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1. Glantz MJ, Van Horn A, Fisher R, Chamberlain MC: Route of intracerebrospinal fluid chemotherapy administration and efficacy of therapy in neoplastic meningitis. Cancer; 2010 Apr 15;116(8):1947-52
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  • [Title] Route of intracerebrospinal fluid chemotherapy administration and efficacy of therapy in neoplastic meningitis.
  • BACKGROUND: A study was undertaken to determine whether route (intraventricular vs intralumbar) of intracerebrospinal fluid (intra-CSF) drug administration influences progression-free survival in the treatment of patients with neoplastic meningitis, which occurs in 1% to 5% of patients with known cancer.
  • Currently available treatment options result in modest responses, which is in part a reflection of obstacles to drug delivery into the leptomeningeal space.
  • METHODS: One hundred patients with clinically and cytologically or radiographically documented neoplastic meningitis because of solid cancers received intra-CSF liposomal cytarabine or methotrexate as specified in a randomized phase 4 trial.
  • The 2 treatment arms were well balanced for demographic and tumor-related characteristics of known prognostic importance, including age, performance status, tumor type, extent of systemic and other central nervous system (CNS) disease, prior CNS therapy, and concurrent systemic chemotherapy.
  • Progression-free survival (the primary study endpoint) was identical between the sustained-release cytarabine and methotrexate treatment arms for all 100 patients (35 vs 37.5 days, P = .79).
  • When progression-free survival was examined as a function of route of chemotherapy administration (lumbar vs ventricular), there was no difference for patients treated with sustained-release cytarabine (29 vs 43 days, P = .35).
  • For patients treated with methotrexate, however, there was a statistically significant difference favoring patients receiving intraventricular therapy (19 vs 43 days, P = .048).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Site of intra-CSF chemotherapy drug administration is clinically relevant with short half-life drugs such as methotrexate.
  • [MeSH-major] Cytarabine / administration & dosage. Injections, Intraventricular. Meningeal Carcinomatosis / drug therapy. Meningitis / drug therapy. Methotrexate / administration & dosage. Spinal Puncture
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Delayed-Action Preparations / administration & dosage. Disease-Free Survival. Humans. Neoplasms / complications

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2010 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 20151421.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Delayed-Action Preparations; 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate
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2. Gogineni VR, Kargiotis O, Klopfenstein JD, Gujrati M, Dinh DH, Rao JS: RNAi-mediated downregulation of radiation-induced MMP-9 leads to apoptosis via activation of ERK and Akt in IOMM-Lee cells. Int J Oncol; 2009 Jan;34(1):209-18
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  • Patients afflicted with meningiomas are most often treated with radiation therapy followed by surgical resection.
  • However, resistance to radiation treatment has been well documented among different cancers of the brain.
  • In this study, we demonstrate that the malignant meningioma cells (IOMM-Lee cells) overexpress MMP-9 at both the mRNA and protein levels after radiation treatment.
  • Treatment with U0126 and transfection with dominant negative ERK plasmid resulted in the decreased phosphorylation of ERK and Akt.
  • Ectopic expression of HA myr-Akt was found to be associated with an increase in pERK, and treatment with LY294002 was shown to block the phosphorylation of Akt and ERK with the restoration of c-JUN.

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  • (PMID = 19082492.001).
  • [ISSN] 1019-6439
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS061835; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS057529; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA075557; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA116708-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA095058-04; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS057529-02; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS061835-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 75557; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA116708-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA075557-10; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 92393; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS061835-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 95058; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA116708; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS047699; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS057529-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA092393-04; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA095058; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA092393; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 116708; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA092393-04; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS047699-04A2; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS047699-04A2; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA095058-04; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA075557-10
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD95; 0 / Drug Combinations; 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / FAS protein, human; 0 / Laminin; 0 / Matrix Metalloproteinase Inhibitors; 0 / Proteoglycans; 0 / RNA, Small Interfering; 119978-18-6 / matrigel; 9007-34-5 / Collagen; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt; EC 2.7.11.24 / Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases; EC 2.7.11.24 / JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases; EC 3.4.24.35 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 9
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS71812; NLM/ PMC2605673
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3. Haase D, Schmidl S, Ewald C, Kalff R, Huebner C, Firsching R, Keilhoff G, Evert M, Paulus W, Gutmann DH, Lal A, Mawrin C: Fatty acid synthase as a novel target for meningioma therapy. Neuro Oncol; 2010 Aug;12(8):844-54
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  • [Title] Fatty acid synthase as a novel target for meningioma therapy.
  • High levels of fatty acid synthase (FAS) expression have been reported in hormone receptor-positive tumors, including prostate, breast, and ovarian cancers, and its inhibition reduces tumor growth in vitro and in vivo.
  • Similar to other hormone receptor-positive tumor types, meningiomas are progesterone receptor- and estrogen receptor-immunoreactive brain tumors.
  • To define the role of FAS in human meningioma growth control, we first analyzed the FAS expression using a tissue microarray containing 38 meningiomas and showed increased FAS expression in 70% of atypical WHO grade II and anaplastic WHO grade III meningiomas compared with 10% of benign WHO grade I tumors.
  • We next confirmed this finding by real-time PCR and Western blotting.
  • Second, we demonstrated that treatment with the FAS inhibitor, cerulenin (Cer), significantly decreased meningioma cell survival in vitro.
  • Third, we showed that Cer treatment reduced FAS expression by modulating Akt phosphorylation (activation).
  • Fourth, we demonstrated that Cer treatment of mice bearing meningioma xenografts resulted in significantly reduced tumor volumes associated with increased meningioma cell death.
  • Collectively, our data suggest that the increased FAS expression in human meningiomas represents a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of unresectable or malignant meningioma.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerulenin / pharmacology. Fatty Acid Synthases / metabolism. Fatty Acid Synthesis Inhibitors / pharmacology. Meningeal Neoplasms / enzymology. Meningioma / enzymology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Apoptosis / drug effects. Blotting, Western. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Survival / drug effects. DNA Fragmentation / drug effects. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. In Situ Nick-End Labeling. Mice. Mice, SCID. RNA, Messenger / analysis. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Tissue Array Analysis. Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays

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  • (PMID = 20511185.001).
  • [ISSN] 1523-5866
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuro-oncology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Fatty Acid Synthesis Inhibitors; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 17397-89-6 / Cerulenin; EC 2.3.1.85 / Fatty Acid Synthases
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2940685
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4. Fukuhara T, Saijo Y, Sakakibara T, Inoue A, Morikawa N, Kanamori M, Nakashima I, Nukiwa T: Successful treatment of carcinomatous meningitis with gefitinib in a patient with lung adenocarcinoma harboring a mutated EGF receptor gene. Tohoku J Exp Med; 2008 Apr;214(4):359-63
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  • [Title] Successful treatment of carcinomatous meningitis with gefitinib in a patient with lung adenocarcinoma harboring a mutated EGF receptor gene.
  • Carcinomatous meningitis is a severe complication of lung cancer.
  • Although treatment with gefitinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor of epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor, has been reported to be highly effective against lung cancers harboring a mutated EGF gene, its effect against carcinomatous meningitis is unknown.
  • Here, we report successful treatment of carcinomatous meningitis with gefitinib in a lung cancer patient suffered from meningeal metastasis.
  • A tumor sample revealed the in-frame deletion of codons 746 to 750 (E746 to A750) in exon 19 of the EGF gene, which leads to constitutive activation of the tyrosine kinase domain and high-affinity binding of gefitinib.
  • Combined treatment with gefitinib (250 mg/day) and whole-brain irradiation (36 Gray total) proved to be effective.
  • It is noteworthy that the level of gefitinib in the CSF was less than 1% of the serum level (serum: 117 nM before drug re-administration and 132 nM 2 hrs later; CSF: 0.9 nM both before and 2 hrs after drug re-administration).
  • Gefitinib treatment should be considered for patients with carcinomatous meningitis and lung adenocarcinoma harboring a mutated EGF gene.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Meningeal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Quinazolines / administration & dosage. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Male. Meningitis / drug therapy. Meningitis / etiology. Meningitis / genetics. Middle Aged. Mutation. Radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 18441512.001).
  • [ISSN] 1349-3329
  • [Journal-full-title] The Tohoku journal of experimental medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tohoku J. Exp. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Quinazolines; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; S65743JHBS / gefitinib
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5. Groves MD, Glantz MJ, Chamberlain MC, Baumgartner KE, Conrad CA, Hsu S, Wefel JS, Gilbert MR, Ictech S, Hunter KU, Forman AD, Puduvalli VK, Colman H, Hess KR, Yung WK: A multicenter phase II trial of intrathecal topotecan in patients with meningeal malignancies. Neuro Oncol; 2008 Apr;10(2):208-15
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  • [Title] A multicenter phase II trial of intrathecal topotecan in patients with meningeal malignancies.
  • To determine the therapeutic efficacy (13-week and 26-week CNS progression-free survival [PFS], response rate, and overall survival) and safety of intraventricular (IVent) topotecan in patients with neoplastic meningitis (NM), we conducted a phase II, open-label, nonrandomized, single-arm trial of IVent topotecan in patients with NM using 400 mug of topotecan IVent twice weekly for 6 weeks, followed by evaluation with imaging, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and physical examinations.
  • Primary cancers included breast (19), lung (13), CNS (14), and others (16).
  • Forty patients (65%) completed the 6-week induction period, among whom 13 (21%) had CSF clearance of malignant cells.
  • The most common side effect was chemical meningitis in 32% of patients (5% grade 3); 32% experienced no drug side effects.
  • IVent topotecan is well tolerated, but provides no added benefit over other IVent therapies.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Meningeal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Meningeal Neoplasms / secondary. Topotecan / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 18316473.001).
  • [ISSN] 1522-8517
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuro-oncology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 7M7YKX2N15 / Topotecan
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2613823
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6. Nayak L, Abrey LE, Iwamoto FM: Intracranial dural metastases. Cancer; 2009 May 1;115(9):1947-53
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  • BACKGROUND: : Intracranial dural metastases (IDM) are found at autopsy in 9% of patients with advanced systemic cancer.
  • The objective of the current study was to evaluate the demographics, clinical presentation, imaging, treatment, and prognosis of patients with IDM.
  • METHODS: : The current study was a retrospective review of 122 patients with IDM diagnosed at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center between 1999 and 2006.
  • RESULTS: : Sixty-one percent of the patients were women; the median age at diagnosis was 59 years, the median Karnofsky performance scale (KPS) at diagnosis was 80, and the median time to IDM diagnosis from initial cancer diagnosis was 37 months.
  • Breast (34%) and prostate (17%) cancers were the most frequent primary tumors associated with IDM.
  • Eighty-three percent of patients had active systemic disease at the time of IDM diagnosis.
  • A lower KPS and lung cancer were associated with worse overall survival.
  • Surgical resection and chemotherapy improved progression-free survival, but only resection was found to be associated with improved overall survival.
  • CONCLUSIONS: : IDM affect a significant proportion of cancer patients.
  • KPS and status of systemic cancer should guide treatment decisions.
  • Cancer 2009. (c) 2009 American Cancer Society.
  • [MeSH-major] Dura Mater. Meningeal Neoplasms / secondary. Meningioma / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Child. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19241421.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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7. Yamada T, Furukawa K, Yokoi K, Ohaki Y, Okada S, Tajiri T: Case of meningeal carcinomatosis with gastric cancer which manifested meningeal signs as the initial symptom; the palliative benefit of radiotherapy. J Nippon Med Sch; 2008 Aug;75(4):216-20
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  • [Title] Case of meningeal carcinomatosis with gastric cancer which manifested meningeal signs as the initial symptom; the palliative benefit of radiotherapy.
  • He was diagnosed as having gastric cancer by endoscopy of his upper gastrointestinal tract.
  • Brain computed tomography (CT) showed no abnormalities, but magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed slight enhancement in the cerebellar sulcus.
  • Cytological examination of cerebrospinal fluid revealed malignant cells.
  • We diagnosed his condition as meningeal carcinomatosis (MC) and started radiotherapy.
  • His vision improved after four weeks of treatment, and then he became totally blind again.
  • Since his general condition remained poor, we did not perform chemotherapy.
  • MC is a rare pathosis of gastric cancer in comparison with leukemia and malignant lymphoma.
  • This disease does not often show characteristic pictorial images, and early diagnosis is difficult.
  • Moreover, it usually manifests itself in its late stages after several months or more of treatment, and it is rare for MC to be present at the time of initial diagnosis.
  • We present a case of gastric cancer with meningeal signs present when the primary tumors were diagnosed.
  • Radiotherapy alleviated some of the symptoms, and the patient survived for as long as patients undergoing enforced chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / radiotherapy. Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Meningeal Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Meningeal Neoplasms / secondary. Stomach Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18781044.001).
  • [ISSN] 1345-4676
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of Nippon Medical School = Nippon Ika Daigaku zasshi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Nippon Med Sch
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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8. Beauchesne P: Intrathecal chemotherapy for treatment of leptomeningeal dissemination of metastatic tumours. Lancet Oncol; 2010 Sep;11(9):871-9

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Intrathecal chemotherapy for treatment of leptomeningeal dissemination of metastatic tumours.
  • Neoplastic meningitis consists of diffuse involvement of the leptomeninges by infiltrating cancer cells, and can be caused by systemic or primary CNS tumours, such as solid cancers or lymphoproliferative malignant disease.
  • Thus, careful neurological examination is needed for diagnosis of secondary diffuse involvement.
  • Because most patients with neoplastic meningitis have diffuse systemic disease, treatment is typically palliative.
  • However, more aggressive treatments are available to low-risk patients, which could increase survival.
  • Intrathecal chemotherapy is currently the main treatment for patients with neoplastic meningitis, but optimum anticancer chemotherapy is being studied.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Meningeal Carcinomatosis / drug therapy. Meningeal Carcinomatosis / secondary. Neoplasm Metastasis / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Injections, Spinal. Meningitis / etiology. Neoplasms / complications. Neoplasms / drug therapy. Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20598636.001).
  • [ISSN] 1474-5488
  • [Journal-full-title] The Lancet. Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lancet Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 75
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9. Berg SL, Chamberlain MC: Systemic chemotherapy, intrathecal chemotherapy, and symptom management in the treatment of leptomeningeal metastasis. Curr Oncol Rep; 2003 Jan;5(1):29-40
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  • [Title] Systemic chemotherapy, intrathecal chemotherapy, and symptom management in the treatment of leptomeningeal metastasis.
  • Metastasis to the leptomeninges occurs in many common cancers, including leukemia; lung, breast, and gastrointestinal cancers; and tumors of the brain.
  • Consequently, therapy for leptomeningeal metastasis must be directed to the entire central nervous system (CNS).
  • Treatment often consists of involved-field radiotherapy, systemic chemotherapy, and intrathecal chemotherapy.
  • However, because meningeal spread occurs most often in advanced disease, treatment is mainly palliative, except in childhood leukemia, where durable remission has been reported.
  • This article outlines the role of systemic and intrathecal chemotherapy in patients with leptomeningeal metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Meningeal Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Child. Drug Administration Routes. Humans. Injections, Spinal

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  • (PMID = 12493148.001).
  • [ISSN] 1523-3790
  • [Journal-full-title] Current oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Oncol Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 120
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10. Nagashima T, Muroi K, Kunitama M, Izumi T, Ohtsuki T, Komatsu N, Fukayama M, Ozawa K: Colon cancer with meningeal carcinomatosis and myelodysplastic syndrome in a patient who underwent intensive chemotherapy for acute myelogenous leukemia: a case report. Jpn J Clin Oncol; 2001 May;31(5):221-5
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  • [Title] Colon cancer with meningeal carcinomatosis and myelodysplastic syndrome in a patient who underwent intensive chemotherapy for acute myelogenous leukemia: a case report.
  • The patient had suffered from acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) with 46,XY and received chemotherapy for 5 years.
  • Meningeal carcinomatosis was diagnosed due to the detection of carcinoma cells in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).
  • Emergence of a new abnormal clone was suggested.
  • An association between chemotherapy and both colon cancer and MDS was suggested.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / etiology. Colonic Neoplasms / etiology. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / drug therapy. Meningeal Neoplasms / etiology. Myelodysplastic Syndromes / etiology. Neoplasms, Second Primary / etiology


11. Clatot F, Philippin-Lauridant G, Ouvrier MJ, Nakry T, Laberge-Le-Couteulx S, Guillemet C, Veyret C, Blot E: Clinical improvement and survival in breast cancer leptomeningeal metastasis correlate with the cytologic response to intrathecal chemotherapy. J Neurooncol; 2009 Dec;95(3):421-426
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  • [Title] Clinical improvement and survival in breast cancer leptomeningeal metastasis correlate with the cytologic response to intrathecal chemotherapy.
  • Leptomeningeal meningitis occurs in approximately 5% of metastatic breast cancers, and there is no standard treatment for this complication.
  • We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data and cerebrospinal fluid of 24 patients treated with high-dose intrathecal methotrexate for breast cancer leptomeningeal meningitis (BLM).
  • Cytologic response (CSF cytology without neoplastic cells after treatment) was observed in 11 patients (46%) and related to survival (P = 0.005).
  • Cytologic response could be helpful in the management of intrathecal chemotherapy in patients with BLM.
  • [MeSH-major] Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Breast Neoplasms. Meningeal Neoplasms. Methotrexate / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Cerebrospinal Fluid / cytology. Female. Humans. Injections, Spinal. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Predictive Value of Tests. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 19557501.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7373
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate
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12. Borràs J, Gumà J, Lainez N, Villar JL, Sabater S: [Oncologic treatment of oto-neuro-ophthalmological metastases and their complications]. Rev Neurol; 2000 Dec 16-31;31(12):1267-75
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  • [Title] [Oncologic treatment of oto-neuro-ophthalmological metastases and their complications].
  • [Transliterated title] Tratamiento oncológico de las metástasis otoneuroftalmológicas y sus complicaciones.
  • INTRODUCTION: Cerebral metastases and the sequelae of their treatment are the major cause of neurological symptoms in patients with cancer.
  • OBJECTIVE: In this article we review the oto-neuro-ophthalmological complications of the treatment of metastases with radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy.
  • DEVELOPMENT: When speaking of the iatrogenic diseases caused by radiotherapy treatment of metastases, it is important to emphasize that the major complications of this form of treatment are seen in the long term, in general, months or years later.
  • When dealing with incurable diseases, such as most metastatic cancers, the benefit/risk balance of each therapeutic option has to be taken into account.
  • The oto-neuro-ophthalmological toxicity of the chemotherapy may present as an infrequent and unexpected complication or as a usual, expected secondary effect of the drug used.
  • A large variety of drugs are used for the systemic control of cancer (cystostatic drugs, hormones and modifiers of the biological response) which, in one way or another, may cause neurological signs.
  • CONCLUSION: The increasingly frequent use of high dose chemotherapy and of the combined use of chemotherapy and radiotherapy mean that these types of toxicity have become common clinical syndromes in current oncological practices.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects. Cranial Irradiation / adverse effects. Head and Neck Neoplasms / secondary. Head and Neck Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Hormones / adverse effects. Adult. Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / adverse effects. Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / adverse effects. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / adverse effects. Brain / pathology. Brain Diseases / etiology. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Brain Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Cataract / etiology. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant / adverse effects. Child. Choroid Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Choroid Neoplasms / secondary. Combined Modality Therapy. Cornea / radiation effects. Dementia / etiology. Humans. Meningeal Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Meningeal Neoplasms / secondary. Necrosis. Palliative Care. Radiation Injuries / etiology. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant / adverse effects. Risk. Salvage Therapy / adverse effects. Skull Base Neoplasms / drug therapy. Skull Base Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Skull Base Neoplasms / secondary. Skull Base Neoplasms / surgery. Stroke / etiology. Vision Disorders / etiology

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  • (PMID = 11205576.001).
  • [ISSN] 0210-0010
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista de neurologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Neurol
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones; 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal
  • [Number-of-references] 39
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13. Lee O, Cromwell LD, Weider DJ: Carcinomatous meningitis arising from primary nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Am J Otolaryngol; 2005 May-Jun;26(3):193-7
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  • Carcinomatous meningitis, also known as leptomeningeal metastasis and meningeal carcinomatosis, is the invasion of neoplastic cells into the leptomeninges.
  • Head and neck cancers, especially nasopharyngeal carcinoma, give rise to carcinomatous meningitis very infrequently.
  • In 1987, a 45-year-old white female presented with a few year history of chronic bilateral serous otitis media.
  • The patient was subsequently diagnosed with nasopharyngeal carcinoma by biopsy and treated with radiation as well as chemotherapy.
  • In 1993, magnetic resonance imaging scan of the head revealed recurrence of nasopharyngeal carcinoma with involvement of the ethmoid sinuses as well as extension of the tumor into the frontotemporal leptomeninges.
  • Although very rare, nasopharyngeal carcinoma can give rise to carcinomatous meningitis, probably by direct invasion of malignant cells.
  • We also review the literature with respect to the diagnosis and treatment of carcinomatosis meningitis.
  • [MeSH-major] Meningeal Neoplasms / etiology. Meningeal Neoplasms / secondary. Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15858776.001).
  • [ISSN] 0196-0709
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of otolaryngology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Otolaryngol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radioisotopes; AU0V1LM3JT / Gadolinium
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14. Bohner G, Masuhr F, Distl R, Katchanov J, Klingebiel R, Zschenderlein R, von Deimling A, van Landeghem FK: Pilocytic astrocytoma presenting as primary diffuse leptomeningeal gliomatosis: report of a unique case and review of the literature. Acta Neuropathol; 2005 Sep;110(3):306-11
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  • [Title] Pilocytic astrocytoma presenting as primary diffuse leptomeningeal gliomatosis: report of a unique case and review of the literature.
  • Despite chemotherapy with vincristin and carboplatin, the patient died 2 months after admission.
  • A thorough autopsy showed no evidence for primary neoplasms in brain, spine and optic nerve.
  • Sequence analysis of tumor protein 53 gene (TP53) revealed a missense mutation in exon 5, and expression of phosphatase and tensin homolog (mutated in multiple advanced cancers 1) (PTEN) protein was not detected, which may have contributed to astrocytoma development.
  • To our knowledge, this is the first definitive case of pilocytic astrocytoma presenting as PDLG.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Meningeal Neoplasms / pathology. Meninges / pathology. Neoplasms, Neuroepithelial / pathology. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / pathology. Subarachnoid Space / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Brain / pathology. Brain / physiopathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Mutation / genetics. Spinal Cord / pathology. Spinal Cord / physiopathology. Spinal Cord Compression / etiology. Spinal Cord Compression / pathology. Spinal Cord Compression / physiopathology. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16003541.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-6322
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neuropathologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neuropathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / TP53 protein, human; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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15. Kitayama T, Marubayashi S, Hayamizu K, Tashiro H, Ohdan H, Ikeda S, Okimoto T, Okajima M, Kataoka T, Sugino K, Asahara T, Fukuda Y, Dohi K: Allochronic overlapping malignancies after renal transplantation in a patient with p53 gene mutation: report of a case. Surg Today; 2004;34(5):473-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Allochronic overlapping malignancies after renal transplantation in a patient with p53 gene mutation: report of a case.
  • We report a rare case of the development of various tumors over a 16-year period after renal transplantation.
  • Immunosuppressive treatment consisted of a triple regimen of methylprednisolone, azathioprine, and mizoribine.
  • Left breast cancer was diagnosed 9 years after the renal transplantation, then colon cancers and meningeal epidermal meningioma were diagnosed, 10 years and 12 years post-transplant, respectively.
  • During the investigations for the breast and colon cancers, a p53 gene mutation was detected.
  • We suggest that the effects of the immunosuppressive drugs combined with the p53 gene abnormality accelerated tumor development in this patient.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / etiology. Colonic Neoplasms / etiology. Genes, p53. Immunosuppressive Agents / administration & dosage. Kidney Transplantation / adverse effects. Mutation. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary
  • [MeSH-minor] Azathioprine / administration & dosage. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / etiology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / genetics. Colonic Polyps / etiology. Colonic Polyps / surgery. Drug Therapy, Combination. Female. Graft Rejection. Hemangioma / pathology. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Methylprednisolone / administration & dosage. Middle Aged. Postoperative Complications. Ribonucleosides / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 15108094.001).
  • [ISSN] 0941-1291
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery today
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Today
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 0 / Ribonucleosides; 50924-49-7 / bredinin; MRK240IY2L / Azathioprine; X4W7ZR7023 / Methylprednisolone
  • [Number-of-references] 17
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16. Trey JE, Simon JE, Khiyami A: Treatment of leptomeningeal carcinomatosis from breast cancer with systemically administered chemotherapy. J Clin Oncol; 2004 Jul 15;22(14_suppl):764

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Treatment of leptomeningeal carcinomatosis from breast cancer with systemically administered chemotherapy.
  • : 764 Background: Leptomeningeal carcinomatosis is a rare complication of breast cancer.
  • Standard treatment includes intrathecal methotrexate and radiation.
  • The results of therapy are unsatisfactory and the prognosis is poor.
  • METHODS: We report two patients with breast cancer and meningeal involvement who responded to systemic chemotherapy with carboplatinum (AUC6) and docetaxel (75mg/M2.
  • This regimen was chosen because of the preclinical synergy of these agents, proven efficacy in metastatic breast cancer, and the ability of carboplatinum to treat brain tumors.
  • RESULTS: Patient #1 developed isolated leptomeningeal disease 18 months after responding to neoadjuvant therapy with cyclophosphamide and doxorubicin for locally advanced breast cancer.
  • Eighteen months after radiation she again developed symptomatic meningeal disease along with early metastases in lung and liver.
  • Treatment with carboplatinum and docetaxel was begun.
  • Patient #2 had previously undergone resection and cranial irradiation of cerebellar metastases from breast cancer and subsequent chemotherapy for metastatic disease with paclitaxel and trastuzumab when she developed symptomatic leptomeningeal disease.
  • Trastuzumab was continued as her brain tumor overexpressed HER2/neu.
  • She remains stable after 11 months of treatment.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Systemic chemotherapy with carboplatinum and docetaxel (+trastuzumab)can be effective in the treatment of meningeal carcinomatosis from breast cancer.
  • This regimen deserves formal study and comparison to standard treatments No significant financial relationships to disclose.

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  • (PMID = 28014152.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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17. Tabacu E, Galie N, Mitrea M, Stoicescu I, Zăvoianu C: [Multiple primary cancers with different localizations and histologic types. Clinical case]. Pneumologia; 2003 Jan-Mar;52(1):51-3

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Multiple primary cancers with different localizations and histologic types. Clinical case].
  • The authors describe the case of male patient of 46 years old, which was diagnosticated with 4 cancers of different localization and histopathological types in the course of 6 years.
  • In chronological order these 4 neoplazias were: the Hodgkin's disease with mixed cellularity, the malign parieto-frontal right meningioma, a Grawitz renal tumor and a lung adenocarcinoma with bilateral lung and pleural metastasis.
  • For both cerebral and renal tumors the patient was given a surgical treatment and for the Hodgkin's disease and lung cancer given chemotherapy and cobalt therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Multiple Primary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma / therapy. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / therapy. Hodgkin Disease / pathology. Hodgkin Disease / therapy. Humans. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Kidney Neoplasms / therapy. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / therapy. Male. Meningeal Neoplasms / pathology. Meningeal Neoplasms / therapy. Meningioma / pathology. Meningioma / therapy. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 14702702.001).
  • [ISSN] 2067-2993
  • [Journal-full-title] Pneumologia (Bucharest, Romania)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pneumologia
  • [Language] rum
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Romania
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18. Chang EL, Maor MH: Standard and novel radiotherapeutic approaches to neoplastic meningitis. Curr Oncol Rep; 2003 Jan;5(1):24-8
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  • Neoplastic meningitis usually occurs late in the natural history of cancer.
  • Adequate staging and assessment of the patient's overall reserves and prognosis are crucial in determining whether aggressive treatment is justified.
  • Although radiotherapy remains the single most effective treatment, it is considered palliative for epithelial cancers and is generally directed to sites of bulky disease that obstruct the flow of cerebrospinal fluid or cause neurologic dysfunction.
  • Innovations in conformal therapy may help to reduce the significant amount of myelosuppression associated with spinal irradiation.
  • The main long-term toxicity associated with whole-brain irradiation (WBI) is dementia resulting from leukoencephalopathy, which may be exacerbated when WBI is given in combination with chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / therapy. Meningeal Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Meningitis / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy. Cranial Nerve Diseases / etiology. Cranial Nerve Diseases / radiotherapy. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 12493147.001).
  • [ISSN] 1523-3790
  • [Journal-full-title] Current oncology reports
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  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
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19. Benedetto N, Perrini P, Scollato A, Buccoliero AM, Di Lorenzo N: Intracranial meningioma containing metastatic colon carcinoma. Acta Neurochir (Wien); 2007 Aug;149(8):799-803; discussion 803
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  • Tumour-to-tumour metastasis is a rare pathological entity.
  • Meningioma is the most common intracranial tumour to host metastases, the majority of which arise from breast and lung cancers.
  • We present the first report of a colonic cancer metastasis within an intracranial meningioma.A 76-year-old woman presented with a one month history of partial seizures.
  • Her medical history included resection of an adenocarcinoma of the descending colon followed by adjuvant chemotherapy 1 year before our evaluation.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a homogeneously enhancing lesion in the right frontal convexity.A well capsulated tumour attached to the frontal dura was surgically removed.
  • Possible explanations for the development of a cohesive chimeric mass of composite pathology are investigated.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Colonic Neoplasms / surgery. Meningeal Neoplasms / secondary. Meningeal Neoplasms / surgery. Meningioma / surgery. Neoplasms, Second Primary / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Colectomy. Craniotomy. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Postoperative Complications / diagnosis. Postoperative Complications / pathology. Postoperative Complications / surgery. Reoperation

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  • (PMID = 17660939.001).
  • [ISSN] 0942-0940
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neurochirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neurochir (Wien)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Austria
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20. Kleinschmidt-DeMasters BK, Damek DM: The imaging and neuropathological effects of Bevacizumab (Avastin) in patients with leptomeningeal carcinomatosis. J Neurooncol; 2010 Feb;96(3):375-84
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Bevacizumab (Avastin, Genetech/Roche) is an anti-angiogenic drug approved for treating patients with malignant gliomas that reduces edema and mass effect, but has been suggested to promote multifocal tumor spread within the brain.
  • Patients with systemic malignancies are also treated with bevacizumab, but there is limited information regarding effects of the drug on the neuroimaging or neuropathological features of metastatic CNS disease.
  • We report 2 patients with non-small cell lung carcinomas who had received bevacizumab for their systemic cancers and then developed cognitive deficits consistent with white matter dementia.
  • Diagnosis of leptomeningeal carcinomatosis (LC) was confounded and delayed by the finding of atypical neuroimaging features, including minimal to absent leptomeningeal enhancement and unusual perivascular and punctate hemorrhagic lesions and multifocal subgyral signal abnormalities suspicious for vasculitis or small vessel vasculopathy.
  • Neuropathological assessment confirmed LC but, in the autopsy case also disclosed extraordinary perivascular spread of individual metastatic tumor cells to the depth of capillaries.
  • The pattern was reminiscent of vascular "cooption" by tumor seen in experimental animals in preclinical trials of bevacizumab.
  • Small infarctions were associated with perivascular tumor and vasculopathy, unusual features of LC in patients who do not receive bevacizumab.
  • In the biopsied patient, multiple perivascular tumor nodules were identified in superficial cortex.
  • In these two patients, bevacizumab appeared to alter neuroimaging characteristics of LC, confounded diagnosis and possibly also influenced the pattern of tumor spread of LC.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiogenesis Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Brain / pathology. Meningeal Carcinomatosis / drug therapy. Meningeal Carcinomatosis / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19609489.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7373
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 2S9ZZM9Q9V / Bevacizumab
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21. Ackermann R, Semmler A, Maurer GD, Hattingen E, Fornoff F, Steinbach JP, Linnebank M: Methotrexate-induced myelopathy responsive to substitution of multiple folate metabolites. J Neurooncol; 2010 May;97(3):425-7
Zurich Open Access Repository and Archive. Full text from .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Methotrexate (MTX)-associated myelopathy is a rare but serious subacute complication of MTX-based chemotherapy.
  • We report the case of a woman with breast cancer and meningeal carcinomatosis who developed severe progressive myelopathy after four cycles of intrathecal MTX administration.
  • We substituted high doses of the key metabolites of the methyl-transfer pathway: S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), 200 mg three times daily i.v.
  • ; folinate, 20 mg four times daily i.v.
  • Genetic analyses revealed homozygosity for the A allele of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) c.1298A>C (p.E429A), whereas other genetic variants of folate/methionine metabolism associated with MTX neurotoxicity were not present.
  • Substitution with multiple folate metabolites may be a promising strategy for the treatment of MTX-induced neurotoxicity.
  • [MeSH-major] Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / adverse effects. Methionine / administration & dosage. Methotrexate / adverse effects. Spinal Cord Diseases / chemically induced. Spinal Cord Diseases / therapy. Vitamin B Complex / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Meningeal Carcinomatosis / drug therapy. Meningeal Carcinomatosis / secondary. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 19821069.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7373
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 12001-76-2 / Vitamin B Complex; AE28F7PNPL / Methionine; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate
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22. Gordon BM, Myers JS: Leptomeningeal metastases. Clin J Oncol Nurs; 2003 Mar-Apr;7(2):151-5

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Leptomeningeal metastases typically have been a rare complication of systemic cancers.
  • The incidence is increasing for cancers of the breast and lung, primarily because of more effective treatment modalities and longer survival.
  • Diagnosis is made by magnetic resonance imaging with contrast enhancement and cerebral spinal fluid pathology.
  • Treatment frequently involves combination therapy with radiation and intrathecal chemotherapy.
  • Nursing care for this patient population includes baseline assessment and monitoring for changes in central nervous system function, symptom management, chemotherapy administration, education about the disease and treatment, identification of psychosocial issues, and assessment of coping strategies of patients and families.
  • [MeSH-major] Meningeal Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Nurse's Role. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 12696210.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-1095
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical journal of oncology nursing
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin J Oncol Nurs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 11
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23. Brasseur B, Dahan K, Beauloye V, Blétard N, Chantrain C, Dupont S, Guarin JL, Vermylen C, Brichard B: Multiple neoplasia in a 15-year-old girl with familial adenomatous polyposis. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2009 Jul;31(7):530-2
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  • [Title] Multiple neoplasia in a 15-year-old girl with familial adenomatous polyposis.
  • A 15-year-old girl with adenomatous polyposis coli gene (APC) mutation and brain tumor-polyposis syndrome developed an unusual succession of cervicocephalic tumors (medulloblastoma, meningeal low-grade myxoid tumor, and papillary thyroid carcinoma), at the age of 5, 9, and 15 years, respectively.
  • We discuss the genetic profile of the thyroid tumor in which a large somatic deletion of APC gene was found and the physiopathology of thyroid carcinoma in patients with germline APC mutation.
  • We also point out the uncommon phenotype in this young girl with early multiple neoplasias and the difficulties of management of such familial adenomatous polyposis patients with occurrence of extracolonic cancers that require the use of potential trigger agents as radiotherapy or chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenomatous Polyposis Coli / complications. Adenomatous Polyposis Coli / genetics. Genes, APC. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / complications. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19564752.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-3678
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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24. Van Horn A: Lymphomatous meningitis: early diagnosis and treatment. Clin J Oncol Nurs; 2009 Feb;13(1):90-4

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Lymphomatous meningitis: early diagnosis and treatment.
  • The incidence of central nervous system (CNS) metastases has increased steadily since 1999, likely because of the use of drugs with poor access to the CNS as well as the successful treatment of extraneural cancers, resulting in longer survival.Lymphomatous meningitis is a profoundly morbid and often fatal CNS metastasis that develops in at least 4%-8% of patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma.Risk factors for lymphomatous meningitis include uncontrolled systemic and extranodal disease, testicular and parasinus tumors, and being younger than age 60.
  • A high index of suspicion for the condition may result in earlier detection and improved outcome.Lymphomatous meningitis diagnostic methods include a thorough neurologic examination, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and multiple samplings of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).
  • Treatment regimens typically include radiation to areas of bulky disease or intrathecal chemotherapy.Available chemotherapeutic agents include methotrexate, cytarabine, and liposomal cytarabine.In addition to follow-up CSF and MRI monitoring, questioning patients and caregivers can provide insight into treatment response in terms of quality of life.Special care to avoid a nihilistic outlook in patients and clinicians is essential in treating patients with lymphomatous meningitis.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Neoplasms. Early Diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Brain / pathology. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Meningeal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Meningeal Neoplasms / secondary. Meningeal Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 19193553.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-067X
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical journal of oncology nursing
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin J Oncol Nurs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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25. Ragel BT, Couldwell WT, Wurster RD, Jensen RL: Chronic suppressive therapy with calcium channel antagonists for refractory meningiomas. Neurosurg Focus; 2007;23(4):E10
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Chronic suppressive therapy with calcium channel antagonists for refractory meningiomas.
  • In this article, the authors review the research supporting the use of calcium channel antagonists (CCAs) in the treatment of recurrent or unresectable meningiomas.
  • Calcium channel antagonists (for example, diltiazem and verapamil) are known to augment the effects of chemotherapy drugs (for example, vincristine) in multiple cancers.
  • The use of CCAs is attractive as an adjunct treatment for unresectable or recurrent meningiomas because they are safe drugs with well-known side effect profiles that lend themselves to long-term chronic therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Calcium Channel Blockers / therapeutic use. Meningeal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Meningioma / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Drug Therapy, Combination. Humans. Receptors, Growth Factor / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 17961034.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgical focus
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurg Focus
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Calcium Channel Blockers; 0 / Receptors, Growth Factor
  • [Number-of-references] 3
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26. Lin JW, Su FW, Wang HC, Lee TC, Ho JT, Lin CH, Lin YJ: Breast carcinoma metastasis to intracranial meningioma. J Clin Neurosci; 2009 Dec;16(12):1636-9
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  • Meningiomas and breast cancers are common tumors among women in the fifth to seventh decade.
  • However, metastasis from breast cancer to an intracranial meningioma is rare.
  • At that time, the pathological diagnosis was infiltrating ductal carcinoma.
  • She required adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy for a local recurrence 7 years later.
  • Histopathological examination of the lesion revealed two distinct tumor types, meningioma and metastatic carcinoma of breast tissue origin.
  • Although meningiomas have well-known radiological features, other tumors, including metastases from breast cancers may simulate them.
  • In the clinical setting of previously diagnosed breast cancer, prompt craniotomy for removal of meningioma-like intracranial lesions is recommended to avoid missing the diagnosis of breast cancer metastasis which carries a poorer prognosis than meningioma and requires a different treatment strategy.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma / pathology. Meningeal Neoplasms / secondary. Meningioma / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Keratins / metabolism. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods

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  • (PMID = 19766009.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-2653
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical neuroscience : official journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Neurosci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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27. Hermann B, Hültenschmidt B, Sautter-Bihl ML: Radiotherapy of the neuroaxis for palliative treatment of leptomeningeal carcinomatosis. Strahlenther Onkol; 2001 Apr;177(4):195-9
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  • [Title] Radiotherapy of the neuroaxis for palliative treatment of leptomeningeal carcinomatosis.
  • BACKGROUND: Leptomeningeal carcinomatosis occurs in about 5% of solid tumors and may seriously compromise quality of life.
  • Aim of the present study was to evaluate the feasibility of craniospinal irradiation with and without intrathecal chemotherapy and its efficacy with regard to symptom palliation and survival.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: 16 patients (mean age 46 years; nine breast cancers, five lung cancers, one renal cell cancer, one tumor of unknown primary site) with leptomeningeal carcinomatosis occurring after a median interval from primary tumor diagnosis of 5 months (0-300 months) received craniospinal irradiation between October 1995 and May 2000.
  • The median total dose was 36 Gy (à 1.6-2.0 Gy).
  • RESULTS: Median survival was 12 weeks, 8 weeks after radiotherapy alone, 16 weeks after combined modality treatment.
  • CONCLUSION: Craniospinal radiotherapy is feasible and effective for palliative treatment of leptomeningeal carcinomatosis.
  • As far as the small patient number permits any definite conclusions, combined modality treatment seems superior to irradiation alone.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain / drug effects. Carcinoma / radiotherapy. Meningeal Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Palliative Care / methods. Spine / drug effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Combined Modality Therapy. Feasibility Studies. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11370554.001).
  • [ISSN] 0179-7158
  • [Journal-full-title] Strahlentherapie und Onkologie : Organ der Deutschen Röntgengesellschaft ... [et al]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Strahlenther Onkol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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28. Shinoura N, Tabei Y, Yamada R, Saito K, Takahashi M: Continuous intrathecal treatment with methotrexate via subcutaneous port: implication for leptomeningeal dissemination of malignant tumors. J Neurooncol; 2008 May;87(3):309-16
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. METHOTREXATE .

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  • [Title] Continuous intrathecal treatment with methotrexate via subcutaneous port: implication for leptomeningeal dissemination of malignant tumors.
  • Use of intrathecal (IT) chemotherapy combined with radiotherapy can extend survival of patients with untreated leptomeningeal dissemination of malignant tumors from one month to two to six months.
  • Twenty patients with leptomeningeal dissemination (primary disease: 10 cancers, 6 gliomas and 4 lymphomas) were given 2-7 cycles of continuous IT (CIT) with methotrexate (MTX; 10 mg) administered into the lateral ventricle for 5 consecutive days biweekly.
  • Response to this therapy included 6 patients with complete remission, 7 with progressive disease, and 7 with stable disease.
  • Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed a median overall survival of 8 months while the overall survival rate for leptomeningeal specific death or for metastasis from cancer was 13 or 5 months, respectively.
  • In conclusion, CIT with 10 mg MTX via subcutaneous port for 5 days may improve the therapeutic effect and reduce the complications associated with treatment of leptomeningeal dissemination from malignant tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Meningeal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Meningeal Neoplasms / secondary. Methotrexate / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 18074105.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate
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29. Gilbert MR: Neoplastic meningitis: a unique disease process or a 'test tube' for evaluating cancer treatments? Curr Oncol Rep; 2003 Jan;5(1):11-4
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Meningitis.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Neoplastic meningitis: a unique disease process or a 'test tube' for evaluating cancer treatments?
  • Improved treatment of systemic cancers has prolonged the lives of many patients but has also led to increased incidence of neoplastic meningitis.
  • The prognosis for patients who develop neoplastic meningitis or leptomeningeal dissemination of cancer cells remains poor.
  • This paper reviews the pathologic reasons for this poor prognosis, describes recent research in animal models that explores new therapies, and discusses the potential of these new treatment possibilities for clinical use in the context of the associated biology and pathology.
  • The author provides an overview of the accompanying articles for the Neuro-Oncology section, which explore the mechanisms leading to neoplastic meningitis, the role of radiotherapy and chemotherapy in this disease process, and the toxicities of treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Meningeal Neoplasms / complications. Meningitis / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Humans. Models, Animal

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  • (PMID = 12493145.001).
  • [ISSN] 1523-3790
  • [Journal-full-title] Current oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Oncol Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
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30. Powles T, Robinson D, Shamash J, Moller H, Tranter N, Oliver T: The long-term risks of adjuvant carboplatin treatment for stage I seminoma of the testis. Ann Oncol; 2008 Mar;19(3):443-7
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. CARBOPLATIN .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The long-term risks of adjuvant carboplatin treatment for stage I seminoma of the testis.
  • In this study, we address this issue for the first time.
  • Overall mortality, deaths from circulatory disease and the incidence of second cancers were compared with expected values derived from the UK general population.
  • There has been no excess in overall mortality [standardised mortality ratio (SMR) 0.89; 95% CI 0.36-1.83], death from circulatory diseases (SMR 1.44; 95% CI 0.39-3.69) or the incidence of second nontestis cancers (standardised incidence ratio 0.96; 95% CI 0.26-2.45) in this group of patients.
  • There was an increase in the long-term development of contralateral testis cancers.
  • It also helps in planning long-term follow-up for patients receiving this form of treatment.

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  • [CommentIn] Ann Oncol. 2008 Mar;19(3):407-8 [18227108.001]
  • (PMID = 18048383.001).
  • [ISSN] 1569-8041
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin
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31. Taillibert S, Laigle-Donadey F, Chodkiewicz C, Sanson M, Hoang-Xuan K, Delattre JY: Leptomeningeal metastases from solid malignancy: a review. J Neurooncol; 2005 Oct;75(1):85-99
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Lung Cancer.

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  • Leptomeningeal metastases (LMM) consist of diffuse involvement of the leptomeninges by infiltrating cancer cells.
  • In solid tumors, the most frequent primary sites are lung and breast cancers, two tumors where the incidence of LMM is apparently increasing.
  • Cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) analysis is almost always abnormal but only a positive cytology or demonstration of intrathecal synthesis of tumor markers is diagnostic.
  • T1-weighted gadolinium-enhanced sequence of the entire neuraxis (brain and spine) plays an important role in supporting the diagnosis, demonstrating the involved sites and guiding treatment.
  • Radionuclide CSF flow studies detect CSF compartmentalization and are useful for treatment planning.
  • Standard therapy relies mainly on focal irradiation and intrathecal or systemic chemotherapy.
  • Studies using other therapeutic approaches such as new biological or cytotoxic compounds are ongoing.
  • The overall prognosis remains grim and quality of life should remain the priority when deciding which treatment option to apply.
  • However, a sub-group of patients, tentatively defined here, may benefit from an aggressive treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Meningeal Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 16215819.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 182
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32. Ochiai H, Moore SA, Archer GE, Okamura T, Chewning TA, Marks JR, Sampson JH, Gromeier M: Treatment of intracerebral neoplasia and neoplastic meningitis with regional delivery of oncolytic recombinant poliovirus. Clin Cancer Res; 2004 Jul 15;10(14):4831-8
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  • [Title] Treatment of intracerebral neoplasia and neoplastic meningitis with regional delivery of oncolytic recombinant poliovirus.
  • PURPOSE: Spread to the central nervous system (CNS) and the leptomeninges is a frequent complication of systemic cancers that is associated with serious morbidity and high mortality.
  • We have evaluated a novel therapeutic approach against CNS complications of breast cancer based on the human neuropathogen poliovirus (PV).
  • We evaluated CD155 expression in several human breast tumor tissue specimens and cultured breast cancer cell lines.
  • In addition, we tested an oncolytic PV recombinant for efficacy in xenotransplantation models of neoplastic meningitis and cerebral metastasis secondary to breast cancer.
  • RESULTS: We observed that breast cancer tissues and cell lines derived thereof express CD155 at levels mediating exquisite sensitivity toward PV-induced oncolysis in the latter.
  • An association with the immunoglobulin superfamily molecule CD155 renders breast cancer a likely target for oncolytic PV recombinants.
  • This assumption was confirmed in xenotransplantation models for neoplastic meningitis or solitary cerebral metastasis, where local virus treatment dramatically improved survival.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest oncolytic PV recombinants as a viable treatment option for CNS complications of breast cancer.

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  • (PMID = 15269159.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA087537; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA87537
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Recombinant; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / Receptors, Virus; 0 / poliovirus receptor
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33. Giglio P, Tremont-Lukats IW, Groves MD: Response of neoplastic meningitis from solid tumors to oral capecitabine. J Neurooncol; 2003 Nov;65(2):167-72
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  • [Title] Response of neoplastic meningitis from solid tumors to oral capecitabine.
  • Neoplastic meningitis (NM) is a major challenge for the neuro-oncologist as it constitutes a relatively common clinical problem in systemic and central nervous system cancers, and is very difficult to treat.
  • Chemotherapeutic treatment options are limited, and not particularly effective.
  • We report two cases of NM from breast carcinoma and a third with esophageal carcinoma, which responded to treatment with capecitabine, an oral prodrug for 5-flurouracil.
  • In some patients, its use may result in clinical and radiographic tumor responses, improved quality of life, and possibly increased survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Deoxycytidine / therapeutic use. Esophageal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Meningeal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Meningitis / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Adult. Capecitabine. Carcinoma / drug therapy. Carcinoma / secondary. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / secondary. Female. Fluorouracil / analogs & derivatives. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Prodrugs / therapeutic use

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  • [ErratumIn] J Neurooncol. 2004 Jul;68(3):295
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  • (PMID = 14686737.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Prodrugs; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; 6804DJ8Z9U / Capecitabine; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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34. Strady C, Ricciarelli A, Nasca S, Liautaud-Roger F, Coninx P: Carcinomatous meningitis and solid tumours. Oncol Rep; 2000 Jan-Feb;7(1):203-7
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  • This retrospective study concerning patients with a carcinomatous meningitis (CM) associated with solid tumour aimed at identifying risk markers of CM which could be used in the future in order to prevent from this neurological complication.
  • From 1976 to 1996, the patients whose CSF sampling was positive cytologically, were registered recording baseline clinical data, tumour histology with grade, tumour dissemination, treatments and follow-up.
  • Among the 41 cases, the first three sites of the primary were breast, lung, essentially small cell lung cancer, and urinary tumours.
  • Over the 20 years, the incidence of CM has significantly increased for urinary cancers, decreased for breast cancer while the administration of neoadjuvant chemotherapy was increasing, and remained unchanged for lung cancer.
  • M1 and/or undifferentiated tumours shortened the time-to-CM whereas bone metastases, that were the most frequent site for secondary deposits, did not.
  • Breast, lung and urinary cancers produced 80% of the CM in the series.
  • Neoadjuvant chemotherapy possibly could save patients from the meningeal dissemination.
  • [MeSH-major] Meningeal Neoplasms / secondary. Meningitis / etiology. Neoplasms / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Breast Neoplasms / complications. Female. Humans. Lung Neoplasms / complications. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 10601619.001).
  • [ISSN] 1021-335X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncol. Rep.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] GREECE
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35. Groves MD: New strategies in the management of leptomeningeal metastases. Arch Neurol; 2010 Mar;67(3):305-12
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  • Even with an aggressive approach, therapeutic outcomes are uniformly disappointing.
  • This is because of the relentless growth of the central nervous system (CNS) and/or the systemic cancers, or their lethal complications.
  • Advances in the understanding of the homing of cancer cells to the CNS, and of cancer metastasis in general, and more effective anticancer drugs that are adequately delivered to the CNS and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are needed to improve outcomes for patients with LM.
  • These advances may lead to better treatments for this disease and, ultimately, its prevention.
  • [MeSH-major] Meningeal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Meningeal Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols. Drug Delivery Systems. Humans

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  • (PMID = 20212228.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-3687
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Neurol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 119
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36. Waki F, Ando M, Takashima A, Yonemori K, Nokihara H, Miyake M, Tateishi U, Tsuta K, Shimada Y, Fujiwara Y, Tamura T: Prognostic factors and clinical outcomes in patients with leptomeningeal metastasis from solid tumors. J Neurooncol; 2009 Jun;93(2):205-12

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Prognostic factors and clinical outcomes in patients with leptomeningeal metastasis from solid tumors.
  • BACKGROUND: Leptomeningeal metastasis (LM) occurs in 4-15% of patients with solid tumors.
  • Although the clinical outcomes in cancer patients have been improving recently, no standard treatment for LM has been established as yet.
  • The purpose of this study was to identify the prognostic factors in patients with solid tumors with cytologically proven LM.
  • RESULTS: The primary diseases were as follows; lung cancer (n = 36), breast cancer (n = 33), gastric cancer (n = 8), and others (n = 8).
  • Forty-nine patients had brain metastasis at the time of diagnosis of the LM, and in 51 patients, MRI revealed meningeal dissemination in the brain or spine.
  • Thirty-one patients, including 19 with breast cancer, four with lung cancer, five with gastric cancer and three with other cancers, were treated by intrathecal (IT) chemotherapy.
  • A univariate analysis identified breast cancer, good PS (0-1), time to development of the LM (>1 year), and treatment by IT chemotherapy as being associated with a good prognosis, and multivariate analysis identified poor PS (HR: 1.72 (95% CI, 1.04-2.86) P = 0.04) and MRI-proven LM (HR: 1.82 (95% CI, 1.11-2.98) P = 0.02) as being associated with a poor prognosis.
  • CONCLUSION: In patients with poor prognostic factors, such as poor PS or MRI-proven LM, palliative therapy might be the most suitable treatment strategy.
  • [MeSH-major] Meningeal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Meningeal Neoplasms / secondary. Neoplasm Metastasis / pathology. Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Brain Neoplasms / mortality. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Breast Neoplasms / mortality. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Female. Humans. Lung Neoplasms / mortality. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / pathology. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / secondary. Stomach Neoplasms / mortality. Stomach Neoplasms / pathology. Survival Analysis. Time Factors. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19043775.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7373
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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37. Marchetti D, Mrak RE, Paulsen DD, Sinnappah-Kang ND: Neurotrophin receptors and heparanase: a functional axis in human medulloblastoma invasion. J Exp Clin Cancer Res; 2007 Mar;26(1):5-23
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Medulloblastoma (MB) is the most common malignant brain tumor of childhood.
  • Although modern therapy has produced five-year survival rates as high as 70% for some MB patients, this resulted in significant long-term treatment-related morbidity.
  • NT acts through two groups of structurally unrelated neurotrophin receptors (NTR): a family of receptor tyrosine kinases (Trks, mainly TrkA, TrkB, and TrkC) and a tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR)-like molecule called p75NTR TrkC expression is a good prognostic indicator for MB.
  • Importantly, little is known about the biological functions of p75 in primitive neuroectodermal tumors such as MB.
  • In contrast, NT-regulated heparanase (HPSE) is a unique extracellular matrix-degrading enzyme known to be associated with tumor progression in a wide variety of cancers.
  • We provide evidence of a differential expression of HPSE in newly-developed medulloblastoma cell lines.
  • Finally, by using antibodies specific to TrkC and immunohistochemistry (IHC) we prove that IHC scores reveal a significant expression of HPSE in 76% of MB tissues from children aged 3 years and older.
  • Taken together, our data provide evidence that HPSE functionality, in a context linked to TrkC and p75NTR activation, may play critical roles in medulloblastoma tumor invasion and progression.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebellar Neoplasms / metabolism. Glucuronidase / metabolism. Medulloblastoma / metabolism. Meningeal Neoplasms / metabolism. Receptors, Nerve Growth Factor / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Cell Line, Tumor. Child. Child, Preschool. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Infant. Male. NF-kappa B / metabolism. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Nerve Tissue Proteins / metabolism. Neurotrophin 3 / metabolism. Neurotrophin 3 / pharmacology. Phosphorylation. Prognosis. Receptor, trkC / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17550129.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-9078
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of experimental & clinical cancer research : CR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Exp. Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA086832; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA103955
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / NF-kappa B; 0 / NGFR protein, human; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / Neurotrophin 3; 0 / Receptors, Nerve Growth Factor; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, trkC; EC 3.2.1.- / heparanase; EC 3.2.1.31 / Glucuronidase
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