Fats / adverse effects. Glycogen / biosynthesis. Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 / metabolism. Melatonin / pharmacology. Protein Kinase C / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antioxidants / pharmacology. Blotting, Western. Cell Line, Tumor. Fatty Liver / drug therapy. Male. Mice. Mice, Inbred C57BL. Phosphorylation / drug effects. Signal Transduction / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 19817973.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-079X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pineal research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pineal Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antioxidants; 0 / Dietary Fats; 9005-79-2 / Glycogen; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt; EC 2.7.11.1 / glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta; EC 2.7.11.1 / protein kinase C zeta; EC 2.7.11.13 / Protein Kinase C; EC 2.7.11.26 / Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3; JL5DK93RCL / Melatonin
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51. Komatsu T, Nakagawa A, Qu X: Structural and mutagenic approach to create human serum albumin-based oxygen carrier and photosensitizer. Drug Metab Pharmacokinet; 2009;24(4):287-99
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  • SUMMARY: Human serum albumin (HSA) is a versatile protein found at high concentration in blood plasma and binds a range of insoluble endogenous and exogenous compounds.
  • We have shown that complexation of functional molecules into HSA creates unique proteins never seen in nature.
  • Additional modification on the distal side of the heme pocket provides rHSA(triple mutant)-heme complexes with a variety of O(2) binding affinity.
  • Complexing a carboxy-C(60)-fullerene (CF) into HSA generates a protein photosensitizer for photodynamic cancer therapy.
  • This protein does not show dark cytotoxicity, but induceds cell death under visible light irradiation.
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Mutagens / pharmacology. Photophobia. Protein Conformation

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  • (PMID = 19745556.001).
  • [ISSN] 1880-0920
  • [Journal-full-title] Drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Drug Metab. Pharmacokinet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Albumins; 0 / Mutagens; 0 / Serum Albumin; S88TT14065 / Oxygen
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52. Bozja J, Yi K, Shafer WM, Stojiljkovic I: Porphyrin-based compounds exert antibacterial action against the sexually transmitted pathogens Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Haemophilus ducreyi. Int J Antimicrob Agents; 2004 Dec;24(6):578-84
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  • A series of porphyrin based compounds without (nMP) or with (MP) metals were found to have potent bactericidal action in vitro against the sexually transmitted pathogens Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Haemophilus ducreyi. nMP and MP did not show bactericidal activity against five species of lactobacilli.
  • An MP containing gallium had the capacity to block a gonococcal infection in a murine vaginal model, indicating that its development as a topical microbicide to block sexually transmitted bacterial infections is warranted.
  • In contrast to other bacterial species, loss of the gonococcal haemoglobin uptake system encoded by hpuB or energy supplied through the TonB-ExbB-ExbD system did not significantly affect levels of MP-susceptibility in gonococci.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-Infective Agents / pharmacology. Haemophilus ducreyi / drug effects. Haemophilus ducreyi / genetics. Neisseria gonorrhoeae / drug effects. Neisseria gonorrhoeae / genetics. Protoporphyrins / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Mice. Mice, Inbred BALB C. Microbial Sensitivity Tests. Models, Animal. Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Bacterial / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 15555881.001).
  • [ISSN] 0924-8579
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of antimicrobial agents
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / AI 21150; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / AI 45883
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Infective Agents; 0 / Protoporphyrins
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53. Soares DD, Coimbra CC, Marubayashi U: Tryptophan-induced central fatigue in exercising rats is related to serotonin content in preoptic area. Neurosci Lett; 2007 Mar 30;415(3):274-8
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  • Exercise time to fatigue (min), and workload (kgm) were analysed.
  • At fatigue, brains were quickly removed and preoptic area (POA), hypothalamus (HP), frontal cortex (FC), hippocampi (HC) were rapidly dissected and frozen immediately in dry ice.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Body Temperature / drug effects. Body Temperature / physiology. Body Temperature Regulation / drug effects. Body Temperature Regulation / physiology. Hippocampus / drug effects. Hippocampus / metabolism. Hypothalamus / drug effects. Hypothalamus / metabolism. Injections, Intraventricular. Male. Physical Conditioning, Animal. Rats. Rats, Wistar

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  • (PMID = 17280786.001).
  • [ISSN] 0304-3940
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuroscience letters
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosci. Lett.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 333DO1RDJY / Serotonin; 8DUH1N11BX / Tryptophan
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54. Mahoney DH Jr, Shuster JJ, Nitschke R, Lauer S, Steuber CP, Camitta B: Intensification with intermediate-dose intravenous methotrexate is effective therapy for children with lower-risk B-precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia: A Pediatric Oncology Group study. J Clin Oncol; 2000 Mar;18(6):1285-94
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  • [Title] Intensification with intermediate-dose intravenous methotrexate is effective therapy for children with lower-risk B-precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia: A Pediatric Oncology Group study.
  • PURPOSE: To determine whether early intensification with 12 courses of intravenous (IV) methotrexate (MTX) and IV mercaptopurine (MP) is superior to 12 courses of IV MTX alone for prevention of relapse in children with lower-risk B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL).
  • Vincristine, prednisone, and asparaginase were used for remission induction therapy.
  • Patients were randomized to receive intensification with IV MTX 1,000 mg/m(2) plus IV MP 1,000 mg/m(2) (regimen A) or IV MTX 1,000 mg/m(2) alone (regimen C).
  • Triple intrathecal therapy was used for CNS prophylaxis.
  • Continuation therapy included standard oral MP, weekly MTX, and triple intrathecal therapy every 12 weeks for 2 years.
  • The estimated 4-year overall continuous complete remission for patients treated with regimen A is 82.1% (SE = 2.4%) and for regimen C is 82.2% (SE = 2.6%; P =.5).
  • CONCLUSION: Intensification with 12 courses of IV MTX is an effective therapy for prevention of relapse in children with B-precursor ALL who are at lower risk for relapse but may be associated with an increased risk for neurotoxicity.
  • Prolonged infusions of MP combined with IV MTX did not provide apparent advantage.
  • [MeSH-major] 6-Mercaptopurine / therapeutic use. Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Methotrexate / therapeutic use. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Child. Child, Preschool. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Humans. Infant. Infusions, Intravenous. Male. Proportional Hazards Models. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 10715299.001).
  • [ISSN] 0732-183X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Comparative Study; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; E7WED276I5 / 6-Mercaptopurine; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate
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55. Del Tacca M: Prospects for personalized immunosuppression: pharmacologic tools--a review. Transplant Proc; 2004 Apr;36(3):687-9
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  • [Title] Prospects for personalized immunosuppression: pharmacologic tools--a review.
  • However, the majority of immunosuppressive agents need a constant monitoring of drug levels to reduce the risk of graft rejection as well as drug-induced toxicities.
  • Many factors may affect the pharmacokinetic characteristics of immunosuppressive agents, potentially reducing treatment effectiveness.
  • Absorption and metabolism of immunosuppressive drugs are influenced by patient genotype and comedications, while comorbidities (ie, diabetes and cystic fibrosis) are responsible for altered pharmacokinetics.
  • Dose individualization in transplant recipients is performed according to their health status, graft function, and drug therapeutic range.
  • With respect to the last issue, therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) plays a crucial role in achieving optimal immunosuppression, improving the efficacy of drugs, and lowering toxic effects.
  • Pharmacokinetic analysis allowed the identification of specific parameters, such as plasma or blood levels, immediately before dosing (C(min) or trough levels) or 2 hours after administration (C(2)), which are significantly related to tissue exposure to the drug.
  • More recently, studies have investigated treatment individualization by evaluating drug pharmacogenetics based on the expression level or mutations of their molecular targets, including calcineurin for cyclosporine and tacrolimus, and inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase for mycophenolic acid.
  • Although no conclusive data may be drawn from these preliminary trials, further studies are underway to address the role of pharmacogenetics in clinical decision making.
  • [MeSH-minor] Drug Monitoring / methods. Drug Therapy, Combination. Humans. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15110631.001).
  • [ISSN] 0041-1345
  • [Journal-full-title] Transplantation proceedings
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Transplant. Proc.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 15
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56. Bruun NE, Dige-Pedersen H, Skøtt P: Normal responses of atrial natriuretic factor and renal tubular function to sodium loading in hypertension-prone humans. Blood Press; 2000;9(4):206-13
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  • METHODS: Twenty-two offspring of hypertensive parents (OH) and 20 offspring of normotensive parents (ON) were studied after 4 days of low (50 mmol/day) or high (300 mmol/day) dietary sodium intake.
  • Blood pressure (BP), renal function, plasma concentration of ANF, cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), renin, angiotensin I and II, aldosterone, endothelin and catecholamines were determined during a clearance period of 90 min on both diets.
  • RESULTS: Supine systolic and diastolic BPs were significantly elevated in OH, with both low and high dietary sodium intake.
  • As expected the activity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system was decreased by enhancing sodium intake but with both low and high sodium intake plasma renin concentration was significantly higher in OH than in ON.
  • Estimated values of fractional proximal and distal tubular sodium reabsorption decreased significantly and in a similar way in both OH and ON.
  • [MeSH-major] Atrial Natriuretic Factor / blood. Hypertension / etiology. Kidney Tubules / physiology. Sodium, Dietary / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 11055473.001).
  • [ISSN] 0803-7051
  • [Journal-full-title] Blood pressure
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Blood Press.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Controlled Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] NORWAY
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Sodium, Dietary; 85637-73-6 / Atrial Natriuretic Factor; EC 3.4.23.15 / Renin; H2D2X058MU / Cyclic GMP
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57. Rowinsky EK, Johnson TR, Geyer CE Jr, Hammond LA, Eckhardt SG, Drengler R, Smetzer L, Coyle J, Rizzo J, Schwartz G, Tolcher A, Von Hoff DD, De Jager RL: DX-8951f, a hexacyclic camptothecin analog, on a daily-times-five schedule: a phase I and pharmacokinetic study in patients with advanced solid malignancies. J Clin Oncol; 2000 Sep;18(17):3151-63
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  • [Title] DX-8951f, a hexacyclic camptothecin analog, on a daily-times-five schedule: a phase I and pharmacokinetic study in patients with advanced solid malignancies.
  • The MTD, defined as the highest dose level at which the incidence of dose-limiting toxicity did not exceed 20%, was calculated separately for minimally pretreated (MP) and heavily pretreated (HP) patients.
  • Severe myelosuppression (neutropenia that was protracted and/or associated with fever and/or severe thrombocytopenia) was consistently experienced by HP and MP patients at doses exceeding 0.3 and 0.5 mg/m(2)/d, respectively.
  • CONCLUSION: The recommended doses for phase II studies of DX-8951f as a 30-minute infusion daily for 5 days every 3 weeks are 0.5 and 0.3 mg/m(2)/d for MP and HP patients, respectively.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / administration & dosage. Camptothecin / administration & dosage. Camptothecin / analogs & derivatives. Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Humans. Infusions, Intravenous. Male. Middle Aged. Nausea / chemically induced. Neutropenia / chemically induced. Thrombocytopenia / chemically induced. Vomiting / chemically induced


58. Guo S, Huang F, Guo P: Construction of folate-conjugated pRNA of bacteriophage phi29 DNA packaging motor for delivery of chimeric siRNA to nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells. Gene Ther; 2006 May;13(10):814-20
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  • The folate was conjugated into adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) by 1,6-hexanediamine linkages.
  • A pRNA with a 5'-overhang is needed to enhance the accessibility of the 5' folate for specific receptor binding.
  • Utilizing the engineered left/right interlocking loops, polyvalent dimeric pRNA nanoparticles were constructed using RNA nanotechnology to carry folate, a detection marker, and siRNA targeting at an antiapoptosis factor.
  • Such a protein-free RNA nanoparticle with undetectable antigenicity has a potential for repeated long-term administration for nasopharyngeal carcinoma as the effectiveness and specificity were confirmed by ex vivo delivery in the animal trial.

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  • (PMID = 16482206.001).
  • [ISSN] 0969-7128
  • [Journal-full-title] Gene therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gene Ther.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIBIB NIH HHS / EB / R01 EB003730; United States / NIBIB NIH HHS / EB / EB003730-03; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / R01 GM059944-06; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / R01 GM059944; United States / NIBIB NIH HHS / EB / R01-EB03730; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / GM059944-06; United States / NIBIB NIH HHS / EB / R01 EB003730-03; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / R01-GM59944
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / Folate Receptors, GPI-Anchored; 0 / RNA, Small Interfering; 0 / Receptors, Cell Surface; 415SHH325A / Adenosine Monophosphate; 935E97BOY8 / Folic Acid
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS183024; NLM/ PMC2840388
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59. Kondo H, Mori A, Kubota M: Maintenance with pamidronate following first-line MP or VAD therapy in multiple myeloma. Leuk Lymphoma; 2003 Feb;44(2):303-7
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  • [Title] Maintenance with pamidronate following first-line MP or VAD therapy in multiple myeloma.
  • We investigated the anti-tumor effect of pamidronate after obtaining a decrease of serum monoclonal immunoglobulin (Ig) level by conventional chemotherapy in patients with multiple myeloma (MM) in order to evaluate whether the drug is useful as maintenance therapy for MM.
  • Eight patients with MM received 60 mg/d pamidronate every third week for 6-18 months without chemotherapeutic agents or corticosteroids after the treatment with melphalan and prednisolone, or vincristine, adriamycin and prednisolone.
  • Serum Ig and beta2-microglobulin (b2MG) levels were maintained at the levels obtained after the termination of chemotherapy in six and four out of eight patients, respectively.
  • Hemoglobin levels were maintained at, or increased to more than, the levels observed at the end of chemotherapy in six patients.
  • Decreased plasma cells in the bone marrow after the chemotherapy were evident in five patients.
  • Two patients were categorized as non-responders, because Ig and b2MG increased and anemia progressed after treatment with the drug.
  • Despite the very small numbers, the results suggest that pamidronate may have anti-tumor activity and be useful for treatment after the conventional chemotherapy in some cases of MM.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Diphosphonates / administration & dosage. Multiple Myeloma / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Dexamethasone / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Drug Evaluation. Female. Hemoglobins / analysis. Humans. Immunoglobulins / blood. Male. Melphalan / administration & dosage. Middle Aged. Plasma Cells. Prednisolone / administration & dosage. Prospective Studies. Vincristine / administration & dosage. beta 2-Microglobulin / blood

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  • (PMID = 12688349.001).
  • [ISSN] 1042-8194
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia & lymphoma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Lymphoma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Diphosphonates; 0 / Hemoglobins; 0 / Immunoglobulins; 0 / beta 2-Microglobulin; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 9PHQ9Y1OLM / Prednisolone; OYY3447OMC / pamidronate; Q41OR9510P / Melphalan; VAD protocol
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60. Cox VC, Ensom MH: Mycophenolate mofetil for solid organ transplantation: does the evidence support the need for clinical pharmacokinetic monitoring? Ther Drug Monit; 2003 Apr;25(2):137-57
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  • Using a previously developed algorithm, the authors reviewed the evidence to support or refute the utility of CPM of MMF.
  • A lower limit of the therapeutic range (MPA predose concentrations >1.55 microg/mL, as measured by enzyme multiplied immunoassay technique [EMIT], or MPA AUC >30 or 40 microg. h/mL, as measured by high-performance liquid chromatography [HPLC]) has been suggested to prevent rejection in renal allograft patients.
  • Due to the nature of antirejection therapy, the pharmacologic response of MMF is not readily assessable, and therapy is life-long.
  • MPA pharmacokinetics exhibit large inter- and intrapatient variability and may be altered in specific patient populations due to changes in protein binding, concomitant disease states, or interactions with concurrent immunosuppressants.
  • Specifically, an upper limit of the therapeutic range, above which the risk of side effects is increased, needs to be elucidated for MMF therapy.
  • Other future directions for research include determining a practical limited sampling strategy for MPA AUC; clarifying the relationship between free MPA concentrations, efficacy, and toxicity; and defining the pharmacodynamic relationship between activity of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (the enzyme inhibited by MPA) and risk of rejection or adverse effects.
  • [MeSH-major] Drug Monitoring / methods. Immunosuppressive Agents / pharmacokinetics. Mycophenolic Acid / pharmacokinetics. Organ Transplantation
  • [MeSH-minor] Clinical Trials as Topic. Decision Making. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Graft Rejection / immunology. Graft Rejection / prevention & control. Humans

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  • (PMID = 12657908.001).
  • [ISSN] 0163-4356
  • [Journal-full-title] Therapeutic drug monitoring
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ther Drug Monit
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 9242ECW6R0 / mycophenolate mofetil; HU9DX48N0T / Mycophenolic Acid
  • [Number-of-references] 97
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61. Haghighi SS, Agrawal SK, Surdell D Jr, Plambeck R, Agrawal S, Johnson GC, Walker A: Effects of methylprednisolone and MK-801 on functional recovery after experimental chronic spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord; 2000 Dec;38(12):733-40
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  • A group of methylprednisolone (MP)-treated (30 mg/kg, n=10; Group B) and non-treated animals (n=9; Group C) were included for comparison.
  • The functional motor outcome such as inclined plane (IP), toe spreading reflex (TSR), and modified Tarlov scale (TS) were measured in each animal at regular time points up to 8 weeks post-treatment.
  • Histologically the injury site was scored in four groups and immunohistochemically Wallerian Degeneration (WD), astrocytosis and expression of beta-amyloid protein was identified.
  • Only group B showed significance in cavitation scores compared to group A (P>0.0094), WD was significantly different than group C (P>0.03), astrocytosis was significantly higher than group A (P>0.001) and modest presence of beta-amyloid protein.
  • CONCLUSION: Our data indicate that one time bolus administration of MK-801 lacks any significant effect on axonal function in chronically injured rats.
  • Daily bolus administration of MP at 30 mg/kg also did not ensure a better functional outcome.
  • Immunohistochemically we have been able to show significant differences in WD, astrocytosis and small insignificant changes in beta-amyloid protein.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-Inflammatory Agents / pharmacology. Dizocilpine Maleate / pharmacology. Methylprednisolone / pharmacology. Neuroprotective Agents / pharmacology. Recovery of Function / drug effects. Spinal Cord Injuries / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Amyloid beta-Peptides / metabolism. Animals. Axons / drug effects. Axons / pathology. Chronic Disease. Drug Therapy, Combination. Gliosis / etiology. Gliosis / pathology. Male. Nerve Degeneration / drug therapy. Nerve Degeneration / pathology. Nerve Degeneration / physiopathology. Rats. Rats, Sprague-Dawley. Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate / antagonists & inhibitors. Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate / metabolism. Spinal Cord / drug effects. Spinal Cord / pathology. Spinal Cord / physiopathology

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  • (PMID = 11175373.001).
  • [ISSN] 1362-4393
  • [Journal-full-title] Spinal cord
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Spinal Cord
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Amyloid beta-Peptides; 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents; 0 / Neuroprotective Agents; 0 / Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate; 6LR8C1B66Q / Dizocilpine Maleate; X4W7ZR7023 / Methylprednisolone
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62. Everly MJ, Rebellato LM, Ozawa M, Briley KP, Catrou PG, Haisch CE, Terasaki PI: Beyond histology: lowering human leukocyte antigen antibody to improve renal allograft survival in acute rejection. Transplantation; 2010 Apr 27;89(8):962-7
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  • BACKGROUND: The common endpoint in the treatment of antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) is functional reversal (creatinine levels).
  • Antibody reduction was defined as mean fluorescence intensity decrease more than 50% in highest intensity antibody after AMR therapy and the absence of new antibody formation.
  • Survival analysis was performed using STATA/MP v10 (College Station, TX).
  • Antibody nonresponders had significantly shorter allograft survival time (61.4 months) compared with antibody responders (no failures) (P=0.04, log-rank test).
  • This observation suggests that the therapeutic intervention that reduces antibody production may prolong graft survival in transplantation.
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Adrenal Cortex Hormones / therapeutic use. Adult. Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Antibody Formation. Antilymphocyte Serum. Biopsy. Down-Regulation. Drug Therapy, Combination. Female. Humans. Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Male. Middle Aged. Muromonab-CD3 / therapeutic use. Plasmapheresis. Retrospective Studies. Time Factors. Transplantation, Homologous. Treatment Outcome

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  • [ErratumIn] Transplantation. 2010 Jul 15;90(1):103
  • (PMID = 20075791.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-6080
  • [Journal-full-title] Transplantation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Transplantation
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antilymphocyte Serum; 0 / HLA Antigens; 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 0 / Isoantibodies; 0 / Muromonab-CD3; 0 / thymoglobulin
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63. Yeo EJ, Ryu JH, Chun YS, Cho YS, Jang IJ, Cho H, Kim J, Kim MS, Park JW: YC-1 induces S cell cycle arrest and apoptosis by activating checkpoint kinases. Cancer Res; 2006 Jun 15;66(12):6345-52
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  • Hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) seems central to tumor growth and progression because it up-regulates genes essential for angiogenesis and the hypoxic adaptation of cancer cells, which is why HIF-1alpha inhibition is viewed as a cancer therapy strategy.
  • It was found that YC-1 does not reverse the antiproliferative effect of hypoxia, but rather that it induces S-phase arrest and apoptosis at therapeutic concentrations that inhibit HIF-1alpha and tumor growth; however, YC-1 did not stimulate cyclic guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate production in this concentration range.
  • [MeSH-major] Apoptosis / drug effects. Indazoles / pharmacology. Protein Kinases / metabolism. Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases / metabolism. S Phase / drug effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / enzymology. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / pathology. Cell Growth Processes / drug effects. Cell Line, Tumor. Checkpoint Kinase 2. Enzyme Activation / drug effects. Humans. Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit / antagonists & inhibitors. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Liver Neoplasms / enzymology. Liver Neoplasms / pathology. Protein Kinase Inhibitors / pharmacokinetics. Protein Kinase Inhibitors / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 16778212.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-5472
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / HIF1A protein, human; 0 / Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit; 0 / Indazoles; 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors; 154453-18-6 / 3-(5'-hydroxymethyl-2'-furyl)-1-benzylindazole; EC 2.7.- / Protein Kinases; EC 2.7.1.11 / Checkpoint Kinase 2; EC 2.7.11.1 / CHEK2 protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Checkpoint kinase 1; EC 2.7.11.1 / Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases
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64. van Hensbergen Y, Broxterman HJ, Elderkamp YW, Lankelma J, Beers JC, Heijn M, Boven E, Hoekman K, Pinedo HM: A doxorubicin-CNGRC-peptide conjugate with prodrug properties. Biochem Pharmacol; 2002 Mar 1;63(5):897-908
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  • There is increasing interest in the exploitation of molecular addresses for the targeting of tumor imaging or therapeutic agents.
  • In order to learn more about the mechanism of action of this type of DOX-peptide conjugates, we have studied the interaction of DOX-CNGRC with primary human umbilical cord vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and tumor cells under defined in vitro conditions.
  • First we determined that the t(1/2) of DOX-CNGRC conjugate in human blood was 442 min (at 37 degrees ) allowing sufficient time for endothelial targeting when administered i.v.
  • When cultured cells were exposed for 30 min to DOX-CNGRC a more cytoplasmic localization of fluorescent drug was seen when compared to DOX exposure and intracellular DOX-CNGRC was identified after extraction from the cells.
  • The antiproliferative effect of DOX-CNGRC was determined by 30 min exposure in medium with a high protein content in order to mimick the in vivo targeting situation.
  • In conclusion, this study indicates that the antiproliferative and anti-angiogenic effects of DOX-CNGRC as reported before, are likely caused by the cytostatic effects of intracellularly released parent drug DOX, independent of CD13 expression/activity.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antigens, CD13 / metabolism. Cell Division / drug effects. Disease Models, Animal. Drug Carriers. Drug Stability. Endothelium, Vascular / drug effects. Female. Humans. Mice. Mice, Nude. Neoplasm Transplantation. Neoplasms, Experimental / drug therapy. Subcellular Fractions. Tumor Cells, Cultured. Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays

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  • (PMID = 11911842.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-2952
  • [Journal-full-title] Biochemical pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biochem. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Drug Carriers; 0 / Oligopeptides; 0 / Prodrugs; 0 / doxorubicin cysteinyl-asparagyl-glycyl-arginyl-cysteine conjugate; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; EC 3.4.11.2 / Antigens, CD13
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65. Della Libera E, Rohr MR, Moraes M, Siqueira ES, Ferrari AP Jr: Eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with duodenal ulcer and non-ulcer dyspepsia and analysis of one-year reinfection rates. Braz J Med Biol Res; 2001 Jun;34(6):753-7
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  • Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection is endemic worldwide.
  • The proposed treatment is expensive and there are few reports regarding reinfection rates in Brazil.
  • The aim of this study was to compare the eradication rates obtained with two therapeutic options and to evaluate reinfection one year after treatment.
  • Thirty-nine patients had active duodenal ulcer (DU) and 16 non-ulcer dyspepsia (NUD), and all tested positive for HP.
  • Those patients in whom HP was eradicated were followed up for one year to evaluate reinfection.
  • HP eradication occurred in 20/25 patients (80%) treated with OMC and 13/30 (43%) treated with NA (P = 0.01).
  • After reallocation because of initial treatment failure, the overall eradication rate was 44/51 patients (86%).
  • We conclude that OMC is effective for HP eradication, and that NA should not be used.

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  • (PMID = 11378663.001).
  • [ISSN] 0100-879X
  • [Journal-full-title] Brazilian journal of medical and biological research = Revista brasileira de pesquisas medicas e biologicas
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Braz. J. Med. Biol. Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Comparative Study; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents; 0 / Anti-Ulcer Agents; 0 / Macrolides; 0 / Penicillins; 140QMO216E / Metronidazole; KG60484QX9 / Omeprazole
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66. Van den Neste E, Cardoen S, Offner F, Bontemps F: Old and new insights into the mechanisms of action of two nucleoside analogs active in lymphoid malignancies: fludarabine and cladribine (review). Int J Oncol; 2005 Oct;27(4):1113-24
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  • This review focuses on two chemotherapeutic agents belonging to the family of purine analogs, 9-beta-D-arabinosyl-2-fluoroadenine-5'-monophosphate (F-ara-AMP, fludarabine), which is the soluble form of F-ara-A, and 2-chloro-2'-deoxyadenosine (CdA, cladribine).
  • These findings are of crucial importance because alterations in these pathways may be involved in leukemic cell resistance toward nucleoside analogs and, hence, constitute new molecular targets to sensitize leukemic cells to these drugs.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Cladribine / pharmacology. Leukemia, Lymphoid / drug therapy. Nucleosides / pharmacology. Vidarabine / analogs & derivatives
  • [MeSH-minor] Apoptosis. Caspases / metabolism. Cell Cycle. Cell Membrane / metabolism. Cell Proliferation. Cell Survival. DNA / chemistry. DNA / metabolism. DNA Damage. DNA Repair. DNA-Directed DNA Polymerase / metabolism. Humans. Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell / drug therapy. Models, Biological. Models, Chemical. RNA / metabolism. Signal Transduction. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16142330.001).
  • [ISSN] 1019-6439
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Nucleosides; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 47M74X9YT5 / Cladribine; 63231-63-0 / RNA; 9007-49-2 / DNA; EC 2.7.7.7 / DNA-Directed DNA Polymerase; EC 3.4.22.- / Caspases; FA2DM6879K / Vidarabine; P2K93U8740 / fludarabine
  • [Number-of-references] 165
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67. Ravipati G, McClung JA, Aronow WS, Peterson SJ, Frishman WH: Type 5 phosphodiesterase inhibitors in the treatment of erectile dysfunction and cardiovascular disease. Cardiol Rev; 2007 Mar-Apr;15(2):76-86
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  • [Title] Type 5 phosphodiesterase inhibitors in the treatment of erectile dysfunction and cardiovascular disease.
  • Since the discovery of sildenafil in 1989 as a highly selective inhibitor of the phosphodiesterase type-5 (PDE-5) receptor, 2 additional PDE-5 inhibitors, tadalafil and vardenafil, have emerged as safe and effective treatments of erectile dysfunction (ED).
  • Enzymes in the PDE family catalyze the hydrolysis of the intracellular signaling molecules cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), which is the second messenger of nitric oxide (NO) and a principal mediator of smooth muscle relaxation and vasodilation.
  • Sildenafil was initially introduced for clinical use as the result of extensive research on chemical agents targeting PDE-5 that might potentially be useful in the treatment of coronary heart disease.
  • In addition to the effects of the NO-cGMP signaling pathway on cavernosal smooth muscle, clinical findings have suggested that vascular tone in the pulmonary, coronary, and other vascular tissues expressed by PDE-5 is also influenced by this signal transduction mechanism.
  • This has led to the emergence of novel therapeutic indications for sildenafil over a range of cardiovascular conditions that are either well-established risk factors or comorbidities with ED.
  • Food and Drug Administration approved sildenafil as an orally active therapy for the treatment of primary pulmonary hypertension.
  • The drug will be marketed under the trade name of Revatio, not Viagra, the name used for the ED indication.
  • The approved dose for primary pulmonary hypertension is 20 mg 3 times daily.
  • [MeSH-major] 3',5'-Cyclic-GMP Phosphodiesterases / antagonists & inhibitors. Cardiovascular Diseases / drug therapy. Impotence, Vasculogenic / drug therapy. Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Antihypertensive Agents / therapeutic use. Blood Platelets / drug effects. Blood Pressure / drug effects. Carbolines / therapeutic use. Coronary Circulation / drug effects. Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 5. Drug Interactions. Heart / drug effects. Heart Failure / drug therapy. Humans. Hypertension / drug therapy. Imidazoles / therapeutic use. Male. Myocardial Ischemia / complications. Myocardial Ischemia / drug therapy. Piperazines / therapeutic use. Pulmonary Circulation / drug effects. Purines / therapeutic use. Risk Assessment / methods. Sildenafil Citrate. Sulfones / therapeutic use. Tadalafil. Treatment Outcome. Triazines / therapeutic use. Vardenafil Dihydrochloride

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  • (PMID = 17303994.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-4683
  • [Journal-full-title] Cardiology in review
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cardiol Rev
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antihypertensive Agents; 0 / Carbolines; 0 / Imidazoles; 0 / Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors; 0 / Piperazines; 0 / Purines; 0 / Sulfones; 0 / Triazines; 5O8R96XMH7 / Vardenafil Dihydrochloride; 742SXX0ICT / Tadalafil; BW9B0ZE037 / Sildenafil Citrate; EC 3.1.4.35 / 3',5'-Cyclic-GMP Phosphodiesterases; EC 3.1.4.35 / Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 5; EC 3.1.4.35 / PDE5A protein, human
  • [Number-of-references] 101
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68. Showalter SL, Showalter TN, Witkiewicz A, Havens R, Kennedy EP, Hucl T, Kern SE, Yeo CJ, Brody JR: Evaluating the drug-target relationship between thymidylate synthase expression and tumor response to 5-fluorouracil. Is it time to move forward? Cancer Biol Ther; 2008 Jul;7(7):986-94
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  • [Title] Evaluating the drug-target relationship between thymidylate synthase expression and tumor response to 5-fluorouracil. Is it time to move forward?
  • The 5-fluorouracil metabolite, fluoro-deoxyuridine monophosphate, forms a ternary complex with thymidylate synthase and 5,10-methylene tetrahydrofolate.
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the time-honored connection between thymidylate synthase and 5-fluorouracil.
  • From our literature search spanning reports from 1995 to 2007 published in journals having an impact factor greater than 2, we stratified the tumors within each article, according to low versus high thymidylate synthase expression.
  • We found no change in the trend for a relationship between thymidylate synthase and 5-fluorouracil when the literature was stratified by date of publication, impact factor of the journal in which the report was published, or substrate (mRNA versus protein) for measuring thymidylate synthase expression.
  • Of note, there is no significant change in the trend when comparing 5-fluorouracil treatment alone or in combination with leucovorin.
  • In sum, the connection between thymidylate synthase expression and patient response to 5-fluorouracil does not satisfy expectations for an effective drug-target relationship; and thus, studies of the thymidylate synthase tandem repeat status might only be clinically valuable in regards to patient toxicity.
  • Future research could perhaps be directed towards alternate targets and metabolites of 5-fluorouracil, in an effort to find a clinically relevant biomarker panel for response and to optimize fluoropyrimidine-based therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / pharmacology. Fluorouracil / pharmacology. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Neoplasms / drug therapy. Neoplasms / enzymology. Thymidylate Synthase / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Clinical Trials as Topic. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm / drug effects. Humans. Models, Biological. Pharmacogenetics / methods. Sensitivity and Specificity. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 18443433.001).
  • [ISSN] 1555-8576
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer biology & therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Biol. Ther.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA062924; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA062924-15
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; EC 2.1.1.45 / Thymidylate Synthase; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
  • [Number-of-references] 94
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS213727; NLM/ PMC3081718
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69. Kwok S, Selby PL, McElduff P, Laing I, Mackness B, Mackness MI, Prais H, Morgan J, Yates AP, Durrington PN, Sci FM: Progestogens of varying androgenicity and cardiovascular risk factors in postmenopausal women receiving oestrogen replacement therapy. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2004 Dec;61(6):760-7
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  • [Title] Progestogens of varying androgenicity and cardiovascular risk factors in postmenopausal women receiving oestrogen replacement therapy.
  • OBJECTIVE: Medroxyprogesterone (MP) was used as the progestogen in randomized clinical trials of postmenopausal hormone replacement on cardiovascular risk.
  • To attempt to understand the lack of benefit in these trials, we have examined the effects of MP and two other progestogens, the less androgenic desogestrel (DG) and the more androgenic norethisterone (NE), on cardiovascular risk factors against a background of oestrogen therapy.
  • DESIGN AND MEASUREMENTS: Thirty-four women were treated with conjugated equine oestrogens (CEE) 0.625 mg daily alone for 12 weeks, followed in random order by each of the three progestogens (DG 75 microg, MP 10 mg and NE 1 mg daily) given sequentially for three 12-week cycles while maintaining the same CEE treatment.
  • We measured serum lipoproteins, paraoxonase activity, C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen, fasting glucose and insulin levels at baseline, at the end of the oestrogen-only phase and at the end of each of the combined oestrogen and progestogen phases.
  • Progestogens significantly reduced high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (P < 0.05).
  • [MeSH-major] Cardiovascular Diseases / prevention & control. Estrogen Replacement Therapy. Postmenopause / blood. Progestins / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Aryldialkylphosphatase / blood. Biomarkers / blood. Blood Glucose / analysis. C-Reactive Protein / analysis. Desogestrel / therapeutic use. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Fibrinogen / analysis. Humans. Insulin / blood. Lipoproteins / blood. Medroxyprogesterone / therapeutic use. Middle Aged. Norethindrone / therapeutic use. Risk Factors. Statistics, Nonparametric. Triglycerides / blood

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  • (PMID = 15579192.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-0664
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Comparative Study; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Blood Glucose; 0 / Insulin; 0 / Lipoproteins; 0 / Progestins; 0 / Triglycerides; 81K9V7M3A3 / Desogestrel; 9001-32-5 / Fibrinogen; 9007-41-4 / C-Reactive Protein; EC 3.1.8.1 / Aryldialkylphosphatase; HSU1C9YRES / Medroxyprogesterone; T18F433X4S / Norethindrone
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70. Wu YM, Joseph B, Gupta S: Immunosuppression using the mTOR inhibition mechanism affects replacement of rat liver with transplanted cells. Hepatology; 2006 Aug;44(2):410-9
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  • Successful grafting of tissues or cells from mismatched donors requires systemic immunosuppression.
  • Immunosuppressive drugs used were tacrolimus (a calcineurin inhibitor) and its synergistic partners, rapamycin (a regulator of the mammalian target of rapamycin [mTOR]) and mycophenolate mofetil (an inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase inhibitor).
  • First, suitable drug doses capable of inducing long-term survival of allografted hepatocytes were identified.
  • In conclusion, insights into the biological effects of specific drugs on transplanted cells are critical in identifying suitable immunosuppressive strategies for cell therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Graft Rejection / prevention & control. Hepatocytes / transplantation. Immunosuppression. Immunosuppressive Agents / pharmacology. Liver Transplantation / methods. Protein Kinases / drug effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Mycophenolic Acid / analogs & derivatives. Mycophenolic Acid / pharmacology. Rats. Rats, Inbred F344. Rats, Long-Evans. Sirolimus / pharmacology. TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases. Tacrolimus / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 16871590.001).
  • [ISSN] 0270-9139
  • [Journal-full-title] Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hepatology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / 2P01-DK52956; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / P30-DK41296; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK46952
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 9242ECW6R0 / mycophenolate mofetil; EC 2.7.- / Protein Kinases; EC 2.7.1.1 / TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases; EC 2.7.1.1 / mTOR protein, rat; HU9DX48N0T / Mycophenolic Acid; W36ZG6FT64 / Sirolimus; WM0HAQ4WNM / Tacrolimus
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71. Chen L, Petrelli R, Gao G, Wilson DJ, McLean GT, Jayaram HN, Sham YY, Pankiewicz KW: Dual inhibitors of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase and histone deacetylase based on a cinnamic hydroxamic acid core structure. Bioorg Med Chem; 2010 Aug 15;18(16):5950-64
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  • [Title] Dual inhibitors of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase and histone deacetylase based on a cinnamic hydroxamic acid core structure.
  • Small molecules that act on multiple biological targets have been proposed to combat the drug resistance commonly observed for cancer chemotherapy.
  • By combining the structural features of known inhibitors of inosine monophosphate dehydrogense (IMPDH) and histone deacetylase (HDAC), dual inhibitors of IMPDH and HDAC based on the scaffold of cinnamic hydroxamic acid (CHA) have been designed, synthesized, and evaluated in biological assays.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / chemistry. Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors / chemistry. Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors / pharmacology. IMP Dehydrogenase / antagonists & inhibitors. Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Cinnamates / chemical synthesis. Cinnamates / chemistry. Cinnamates / pharmacology. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Histone Deacetylases / metabolism. Humans. Hydroxamic Acids / chemical synthesis. Hydroxamic Acids / chemistry. Hydroxamic Acids / pharmacology. Models, Molecular

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20650640.001).
  • [ISSN] 1464-3391
  • [Journal-full-title] Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bioorg. Med. Chem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Cinnamates; 0 / Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors; 0 / Hydroxamic Acids; EC 1.1.1.205 / IMP Dehydrogenase; EC 3.5.1.98 / Histone Deacetylases; U14A832J8D / cinnamic acid
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72. Johnson A: Daptomycin in the treatment of skin, soft-tissue and invasive infections due to Gram-positive bacteria. Future Microbiol; 2006 Oct;1(3):255-65
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  • [Title] Daptomycin in the treatment of skin, soft-tissue and invasive infections due to Gram-positive bacteria.
  • Daptomycin is licensed both in the USA and Europe for the treatment of complicated skin and skin-structure infections and in the USA this has recently been expanded to include bacteremia and right-sided endocarditis due to Staphylococcus aureus.
  • Clinical data generally indicate that daptomycin is well tolerated, but nonetheless concerns persist regarding potential muscle toxicity.
  • Emergence of resistance to daptomycin has been reported, highlighting the need for prospective surveillance to determine the extent of this potential problem.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-Bacterial Agents / therapeutic use. Daptomycin / therapeutic use. Gram-Positive Bacteria / drug effects. Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Bacteremia / drug therapy. Bacteremia / microbiology. Clinical Trials as Topic. Drug Evaluation, Preclinical. Endocarditis / drug therapy. Endocarditis / microbiology. Humans. Molecular Structure. Rabbits. Rats. Rats, Wistar. Skin / drug effects. Skin / microbiology. Skin / pathology. Skin Diseases, Bacterial / drug therapy. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17661638.001).
  • [ISSN] 1746-0921
  • [Journal-full-title] Future microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Future Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents; NWQ5N31VKK / Daptomycin
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73. Lin BL, Shen XD, Cui S: Application of nanosized Fe3O4 in anticancer drug carriers with target-orientation and sustained-release properties. Biomed Mater; 2007 Jun;2(2):132-4
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  • [Title] Application of nanosized Fe3O4 in anticancer drug carriers with target-orientation and sustained-release properties.
  • The purpose of this study was to prepare human serum albumin (HSA) microspheres with Fe(3)O(4) magnetic nanoparticles for tumor target therapy.
  • Fe(3)O(4) was obtained by liquid-phase coprecipitation; HSA-coated magnetic particles were attained by solidification at high temperature.
  • Fe(3)O(4) magnetic nanoparticles coated with HSA can be used for targeted-drug carriers with target-orientation and sustained-release properties.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Delayed-Action Preparations / chemistry. Drug Carriers / chemistry. Ferrous Compounds / chemistry. Magnetics / therapeutic use. Nanostructures / chemistry

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  • (PMID = 18458446.001).
  • [ISSN] 1748-605X
  • [Journal-full-title] Biomedical materials (Bristol, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biomed Mater
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Delayed-Action Preparations; 0 / Drug Carriers; 0 / Ferrous Compounds; G7036X8B5H / ferrous oxide
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74. Banerjee D, Mayer-Kuckuk P, Capiaux G, Budak-Alpdogan T, Gorlick R, Bertino JR: Novel aspects of resistance to drugs targeted to dihydrofolate reductase and thymidylate synthase. Biochim Biophys Acta; 2002 Jul 18;1587(2-3):164-73
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  • [Title] Novel aspects of resistance to drugs targeted to dihydrofolate reductase and thymidylate synthase.
  • Drug resistance is often a limiting factor in successful chemotherapy.
  • Our laboratory has been interested in studying mechanisms of resistance to drugs that are targeted to the thymidylate biosynthesis pathway especially those that target thymidylate synthase (TS) and dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR).
  • Although the predictive value of these two measures appears to be significant, given the variety of resistance to 5-FU observed in cell lines, it is not likely that these are the only measures predictive of response or responsible for acquired resistance to this drug.
  • The enzyme uridine-cytidine monophosphate kinase (UMPK) is an essential and rate-limiting enzyme in 5-FU activation while dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) is a catabolic enzyme that inactivates 5-FU.
  • Transcription factors that regulate TS may also influence drug sensitivity.
  • These mutants used alone or as fusion cDNAs of the mutants have proven to be useful in transplant studies where transfer of these mutant cDNAs to bone marrow cells have been shown to confer drug resistance to recipients.
  • The fusion cDNAs of DHFR such as the DHFR-herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase (HSVTK) are also useful for regulation of gene expression in vivo using MTX as the small molecule regulator that can be monitored by positron emission tomography (PET) scanning or by optical imaging using a fusion construct such as DHFR-EGFP.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Cycle Proteins. DNA-Binding Proteins. Folic Acid Antagonists / pharmacology. Thymidylate Synthase / antagonists & inhibitors
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Bone Marrow / drug effects. Dihydrouracil Dehydrogenase (NADP). Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. E2F Transcription Factors. E2F1 Transcription Factor. Enzyme Inhibitors / pharmacology. Fluorouracil / pharmacology. Humans. Methotrexate / pharmacology. Neoplasms / drug therapy. Neoplasms / genetics. Neoplasms / metabolism. Nucleoside-Phosphate Kinase / metabolism. Oxidoreductases / metabolism. Tetrahydrofolate Dehydrogenase / drug effects. Tetrahydrofolate Dehydrogenase / genetics. Thymidine Phosphorylase / metabolism. Transcription Factors / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 12084458.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-3002
  • [Journal-full-title] Biochimica et biophysica acta
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biochim. Biophys. Acta
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-08010; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-61586; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50-CA-86438
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / E2F Transcription Factors; 0 / E2F1 Transcription Factor; 0 / E2F1 protein, human; 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / Folic Acid Antagonists; 0 / Transcription Factors; EC 1.- / Oxidoreductases; EC 1.3.1.2 / Dihydrouracil Dehydrogenase (NADP); EC 1.5.1.3 / Tetrahydrofolate Dehydrogenase; EC 2.1.1.45 / Thymidylate Synthase; EC 2.4.2.4 / Thymidine Phosphorylase; EC 2.7.4.- / uridine monophosphate kinase; EC 2.7.4.4 / Nucleoside-Phosphate Kinase; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate
  • [Number-of-references] 85
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75. Shaw RJ, Lamia KA, Vasquez D, Koo SH, Bardeesy N, Depinho RA, Montminy M, Cantley LC: The kinase LKB1 mediates glucose homeostasis in liver and therapeutic effects of metformin. Science; 2005 Dec 9;310(5754):1642-6
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  • [Title] The kinase LKB1 mediates glucose homeostasis in liver and therapeutic effects of metformin.
  • The Peutz-Jegher syndrome tumor-suppressor gene encodes a protein-threonine kinase, LKB1, which phosphorylates and activates AMPK [adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase].
  • In LKB1-deficient livers, TORC2, a transcriptional coactivator of CREB (cAMP response element-binding protein), was dephosphorylated and entered the nucleus, driving the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1alpha (PGC-1alpha), which in turn drives gluconeogenesis.
  • Finally, we show that metformin, one of the most widely prescribed type 2 diabetes therapeutics, requires LKB1 in the liver to lower blood glucose levels.


76. Lang BA, Yeung RS, Oen KG, Malleson PN, Huber AM, Riley M, Ebbeson R, Ramsey SE, Laxer RM, Silverman ED, McCrindle BW, Ratnapalan S, Feldman BM: Corticosteroid treatment of refractory Kawasaki disease. J Rheumatol; 2006 Apr;33(4):803-9
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  • [Title] Corticosteroid treatment of refractory Kawasaki disease.
  • METHODS: All practicing pediatric rheumatologists in Canada identified KD patients treated with corticosteroids and completed a standard data form that included demographics, clinical and laboratory features, imaging studies, and therapeutic interventions, by chart review.
  • Corticosteroids were used in 26 patients (81%) for persistent fever despite treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) (refractory KD), 5 patients (19%) for congestive heart failure, and 1 patient for persistent acute phase symptoms other than fever.
  • Eight patients (31%) treated with corticosteroids developed coronary artery (CA) aneurysms and 9 (35%) developed CA dilatations without aneurysms.
  • Of those who developed CA aneurysm, 4 had aneurysms detected prior to IV methylprednisolone (MP) on echocardiograms performed on days 6-27 (mean day 13) of illness.
  • The remaining 4 patients had CA aneurysm detected after IVMP therapy, on echocardiograms performed on days 13-49 (mean day 23) of illness, 1-25 days (mean 9 days) after IVMP.
  • CONCLUSION: Corticosteroids are effective in the treatment of fever in most patients with IVIG-refractory KD.
  • [MeSH-major] Glucocorticoids / therapeutic use. Methylprednisolone / therapeutic use. Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome / drug therapy. Pediatrics / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Fever / drug therapy. Humans. Infant. Injections, Intravenous. Male. Recurrence. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Failure. Treatment Outcome


77. McMillan FM, Cahoon M, White A, Hedstrom L, Petsko GA, Ringe D: Crystal structure at 2.4 A resolution of Borrelia burgdorferi inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase: evidence of a substrate-induced hinged-lid motion by loop 6. Biochemistry; 2000 Apr 18;39(15):4533-42
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  • [Title] Crystal structure at 2.4 A resolution of Borrelia burgdorferi inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase: evidence of a substrate-induced hinged-lid motion by loop 6.
  • The conversion of inosine 5'-monophosphate (IMP) to xanthosine 5'-monophosphate (XMP) is the committed and rate-limiting reaction in de novo guanine nucleotide biosynthesis.
  • Inosine 5'- monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) is the enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of IMP to XMP with the concomitant reduction of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (from NAD(+) to NADH).
  • Because of its critical role in purine biosynthesis, IMPDH is a drug design target for anticancer, antiinfective, and immunosuppressive chemotherapy.
  • We have determined the crystal structure of IMPDH from Borrelia burgdorferi, the bacterial spirochete that causes Lyme disease, with a sulfate ion bound in the IMP phosphate binding site.
  • [MeSH-minor] Amino Acid Sequence. Animals. Binding Sites. Catalytic Domain. Crystallography, X-Ray. Cysteine / chemistry. Cysteine / metabolism. Drug Design. Humans. Inosine Monophosphate / metabolism. Models, Molecular. Molecular Sequence Data. NAD / metabolism. Pliability. Protein Conformation. Ribonucleotides / metabolism. Sequence Alignment. Solvents. Static Electricity. Structure-Activity Relationship. Sulfates / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 10758003.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-2960
  • [Journal-full-title] Biochemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biochemistry
  • [Language] eng
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] PDB/ 1EEP
  • [Grant] United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / GM32415; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / GM54403
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ribonucleotides; 0 / Solvents; 0 / Sulfates; 0U46U6E8UK / NAD; 131-99-7 / Inosine Monophosphate; 523-98-8 / xanthosine monophosphate; EC 1.1.1.205 / IMP Dehydrogenase; K848JZ4886 / Cysteine
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78. De Luca L, Proietti P, Palombaro GL, Battagliese A, Celotto A, Bucciarelli Ducci C, Fedele F: New positive inotropic agents in the treatment of left ventricular dysfunction. Ital Heart J; 2004 Jun;5 Suppl 6:63S-67S
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  • [Title] New positive inotropic agents in the treatment of left ventricular dysfunction.
  • Three major classes of inotropic agents have been clinically evaluated in patients with left ventricular dysfunction: a) agents that increase the intracellular concentration of cyclic adenosine monophosphate by stimulating the beta-adrenergic receptor or inhibiting phosphodiesterase;.
  • b) drugs that increase the intracellular sodium concentration;.
  • c) the new calcium-sensitizing drugs.
  • This review will focus on the newest drug for each of the above-mentioned classes of inotropic agents.
  • [MeSH-major] Cardiotonic Agents / therapeutic use. Ventricular Dysfunction, Left / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Diastole / drug effects. Heart Failure / drug therapy. Humans. Hydrazones / therapeutic use. Milrinone / therapeutic use. Myocardial Ischemia / drug therapy. Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Pyridazines / therapeutic use. Quinolines / therapeutic use. Ventricular Function, Left / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 15185917.001).
  • [ISSN] 1129-471X
  • [Journal-full-title] Italian heart journal : official journal of the Italian Federation of Cardiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ital Heart J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cardiotonic Agents; 0 / Hydrazones; 0 / Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors; 0 / Pyridazines; 0 / Quinolines; 349552KRHK / simendan; 5COW40EV8M / vesnarinone; JU9YAX04C7 / Milrinone
  • [Number-of-references] 53
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79. McBride JL, During MJ, Wuu J, Chen EY, Leurgans SE, Kordower JH: Structural and functional neuroprotection in a rat model of Huntington's disease by viral gene transfer of GDNF. Exp Neurol; 2003 Jun;181(2):213-23
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  • These excessive repeats lead to the degeneration of striatal and cortical neurons resulting in a devastating cognitive, psychiatric, and motor disorder for which no treatments are available.
  • Lewis rats received bilateral injections of either AAV-GDNF (n = 12) or AAV-green fluorescence protein (AAV-GFP, n = 12) into the striatum followed 2 weeks later by chronic subcutaneous infusions of the mitochondrial toxin, 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP, 38 mg/kg).
  • Similar findings were seen with dopamine-and-adenosine-3'5'-monophosphate-regulated phosphoprotein (DARPP-32) staining.
  • [MeSH-major] Dependovirus / genetics. Genetic Therapy / methods. Huntington Disease / therapy. Nerve Growth Factors / administration & dosage. Neuroprotective Agents / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antigens, CD45 / biosynthesis. Behavior, Animal / drug effects. Corpus Striatum / drug effects. Corpus Striatum / metabolism. Corpus Striatum / pathology. Disease Models, Animal. Glial Cell Line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor. Green Fluorescent Proteins. Injections. Luminescent Proteins / biosynthesis. Luminescent Proteins / genetics. Male. Motor Activity / drug effects. Motor Activity / genetics. Neurologic Examination. Nitro Compounds. Propionates. Rats. Rats, Inbred Lew. Severity of Illness Index. Stereotaxic Techniques. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 12781994.001).
  • [ISSN] 0014-4886
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Neurol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS35078
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Gdnf protein, rat; 0 / Glial Cell Line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor; 0 / Luminescent Proteins; 0 / Nerve Growth Factors; 0 / Neuroprotective Agents; 0 / Nitro Compounds; 0 / Propionates; 147336-22-9 / Green Fluorescent Proteins; EC 3.1.3.48 / Antigens, CD45; QY4L0FOX0D / 3-nitropropionic acid
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80. Chang P, Chandler KE, Williams RS, Walker MC: Inhibition of long-term potentiation by valproic acid through modulation of cyclic AMP. Epilepsia; 2010 Aug;51(8):1533-42
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  • Its mechanisms of action in these diverse conditions are, however, unclear, but there is some evidence indicating an effect of VPA upon protein kinase A (PKA) activity.
  • We, therefore, asked whether VPA modulates cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)/PKA-dependent synaptic plasticity and whether this mode of action could explain its anticonvulsant effect.
  • METHODS: We first tested the effects of VPA on PKA-dependent synaptic plasticity at mossy fiber to CA3 synapses in rat hippocampus slices following very high-frequency stimulation or application of the adenylyl cyclase activator forskolin.
  • [MeSH-major] Anticonvulsants / pharmacology. Brain. Cyclic AMP / metabolism. Long-Term Potentiation / drug effects. Valproic Acid / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Analysis of Variance. Animals. Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases / metabolism. Disease Models, Animal. Enzyme Inhibitors / pharmacology. Epilepsy / drug therapy. Epilepsy / metabolism. Epilepsy / pathology. Isoquinolines / pharmacology. Male. Rats. Rats, Sprague-Dawley. Sulfonamides / pharmacology

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  • [Copyright] Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2009 International League Against Epilepsy.
  • (PMID = 20002144.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-1167
  • [Journal-full-title] Epilepsia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Epilepsia
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anticonvulsants; 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / Isoquinolines; 0 / Sulfonamides; 127243-85-0 / N-(2-(4-bromocinnamylamino)ethyl)-5-isoquinolinesulfonamide; 614OI1Z5WI / Valproic Acid; E0399OZS9N / Cyclic AMP; EC 2.7.11.11 / Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases
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81. Michailidis E, Marchand B, Kodama EN, Singh K, Matsuoka M, Kirby KA, Ryan EM, Sawani AM, Nagy E, Ashida N, Mitsuya H, Parniak MA, Sarafianos SG: Mechanism of inhibition of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase by 4'-Ethynyl-2-fluoro-2'-deoxyadenosine triphosphate, a translocation-defective reverse transcriptase inhibitor. J Biol Chem; 2009 Dec 18;284(51):35681-91
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  • Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) are employed in first line therapies for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection.
  • Importantly, despite the presence of a 3'-hydroxyl, the incorporated EFdA monophosphate (EFdA-MP) acted mainly as a de facto terminator of further RT-catalyzed DNA synthesis because of the difficulty of RT translocation on the nucleic acid primer possessing 3'-terminal EFdA-MP.
  • This diminished translocation kept the primer 3'-terminal EFdA-MP ideally located to undergo phosphorolytic excision.
  • These interactions, which contribute to both enhanced RT utilization of EFdA-TP and difficulty in the translocation of 3'-terminal EFdA-MP primers, underlie the mechanism of action of this potent antiviral nucleoside.

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  • (PMID = 19837673.001).
  • [ISSN] 1083-351X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of biological chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Biol. Chem.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R01 AI074389; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / AI076119-02S1; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R33 AI079801; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / AI079801; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / AI074389; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R21 AI079801; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / AI076119; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R01 AI076119
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 4'-ethynyl-2-fluoro-2'-deoxyadenosine triphosphate; 0 / DNA, Viral; 0 / Deoxyadenine Nucleotides; 0 / Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors; EC 2.7.7.- / reverse transcriptase, Human immunodeficiency virus 1; EC 2.7.7.49 / HIV Reverse Transcriptase
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2790999
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82. Kułakowska A, Drozdowski W, Halicka D, Kochanowicz J, Braszko JJ: [Effect of methylprednisolone on emotional functioning of patients with multiple sclerosis]. Pol Merkur Lekarski; 2002 Sep;13(75):200-3
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  • The effects were examined of high doses of intravenous methylprednisolone (MP; 1 g daily, administered for 5 days) on emotional functions in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients with clinical relapse.
  • MS patients were subjected twice to psychological tests: immediately after MP treatment and 6 months later.
  • Thirty two control subjects (mean age 37.2 years) with ischialgia, not receiving steroids, underwent the same testing procedure.
  • Immediately after MP treatment, MS patients (total group) achieved significantly higher scores than controls on the HRSD and two subclasses of the HSCL: depression with inhibition and phobic anxiety.
  • Therapy with MP did not markedly change emotional functions in all MS patients (total group, cpMS, cdMS).
  • 2. Therapy with MP does not significantly change the emotional profile of MS patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Emotions / drug effects. Mental Disorders / etiology. Methylprednisolone / adverse effects. Multiple Sclerosis, Relapsing-Remitting / drug therapy. Multiple Sclerosis, Relapsing-Remitting / psychology. Neuroprotective Agents / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Anxiety / etiology. Case-Control Studies. Cognition Disorders / etiology. Depression / etiology. Female. Glucocorticoids / adverse effects. Humans. Infusions, Intravenous. Male. Middle Aged. Neuropsychological Tests. Sciatica / drug therapy. Sciatica / psychology. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 12474570.001).
  • [ISSN] 1426-9686
  • [Journal-full-title] Polski merkuriusz lekarski : organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pol. Merkur. Lekarski
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glucocorticoids; 0 / Neuroprotective Agents; X4W7ZR7023 / Methylprednisolone
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83. Kulawiec M, Arnouk H, Desouki MM, Kazim L, Still I, Singh KK: Proteomic analysis of mitochondria-to-nucleus retrograde response in human cancer. Cancer Biol Ther; 2006 Aug;5(8):967-75
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  • To identify proteins involved in retrograde response and their potential role in tumorigenesis, we carried out a comparative proteomic analysis using a cell line in which the mitochondrial genome was completely depleted (rho(0) cells lacking all mtDNA-encoded protein subunits), a cybrid cell line in which mtDNA was restored, and the parental cell line.
  • Our comparative proteomic approach revealed marked changes in the cellular proteome and led us to identify quantitative changes in expression of several proteins.
  • We found that subunits of complex I and complex III, molecular chaperones, and a protein involved in cell cycle control were downregulated and Inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase type 2 (IMPDH2) involved in nucleotide biosynthesis was upregulated in rho(0) cells.
  • Our findings demonstrate that the expression of proteins is restored to wild type level by transfer of wild type mitochondria to rho(0) cells, suggesting that these proteins play key roles in retrograde response.
  • To determine a potential role for identified retrograde responsive proteins in tumorigenesis, we analyzed the expression of UQCRC1 gene (encoding ubiquinol cytochrome-c reductase core protein I) in breast and ovarian tumors.
  • Our study opens an avenue for identification of retrograde proteins as potential tumor suppressors or oncogenes involved in carcinogenesis.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Blotting, Western. Breast / metabolism. Breast / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / metabolism. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Carcinoma, Lobular / metabolism. Carcinoma, Lobular / pathology. Cell Line, Tumor. Collagen / metabolism. Drug Combinations. Electron Transport Complex III / metabolism. Electron Transport Complex IV / metabolism. Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional. Endometrial Neoplasms / metabolism. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Endometrium / metabolism. Endometrium / pathology. Female. Humans. Hybrid Cells. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Laminin / metabolism. Mitochondrial Proteins / metabolism. Mutation / genetics. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Proteoglycans / metabolism. Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization. Tissue Array Analysis. rho GTP-Binding Proteins / genetics. rho GTP-Binding Proteins / metabolism

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  • [CommentIn] Cancer Biol Ther. 2006 Aug;5(8):976-7 [16969084.001]
  • (PMID = 16775426.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-4047
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer biology & therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Biol. Ther.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA097714; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA113655
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Drug Combinations; 0 / Laminin; 0 / Mitochondrial Proteins; 0 / Proteoglycans; 0 / Proteome; 119978-18-6 / matrigel; 9007-34-5 / Collagen; EC 1.10.2.2 / Electron Transport Complex III; EC 1.9.3.1 / Electron Transport Complex IV; EC 3.6.5.2 / rho GTP-Binding Proteins
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84. Lankhorst AJ, ter Laak MP, Hamers FP, Gispen WH: Combined treatment with alphaMSH and methylprednisolone fails to improve functional recovery after spinal injury in the rat. Brain Res; 2000 Mar 24;859(2):334-40
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Combined treatment with alphaMSH and methylprednisolone fails to improve functional recovery after spinal injury in the rat.
  • To date, relatively little progress has been made in the treatment of spinal cord injury (SCI)-related neurological impairments.
  • Until now, methylprednisolone (MP) is the only agent with clinically proven beneficial effect on functional outcome after SCI.
  • Since both drugs have shown their value in intervention studies after (experimental) spinal cord injury (ESCI), we decided to study the effects of combined treatment.
  • Our results again showed that alphaMSH enhances functional recovery after ESCI in the rat and that MP, although not affecting functional recovery adversely by itself, abolished the effects observed with alphaMSH when combined.
  • Our data, thus, suggest that the mechanism of action of MP interferes with that of alphaMSH.
  • [MeSH-major] Methylprednisolone / pharmacology. Methylprednisolone / therapeutic use. Recovery of Function / drug effects. Spinal Cord Injuries / drug therapy. Spinal Cord Injuries / physiopathology. alpha-MSH / pharmacology. alpha-MSH / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Action Potentials / drug effects. Action Potentials / physiology. Animals. Axons / drug effects. Axons / physiology. Body Weight / physiology. Drug Therapy, Combination. Female. Locomotion / drug effects. Locomotion / physiology. Rats. Rats, Wistar. Reaction Time / drug effects. Reaction Time / physiology. Spinal Cord / drug effects. Spinal Cord / physiology

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  • (PMID = 10719082.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-8993
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] NETHERLANDS
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 581-05-5 / alpha-MSH; X4W7ZR7023 / Methylprednisolone
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85. Landmesser U, Drexler H: Update on inotropic therapy in the management of acute heart failure. Curr Treat Options Cardiovasc Med; 2007 Dec;9(6):443-9
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  • [Title] Update on inotropic therapy in the management of acute heart failure.
  • The use of classic inotropic agents activating the beta-receptor-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) pathway (ie, dobutamine or milrinone) should be restricted to a "rescue" therapy in patients with acute heart failure and signs of peripheral hypoperfusion (hypotension, renal dysfunction) that is refractory to volume replacement, diuretics, and vasodilators.
  • This approach is largely supported by observations from clinical trials suggesting that both short-term treatment of acute heart failure without an essential requirement of inotropic support as well as long-term inotropic therapy in patients with severe chronic heart failure with classical inotropic agents can increase arrhythmia and mortality.
  • Positive inotropic therapy stimulating the beta-receptor-cAMP pathway should, therefore, be used with caution, given the potential harmful effects.
  • Therefore, additional data are required with respect to the optimum dosing of levosimendan and patient selection to reach a definitive conclusion about the role of levosimendan in the management of patients with acute heart failure.

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  • (PMID = 18221596.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-8464
  • [Journal-full-title] Current treatment options in cardiovascular medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Treat Options Cardiovasc Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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86. Melamed R, Rosenne E, Shakhar K, Schwartz Y, Abudarham N, Ben-Eliyahu S: Marginating pulmonary-NK activity and resistance to experimental tumor metastasis: suppression by surgery and the prophylactic use of a beta-adrenergic antagonist and a prostaglandin synthesis inhibitor. Brain Behav Immun; 2005 Mar;19(2):114-26
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  • Surgery is imperative for cancer treatment, but was suggested to suppress immunity and facilitate metastasis.
  • Here we study the involvement of catecholamines and prostaglandins (PG) in such outcomes, and the role played by marginating-pulmonary (MP)-NK cells in controlling MADB106 metastasis.
  • Non-operated and laparotomized F344 rats were injected postoperatively with a PG synthesis inhibitor (indomethacin, 4 mg/kg i.p.
  • ), both drugs, or vehicle.
  • Additionally, 12 h after surgery we harvested MP-NK cells and circulating-NK cells and compared their numbers and cytotoxicity against MADB106 cells and standard YAC-1 target cells.
  • Only MP-leukocytes exhibited NK cytotoxicity against MADB106 cells.
  • Similar effects were observed assessing MP-NK and circulating-NK cytotoxicity against YAC-1 target cells.
  • Alterations in the numbers of NK cells were partly associated with alterations in total MP-NK activity, but not with circulating-NK activity.
  • These findings point at potential prophylactic measures in cancer patients undergoing surgery, and suggest a role for MP-NK cells in resisting metastasis of apparently insensitive tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Adrenergic beta-Antagonists / pharmacology. Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors / pharmacology. Indomethacin / pharmacology. Killer Cells, Natural / immunology. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Nadolol / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Line, Tumor. Dinoprostone / metabolism. Dinoprostone / pharmacology. Drug Therapy, Combination. Female. Laparotomy. Lung / immunology. Lung / surgery. Male. Mammary Neoplasms, Animal. Neoplasm Transplantation. Neoplastic Cells, Circulating. Postoperative Complications / immunology. Rats. Rats, Inbred F344

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  • (PMID = 15664784.001).
  • [ISSN] 0889-1591
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain, behavior, and immunity
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Behav. Immun.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA73056
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenergic beta-Antagonists; 0 / Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors; 42200-33-9 / Nadolol; K7Q1JQR04M / Dinoprostone; XXE1CET956 / Indomethacin
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87. Jiang T, Ma X, Wang Z, Tong H, Hu J, Wang Y: Beneficial effects of hydroxyapatite on enamel subjected to 30% hydrogen peroxide. J Dent; 2008 Nov;36(11):907-14
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  • OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of combination of hydroxyapatite (HA) and hydrogen peroxide (HP) on color, microhardness and morphology of human tooth enamel.
  • Group DW was treated with distilled water, group HP with 30% HP, group HA+DW with HA mixed with distilled water and group HA+HP with HA mixed with 30% HP.
  • RESULTS: The DeltaE of group HP and HA+HP were significantly higher than those of group DW (p=0.000 and p=0.000) and group HA+DW (p=0.000 and p=0.000).
  • The percentage microhardness loss of group HA+HP was significantly lower than that of group HP (p=0.047), but significantly higher than those of group DW (p=0.000) and group HA+DW (p=0.000).
  • The obvious variation of morphology was only observed on enamel surfaces in group HP.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This study suggested that combination of HA and HP was effective in tooth whitening.
  • HA could significantly reduce the microhardness loss of enamel caused by 30% HP and keep enamel surface morphology almost unchanged.
  • [MeSH-major] Dental Enamel / drug effects. Durapatite / administration & dosage. Hydrogen Peroxide / therapeutic use. Tooth Bleaching / adverse effects. Tooth Demineralization / prevention & control
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Topical. Analysis of Variance. Bicuspid. Biocompatible Materials / administration & dosage. Biocompatible Materials / chemistry. Dental Enamel Solubility / drug effects. Drug Combinations. Hardness / drug effects. Humans. Oxidants / chemistry. Oxidants / therapeutic use. Random Allocation. Statistics, Nonparametric. Tooth Discoloration / therapy

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  • (PMID = 18768244.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-5712
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of dentistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Dent
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biocompatible Materials; 0 / Drug Combinations; 0 / Oxidants; 91D9GV0Z28 / Durapatite; BBX060AN9V / Hydrogen Peroxide
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88. Pospísil M, Hofer M, Vacek A, Netíková J, Holá J, Znojil V, Weiterová L: Drugs elevating extracellular adenosine enhance cell cycling of hematopoietic progenitor cells as inferred from the cytotoxic effects of 5-fluorouracil. Exp Hematol; 2001 May;29(5):557-62
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  • [Title] Drugs elevating extracellular adenosine enhance cell cycling of hematopoietic progenitor cells as inferred from the cytotoxic effects of 5-fluorouracil.
  • OBJECTIVE: Our previous studies showed that the combined administration of drugs elevating extracellular adenosine, i.e., dipyridamole and adenosine monophosphate (AMP), enhanced hematopoiesis in normal mice and increased hematopoietic recovery in irradiated mice.
  • Sensitizing effects of drugs occurred after a delay of several hours and attained a maximum of about 40-60% reduction of the progenitor cells surviving after 5-FU alone.
  • The period of maximum sensitization of CFU-S by the combination of dipyridamole + AMP was shifted to later time intervals as compared with the effects on CFC-GM and BFU-E.
  • Pretreatment of mice with the drugs also aggravated the 5-FU-induced lethality.
  • Reduction of survival was found in mice exposed to two cycles of 3 mg of 5-FU following the pretreatment with dipyridamole + AMP at a time period characterized by the highest fraction of CFU-S in the S phase.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that adenosine receptor signaling, induced by the administration of drugs elevating extracellular adenosine, enhances cycling of the hematopoietic progenitor cells.
  • These effects might have pharmacological implications in the therapy of blood disorders.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenosine / metabolism. Adenosine Monophosphate / pharmacology. Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / toxicity. Dipyridamole / pharmacology. Fluorouracil / toxicity. Hematopoietic Stem Cells / drug effects. Receptors, Purinergic P1 / drug effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Bone Marrow Diseases / chemically induced. Cell Cycle / drug effects. Colony-Forming Units Assay. Drug Synergism. Extracellular Space / metabolism. Male. Mice. Prodrugs / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 11376867.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-472X
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Prodrugs; 0 / Receptors, Purinergic P1; 415SHH325A / Adenosine Monophosphate; 64ALC7F90C / Dipyridamole; K72T3FS567 / Adenosine; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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89. Dickstein K, Hapnes R, Aarsland T: Comparison of aqueous and gellan ophthalmic timolol with placebo on the 24-hour heart rate response in patients on treatment for glaucoma. Am J Ophthalmol; 2001 Nov;132(5):626-32
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  • [Title] Comparison of aqueous and gellan ophthalmic timolol with placebo on the 24-hour heart rate response in patients on treatment for glaucoma.
  • PURPOSE: Topical beta-blocker treatment is routine therapy in the management of patients with glaucoma.
  • Therapy results in systemic absorption, however, the degree of reduction of resting and peak heart rate has not been quantified.
  • METHODS: Forty-three Caucasian patients with primary open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension with a mean (+/-SD) age of 63 (+/-8) years were randomized and crossed over in a double-masked manner to 14 days of treatment with placebo (morning and evening in both eyes), timolol solution (morning and evening in both eyes), or timolol gellan (morning in both eyes with placebo in the evening).
  • During the night, the mean 12-hour heart rate on placebo and timolol gellan were both significantly less than on timolol solution; the difference between solution and gellan treatments was statistically significant (P = .01).
  • These data quantify the modest bradycardia associated with ophthalmic beta-blocker therapy in a typical patient population on therapy for glaucoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenergic beta-Antagonists / therapeutic use. Glaucoma, Open-Angle / drug therapy. Heart Rate / drug effects. Timolol / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Circadian Rhythm / drug effects. Cross-Over Studies. Double-Blind Method. Female. Gels. Humans. Intraocular Pressure / drug effects. Male. Middle Aged. Ocular Hypertension / drug therapy. Ophthalmic Solutions. Safety

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  • (PMID = 11704023.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9394
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Ophthalmol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Comparative Study; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenergic beta-Antagonists; 0 / Gels; 0 / Ophthalmic Solutions; 817W3C6175 / Timolol
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90. Veljkovic V, Veljkovic N, Muller CP, Müller S, Glisic S, Perovic V, Köhler H: Characterization of conserved properties of hemagglutinin of H5N1 and human influenza viruses: possible consequences for therapy and infection control. BMC Struct Biol; 2009;9:21
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  • [Title] Characterization of conserved properties of hemagglutinin of H5N1 and human influenza viruses: possible consequences for therapy and infection control.
  • RESULTS: Presented results revealed that HA proteins encode highly conserved information that differ between influenza virus subtypes H5N1, H1N1, H3N2, H7N7 and defined an HA domain which may modulate interaction with receptor.
  • CONCLUSION: The presented results may help to better understand the interaction of influenza virus with its receptor(s) and to identify new therapeutic targets for drug development.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemagglutinins / chemistry. Infection Control. Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype / metabolism. Influenza, Human / therapy. Influenza, Human / virology. Orthomyxoviridae / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Base Sequence. Egypt. Evolution, Molecular. Humans. Models, Molecular. Molecular Sequence Data. Protein Conformation. Sequence Analysis, Protein

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  • (PMID = 19351406.001).
  • [ISSN] 1472-6807
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC structural biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Struct. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hemagglutinins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2679750
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91. Vlachopoulos C, Terentes-Printzios D, Ioakeimidis N, Rokkas K, Stefanadis C: PDE5 inhibitors in non-urological conditions. Curr Pharm Des; 2009;15(30):3521-39
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  • Phosphodiesterase type-5 (PDE5) inhibitors are widely used as first-line therapy for erectile dysfunction (ED).
  • Their efficacy and safety combined with an increasing understanding of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)-regulated mechanisms, have triggered a number of attempts to determine their effects and potential benefits in non-urological conditions.
  • To date, PDE5 inhibition has been shown to be effective for the treatment of idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension and both sildenafil and tadalafil are approved for this indication.
  • However, PDE5 inhibitors appear to have the potential of further expanding their indications.
  • Importantly, accumulating data show that the therapeutic potential extends to the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, cutaneous and nervous system and that these agents may be beneficial in a multitude of conditions such as Raynaud's phenomenon, heart failure, essential hypertension and stroke.
  • PDE5 inhibitors are a conceptually attractive therapeutic class of agents with pleiotropic effects.
  • [MeSH-major] Phosphodiesterase 5 Inhibitors. Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Alzheimer Disease / drug therapy. Animals. Cardiovascular Diseases / drug therapy. Endocrine System Diseases / drug therapy. Eye Diseases / drug therapy. Gastrointestinal Diseases / drug therapy. Hematologic Diseases / drug therapy. Humans. Lung Diseases / drug therapy. Neoplasms / drug therapy. Nervous System Diseases / drug therapy. Organ Transplantation. Skin Diseases / drug therapy. Stroke / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 19860698.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-4286
  • [Journal-full-title] Current pharmaceutical design
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr. Pharm. Des.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Phosphodiesterase 5 Inhibitors; 0 / Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors
  • [Number-of-references] 236
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92. Wuerzner G, Azizi M: Renin inhibition with aliskiren. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol; 2008 Apr;35(4):426-30
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  • 2. Aliskiren has a low bioavailability (between 2.6 and 5.0%) compensated by its high potency to inhibit renin (IC50: 0.6 nmol/L) and a long plasma half-life (23-36 h), which makes it suitable for once-daily dosing.
  • 3. The once-daily administration of aliskiren to hypertensive patients lowers BP as strongly as standard doses of established angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor blockers (losartan, valsartan, irbesartan), hydrochlorothiazide, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ramipril and lisinopril) or long acting calcium channel blockers (amlodipine).
  • In combination therapy, aliskiren further decreases blood pressure when combined with either hydrochlorothiazide, amlodipine, irbesartan or ramipril.
  • 4. The biochemical consequences of renin inhibition differ from those of angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition and Ang II antagonism, particularly in terms of angiotensin profiles and interactions with the bradykinin-nitric oxide-cyclic guanosine monophosphate pathway and possibly the (pro)renin receptor.
  • 5. Blockade of the renin angiotensin system (RAS) with ACE inhibitors, AT1 receptor blockers or a combination of these drugs has become one of the most successful therapeutic approaches in medicine.
  • [MeSH-major] Amides / therapeutic use. Antihypertensive Agents / therapeutic use. Fumarates / therapeutic use. Hypertension / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Blood Pressure / drug effects. Clinical Trials, Phase II as Topic. Clinical Trials, Phase III as Topic. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Therapy, Combination. Humans


93. Burduli NM, Gutnova SK: [State of humoral immunity and phagocytic activity of neutrophils in patients with ulcer and effect of low-intensity laser therapy]. Eksp Klin Gastroenterol; 2004;(4):29-32, 108
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  • [Title] [State of humoral immunity and phagocytic activity of neutrophils in patients with ulcer and effect of low-intensity laser therapy].
  • The aim of our investigation was to study the influence of low-intensity laser therapy at the immunologic parameters and Helicobacter pylori (HP) microbial contamination in patients with exacerbation of peptic and duodenal ulcer.
  • The experimental group (75 patients) underwent a complex drug and laser therapy of various therapeutic techniques.
  • The control group (25 patients) underwent only drug therapy.
  • The results of this study show the immunocorrective effect of different methods of low-intensity laser therapy in the exacerbation period and more essential decrease of HP microbial contamination in the experimental group.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibody Formation / radiation effects. Low-Level Light Therapy / methods. Neutrophils / radiation effects. Peptic Ulcer / immunology. Phagocytosis / radiation effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Anti-Bacterial Agents / therapeutic use. Anti-Ulcer Agents / therapeutic use. Helicobacter Infections / drug therapy. Helicobacter Infections / immunology. Helicobacter Infections / microbiology. Helicobacter Infections / radiotherapy. Helicobacter pylori / drug effects. Helicobacter pylori / isolation & purification. Helicobacter pylori / radiation effects. Humans. Immunoglobulins / analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15568664.001).
  • [ISSN] 1682-8658
  • [Journal-full-title] Ėksperimental'nai︠a︡ i klinicheskai︠a︡ gastroėnterologii︠a︡ = Experimental & clinical gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eksp Klin Gastroenterol
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Controlled Clinical Trial; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents; 0 / Anti-Ulcer Agents; 0 / Immunoglobulins
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94. Zhu A, Zhan W, Liang Z, Yoon Y, Yang H, Grossniklaus HE, Xu J, Rojas M, Lockwood M, Snyder JP, Liotta DC, Shim H: Dipyrimidine amines: a novel class of chemokine receptor type 4 antagonists with high specificity. J Med Chem; 2010 Dec 23;53(24):8556-68
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  • [Title] Dipyrimidine amines: a novel class of chemokine receptor type 4 antagonists with high specificity.
  • The C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4)/stromal cell derived factor-1 (SDF-1 or CXCL12) interaction and the resulting cell signaling cascade play a key role in metastasis and inflammation.
  • Following a structure-activity profile around 5, more advanced compounds in the N,N'-(1, 4-phenylenebis(methylene)) dipyrimidin-2-amines series were discovered and shown to possess higher CXCR4 binding potential and specificity than 5.
  • Compound 26 (508MCl) is the lead compound and exhibits subnanomolar potency in three in vitro assays including competitive binding, Matrigel invasion and Gα(i) cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) modulation signaling.
  • These data demonstrate that dipyrimidine amines are unique CXCR4 antagonists with high potency and specificity.

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  • (PMID = 21105715.001).
  • [ISSN] 1520-4804
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medicinal chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Med. Chem.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA126447; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA126447-07; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA165306; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA 109366; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA109366; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA126447-07; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA109366-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA109366-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01CA126447
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Amines; 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal; 0 / CXCR4 protein, mouse; 0 / Drug Combinations; 0 / Laminin; 0 / Proteoglycans; 0 / Pyrimidines; 0 / Receptors, CXCR4; 119978-18-6 / matrigel; 9007-34-5 / Collagen
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS254729; NLM/ PMC3003753
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95. Cepeda C, Levine MS: Where do you think you are going? The NMDA-D1 receptor trap. Sci STKE; 2006 May 2;2006(333):pe20
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  • The number and outcomes of reciprocal interactions between dopamine (DA) D1 receptors and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-type glutamate receptors continue to increase.
  • In one physical interaction, the activation of NMDA receptors alters the topography and movement of D1 receptors by trapping them in dendritic spines and thus altering their distribution.
  • In contrast, the more traditional interactions mediated by second messengers generally cause NMDA receptor function to be potentiated through the activation of D1 receptors and the cAMP-PKA-DARPP-32 [adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP)-protein kinase A-cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein of 32 kD] or PKC (protein kinase C) cascades.
  • [MeSH-minor] Allosteric Regulation. Animals. Antipsychotic Agents / pharmacology. Calcium / pharmacology. Corpus Striatum / cytology. Diffusion. Dopamine / pharmacology. Drug Design. Excitatory Amino Acid Agonists / pharmacology. Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists / pharmacology. Glutamic Acid / pharmacology. Humans. Mental Disorders / drug therapy. Mental Disorders / metabolism. Models, Neurological. N-Methylaspartate / pharmacology. Nervous System Diseases / drug therapy. Nervous System Diseases / metabolism. Neurons / drug effects. Neurons / metabolism. Neurons / ultrastructure. Organ Culture Techniques. Protein Interaction Mapping. Protein Subunits. Protein Transport / physiology. Rats. Receptors, Glutamate / physiology. Signal Transduction / physiology. Synaptic Membranes / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16670371.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-8882
  • [Journal-full-title] Science's STKE : signal transduction knowledge environment
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Sci. STKE
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antipsychotic Agents; 0 / Excitatory Amino Acid Agonists; 0 / Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists; 0 / Protein Subunits; 0 / Receptors, Dopamine D1; 0 / Receptors, Glutamate; 0 / Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate; 3KX376GY7L / Glutamic Acid; 6384-92-5 / N-Methylaspartate; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium; VTD58H1Z2X / Dopamine
  • [Number-of-references] 50
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96. Bock H, Koop H, Lehn N, Heep M: Rifabutin-based triple therapy after failure of Helicobacter pylori eradication treatment: preliminary experience. J Clin Gastroenterol; 2000 Oct;31(3):222-5
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  • [Title] Rifabutin-based triple therapy after failure of Helicobacter pylori eradication treatment: preliminary experience.
  • Despite continuous improvement of Helicobacter pylori (Hp) eradication therapy, new treatment regimens are necessary if established first-line treatments fail.
  • In the present pilot study, a recently described rifabutin-based triple therapy was evaluated after preceding failure of triple therapy.
  • Rifabutin (150 mg), amoxicillin (1 g), and lansoprazole (30 mg) were administered twice daily for 1 week to 25 patients infected with Hp who had previously failed to respond to eradication treatment and/or who had developed resistance to macrolides and nitroimidazoles.
  • Eradication rate of rifabutin-based triple therapy was 86% (18/21; per protocol) and 72% (18/25; intention-to-treat).
  • It is concluded that this new drug combination is an effective therapy for Hp strains resistant to clarithromycin or metronidazole; however, rifabutin-based treatment regimens for Hp eradication should be restricted to patients infected with resistant strains.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-Bacterial Agents / therapeutic use. Helicobacter Infections / drug therapy. Helicobacter pylori. Omeprazole / analogs & derivatives. Rifabutin / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] 2-Pyridinylmethylsulfinylbenzimidazoles. Amoxicillin / therapeutic use. Anti-Ulcer Agents / therapeutic use. Drug Administration Schedule. Drug Therapy, Combination. Humans. Lansoprazole. Pilot Projects. Treatment Failure

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  • (PMID = 11034001.001).
  • [ISSN] 0192-0790
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 2-Pyridinylmethylsulfinylbenzimidazoles; 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents; 0 / Anti-Ulcer Agents; 0K5C5T2QPG / Lansoprazole; 1W306TDA6S / Rifabutin; 804826J2HU / Amoxicillin; KG60484QX9 / Omeprazole
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97. Sombogaard F, Peeters AM, Baan CC, Mathot RA, Quaedackers ME, Vulto AG, Weimar W, van Gelder T: Inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase messenger RNA expression is correlated to clinical outcomes in mycophenolate mofetil-treated kidney transplant patients, whereas inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase activity is not. Ther Drug Monit; 2009 Oct;31(5):549-56
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  • [Title] Inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase messenger RNA expression is correlated to clinical outcomes in mycophenolate mofetil-treated kidney transplant patients, whereas inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase activity is not.
  • Measurement of the pharmacodynamic biomarker inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) activity in renal transplant recipients has been proposed to reflect the biological effect better than using pharmacokinetic parameters to monitor mycophenolate mofetil therapy.
  • From a cohort of 101 renal transplant patients, blood samples were drawn pre transplantation and at 4 times after transplantation.
  • IMPDH activity, IMPDH type 1 and type 2 mRNA levels, and mycophenolic acid concentrations were measured and correlated to clinical outcomes.
  • No correlation was found between IMPDH type 1 and type 2 mRNA levels and IMPDH activity in pre- and posttransplant samples.
  • IMPDH type 1 and type 2 mRNA levels before transplant showed a trend toward statistically significant higher levels in patients with an acute rejection (P = 0.052 and P = 0.058).
  • After transplant, the IMPDH type 1 and type 2 mRNA levels were significantly lower in patients with an acute rejection (P = 0.026 and P = 0.007).
  • Furthermore, although the regulation of the expression of the 2 isoforms is presumed to be different, in this study, the changes in the expression of type 1 mRNA closely paralleled those of type 2.
  • [MeSH-major] Immunosuppressive Agents / pharmacology. Inosine Monophosphate / metabolism. Kidney / drug effects. Kidney Transplantation / physiology. Mycophenolic Acid / analogs & derivatives. Oxidoreductases / metabolism. RNA, Messenger / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Gene Expression / drug effects. Graft Rejection. Humans. Leukocytes, Mononuclear. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19704402.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-3694
  • [Journal-full-title] Therapeutic drug monitoring
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ther Drug Monit
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 131-99-7 / Inosine Monophosphate; 9242ECW6R0 / mycophenolate mofetil; EC 1.- / Oxidoreductases; HU9DX48N0T / Mycophenolic Acid
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98. Maiguma T, Yosida T, Otsubo K, Okabe Y, Sugitani A, Tanaka M, Oishi R, Teshima D: Evaluation of inosin-5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase activity during maintenance therapy with tacrolimus. J Clin Pharm Ther; 2010 Feb;35(1):79-85
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  • [Title] Evaluation of inosin-5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase activity during maintenance therapy with tacrolimus.
  • OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to identify a target range for inosin-5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) activity in maintenance therapy with tacrolimus (TCL), and to apply the measurement of IMPDH activity to the therapeutic drug monitoring for mycophenolate mofetil (MMF).
  • All patients were treated with a combination of TCL, steroid and MMF for 2 months after transplantation, and were in stable and good condition.
  • IMPDH activity was determined indirectly by measuring xanthosine 5'-monophophate in cell lysates supplemented with IMP and beta-nicotine adenine dinucleotide using an high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method.
  • Therefore, the inhibition rates of MPA against IMPDH activity may be adequate at 25-40% in TCL maintenance therapy.
  • CONCLUSION: Inosin-5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase activity in cell lysates could be reliably determined by HPLC.
  • [MeSH-major] Drug Monitoring / methods. Enzyme Inhibitors / pharmacokinetics. IMP Dehydrogenase / blood. Immunosuppressive Agents / pharmacokinetics. Mycophenolic Acid / analogs & derivatives. Prodrugs / pharmacokinetics. Tacrolimus / pharmacokinetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Pharmacological / blood. Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid. Drug Interactions. Drug Therapy, Combination. Female. Humans. Kidney Transplantation. Kinetics. Leukocytes, Mononuclear / chemistry. Leukocytes, Mononuclear / drug effects. Leukocytes, Mononuclear / enzymology. Male. Middle Aged. Reproducibility of Results. Ribonucleotides / analysis. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20175815.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2710
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pharmacy and therapeutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Pharm Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Pharmacological; 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 0 / Prodrugs; 0 / Ribonucleotides; 523-98-8 / xanthosine monophosphate; 9242ECW6R0 / mycophenolate mofetil; EC 1.1.1.205 / IMP Dehydrogenase; HU9DX48N0T / Mycophenolic Acid; WM0HAQ4WNM / Tacrolimus
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99. Hladunewich MA, Derby GC, Lafayette RA, Blouch KL, Druzin ML, Myers BD: Effect of L-arginine therapy on the glomerular injury of preeclampsia: a randomized controlled trial. Obstet Gynecol; 2006 Apr;107(4):886-95
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  • [Title] Effect of L-arginine therapy on the glomerular injury of preeclampsia: a randomized controlled trial.
  • Nitric oxide, cyclic guanosine 3'5' monophosphate, endothelin-1, and asymmetric-dimethyl-arginine and arginine levels were assayed before delivery and on the third and 10th days postpartum.
  • Compared with the gravid control group, women with preeclampsia exhibited significantly increased serum levels of endothelin-1, cyclic guanosine 3'5' monophosphate, and asymmetric-dimethyl-arginine before delivery.
  • Despite a significant increase in postpartum serum arginine levels due to treatment, no differences were found in the corresponding levels of nitric oxide, endothelin-1, cyclic guanosine 3'5' monophosphate, or asymmetric-dimethyl-arginine between the two groups with preeclampsia.
  • Supplementation with l-arginine does not hasten this recovery.
  • [MeSH-major] Arginine / therapeutic use. Kidney / drug effects. Pre-Eclampsia / drug therapy. Pregnancy Outcome
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Adult. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Gestational Age. Glomerular Filtration Rate. Humans. Infant, Newborn. Maternal Age. Parity. Postpartum Period. Pregnancy. Reference Values. Risk Assessment. Severity of Illness Index. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16582128.001).
  • [ISSN] 0029-7844
  • [Journal-full-title] Obstetrics and gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Obstet Gynecol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK-52876
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 94ZLA3W45F / Arginine
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100. Shustik C, Belch A, Robinson S, Rubin SH, Dolan SP, Kovacs MJ, Grewal KS, Walde D, Barr R, Wilson J, Gill K, Vickars L, Rudinskas L, Sicheri DA, Wilson K, Djurfeldt M, Shepherd LE, Ding K, Meyer RM: A randomised comparison of melphalan with prednisone or dexamethasone as induction therapy and dexamethasone or observation as maintenance therapy in multiple myeloma: NCIC CTG MY.7. Br J Haematol; 2007 Jan;136(2):203-11
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  • [Title] A randomised comparison of melphalan with prednisone or dexamethasone as induction therapy and dexamethasone or observation as maintenance therapy in multiple myeloma: NCIC CTG MY.7.
  • The effectiveness of melphalan plus dexamethasone (M-Dex) with melphalan plus prednisone (MP) as induction therapy and dexamethasone with observation as maintenance therapy was compared in 585 older patients with multiple myeloma.
  • Of 466 patients randomised to MP or M-Dex, no differences were detected in the respective median progression-free survivals (PFS) [1.8 vs. 1.9 years; Hazard Ratio (HR) = 0.88, 95% CI 0.72-1.07; P = 0.2] or overall survivals (OS) (2.5 vs. 2.7 years; HR = 0.91, 95% CI 0.74-1.11; P = 0.3).
  • Of the initial 585 patients, 292 remained evaluable for maintenance therapy.
  • The maintenance therapy results were robust when analysed by using two additional methodologies.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Dexamethasone / administration & dosage. Glucocorticoids / administration & dosage. Multiple Myeloma / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Humans. Male. Melphalan / administration & dosage. Middle Aged. Prednisone / administration & dosage. Proportional Hazards Models. Remission Induction. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome






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