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1. Shinno K, Nagahiro S, Uno M, Kannuki S, Nakaiso M, Sano N, Horiguchi H: Neurocutaneous melanosis associated with malignant leptomeningeal melanoma in an adult: clinical significance of 5-S-cysteinyldopa in the cerebrospinal fluid---case report. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo); 2003 Dec;43(12):619-25
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  • [Title] Neurocutaneous melanosis associated with malignant leptomeningeal melanoma in an adult: clinical significance of 5-S-cysteinyldopa in the cerebrospinal fluid---case report.
  • A 35-year-old male presented with a variant of neurocutaneous melanosis with leptomeningeal malignant melanoma.
  • Ventriculoperitoneal shunting was performed and extensive pigmented leptomeninges were recognized.
  • Open biopsy established the diagnosis of leptomeningeal malignant melanoma.
  • The 5-S-CD level decreased after each treatment, but the basal level steadily increased prior to the next treatment.
  • Two years after the onset, he showed paraplegia caused by an extramedullary mass at the T-6 level.
  • MR imaging showed that melanoma had involved the entire subarachnoid space including the whole spine.
  • Further intensive chemotherapy was given.
  • However, he died 31 months after the onset of massive proliferation of intracranial leptomeningeal melanoma.
  • Measurement of CSF 5-S-CD levels is valuable for evaluating the therapeutic efficacy and for monitoring the progression of melanoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Cysteinyldopa / cerebrospinal fluid. Melanoma / cerebrospinal fluid. Melanoma / complications. Melanosis / complications. Meningeal Neoplasms / cerebrospinal fluid. Meningeal Neoplasms / complications. Neurocutaneous Syndromes / complications

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  • (PMID = 14723271.001).
  • [ISSN] 0470-8105
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurologia medico-chirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurol. Med. Chir. (Tokyo)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 19641-92-0 / Cysteinyldopa
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2. González-Tortosa J, Ferri-Níguez B, Ros de San Pedro J: [Cerebellopontine angle meningeal melanocytoma: a benign tumor?]. Neurocirugia (Astur); 2009 Aug;20(4):372-9; discussion 379-80
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  • [Title] [Cerebellopontine angle meningeal melanocytoma: a benign tumor?].
  • We report a case of a rare meningeal melanocytoma in the cerebellopontine angle.
  • One year after tumor gross total removal, the patient suffered a sudden and devastating meningeal melanomatosis.
  • The relevant literature is reviewed looking for the keys to establish preoperative diagnosis and to obtain information about its treatment and postsurgical management.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebellar Neoplasms / pathology. Cerebellopontine Angle / pathology. Melanocytes / pathology. Meningeal Neoplasms / pathology. Nevus / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / therapeutic use. Diagnosis, Differential. Disease Progression. Fatal Outcome. Gait Disorders, Neurologic / etiology. Hearing Loss, Sensorineural / etiology. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Melanoma / diagnosis. Melanoma / pathology. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neurilemmoma / diagnosis. Nitrosourea Compounds / therapeutic use. Organophosphorus Compounds / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 19688139.001).
  • [ISSN] 1130-1473
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurocirugía (Asturias, Spain)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurocirugia (Astur)
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 0 / Nitrosourea Compounds; 0 / Organophosphorus Compounds; GQ7JL9P5I2 / fotemustine
  • [Number-of-references] 44
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3. Raizer JJ, Hwu WJ, Panageas KS, Wilton A, Baldwin DE, Bailey E, von Althann C, Lamb LA, Alvarado G, Bilsky MH, Gutin PH: Brain and leptomeningeal metastases from cutaneous melanoma: survival outcomes based on clinical features. Neuro Oncol; 2008 Apr;10(2):199-207
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  • [Title] Brain and leptomeningeal metastases from cutaneous melanoma: survival outcomes based on clinical features.
  • Brain metastases (BM) are among the most devastating and debilitating complications of melanoma.
  • This retrospective study was conducted to gain a better understanding of patient and disease characteristics that have the greatest impact on overall survival in melanoma patients with BM; therapeutic interventions were also assessed.
  • The records of all patients diagnosed with cutaneous melanoma and BM who were seen at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center between 1991 and 2001 were retrospectively reviewed.
  • A variety of factors, including age at diagnosis of stage IV disease, gender, race, disease stage at diagnosis, presence of BM at diagnosis of stage IV disease, neurologic symptoms, radiographic findings, number of BM, status and site(s) of extracranial metastasis, and treatment modalities, were analyzed for correlation with overall survival using univariate and multivariate Cox regression models.
  • On univariate analysis, seven patient and disease characteristics were significantly associated with poorer survival: age > 65 years, extracranial metastases, BM at stage IV diagnosis, neurologic symptoms, four or more BM, hydrocephalus, and leptomeningeal metastases.
  • Multivariate analysis of treatment modalities suggested that patients who had surgery, radiosurgery, or chemotherapy with temozolomide had improved survival outcomes, although this analysis has limitations.
  • The prognostic factors identified in this retrospective study should be considered when making treatment decisions for patients with BM and used as stratification factors in future clinical trials.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Melanoma / secondary. Meningeal Neoplasms / secondary. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18287337.001).
  • [ISSN] 1522-8517
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuro-oncology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2613822
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4. Harstad L, Hess KR, Groves MD: Prognostic factors and outcomes in patients with leptomeningeal melanomatosis. Neuro Oncol; 2008 Dec;10(6):1010-8
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  • [Title] Prognostic factors and outcomes in patients with leptomeningeal melanomatosis.
  • The purpose of this study was to describe a cohort of patients with leptomeningeal melanomatosis (LM) and to determine prognostic factors for outcomes in these patients.
  • The primary hypothesis was that more extensive burden of CNS metastasis at the time of diagnosis of LM (as evidenced by imaging of the CNS parenchyma and meninges and cerebrospinal fluid [CSF] cytology status [positive versus negative]) correlates with poorer outcomes.
  • Eighty-six (78.2%) patients had cutaneous primary lesions, and 23 (20.9%) had melanoma of unknown primary site.
  • Univariate analyses revealed possible predictors of longer survival, including the presence of supratentorial or spinal LM on imaging at diagnosis versus its absence and any treatment of LM, whereas elevated serum lactate dehydrogenase at the time of LM diagnosis predicted shorter survival.
  • Multivariate analysis revealed that a history of a primary melanoma lesion originating on the trunk predicted shorter survival after LM diagnosis (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.0, 95% CI = 1.0-3.8, p = 0.035), and treatment with intrathecal chemotherapy predicted longer survival (HR = 0.5, 95% CI = 0.4-0.8, p = 0.0036).
  • The positive result with respect to treatment is unreliable due to the inability to remove treatment selection bias from the analysis.
  • The amount of CNS tumor burden at the time of diagnosis of LM did not inversely correlate with survival outcomes, contrary to our hypothesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / mortality. Melanoma / secondary. Meningeal Carcinomatosis / mortality. Meningeal Carcinomatosis / secondary

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  • (PMID = 18708343.001).
  • [ISSN] 1522-8517
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuro-oncology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2718998
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5. Clarke JL, Perez HR, Jacks LM, Panageas KS, Deangelis LM: Leptomeningeal metastases in the MRI era. Neurology; 2010 May 4;74(18):1449-54
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Leptomeningeal metastases in the MRI era.
  • BACKGROUND: Diagnosis of leptomeningeal metastasis (LM) has become increasingly frequent.
  • The most common types of solid tumor were breast (65 patients), lung (47), gastrointestinal (11), and melanoma (9).
  • Treatment included radiation therapy in 55%, intrathecal chemotherapy in 29%, and systemic chemotherapy in 18%; 21% received supportive care alone.
  • In multivariate analysis, initial KPS and tumor type (solid vs hematopoietic) were significant predictors of survival.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Despite enhanced diagnosis with MRI, prognosis remains poor in leptomeningeal metastasis.

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  • (PMID = 20439847.001).
  • [ISSN] 1526-632X
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurology
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / UO1 CA-105663-01
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2871005
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6. Chamberlain MC, Johnston SK: Neoplastic meningitis: survival as a function of cerebrospinal fluid cytology. Cancer; 2009 May 1;115(9):1941-6
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  • Groups were matched with respect to age; primary tumor; Karnofsky performance status; site of NM disease (cranial nerves or spinal cord); treatment (radiotherapy and chemotherapy; systemic and intraventricular); and absence of CSF compartmentalization, NM-related encephalopathy, and neuroradiographic bulky central nervous system disease.
  • Primary tumor histology included breast (28 patients), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (14 patients), nonsmall cell lung cancer (14 patients), melanoma (12 patients), and others (16 patients).
  • All patients received intraventricular chemotherapy and 60 (30 each in Groups A and B) received concurrent tumor-specific systemic chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Meningeal Carcinomatosis / cerebrospinal fluid

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  • (PMID = 19235827.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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7. Martin-Blondel G, Rousseau A, Boch AL, Cacoub P, Sène D: Primary pineal melanoma with leptomeningeal spreading: case report and review of the literature. Clin Neuropathol; 2009 Sep-Oct;28(5):387-94
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  • [Title] Primary pineal melanoma with leptomeningeal spreading: case report and review of the literature.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a pineal mass hyperintense on T1-weighted and isointense on T2-weighted sequences with diffuse leptomeningeal involvement and intense homogeneous contrast enhancement after gadolinium administration.
  • A frontal leptomeningeal and cortical biopsy was performed.
  • Even if we have no proof that the tumor actually arose in the pineal gland, based on the radiological and histological findings, and on the unremarkable dermatologic and ophthalmologic examinations, a primary pineal melanoma with leptomeningeal dissemination was diagnosed.
  • The patient received temozolomide-based chemotherapy followed by whole brain irradiation.
  • The patient died 52 weeks after disease onset and 13 weeks after treatment initiation.
  • CONCLUSION: A diagnosis of pineal melanoma should be considered in the presence of a pineal mass that appears hyperintense on T1-weighted images and hypo- to isointense on T2-weighted images.
  • The diagnosis is provided by pathological examination of tumor specimens obtained at surgical resection or at leptomeningeal biopsy.
  • However, immunochemistry using anti-Melan-A, -S100 protein and/or -HMB45 antibodies on cerebrospinal fluid and leptomeningeal samples may be helpful in diagnosing such a disease.
  • The prognosis of primary pineal melanoma is variable but meningeal spreading carries a dismal prognosis.
  • The best therapeutic management is yet to be defined.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / pathology. Meningeal Neoplasms / secondary. Pinealoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antigens, Neoplasm / metabolism. Brain / pathology. Brain / radiography. Brain / radionuclide imaging. Diagnosis, Differential. Fatal Outcome. Humans. MART-1 Antigen. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Melanoma-Specific Antigens. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Prognosis. S100 Proteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19788056.001).
  • [ISSN] 0722-5091
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical neuropathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Neuropathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / MART-1 Antigen; 0 / MLANA protein, human; 0 / Melanoma-Specific Antigens; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / S100 Proteins
  • [Number-of-references] 20
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8. Roser F, Nakamura M, Brandis A, Hans V, Vorkapic P, Samii M: Transition from meningeal melanocytoma to primary cerebral melanoma. Case report. J Neurosurg; 2004 Sep;101(3):528-31
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  • [Title] Transition from meningeal melanocytoma to primary cerebral melanoma. Case report.
  • The authors describe the first case of an intracranial transition of a melanocytoma into a primary malignant melanoma within a short time.
  • Ten years after the patient had completed treatment for the melanocytic meningioma, control neuroimaging demonstrated growth of the residual tumor with compression of the brainstem.
  • At this time immunohistochemical examinations demonstrated melanocytic features (expression of vimentin, S100 protein, and melan A) of the lesion with focally increased proliferation (5% of Ki-67-positive cells) but no higher mitotic activity.
  • Pleomorphic changes and a focal high mitotic activity led to the diagnosis of a primary cerebral malignant melanoma.
  • The patient's later clinical course consisted of a rapid diffuse meningeal spread of the lesion throughout the entire brain and spine.
  • Despite whole-brain and stereotactic radiation therapy as well as chemotherapy, the patient died 4 months after the last neuropathological diagnosis.
  • The biological behavior of a melanocytoma is variable and recurrence may happen after subtotal resection, but intracranial transition into a malignant melanoma has not been observed previously.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Melanoma / pathology. Meningeal Neoplasms / pathology. Meningioma / pathology. Neoplasm, Residual / pathology. Nevus / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15352613.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3085
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurosurg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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9. de Tella OI Jr, Agner C, Aguiar PH, Herculano MA, Prandini MN, Stavile JN: Aggressive management of orbital meningeal melanocytoma. Acta Neurochir (Wien); 2003 Dec;145(12):1121-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Aggressive management of orbital meningeal melanocytoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: Meningeal melanocytoma generally occurs in the posterior fossa.
  • Computed tomography (CT) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of the brain showed an expansive intraconal mass lesion occupying the superior orbital compartment, the entire orbital apex, and the optic foramen.
  • Chemotherapy and irradiation followed the initial intervention.
  • INTERPRETATION: Meningeal melanocytomas are rare benign pigmented tumors of the central nervous system.
  • [MeSH-major] Meningeal Neoplasms / surgery. Nevus / surgery. Orbital Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antigens, Neoplasm. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Craniotomy. Diagnosis, Differential. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Melanoma-Specific Antigens. Microsurgery. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Orbit / pathology. Orbit / surgery. Postoperative Complications / diagnosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. S100 Proteins / analysis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 14663571.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-6268
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neurochirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neurochir (Wien)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Austria
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Melanoma-Specific Antigens; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / S100 Proteins
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10. Bydon A, Gutierrez JA, Mahmood A: Meningeal melanocytoma: an aggressive course for a benign tumor. J Neurooncol; 2003 Sep;64(3):259-63
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  • [Title] Meningeal melanocytoma: an aggressive course for a benign tumor.
  • The surgical specimen was soft, black tissue that consisted of a moderately cellular, deeply pigmented tumor.
  • Four months postoperatively, MRI demonstrated focal areas of enhancement in the conus medullaris and in the fourth ventricle, indicating leptomeningeal spread.
  • Despite chemotherapy and radiation therapy, the disease advanced and the patient expired.
  • Meningeal melanocytoma is a rare, histologically benign tumor with good prognosis.
  • On a literature review, there was one case of cranial posterior fossa meningeal melanocytoma with associated lesions in both suprarenal glands and the left kidney, but there were no cases with distant metastasis.
  • In this report, we present an unusual case of spinal meningeal melanocytoma with diffuse spread throughout the craniospinal axis that proved to be fatal.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Cerebral Ventricle Neoplasms / secondary. Melanoma / pathology. Meningeal Neoplasms / pathology. Spinal Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 14558602.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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11. Pentheroudakis G, Pavlidis N: Management of leptomeningeal malignancy. Expert Opin Pharmacother; 2005 Jun;6(7):1115-25
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  • [Title] Management of leptomeningeal malignancy.
  • Leptomeningeal carcinomatosis is defined as malignant infiltration of the pia matter and arachnoid membrane.
  • Leukaemias and lymphomas, lung, breast cancer and melanoma are the primary tumours commonly associated with leptomeningeal carcinomatosis.
  • Treatment is largely palliative (median survival 2-4 months).
  • Available treatment options include focal radiation therapy to CNS sites of bulky, symptomatic or obstructive meningeal deposits, intrathecal cytotoxic therapy and systemic chemotherapy.
  • No evidence of superiority of intrathecal treatment compared with best palliative care (including radiation therapy and systemic treatment) is available from clinical trials.
  • Novel treatment approaches include intrathecal liposomal Ara-C, the development of new cytotoxic compounds, signal transduction inhibitors and monoclonal antibodies for intrathecal or systemic use.
  • Until data from multi-centre randomised trials are available, rationalisation of therapy should be done by stratifying patients to prognostic groups.
  • High-risk patients will only survive for a few weeks and are better managed with supportive measures, whereas low-risk patients justify vigorous cerebrospinal fluid-directed treatment combined with radiation therapy and systemic chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Arachnoid Cysts / drug therapy. Carcinoma / drug therapy. Meningeal Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Algorithms. Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / cerebrospinal fluid. Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / cerebrospinal fluid. Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Cranial Irradiation. Cytarabine / administration & dosage. Cytarabine / cerebrospinal fluid. Cytarabine / therapeutic use. Delayed-Action Preparations. Enzyme Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Humans. Injections, Intravenous. Injections, Spinal. Leukemia / pathology. Lymphoma / pathology. Methotrexate / administration & dosage. Methotrexate / cerebrospinal fluid. Methotrexate / therapeutic use. Palliative Care. Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic. Thiotepa / administration & dosage. Thiotepa / cerebrospinal fluid. Thiotepa / therapeutic use. Topoisomerase I Inhibitors. Topotecan / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 15957966.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-7666
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Opin Pharmacother
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 0 / Delayed-Action Preparations; 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / Topoisomerase I Inhibitors; 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine; 7M7YKX2N15 / Topotecan; 905Z5W3GKH / Thiotepa; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate
  • [Number-of-references] 43
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12. Oechsle K, Lange-Brock V, Kruell A, Bokemeyer C, de Wit M: Prognostic factors and treatment options in patients with leptomeningeal metastases of different primary tumors: a retrospective analysis. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol; 2010 Nov;136(11):1729-35

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Prognostic factors and treatment options in patients with leptomeningeal metastases of different primary tumors: a retrospective analysis.
  • PURPOSE: Leptomeningeal metastases (LM) are associated with very poor prognosis and data on outcome are limited.
  • We evaluated prognostic factors and treatment options in patients (pts) with LM of different malignancies in a single center experience.
  • METHODS: Single center data on characteristics, treatment and outcome of 135 consecutive pts (73 solid tumors and 62 hematologic malignancies) with LM between 1989 and 2005 were retrospectively analyzed.
  • RESULTS: Treatment consisted of systemic chemotherapy (SC) plus intrathecal chemotherapy (ITC) in 28%, ITC alone in 22%, radiotherapy (RT) plus ITC in 12% and other modalities (SC, RT, SC + RT) in 7%.
  • Thirteen percent of pts received supportive care only (4% not evaluable on treatment).
  • Univariate analysis revealed age >50, interval between diagnosis of primary tumor and LM ≤12 months, lung cancer and malignant melanoma, and Karnofsky performance status ≤70 as significant negative predictors for overall survival.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In patients with LM an age >50, performance status ≤70%, interval between diagnosis of primary tumor and LM ≤12 months, primary tumor (lung cancer, malignant melanoma) and lack of cytologic response present negative prognostic factors.
  • Systemic chemotherapy is significantly associated with longer survival time than local treatment modalities.
  • [MeSH-major] Meningeal Carcinomatosis / pathology. Neoplasm Metastasis / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Hematologic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Hematologic Neoplasms / mortality. Hematologic Neoplasms / pathology. Humans. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / mortality. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Male. Melanoma / drug therapy. Melanoma / mortality. Melanoma / pathology. Melanoma / radiotherapy. Middle Aged. Neoplasms / drug therapy. Neoplasms / mortality. Neoplasms / pathology. Prognosis. Proportional Hazards Models. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 20204406.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1335
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cancer research and clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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13. Chamberlain MC, Johnston SK, Glantz MJ: Neoplastic meningitis-related prognostic significance of the Karnofsky performance status. Arch Neurol; 2009 Jan;66(1):74-8
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  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Groups were matched on age, primary tumor, site of NM disease (cranial nerves or spinal cord), treatment (radiotherapy and chemotherapy; systemic and intraventricular), and absence of cerebrospinal fluid compartmentalization, NM-related encephalopathy, and neuroradiographic bulky central nervous system disease.
  • Primary tumor histologic diagnoses included breast cancer (20 patients), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (10 patients), lung cancer (10 patients), melanoma (8 patients), and others (12 patients).
  • All the patients received intraventricular chemotherapy, and 49 received concurrent tumor-specific systemic chemotherapy.
  • No treatment-related deaths were observed.
  • [MeSH-major] Activities of Daily Living. Disability Evaluation. Karnofsky Performance Status / statistics & numerical data. Meningeal Carcinomatosis / mortality
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Cohort Studies. Decision Support Techniques. Drug Therapy / standards. Female. Humans. Male. Meningeal Neoplasms / mortality. Meningeal Neoplasms / secondary. Meningeal Neoplasms / therapy. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Neoplasm Invasiveness / physiopathology. Patient Selection. Predictive Value of Tests. Prognosis. Radiotherapy / standards. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Treatment Failure. Withholding Treatment / standards

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  • (PMID = 19139302.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-3687
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Neurol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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14. Baiges-Octavio JJ, Huerta-Villanueva M: [Meningeal carcinomatosis]. Rev Neurol; 2000 Dec 16-31;31(12):1237-41

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Meningeal carcinomatosis].
  • INTRODUCTION: Meningeal carcinomatosis is a serious complication of solid tumors, particularly adenocarcinomas of breast, lung and melanoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: In this paper we present a review of the bibliography on this disease, with particular emphasis on etiopathogenic, clinical--especially otoneurophthalmological--diagnostic and therapeutic aspects.
  • DEVELOPMENT: Meningeal carcinomatosis presents in advanced stages of cancer and has an ominous prognosis with average untreated survival of from four to six weeks.
  • Neuroimaging studies (computerized axial tomography, magnetic resonance and isotope studies of cerebrospinal fluid flow) are necessary to evaluate associated metastases and detect obstruction of cerebrospinal fluid flow.
  • Treatment should be tailored to the individual according to the clinical condition and nature of the tumour and should combine intrathecal chemotherapy and local radiotherapy, although recent studies have shown good results with systemic chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / secondary. Meningeal Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor / cerebrospinal fluid. Cell Movement. Combined Modality Therapy. Cranial Irradiation. Diagnostic Imaging. Humans. Injections, Spinal. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Proteins / cerebrospinal fluid. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 11205566.001).
  • [ISSN] 0210-0010
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista de neurologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Neurol
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
  • [Number-of-references] 25
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15. Jaeckle KA: Neoplastic meningitis from systemic malignancies: diagnosis, prognosis and treatment. Semin Oncol; 2006 Jun;33(3):312-23
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  • [Title] Neoplastic meningitis from systemic malignancies: diagnosis, prognosis and treatment.
  • Long-term survival is occasionally observed in patients with neoplastic meningitis (NM) accompanying breast cancer (13% one-year and 6% 2-year survival), melanoma, and lymphoma, but in general the survival of most patients is short and averages only 3 to 4 months.
  • The incidence of NM appears to be increasing, in part due to earlier detection by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and in part due to development of more effective therapies for systemic cancer, which has resulted in a larger subset at risk for late-stage development of this complication.
  • Survival of NM patients is negatively affected by concomitant progression of systemic disease despite multiple prior therapies.
  • However, there are certain prognostic factors that have been identified as "favorable" in retrospective series, including age less than 60 years, long symptom duration, controlled systemic disease, Karnofsky performance status (KPS) > or =70, lack of encephalopathy or cranial nerve deficits, low initial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) protein level, history of breast primary tumor, and lack of evidence of CSF compartmentalization or bulky meningeal disease as determined by CSF flow studies.
  • Standard treatment has traditionally involved radiotherapy (RT) to sites of symptomatic or bulky disease, as detected by neuroimaging, and in selected patients, the administration of intrathecal, intraventricular, or systemic chemotherapy.
  • However, treatment remains palliative and many patients and physicians choose supportive care only.
  • Future hope is provided by studies that have improved our understanding of the disease pathogenesis, have identified prognostic variables associated with outcome, and have provided new therapeutic approaches, such as administration of high-dose systemic chemotherapy and investigations of novel therapeutic agents.
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Breast Neoplasms / complications. Female. Humans. Lymphoma / complications. Melanoma / complications. Palliative Care. Prognosis. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 16769420.001).
  • [ISSN] 0093-7754
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 108
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16. Reijneveld JC, Taphoorn MJ, Kerckhaert OA, Drixler TA, Boogerd W, Voest EE: Angiostatin prolongs the survival of mice with leptomeningeal metastases. Eur J Clin Invest; 2003 Jan;33(1):76-81
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  • [Title] Angiostatin prolongs the survival of mice with leptomeningeal metastases.
  • BACKGROUND: As a result of the more effective treatment of primary tumours, the incidence of leptomeningeal metastases (LM) is increasing.
  • Current treatment modalities have little effect on the survival of patients with LM.
  • We investigated whether antiangiogenic treatment inhibits the progression of leptomeningeal tumours.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: To assess the role of angiogenesis in leptomeningeal tumours, we inoculated melanoma cells in the subarachnoid space in balb/c mice.
  • In the more advanced stages, the tumour masses covered larger areas of the leptomeninges.
  • Systemic treatment of the mice with LM with angiostatin (100 mg kg-1 day-1) resulted in prolonged survival compared with mice treated with vehicle and with approximately one-fifth of the long-term survivors of the angiostatin-treated group.
  • Systemic targeting of the vascular compartment may be a useful approach in novel therapeutic strategies for patients with LM.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiogenesis Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Meningeal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Meningeal Neoplasms / secondary. Peptide Fragments / therapeutic use. Plasminogen / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Angiostatins. Animals. Humans. Male. Melanoma / blood supply. Melanoma / drug therapy. Melanoma / secondary. Mice. Mice, Inbred BALB C. Neoplasm Transplantation. Neovascularization, Pathologic / drug therapy. Neovascularization, Pathologic / pathology. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 12492456.001).
  • [ISSN] 0014-2972
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of clinical investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Clin. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Peptide Fragments; 86090-08-6 / Angiostatins; 9001-91-6 / Plasminogen
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17. al Barbarawi M, Smith SF, Qudsieh S, Sekhon LH: Multiple cerebral and leptomeningeal metastases from ovarian carcinoma: unusual early presentation. J Clin Neurosci; 2005 Aug;12(6):697-9
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  • [Title] Multiple cerebral and leptomeningeal metastases from ovarian carcinoma: unusual early presentation.
  • This report describes the first known case of multiple cerebral and leptomeningeal metastases as the initial manifestation of ovarian carcinoma in a 41-year old woman who presented with a one-week history of headache, vomiting and confusion.
  • A large ovarian tumour identified on pelvic CT scan was resected and the patient subsequently received chemotherapy and radiotherapy.
  • Unlike primary tumours such as malignant melanoma, ovarian carcinoma does not have a predilection for the central nervous system (CNS), but the rare instances with CNS involvement occur at an advanced stage of the disease.
  • Once the CNS is involved, the outcome is abysmal, even with multimodality therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma / pathology. Meningeal Neoplasms / secondary. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Craniotomy / methods. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods

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  • (PMID = 16115553.001).
  • [ISSN] 0967-5868
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical neuroscience : official journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Neurosci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
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18. Strik H, Prömmel P: [Neoplastic meningitis. Diagnosis and individualised therapy]. Nervenarzt; 2010 Feb;81(2):229-41; quiz 242
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  • [Title] [Neoplastic meningitis. Diagnosis and individualised therapy].
  • [Transliterated title] Meningeosis neoplastica. Diagnostik und individualisierte Therapie.
  • Neoplastic meningitis is a diffuse dissemination of tumour cells in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), leptomeninges, or both.
  • It occurs in approximately 5-10% of malignant diseases, most often in breast cancer, lung cancer, melanoma, and B-cell lymphoma.
  • Positive CSF cytology requires optimal sampling and processing, and the treatment of neoplastic meningitis must be individualized.
  • The CSF dissemination can be treated with intrathecal chemotherapy with methotrexate or Ara-C.
  • Systemic chemotherapy is needed to control solid manifestations or, in the case of substances entering the CSF, to support intrathecal chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Meningeal Carcinomatosis / diagnosis. Meningeal Carcinomatosis / secondary. Meningitis, Aseptic / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Cerebrospinal Fluid / cytology. Cranial Irradiation. Cytarabine / therapeutic use. Humans. Infusions, Intravenous. Injections, Spinal. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Meninges / pathology. Methotrexate / therapeutic use. Neurologic Examination. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant

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  • (PMID = 20140544.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-0407
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Nervenarzt
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nervenarzt
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate
  • [Number-of-references] 53
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19. Sato K, Kubota T, Kodera T, Kitai R, Takeuchi H, Yoshida K: Melanocytoma in the orbital apex. J Neurooncol; 2009 Mar;92(1):107-10
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  • The tumor was subtotally removed and adjuvant chemotherapy was given.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Melanocytes / pathology. Meningeal Neoplasms / pathology. Orbital Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy. Dacarbazine / administration & dosage. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Interferon-beta / administration & dosage. Male. Melanoma / pathology. Middle Aged. Neurosurgical Procedures. Nimustine / administration & dosage. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 18949444.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0S726V972K / Nimustine; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 77238-31-4 / Interferon-beta; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine
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20. Albert A, Cruz O, Montaner A, Vela A, Badosa J, Castañón M, Morales L: [Congenital solid tumors. A thirteen-year review]. Cir Pediatr; 2004 Jul;17(3):133-6
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  • This is an interesting group of tumors because their type, relative incidence, natural history and response to treatment differ from those seen in older children.
  • Treatment was surgical resection alone in 17 cases (68%) and surgery + chemotherapy in 8 (32%) (5 neuroblastomas, one CNS tumor, one Wilms tumor and one presacral teratoma who developed a yolk sac tumor); 3 patients died (11%): one at surgery, one of tumoural airway obstruction at birth and one with craniopharyngioma.
  • Among the 14 tumors that were initially not malignant, two can be locally agressive, one was an immature teratoma, the giant nevus with hamartoma developed in situ melanoma, the other nevus had meningeal melanosis with hydrocephalus, and one mature presacral teratoma developed a yolk sac tumor.
  • Complete surgical excision is the treatment of choice, most cases not need adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Neoplasms / congenital. Kidney Neoplasms / congenital. Liver Neoplasms / congenital. Neuroblastoma / congenital. Skin Neoplasms / congenital. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / congenital. Teratoma / congenital. Wilms Tumor / congenital
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infant, Newborn. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Postoperative Complications. Pregnancy. Prenatal Diagnosis. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 15503950.001).
  • [ISSN] 0214-1221
  • [Journal-full-title] Cirugía pediátrica : organo oficial de la Sociedad Española de Cirugía Pediátrica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cir Pediatr
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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21. Subbiah V, Wolff JE: Rapid response to therapy of neurocutaneous melanosis with leptomeningeal melanoma. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2010 Jan;54(1):180-1
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. NICOTINAMIDE .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Rapid response to therapy of neurocutaneous melanosis with leptomeningeal melanoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Melanoma / drug therapy. Melanosis / drug therapy. Meningeal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Neurocutaneous Syndromes / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Benzenesulfonates / administration & dosage. Child, Preschool. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Dacarbazine / administration & dosage. Dacarbazine / analogs & derivatives. Female. Humans. Niacinamide / analogs & derivatives. Phenylurea Compounds. Pyridines / administration & dosage. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19722276.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5017
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Benzenesulfonates; 0 / Phenylurea Compounds; 0 / Pyridines; 25X51I8RD4 / Niacinamide; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 85622-93-1 / temozolomide; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; 9ZOQ3TZI87 / sorafenib
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22. Salmaggi A, Silvani A, Eoli M, Lamperti E, Boiardi A: Temozolomide and cisplatin in the treatment of leptomeningeal metastatic involvement from melanoma: a case report. Neurol Sci; 2002 Dec;23(5):257-8
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. DACARBAZINE .

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  • [Title] Temozolomide and cisplatin in the treatment of leptomeningeal metastatic involvement from melanoma: a case report.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Dacarbazine / analogs & derivatives. Dacarbazine / therapeutic use. Melanoma / drug therapy. Meningeal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 12528690.001).
  • [ISSN] 1590-1874
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurological sciences : official journal of the Italian Neurological Society and of the Italian Society of Clinical Neurophysiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurol. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Clinical Trial; Letter
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 85622-93-1 / temozolomide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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23. Burrows AM, Smith TW, Hall WR, Pilitsis JG: Neurological picture. Ascending paralysis from malignant leptomeningeal melanomatosis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry; 2010 Apr;81(4):449-50
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. ACYCLOVIR .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Neurological picture. Ascending paralysis from malignant leptomeningeal melanomatosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Epilepsy, Tonic-Clonic / etiology. Melanoma / complications. Meningeal Neoplasms / complications. Paraparesis / etiology. Paraparesis / surgery. Quadriplegia / etiology. Quadriplegia / surgery. Ventriculostomy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Acyclovir / therapeutic use. Adult. Antiviral Agents / therapeutic use. Encephalitis, Herpes Simplex / drug therapy. Encephalitis, Herpes Simplex / virology. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 20360167.001).
  • [ISSN] 1468-330X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurology, neurosurgery, and psychiatry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antiviral Agents; X4HES1O11F / Acyclovir
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