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1. Helfrich I, Scheffrahn I, Bartling S, Weis J, von Felbert V, Middleton M, Kato M, Ergün S, Augustin HG, Schadendorf D: Resistance to antiangiogenic therapy is directed by vascular phenotype, vessel stabilization, and maturation in malignant melanoma. J Exp Med; 2010 Mar 15;207(3):491-503
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  • [Title] Resistance to antiangiogenic therapy is directed by vascular phenotype, vessel stabilization, and maturation in malignant melanoma.
  • We hypothesized that the level of vessel maturation is critically involved in the response to antiangiogenic therapies.
  • To test this hypothesis, we evaluated the vascular network in spontaneously developing melanomas of MT/ret transgenic mice after using PTK787/ZK222584 for anti-VEGF therapy but also analyzed human melanoma metastases taken at clinical relapse in patients undergoing adjuvant treatment using bevacizumab.
  • Both experimental settings showed that tumor vessels, which are resistant to anti-VEGF therapy, are characterized by enhanced vessel diameter and normalization of the vascular bed by coverage of mature pericytes and immunoreactivity for desmin, NG-2, platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta, and the late-stage maturity marker alpha smooth muscle actin.
  • Our findings emphasize that the level of mural cell differentiation and stabilization of the vascular wall significantly contribute to the response toward antiangiogenic therapy in melanoma.
  • This study may be useful in paving the way toward a more rational development of second generation antiangiogenic combination therapies and in providing, for the first time, a murine model to study this.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiogenesis Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Melanoma / drug therapy. Melanoma / genetics

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  • [ErratumIn] J Exp Med. 2013 Apr 8;210(4):853. Augustin, Helmut G [added]
  • (PMID = 20194633.001).
  • [ISSN] 1540-9538
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of experimental medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Exp. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / / 8466
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Desmin; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor beta
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2839146
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2. Süveges I: [Intraocular tumours]. Magy Onkol; 2005;49(1):9-13
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  • [Title] [Intraocular tumours].
  • Intraocular tumours may be benign or malignant.
  • Two of them deserve special attention: melanoma malignum oculi in adults and retinoblastoma in children.
  • Melanoma malignum may arise from all three areas of the uvea: the iris, the ciliary body and the choroid.
  • The more malignant growths are those which are situated closer to the posterior pole.
  • Histologically the epitheloid cell-type of melanoma is more malignant than those containing only spindle cells.
  • Their treatment depends on the size: in the case of large tumours enucleation is required, while for the smaller ones, radiation therapy can be applied.
  • Sixty-seven percent of the inherited-type cases are bilateral.
  • A white tissue mass growing into the vitreous is seen on the fundus.
  • Histologically the tumour contains malignant neuroepithelial cells, which may form a rosette.
  • In the case of large tumours the treatment is enucleation; in bilateral processes the bulbus with the larger mass is removed and the other eye is treated with radiation therapy.
  • In both cases chemotherapy is used according to a prescribed schedule.
  • These are treated with radiotherapy, chemotherapy and hormone therapy.
  • Primary intraocular lymphoma often occurs bilaterally, and may be accompanied by primary lymphoma of the central nervous system (CNS).
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Lymphoma / diagnosis. Lymphoma / therapy. Melanoma / diagnosis. Melanoma / therapy. Retinal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Retinal Neoplasms / therapy. Retinoblastoma / diagnosis. Retinoblastoma / therapy

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  • (PMID = 15902327.001).
  • [ISSN] 0025-0244
  • [Journal-full-title] Magyar onkologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Magy Onkol
  • [Language] hun
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Hungary
  • [Number-of-references] 2
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3. De Potter P, Disneur D, Levecq L, Snyers B: [Ocular manifestations of cancer]. J Fr Ophtalmol; 2002 Feb;25(2):194-202
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  • [Transliterated title] Manifestations oculaires des cancers.
  • A metastatic tumor to the uvea is the most common form of an intraocular metastatic process.
  • The choroid is the most common site for uveal metastasis; metastases to the ciliary body, iris, retina, optic disk, and vitreous are rare.
  • Approximately one-third of patients have no history of primary cancer at the time of ocular diagnosis.
  • The short-term prognosis for vision is usually good after an individualized therapeutic approach (chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, external beam radiotherapy, or plaque radiotherapy), but the systemic prognosis is poor.
  • The visual paraneoplastic syndromes encompass several distinct clinical and pathological entities including carcinoma-associated retinopathy (CAR), melanoma-associated retinopathy (MAR), and bilateral diffuse melanocytic uveal proliferation (BDUMP).
  • The CAR syndrome affects photoreceptors, MAR is thought to affect bipolar cell function, and BDUMP targets the uveal tract.
  • Anecdotal therapeutic responses are described after systemic steroids, immunoglobulin injection, and plasmapheresis.
  • [MeSH-major] Eye Neoplasms / secondary. Lymphoma / diagnosis. Paraneoplastic Syndromes
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Child. Choroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Choroid Neoplasms / secondary. Diagnosis, Differential. Eyelid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Eyelid Neoplasms / secondary. Female. Humans. Iris Neoplasms / diagnosis. Iris Neoplasms / secondary. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / diagnosis. Male. Melanoma / complications. Melanoma / diagnosis. Melanoma / secondary. Orbital Neoplasms / diagnosis. Orbital Neoplasms / secondary. Prognosis. Retinal Diseases / etiology. Retinal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Retinal Neoplasms / secondary. Visual Acuity. Vitreous Body

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  • (PMID = 11941243.001).
  • [ISSN] 0181-5512
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal français d'ophtalmologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Fr Ophtalmol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Number-of-references] 103
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4. Garcia-Arumi J, Montolio Gil M, Morral Palau M, Segura Garcia A: Sympathetic ophthalmia after surgical resection of iridociliary melanoma. A case report. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol; 2006 Oct;244(10):1353-6
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  • [Title] Sympathetic ophthalmia after surgical resection of iridociliary melanoma. A case report.
  • BACKGROUND: We report a case of sympathetic ophthalmia with systemic findings following resection of a malignant melanoma of the iris and ciliary body, and describe the treatment and clinical outcome.
  • METHODS: A 49-year-old man underwent sector iridocyclectomy of a malignant iridociliary melanoma of the right eye.
  • High-dose systemic steroid and immunosuppressive (cyclosporine and azathioprine) therapy was prescribed.
  • RESULTS: Five weeks after resection of an iridociliary melanoma, our patient had reported acute bilateral vision loss.
  • Phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation were performed to treat a dense cataract of the right eye.
  • After 24 months of follow-up, best-corrected visual acuity was 20/200 in the right eye and 20/25 in the left; no signs of intraocular inflammation were observed and neurological signs had resolved.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Sympathetic ophthalmia is a rare, but severe disease that can occur after resection of iridociliary melanoma.
  • High-dose steroid therapy and supplementation with immunosuppressive agents early in the course of the disease was effective in resolving the condition.
  • [MeSH-major] Ciliary Body / surgery. Iris Neoplasms / surgery. Melanoma / surgery. Ophthalmia, Sympathetic / etiology. Postoperative Complications. Uveal Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Drug Therapy, Combination. Electroretinography. Fluorescein Angiography. Glucocorticoids / therapeutic use. Humans. Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use. Iridectomy. Male. Middle Aged. Visual Acuity

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  • (PMID = 16523295.001).
  • [ISSN] 0721-832X
  • [Journal-full-title] Graefe's archive for clinical and experimental ophthalmology = Albrecht von Graefes Archiv fur klinische und experimentelle Ophthalmologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glucocorticoids; 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents
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5. Liang SY, Lee GA, Whitehead K: Histopathology of a functioning mitomycin-C trabeculectomy. Clin Exp Ophthalmol; 2009 Apr;37(3):316-9
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  • We compare and contrast the histopathology of a normally functioning mitomycin-C trabeculectomy site obtained from an eye enucleated for iris melanoma with abnormal blebs discussed in the literature.
  • The conjunctival stroma consisted of loose connective tissue, traversed by capillaries and scattered small cystic spaces lined by endothelial cells.
  • The scleral trapdoor was evident as a cleft in the scleral wall in communication with the anterior chamber at the surgically created sclerostomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Blister / drug therapy. Blister / pathology. Mitomycin / therapeutic use. Postoperative Complications. Trabeculectomy
  • [MeSH-minor] Anterior Eye Segment / pathology. Eye Enucleation. Glaucoma / etiology. Glaucoma / surgery. Humans. Iris Neoplasms / etiology. Iris Neoplasms / surgery. Male. Melanoma / etiology. Melanoma / surgery. Middle Aged. Nucleic Acid Synthesis Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Uveitis / complications

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  • (PMID = 19459872.001).
  • [ISSN] 1442-9071
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical & experimental ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Experiment. Ophthalmol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Nucleic Acid Synthesis Inhibitors; 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin
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6. Browning DJ, Perkins SL, Lark KK: Iris cyst secondary to latanoprost mimicking iris melanoma. Am J Ophthalmol; 2003 Mar;135(3):419-21
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  • [Title] Iris cyst secondary to latanoprost mimicking iris melanoma.
  • PURPOSE: To report an ocular side effect of topical latanoprost therapy.
  • METHODS: A 73-year-old woman on latanoprost for primary open-angle glaucoma developed an iris cyst simulating an iris melanoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In managing patients with iris-pigmented lesions, the list of medications should be reviewed.
  • [MeSH-major] Antihypertensive Agents / adverse effects. Cysts / chemically induced. Iris Diseases / chemically induced. Prostaglandins F, Synthetic / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Glaucoma, Open-Angle / drug therapy. Humans. Iris Neoplasms / diagnosis. Melanoma / diagnosis

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2003 by Elsevier Science Inc.
  • [CommentIn] Am J Ophthalmol. 2003 Oct;136(4):780; author reply 780-1 [14516849.001]
  • (PMID = 12614778.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9394
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Ophthalmol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antihypertensive Agents; 0 / Prostaglandins F, Synthetic; 6Z5B6HVF6O / latanoprost
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7. Planellas M, Pastor J, Torres MD, Peña T, Leiva M: Unusual presentation of a metastatic uveal melanoma in a cat. Vet Ophthalmol; 2010 Nov;13(6):391-4
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  • [Title] Unusual presentation of a metastatic uveal melanoma in a cat.
  • A 10 year-old, spayed female Domestic Short-Haired (DSH) cat was diagnosed with a large primary uveal melanoma and exenteration was recommended.
  • Histopathologic study of the eye confirmed a diffuse iris melanoma.
  • Five months later, the cat presented with a lameness of the right anterior extremity.
  • On physical exam the right elbow was swollen and painful.
  • Fine needle aspiration of the radius head identified a round cell neoplasm with scattered cells containing intracytoplasmatic pigmented granules, compatible with metastatic melanoma.
  • The owners decided not to treat the patient with chemotherapy and declined a biopsy.
  • Two months later, the cat died and necropsy was performed confirming bone metastasis of the uveal melanoma.
  • A diagnosis of generalized metastasis from primary diffuse iris melanoma was made.
  • This report describes, for the first time, long bone metastasis from an uveal melanoma in a cat.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / veterinary. Cat Diseases / pathology. Melanoma / veterinary. Uveal Neoplasms / veterinary

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  • [Copyright] © 2010 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.
  • (PMID = 21182725.001).
  • [ISSN] 1463-5224
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet Ophthalmol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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8. Trichopoulos N, Damato B: Photodynamic therapy for recurrent hyphema after proton beam radiotherapy of iris melanoma. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol; 2007 Oct;245(10):1573-5
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  • [Title] Photodynamic therapy for recurrent hyphema after proton beam radiotherapy of iris melanoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Recurrent hemorrhage with secondary glaucoma is a rare but serious complication following proton beam irradiation (PBI) of iris melanoma.
  • We report a case in which photodynamic therapy (PDT) was successfully used to treat this complication.
  • METHODS: The history, clinical features and management of a patient with iris melanoma who was treated with PBI and later developed recurrent hyphema and increased intraocular pressure are presented.
  • PDT was used to treat the abnormal intralesional blood vessels which caused the recurrent intraocular haemorrhage.
  • The patient did not experience any further episodes of hyphema or elevated intraocular pressure.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our case demonstrates that the vascular abnormalities following irradiation of iris melanoma may respond favorably to PDT in selected cases.
  • To our knowledge, this is the first reported case in which PDT was used to treat recurrent hyphema caused by abnormal intralesional blood vessels after proton beam irradiation of iris melanoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyphema / drug therapy. Iris Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Melanoma / radiotherapy. Neovascularization, Pathologic / drug therapy. Photochemotherapy. Radiation Injuries / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Coloring Agents. Female. Fluorescein Angiography. Glaucoma / etiology. Humans. Indocyanine Green. Intraocular Pressure. Photosensitizing Agents / therapeutic use. Porphyrins / therapeutic use. Recurrence

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  • (PMID = 17429673.001).
  • [ISSN] 0721-832X
  • [Journal-full-title] Graefe's archive for clinical and experimental ophthalmology = Albrecht von Graefes Archiv fur klinische und experimentelle Ophthalmologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Coloring Agents; 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 0 / Porphyrins; 0X9PA28K43 / verteporfin; IX6J1063HV / Indocyanine Green
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9. Tsai JC, Sivak-Callcott JA, Haik BG, Zhang J, McLean IW: Latanoprost-induced iris heterochromia and open-angle glaucoma: a clinicopathologic report. J Glaucoma; 2001 Oct;10(5):411-3
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  • [Title] Latanoprost-induced iris heterochromia and open-angle glaucoma: a clinicopathologic report.
  • PURPOSE: To report the histopathologic and immunohistochemical findings from the iridectomy specimen of a patient with acquired unilateral iris heterochromia due to latanoprost.
  • PATIENT AND METHODS: A 45-year-old woman with open-angle glaucoma and unilateral iris heterochromia was evaluated for uncontrolled intraocular pressure increase.
  • Immunohistochemical studies showed that the iris melanocytes were negative for HMB45 and S-100, and weakly positive for Melan A.
  • CONCLUSION: Latanoprost-associated iris color change may exhibit a diffuse, uniform, dark velvet-brown appearance, thereby simulating diffuse iris melanoma.
  • Histopathologic and immunohistochemical analysis confirmed the benign characteristics of the affected iris melanocytes.
  • [MeSH-major] Antihypertensive Agents / adverse effects. Glaucoma, Open-Angle / drug therapy. Iris / drug effects. Iris Diseases / chemically induced. Melanosis / chemically induced. Prostaglandins F, Synthetic / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Intraocular Pressure / drug effects. Middle Aged. Mitomycin / therapeutic use. Trabeculectomy

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  • (PMID = 11711840.001).
  • [ISSN] 1057-0829
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of glaucoma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Glaucoma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antihypertensive Agents; 0 / Prostaglandins F, Synthetic; 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; 6Z5B6HVF6O / latanoprost
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10. Mennel S, Barbazetto I, Meyer CH, Peter S, Stur M: Ocular photodynamic therapy--standard applications and new indications (part 1). Review of the literature and personal experience. Ophthalmologica; 2007;221(4):216-26

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Ocular photodynamic therapy--standard applications and new indications (part 1). Review of the literature and personal experience.
  • Ocular photodynamic therapy (PDT) was introduced as a novel treatment for neovascular forms of age-related macular degeneration and choroidal neovascularization (CNV) secondary to pathologic myopia in the mid/end 1990s.
  • The current treatment recommendations are based on the results of two large, prospective, multicenter, randomized clinical trials (Treatment of Age-Related Macular Degeneration with Photodynamic Therapy and Verteporfin in Photodynamic Therapy Studies) and thousands of patients have been treated worldwide over the last years.
  • These extended applications include CNV secondary to choroiditis and retinochoroiditis, angioid streaks, central serous chorioretinopathy, retinal angiomatous proliferation, parafoveal telangiectasia or CNV associated with macular dystrophy and idiopathic CNV, as well as diseases without CNV, such as choroidal hemangioma, retinal hamartoma, choroidal melanoma, chronic central serous chorioretinopathy, angiomatous lesions secondary to systemic diseases, rubeosis iridis or neovascular glaucoma.
  • To date, with the introduction of anti-VEGF therapy, the role of PDT will certainly change.
  • However, it is reasonable to believe that it will maintain an important role in combination therapy due to its unique properties of selective vascular targeting.
  • Therefore, it is essential for the ophthalmologist to be familiar with the extended applications and their modifications of treatment parameters.
  • [MeSH-major] Choroidal Neovascularization / drug therapy. Glaucoma, Neovascular / drug therapy. Iris / blood supply. Neovascularization, Pathologic / drug therapy. Photochemotherapy. Photosensitizing Agents / therapeutic use. Porphyrins / therapeutic use

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 17579286.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-3755
  • [Journal-full-title] Ophthalmologica. Journal international d'ophtalmologie. International journal of ophthalmology. Zeitschrift für Augenheilkunde
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ophthalmologica
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 0 / Porphyrins; 129497-78-5 / verteporfin
  • [Number-of-references] 89
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11. Singh AD, Shields CL, Shields JA: Prognostic factors in uveal melanoma. Melanoma Res; 2001 Jun;11(3):255-63
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  • [Title] Prognostic factors in uveal melanoma.
  • Uveal melanoma is the most common primary intraocular malignant tumour, with an annual incidence of approximately six cases per million per year.
  • Approximately 40% of patients with posterior uveal melanoma develop metastatic melanoma to the liver within 10 years after initial diagnosis.
  • Despite high accuracy of diagnosis and availability of various methods of treatment; the mortality due to uveal melanoma has remained unchanged.
  • The prognosis in uveal melanoma depends on clinical, histopathological and cytological factors.
  • Uveal melanoma can arise in the iris, the ciliary body or the choroid.
  • Iris melanomas have the best prognosis and ciliary body melanomas have the worst prognosis.
  • Based on retrospective studies, the mortality rates for uveal melanoma for comparable sized tumours treated by enucleation or other globe conserving methods such as radiotherapy appear to be similar.
  • Histopathological factors such as cell type, mitotic activity, microcirculation architecture, tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes and the presence of extrascleral extension are also significant predictors of survival.
  • More recently, cytological factors such as cell proliferation, cytogenic, and molecular genetic prognostic markers have been identified with the hope of detecting high risk cases for adjuvant systemic immune therapy or chemotherapy.
  • At present, the role of these therapeutic methods is not clearly established.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / diagnosis. Prognosis. Uveal Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Division. Disease Progression. Humans. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 11468514.001).
  • [ISSN] 0960-8931
  • [Journal-full-title] Melanoma research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Melanoma Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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12. Chou SY, Chou CK, Kuang TM, Hsu WM: Incidence and severity of iris pigmentation on latanoprost-treated glaucoma eyes. Eye (Lond); 2005 Jul;19(7):784-7
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  • [Title] Incidence and severity of iris pigmentation on latanoprost-treated glaucoma eyes.
  • Analyses of iridial pigmentation incidence, grading, patient age distribution, side effect, and time course were performed.
  • Boys-Smith pigment gradation lens was used as standard for semiquantitative iris pigmentation grading.
  • A total of 60 patients on 0.005% latanoprost developed increased pigmentation of the iris during the follow-up period.
  • An increase of iris pigmentation was noted after an average of 7.27 months use of latanoprost (range 1-19 months, SD 2.65 months).
  • Most patients with latanoprost-induced iris hyperpigmentation were with grade II iridial pigmentation.
  • CONCLUSION: Contrary to the belief that latanoprost rarely caused iris hyperpigmentation in yellow-brown eyes, our study showed that 42.8% iris hyperpigmentation did occur, especially after continual use for around 7 months.
  • The doctors should exert great care in differentiating drug-induced iris pigmentation and iris nevi from early stage uveal melanoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antihypertensive Agents / adverse effects. Hyperpigmentation / chemically induced. Iris Diseases / chemically induced. Prostaglandins F, Synthetic / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Distribution. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Child. Female. Glaucoma, Open-Angle / drug therapy. Humans. Hypertrichosis / chemically induced. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Severity of Illness Index

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  • (PMID = 15359238.001).
  • [ISSN] 0950-222X
  • [Journal-full-title] Eye (London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eye (Lond)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antihypertensive Agents; 0 / Prostaglandins F, Synthetic; 6Z5B6HVF6O / latanoprost
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13. Bilaç C, Müezzinoğlu T, Ermertcan AT, Kayhan TC, Temeltaş G, Oztürkcan S, Temiz P: Sorafenib-induced erythema multiforme in metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Cutan Ocul Toxicol; 2009;28(2):90-2
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  • Sorafenib is a new therapeutic agent being used in metastatic renal cell carcinoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, and malignant melanoma.
  • On the third day of sorafenib therapy his lesions occurred.
  • His dermatologic examination revealed multiple erythematous papules on his neck, arms, and legs and bullae and iris lesions on his palms and soles.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects. Benzenesulfonates / adverse effects. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / drug therapy. Erythema Multiforme / chemically induced. Kidney Neoplasms / drug therapy. Pyridines / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Niacinamide / analogs & derivatives. Phenylurea Compounds. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19514932.001).
  • [ISSN] 1556-9535
  • [Journal-full-title] Cutaneous and ocular toxicology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cutan Ocul Toxicol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Benzenesulfonates; 0 / Phenylurea Compounds; 0 / Pyridines; 25X51I8RD4 / Niacinamide; 9ZOQ3TZI87 / sorafenib
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14. Yeung SN, Paton KE, Waite C, Maberley DA: Intravitreal bevacizumab for iris neovascularization following proton beam irradiation for choroidal melanoma. Can J Ophthalmol; 2010 Jun;45(3):269-73
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  • [Title] Intravitreal bevacizumab for iris neovascularization following proton beam irradiation for choroidal melanoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of intravitreal injections of bevacizumab as an eye-sparing treatment for iris neovascularization (NVI) following proton beam irradiation for choroidal melanoma.
  • PARTICIPANTS: Four patients who received intravitreal bevacizumab for NVI following proton beam irradiation for choroidal melanoma were identified in the Department of Ophthalmology archives at the University of British Columbia.
  • Neovascular glaucoma (NVG) was evident in 3 cases, 2 of which had stable intraocular pressure following treatment.
  • A longer period of regression was seen in patients with fewer systemic neovascular risk factors and earlier treatment.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Regression of NVI following proton beam irradiation for choroidal melanoma was seen in all treated patients.
  • Repeated treatments may be required to maintain regression of new vessels.
  • This treatment modality may be a useful eye-sparing adjunct in the prevention and treatment of NVG following proton beam irradiation.

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  • (PMID = 20379286.001).
  • [ISSN] 1715-3360
  • [Journal-full-title] Canadian journal of ophthalmology. Journal canadien d'ophtalmologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Can. J. Ophthalmol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Protons; 0 / VEGFA protein, human; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; 2S9ZZM9Q9V / Bevacizumab
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15. Jain V, Dabir S, Shome D, Dadu T, Natarajan S: Aspergillus iris granuloma: a case report with review of literature. Surv Ophthalmol; 2009 Mar-Apr;54(2):286-91
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  • [Title] Aspergillus iris granuloma: a case report with review of literature.
  • Slit-lamp biomicroscopic examination revealed a cream-colored, irregular elevated inferior iris mass, extending on to the anterior lens surface.
  • Differential diagnoses of a fungal granuloma, a medulloepithelioma, and an amelanotic melanoma were considered.
  • Culture growth revealed Aspergillus fumigatus We report this case because of the rarity of Aspergillus iris granuloma as a primary presentation of endogenous Aspergillosis and review the relevant literature.
  • Definitive differentiation of this rare entity from a foreign body, amelanotic melanoma, and other inflammatory conditions such as sarcoidosis and tuberculosis, may be possible only on microbiological and histo-pathological evaluation.
  • [MeSH-major] Aspergillosis / microbiology. Aspergillus fumigatus / isolation & purification. Eye Infections, Fungal / microbiology. Granuloma, Giant Cell / microbiology. Iris Diseases / microbiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antifungal Agents / therapeutic use. Aqueous Humor / microbiology. Atropine / therapeutic use. Aza Compounds / therapeutic use. DNA, Fungal / analysis. Drug Therapy, Combination. Fluoroquinolones. Genome, Fungal / genetics. Humans. Male. Natamycin / therapeutic use. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Quinolines / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 19298905.001).
  • [ISSN] 0039-6257
  • [Journal-full-title] Survey of ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surv Ophthalmol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antifungal Agents; 0 / Aza Compounds; 0 / DNA, Fungal; 0 / Fluoroquinolones; 0 / Quinolines; 7C0697DR9I / Atropine; 8O0C852CPO / Natamycin; U188XYD42P / moxifloxacin
  • [Number-of-references] 18
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16. Jaissle GB, Ulmer A, Henke-Fahle S, Fierlbeck G, Bartz-Schmidt KU, Szurman P: Suppression of melanoma-associated neoangiogenesis by bevacizumab. Arch Dermatol; 2008 Apr;144(4):525-7
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  • [Title] Suppression of melanoma-associated neoangiogenesis by bevacizumab.
  • BACKGROUND: Bevacizumab, a potent antibody against the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), has been shown to be effective for treatment of colorectal cancer.
  • Recently, high effectiveness of bevacizumab in combination with paclitaxel has been reported in a single metastatic melanoma case.
  • To our knowledge, we demonstrate for the first time the antiangiogenetic effect of bevacizumab in a patient with a vitreous melanoma metastasis.
  • OBSERVATIONS: A 68-year-old man with a vitreous melanoma metastasis of the left eye was treated with a revitrectomy combined with intravitreal bevacizumab application because of iris neovascularization and progressive epiretinal tumor plaques.
  • Four days after the treatment, the melanoma-associated neovascularization completely disappeared, but it recurred after 6 weeks.
  • Although repetitive administration of local bevacizumab produced the same antiangiogenetic effect, progression of the epiretinal tumor plaques could not be stopped with the local bevacizumab treatment.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Intraocular administration of the anti-VEGF drug bevacizumab causes immediate and complete regression of melanoma-associated angiogenesis.
  • The rationale for the therapeutic strategy in our patient was an elevated level of VEGF in the vitreous cavity.
  • Because we could not demonstrate a direct antiproliferative effect of bevacizumab on melanoma metastasis, bevacizumab seems most promising if evaluated in combination with antiproliferative agents.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiogenesis Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Eye Neoplasms / blood supply. Eye Neoplasms / secondary. Melanoma / blood supply. Melanoma / secondary. Neovascularization, Pathologic / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / blood supply. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy. Vitreous Body
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Bevacizumab. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Disease Progression. Humans. Injections, Intralesional. Iris Neoplasms / blood supply. Iris Neoplasms / drug therapy. Iris Neoplasms / pathology. Iris Neoplasms / secondary. Male. Retinal Neoplasms / blood supply. Retinal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Retinal Neoplasms / pathology. Retinal Neoplasms / secondary. Retreatment. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / antagonists & inhibitors. Vitrectomy

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  • (PMID = 18427047.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-3652
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; 2S9ZZM9Q9V / Bevacizumab
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17. Shields CL, Demirci H, Marr BP, Mashayekhi A, Dai VV, Materin MA, Shields JA: Intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide for acute radiation papillopathy. Retina; 2006 May-Jun;26(5):537-44
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  • METHODS: In a prospective, nonrandomized, single-center case series, intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide (4 mg/0.1 mL) was injected through the pars plana using sterile technique in 9 patients with radiation papillopathy after plaque radiotherapy for choroidal melanoma.
  • RESULTS: At the time of diagnosis of the choroidal melanoma, visual acuity was 20/20 to 20/40 (n = 6), 20/60 (n = 2), and 20/100 (n = 1).
  • Radiation papillopathy developed a mean of 18 months (median, 17 months; range, 6-33 months) after plaque radiotherapy.
  • In all cases, the choroidal melanoma was regressed, and there was no retinal detachment or neovascularization of the retina, optic disk, or iris.
  • At the time of diagnosis of radiation papillopathy, visual acuity was 20/70 (n = 1), 20/100 (n = 4), 20/200 (n = 1), and counting fingers (n = 3).
  • The mean time to improvement in visual acuity by > or =2 lines was 3 weeks (median, 1 week; range, 1-12 weeks).
  • The mean time to complete resolution of radiation papillopathy was 4 months.
  • The only complication of this therapy was possibly related cataract in three patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Brachytherapy / adverse effects. Glucocorticoids / therapeutic use. Optic Disk / radiation effects. Optic Nerve Diseases / drug therapy. Radiation Injuries / drug therapy. Retinal Diseases / drug therapy. Triamcinolone Acetonide / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Adult. Aged. Choroid Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Female. Humans. Injections. Iodine Radioisotopes / adverse effects. Male. Melanoma / radiotherapy. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies. Visual Acuity. Vitreous Body

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  • (PMID = 16770260.001).
  • [ISSN] 0275-004X
  • [Journal-full-title] Retina (Philadelphia, Pa.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Retina (Philadelphia, Pa.)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glucocorticoids; 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; F446C597KA / Triamcinolone Acetonide
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18. Fröhlich SJ, Mueller AJ, Kampik A: [Relative contraindication of latanoprost in iris tumors with secondary glaucoma]. Ophthalmologe; 2003 Aug;100(8):633-8
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  • [Title] [Relative contraindication of latanoprost in iris tumors with secondary glaucoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Relative Kontraindikation von Latanoprost bei Iristumor mit Sekundärglaukom.
  • INTRODUCTION: Melanocytic iris tumors are often benign and merely require regular follow-up.
  • Evident growth, increasing pigmentation and secondary glaucoma, however, are possible signs of a malignant transformation.
  • PATIENT: We present a 34-year-old male patient showing a localized, mildly prominent hyperpigmentation of the right iris expanding over 2 h.
  • The lesion had been known since childhood and increasing intraocular pressure (IOP) was treated with timolole, dipivefrin and finally with latanoprost.
  • PROGRESSION: The patient was seen for the first time at our hospital 4 years previously, presenting an IOP of 28-30 mmHg of the right eye.
  • The tumor had developed marked heterochromia and a nodular prominent surface, the chamber angle was partly closed and completely hyperpigmented.
  • DISCUSSION: The melanocytic iris tumor described shows malignant characteristics such as progressive heterochromia and secondary glaucoma.
  • However, increasing iris pigmentation can also be caused by topical application of latanoprost.
  • With the evidence of absent tumor growth, there is no reason to suggest malignant degeneration.
  • Generally, in iris naevi or tumors requiring regular follow-up, application of latanoprost should be avoided in order not to conceal the alteration of pigmentation as possible malignant conversion.
  • [MeSH-major] Antihypertensive Agents / contraindications. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / chemically induced. Glaucoma / drug therapy. Intraocular Pressure / drug effects. Iris Neoplasms / chemically induced. Melanoma / chemically induced. Prostaglandins F, Synthetic / contraindications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Disease Progression. Humans. Iris / pathology. Male

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  • [Cites] Ophthalmology. 2002 Aug;109(8):1553-60 [12153810.001]
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  • (PMID = 12955445.001).
  • [ISSN] 0941-293X
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Ophthalmologe : Zeitschrift der Deutschen Ophthalmologischen Gesellschaft
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ophthalmologe
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antihypertensive Agents; 0 / Prostaglandins F, Synthetic; 6Z5B6HVF6O / latanoprost
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19. Shields CL, Demirci H, Dai V, Marr BP, Mashayekhi A, Materin MA, Manquez ME, Shields JA: Intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide for radiation maculopathy after plaque radiotherapy for choroidal melanoma. Retina; 2005 Oct-Nov;25(7):868-74
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide for radiation maculopathy after plaque radiotherapy for choroidal melanoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide on patients with visually symptomatic radiation-induced maculopathy after plaque radiotherapy for choroidal melanoma.
  • DESIGN: In this prospective, nonrandomized, single-center case series of 31 patients with visually symptomatic radiation-induced maculopathy after plaque radiotherapy for choroidal melanoma at the Ocular Oncology Service at Wills Eye Hospital of Thomas Jefferson University, triamcinolone acetonide (4 mg/1 mL) was injected through the pars plana into the vitreous cavity using sterile technique.
  • RESULTS: At the time of diagnosis of choroidal melanoma, visual acuity was 20/20 to 20/50 in 90% (n = 28), 20/60 to 20/200 in 10% (n = 3), and 20/400 or worse in none of the patients.
  • Radiation maculopathy developed at a mean of 22 months (median, 16 months; range, 6-96 months) after plaque radiotherapy.
  • In all cases, the choroidal melanoma was regressed, and there was no retinal detachment or neovascularization of the retina, optic disk, or iris.
  • At the time of diagnosis of radiation maculopathy, visual acuity was 20/20 to 20/50 in 19% (6/31), 20/60 to 20/200 in 58% (18/31), and 20/400 or worse in 23% (7/31) of patients.
  • Mean foveal thickness by optical coherence tomography was 417 microm at injection and 207 microm at 1 month and 292 microm at 6 months after injection.
  • [MeSH-major] Brachytherapy / adverse effects. Choroid Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Glucocorticoids / therapeutic use. Melanoma / radiotherapy. Radiation Injuries / drug therapy. Retina / radiation effects. Retinal Diseases / drug therapy. Triamcinolone Acetonide / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Injections. Male. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies. Radiotherapy Dosage. Tomography, Optical Coherence. Visual Acuity. Vitreous Body


20. Zinkernagel M, Zografos L, Rüesch R: [Iris granulomas of unknown aetiology]. Klin Monbl Augenheilkd; 2007 Apr;224(4):347-9
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  • [Title] [Iris granulomas of unknown aetiology].
  • BACKGROUND: Non-pigmented tumours of the iris are rare and their clinical classification can be difficult, especially in the absence of systemic manifestations.
  • HISTORY AND SIGNS: We report the case of a unilateral vascular, non-pigmented iris tumour in a 47-year-old patient.
  • Clinically, the iris lesion showed progressive growth and tumour vascularisation.
  • THERAPY AND OUTCOME: A systemic work-up failed to reveal any underlying systemic disease.
  • The lesion responded well to systemic corticosteroid therapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Isolated granulomas of the iris are rare and clinically often indistinguishable from malignant tumours like melanoma.
  • Due to the clinical course and the regression under corticosteroid therapy we concluded that this iris granuloma may be an isolated ocular manifestation of sarcoidosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Hormones / therapeutic use. Granuloma / diagnosis. Granuloma / drug therapy. Iris Diseases / diagnosis. Iris Diseases / drug therapy. Sarcoidosis / diagnosis. Sarcoidosis / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Anti-Inflammatory Agents / therapeutic use. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17458811.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Klinische Monatsblätter für Augenheilkunde
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Klin Monbl Augenheilkd
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones; 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents
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21. Girkin CA, Goldberg I, Mansberger SL, Shields JA, Shields CL: Management of iris melanoma with secondary glaucoma. J Glaucoma; 2002 Feb;11(1):71-4
NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program. NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Management of iris melanoma with secondary glaucoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Glaucoma / drug therapy. Glaucoma / etiology. Iris Neoplasms / therapy. Melanoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Amblyopia / complications. Antihypertensive Agents / therapeutic use. Drug Therapy, Combination. Humans. Intraocular Pressure. Male. Middle Aged. Optic Disk / abnormalities. Visual Acuity

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  • (PMID = 11821693.001).
  • [ISSN] 1057-0829
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of glaucoma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Glaucoma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Clinical Conference; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antihypertensive Agents
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22. Sodhi PK: Iris cyst secondary to latanoprost mimicking iris melanoma. Am J Ophthalmol; 2003 Oct;136(4):780; author reply 780-1
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Iris cyst secondary to latanoprost mimicking iris melanoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antihypertensive Agents / adverse effects. Cysts / chemically induced. Iris Diseases / chemically induced. Melanoma / diagnosis. Prostaglandins F, Synthetic / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Glaucoma, Open-Angle / drug therapy. Humans. Iris Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • [CommentOn] Am J Ophthalmol. 2003 Mar;135(3):419-21 [12614778.001]
  • (PMID = 14516849.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9394
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Ophthalmol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antihypertensive Agents; 0 / Prostaglandins F, Synthetic; 6Z5B6HVF6O / latanoprost
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23. Vásquez LM, Somani S, Altomare F, Simpson ER: Intracameral bevacizumab in the treatment of neovascular glaucoma and exudative retinal detachment after brachytherapy in choroidal melanoma. Can J Ophthalmol; 2009 Feb;44(1):106-7
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Retinal Detachment.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Intracameral bevacizumab in the treatment of neovascular glaucoma and exudative retinal detachment after brachytherapy in choroidal melanoma.

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  • (PMID = 19169330.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-4182
  • [Journal-full-title] Canadian journal of ophthalmology. Journal canadien d'ophtalmologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Can. J. Ophthalmol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; 2S9ZZM9Q9V / Bevacizumab
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24. Davidorf FH, Mouser JG, Derick RJ: Rapid improvement of rubeosis iridis from a single bevacizumab (Avastin) injection. Retina; 2006 Mar;26(3):354-6
ClinicalTrials.gov. clinical trials - ClinicalTrials.gov .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Glaucoma, Neovascular / drug therapy. Iris / blood supply. Iris Diseases / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Bevacizumab. Choroid Neoplasms / pathology. Fluorescein Angiography. Fluorophotometry. Humans. Injections. Male. Melanoma / pathology. Middle Aged. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / immunology. Visual Acuity. Vitreous Body

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  • (PMID = 16508439.001).
  • [ISSN] 0275-004X
  • [Journal-full-title] Retina (Philadelphia, Pa.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Retina (Philadelphia, Pa.)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / VEGFA protein, human; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; 2S9ZZM9Q9V / Bevacizumab
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